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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1284
Andrew Burnham, Hao Cai, Michael Wang
A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. In the past, the life-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheels (WTW) analyses of advanced technology and alternative fuel heavy-duty vehicles, which has been scarce in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the impacts of newly enacted and future greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and fuel consumption regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration on these vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1290
J Groenewald, James Marco, Nicholas Higgins, Anup Barai
Remanufacturing within a circular economy is becoming increasingly important to ensure business sustainability. Due to the increasing demand for electric vehicles (EVs) and End-of-Life (EoL) legislation such as the European parliament directive 2000/53/EC, the EoL strategy of EVs requires careful consideration at the design stage of the vehicle. This is particularly pertinent if the cited financial and environmental benefits from remanufacturing are to be fully realised. In addition to the EoL scenario that encompasses the EV and battery system as a whole, another important consideration is how to manage premature battery EoL because of an individual battery cell or module that has degraded within the complete assembly. When faced with a failed battery in a customer’s vehicle the default position for many automotive manufacturers will be to replace the complete battery assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1285
Xiang Cheng, Han Hao, Zongwei Liu, Fuquan Zhao
Compared with conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) offer the benefits of replacing petroleum consumption and reducing air pollutions. However, there have been controversies over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs from the life-cycle perspective in China’s coal-dominated power generation context. Besides, it is in doubt whether the cost-effectiveness of EVs in China exceeds other fuel-efficient vehicles considering the high prices. In this study, we compared the GHG emissions of existing vehicle models in the market. Afterwards, a cost model is established to compare the total costs of vehicles. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of various vehicle types are compared. It is concluded that in the current situation, the GHG emission intensity of EVs is lower than reference and hybrid vehicles and is expected to decrease with the improvement of the power grid.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1279
Ko Wei Lin, Ya Lun Chen, Yong-Yuan Ku, Ta-Wei Tang
Biodiesel is a kind of alternative fuel and it could be made from animal or plant oil. It’s chemically different from petroleum diesel. Some different fuel properties such as oxygen content, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and so on. They cause oxidation reaction of biodiesel easier than diesel. This may cause deposit formation on piston rings and clogging of fuel filter etc. Research biodiesel using management rule is important. The storage life of biodiesel depends on the type of biodiesel and additives and local climate and quality control etc. This article was primarily concerned with Taiwan B2 storage life, and performed three tests such as static state of tank test, dynamic state of tank test and long-term placement vehicle cold-start performance test. The fuel D100 was control group and B2 was experiment group. The first section was a static state test, and four kinds of tanks (Buses / vans / trucks /passenger car) have been put under outdoor condition for one year.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1260
Shubhangi S. Nigade
The fossil fuels are depleting rapidly and the prices are going up day by day. The vegetable oils converted into biodiesel have the potential of alternative fuels. There are several types of vegetable oils, edible & non-edible, which can be used for biodiesel production. Very little published work has been found on utilization of Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production including optimization of transesterification process. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production using acid, base and heterogeneous (micro & nano) catalyst. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1287
Kazutaka Kimura, Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato
In recent years, in order to reduce greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, automobile manufacturers are developing various eco-friendly cars, such as HV, PHV, REV, EV, and FCV. But there are few commercial solar vehicles in the market. One of the reasons why automobile manufacturers did not focus their attention on this area is because the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles at the real conditions were unclear. There are two difficulties to measure the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles: (1) Vehicles travel under various insolation conditions (2) Insolation conditions differ in each region. To address the problem, we used the combinational analysis on the basis of the internet survey of 5,000 people and the public metrological data of 48 observation points in Japan. This survey gave us the information on car conditions such as place to park, whether the car is in the sunshine or in the shade, the operating region, and the trip distance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1289
Francis Assadian, Kevin R. Mallon, Bo Fu
Heavy-duty electric powertrains provide a potential solution to the high emissions and low fuel economy of trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. However, the high-capacity batteries needed to power these vehicles are both cost and weight prohibitive. One possible method of supplementing battery power is to mount flexible solar panel modules to the roof of these vehicles, thereby allowing for a smaller battery (reducing battery cost and weight) or extended vehicle range. We identify electric buses as the type of vehicle that would derive the most benefit from roof-mounted solar panels due to their low operating speed (including frequent idling) and large available surface area. In this paper, we simulate the performance of an electric bus with combined battery and photovoltaic power sources on the Orange County Bus Cycle for average weather in Davis, CA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1286
Takuya Hara, Takahiro Shiga, Kazutaka Kimura, Akinori Sato
Introducing effective technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector is a critical issue for automotive manufacturers. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are considered as one of the promising technologies, however, its effectiveness totally depends on the carbon intensity of grid electricity. PEVs using coal based electricity could end up accelerating global warming. Solar hybrid vehicle (SHV), that is equipped with photovoltaic cells on the body but no charging function, can be an alternative electric vehicle that uses off-grid, zero emission electricity. SHV has advantage also in usability because it does not need any changing, which is frequently required for PEVs and could detract the usability to hinder their penetration. This study aims at evaluating economic, environmental and usability benefits of SHV by comparing other types of vehicle, such as internal combustion engine vehicle, hybrid vehicle, plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) and battery electric vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1268
Yanjun Ren, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Xin Gao, Shichen Lu, Mengzuo Han, Ruobing Zhan, Haobo Xu
With the help of organic working medium absorbing the solar energy for steam electric power generation, green energy can be provided to automotive accessories so as to improve the vehicle energy efficiency. In the hot summer, exhausted heat resulting from cars’ directly exposing to the sun can be used to cool and ventilate the passenger compartment.Considering the space occupied by the system in the combination of both practical features for solar heat source--low power and poor stability-- a compact evaporation structure was designed to enhance the solar utilization efficiency.In the research, the heat source of power and temperature variation range was determined by the available solar roof with photo-thermal conversion model. Then started from the radio of exhausted heat utilization corresponding to evaporator’s characteristic parameter, the performance analysis was made in the different working conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1281
Jatin Agarwal, Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
The continued reliance on fossil fuel energy resources is not sufficient to cater to the current energy demands. The excessive and continuous use of crude oil is now recognized as unviable due to its depleting supplies and elevating environmental degradation by increased emissions from automobile exhaust. There is an urgent need for a renewable and cleaner source of energy to meet the stringent emission norms. Hythane is a mixture of 20% hydrogen and 80% methane. It has benefits of low capital and operating costs and is a cleaner alternative than crude oil. It significantly reduces tailpipe emissions and is the cheapest way to meet new emission standards. Hythane produces low carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (HC) on combustion than crude oil and helps in reduction of green house gases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1283
Akshay Kumar, Ashraya Gupta, Ketan Kamra
Worldwide, research is going on numerous types of engines that practice green and alternative energy such as natural gas engines, hydrogen engines, and electric engines. One of the possible alternatives is the air powered car. Air is abundantly available and can be effortlessly compressed to higher pressure at a very low cost. After the successful development of Compressed Air Engines, engineers shifted their focus in making this technology cost effective and feasible. This led to advancement in the field of pneumatic that is advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit (used for conversion of a small-two stroke SI engine to Compressed Air Engine) where its frugality and compatibility is kept at high priority. Compressed Air Engine Kit demonstrated significant imperative results in performance testing which fueled the need for optimizing various parameters such as injection angle, injection pressure and injector nozzle area.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1265
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Sasikumar Nandagopal
This work aims at studying the combined effect of oxygen enrichment and emulsification techniques on engine performance behavior of a compression ignition engine fuelled with WCO (waste cooking oil of sunflower) as fuel. Used sunflower oil collected from a restaurant was chosen as fuel. A single cylinder, water cooled, agricultural oriented, diesel engine was used for the experiments. Initially tests were performed using neat diesel and neat WCO as fuels. Performance, emission, and combustion parameters were obtained. In the second phase of work, WCO was converted into its emulsion by emulsification process using water and ethanol and tested. In the third phase, the engine intake system was modified to admit excess oxygen along with air to test the engine with WCO and WCO emulsion as fuels under oxygen enriched environment. A comparative study was made at 100% and 40% of the maximum load (i.e. 3.7 kW power output) at the rated engine speed of 1500 rpm.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1270
Xiangshan Fan, Xibin Wang, Kangkang Yang, Yaoting Li, Chuanzhou Wu, Ziqing Li
The ignition delays of 2,3- dihydrofuran (23DHF) and 2,5- dihydrofuran (25DHF) were measured behind reflected shock waves at the pressures of 1.2, 4, 10atm, temperatures of 1110−1650 K, for the lean (/ = 0.5), stoichiometric (/ = 1.0) and rich (/ = 2.0) mixtures with fixed fuel concentration of 0.5%. For understanding the effect of initial parameters, the correlations of ignition delays to initial parameters were fitted in an Arrhenius-like form for the two fuels by multi-regression analysis. From the experiments, 2,3DHF has a shorter ignition delays than 2,5DHF, while the difference reduces with the drop of temperature. Simulations were made using available models and the comparation to experiment data were presented. Subsequently, Reaction pathway and sensitivity analysis were performed to obtain insight into the different results of the two models and experiments.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1273
Lakshmikanth Meda, Martin Romzek, Yanliang Zhang, Martin Cleary
Although the technology of combustion engines is quite fully developed, the degree of efficiency is considerably low. A large amount of the energy, around 30 %, is lost as exhaust waste heat, and up to 30 % is dissipated in the cooling circuits. This is a reason why thermal recuperation has a great potential for raising the efficiency of combustion engines. In order to meet ever-increasing consumer demand for higher fuel economy, and to conform to more stringent governmental regulations, auto manufacturers have increasingly looked at thermoelectric materials as a potential method to recover some of that waste heat and improve the overall efficiency of their vehicle fleets. Seeking new possibilities to make vehicles greener and more efficient, the industry wants to use the waste heat which passes through the exhaust system almost completely unused in the past.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0143
K. Krishnamoorthy, V. Saishanker
Abstract With increasing growth of vehicular population, there is an increasing demand for raw materials. This has added strain to the available resources, which is becoming more and more unsustainable. As a result, search for sustainable materials are continuously happening in our industry and there is a strong focus from everyone to incorporate more and such materials. One way of doing so, is by blending naturally available materials like fibers, with polymers. In this study, naturally available Coconut fibers have been blended successfully with Polyurethane foam, thereby improving the green footprint of the vehicle. Coconut fibers are naturally occurring fiber extracted from the husk of the coconut. Polyurethane foam is the most versatile polymeric foam used in several places of automobile for reducing the Noise, Vibration & Harshness. The composite was manufactured using reaction injection molding technique by reacting polyol with iso-cyanide.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0142
A S Ramadhas, Hongming Xu
Abstract Diesel engines are the versatile power source and is widely used in passenger car and commercial vehicle applications. Environmental temperature conditions, fuel quality, fuel injection strategies and lubricant have influence on cold start performance of the diesel engines. Strategies to overcome the cold start problem at very low ambient temperature include preheating of intake air, coolant, cylinder block. The present research work investigates the effect of coolant temperatures on passenger car diesel engine’s performance and exhaust emission characteristics during the cold start at cold ambient temperature conditions. The engine is soaked in the -7°C environment for 6 hours. The engine coolant is preheated to the desired coolant temperatures of 10 and 20°C by an external heater and the start ability tests were performed.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0140
Chinmaya Mishra, Naveen Kumar, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar
Abstract In the present experimental investigation, performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using diesel-biodiesel blends and antioxidant containing biodiesel test fuels was carried out. The potential suitability of aromatic amine based antioxidants to enhance the oxidation stability of biodiesel on one hand and reduction of tail pipe oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the other were evaluated. Tertiary Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ) was considered as the antioxidant and Calophyllum Inophyllum vegetable oil was taken as the feedstock for biodiesel production. The test fuel samples were neat diesel (D100), 10% and 20% blend of Calophyllum biodiesel with diesel (CB10 and CB20) and 1500 ppm of TBHQ in CB10 and CB20 (CBT10 and CBT20). The results indicated that neat biodiesel blended test fuels (CB10 and CB20) exhibited lower brake thermal efficiency compared to the diesel baseline by a margin of 3% to 10% at full load.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0164
Arunkumar Madeswaran, Balasubramanian Natarajasundaram, Bhavanakumar Ramamoorthy
Abstract In Modern Passenger Car Braking system, Disc brake plays a vital role in providing better performance and safety, in which brake pads are most critical part to decide the overall brake performance. In such brake pads, there are some technical challenges such as wear rate, abnormal noise & environmental issues with existing asbestos material. Hence we made a research to furnish suitable eco-friendly & cost effective solution. The main objective of this paper is to introduce asbestos-free automotive organic brake pad. Our research work intends to make organic brake pad by using natural fibre with organic ingredients such as kenaf and other composite materials in right proportion. Kenaf fibre is one of the natural fibres, which will improve heat resistance and strength of the brake pad. Initially, kenaf fibre is mixed with other composite materials and compacted at an optimal pressure by using hand-press machine.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0252
Aravind Vadiraj
Abstract This article delineates the importance of infrastructure and its related aspects on sustainability of transportation on global and local context. Almost 7% of the GDP in India is spent on transportation and 6% of the CO2 emissions in the world is due to transportation. In countries like India, the road transport has significantly grown over other forms of mobility. This articles introduces different forms of transportations that exists today and the importance of sustainability in transportation sector. Sustainable transportation depends on development of infrastructure to enable smart transport solutions involving intelligent transport system, electric mobility, information management, vehicle health monitoring, advanced traffic management system and driver assistance system in a vehicle. The challenges includes existing transport operations, environmental impact and complexity of existing transport network.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2484
Michele Trancossi, Antonio Dumas, Guido Niccolai, Jose Pascoa
Abstract This paper focuses on the key problem of future aeronautics: which relates on energy efficiency and environmental footprint on a scientific point of view. Reducing emissions and increasing the energy efficiency would be both a key element to propel the market and increase the diffusion of personal aerial transport against ground transportation. Novel vehicle concepts and systems will be necessary to propel this innovation which could revolutionize our way of moving. This paper approaches an energetic preliminary design of a vehicle concept which could fulfill this social and cultural objective. Low cost energy efficient vehicles, which could be suitable for personal use with a high economic efficiency and without needs of airports, seem actually a real dream. Otherwise, is it a feasible goal or a scientific dream? Otherwise, a design method based on first and second law and thermodynamic and constructal law could allow reaching those goals.
2015-09-10
Book
Charles Lu, Srikanth Pilla
This set consists of three books, Design of Automotive Composites, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications all developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites focuses on the latest use of CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) methods in design and failure analysis of composite materials and structures, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications, focuses on processing and characterization of biocomposites, their application in the automotive industry and new perspectives on automotive sustainability. Together, they are a focused collection providing the reader with must-read technical papers, hand-picked by the editors, supporting the growing importance of the use of composites in the ground vehicle industry. Dr. Charles Lu is H.E.
2015-08-13
Book
Charles Lu, Srikanth Pilla
The automotive sector has taken a keen interest in lightweighting as new required performance standards for fuel economy come into place. This strategy includes parts consolidation, design optimization, and material substitution, with sustainable polymers playing a major role in reducing a vehicle’s weight. Sustainable polymers are largely biodegradable, biocompatible, and sourced from renewable plant and agricultural stocks. A facile way to enhance their properties, so they can indeed replace the ones made from fossil fuels, is by reinforcing them with fibers to make composites. Natural fibers are gaining more acceptance in the industry due to their renewable nature, low cost, low density, low energy consumption, high specific strength and stiffness, CO2 sequestration potential, biodegradability, and less wear imposed on machinery. Biocomposites then become a very feasible way to help address the fuel consumption challenge ahead of us.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1678
Akshay Kumar, Naveen Kumar, Dhruv Gupta, Vasu Kumar
Abstract Increased demand and use of fossil fuels in transportation sector accompanied by the global oil crisis does not support sustainable development for the future generations to come. Not only that, today's on-road vehicles produce over one third of the CO and NOX present in our atmosphere and over twenty per cent of the global warming pollution. This air pollution carries significant risks for human health and the environment. Through clean vehicle and fuel technologies, it is possible to significantly reduce air pollution from our vehicles. In such a grim situation, Compressed Air Vehicles (CAV) powered by pressurized air stored in high pressure storage tanks seem to be one of the practical solutions available for tackling the fuel crisis and environment related issues.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1299
Rod Emery
Abstract - Sustainable Manufacturing: Beyond Turning the Lights Off There is increasing pressure for manufacturers to go “green.” Automotive OEMs are improving their own sustainability practices and demanding environmental accountability from their vendors. Sustainable manufacturing is defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce as the creation of manufactured products using processes that: 1 Minimize negative environmental impacts2 Conserve energy and natural resources3 Are safe for employees, communities and consumers4 Are economically sound Installing low-energy lighting and adding recycling bins have had a positive effect, but manufacturers must take a comprehensive view of sustainability to have a continuing impact. This white paper will address some “out of the box” methods to improve sustainability of automotive assembly.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2232
Samira Keivanpour, Christian Mascle, Daoud Ait Kadi
The End of Life phase of Aircraft is a relatively complex phase in life cycle of this product. The retired Aircrafts need to be parked in certain conditions. Some valuable parts are disassembled and the rest of them are dismantled. Materials are separated and upgraded, waste is burned or deserted and toxic materials restrained or incinerated. All of these activities should be performed in an ecologically right manner; however, collectively produced added values for all stakeholders need to be considered. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework for value chain analysis of Aircraft recycling process in the context of sustainable development. The value chain related to recycling aircraft at the end of life was chosen to generate an in-depth analysis of the value chain, considering environmental and socio-economic concerns. The value chain framework for recycling of fleets is identified. The key processes with environmental and social impacts are determined.
2014-05-08
Magazine
Executive Viewpoints Off-highway industry executives write about some of the challenges and trends facing the industry over the next 20 years, and the innovation that will be required to stay competitive and sustainable. Annual product guide A product roundup showcasing the newest and most innovative supplier technologies in a variety of areas such as Powertrain & Energy, Electronics, Hydraulics, Materials, Testing & Simulation, Body and Chassis, and Interiors.
2014-04-01
Collection
This technical paper collection explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1956
Alessandro Libriani
Abstract Synthetic rubber is used in automobiles for various applications. Tires, seals, gaskets, engine mounts, wiring cables and under the hood hoses are just a few examples. Synthetic rubber is a man-made material that uses several components as polymers, resins, carbon black, fillers, vulcanizing agents, reinforcement agents. It is a material that heavily depends on oil for its constituency, therefore it has a large carbon footprint. This study proposes the use of natural filler for automotive seals using synthetic rubber in order to reduce the impact on the environment. Calcium carbonate is the most preponderant choice as material filler because it is abundant in nature and is mined extensively. Calcium carbonate is also present in several structures in nature. Oyster shells have a great amount of it as well as egg shells. Egg shells also constitute an environmental bio-hazard when discarded in a landfill due to the organic inner membrane.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1874
Tae-il Yoo, Hanhee Park, Gubae Kang, Seongyeop Lim
Abstract Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0781
Aaron Hula, Jeffrey Alson, Amy Bunker, Kevin Bolon
Abstract This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole.
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