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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limits the relative utility of EVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high power public charging availability combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and EVs could be marginalized. Herein we quantify the relationships between EV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating EVs operated to real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). Under support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
We studied a method for realizing an unlimited driving range for an Electric Vehicle (EV) by supplying power and charging simultaneously while the vehicle is being driven. This method, powering and charging at the same, time mitigates the primary concerns associated with an EV. In addition, we discuss the results of driving tests where we were able to reach an unlimited driving range. The greatest concern attributed to EVs is their short driving range when compared to gasoline vehicles. The direct supply of power to the vehicles from infrastructure during operation has been proposed as one means of addressing this issue. However, if non-contact (wireless) power supply is employed, the realization of this technology is said to require another 100 years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1682
Sangram Jadhav
In this study, the heterogeneous catalyst is used instead of homogeneous catalyst. This is because to overcome the problems faced viz; Catalyst recovery, Thermal stability and excessive use of water. This paper are shows the use of heterogeneous catalyst and optimization of experimental parameters, such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), heterogeneous catalyst loading (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %), heterogeneous catalyst types (ZnO, MgO and CaO) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) on the heterogeneous transesterification for the production of Mahua oil methyl ester (Biodiesel) was performed. Heterogeneous catalyzed method has been used for biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalyst such as ZnO, MgO and CaO. The taguchi method was adopted as the experimental conditions from a limited number of experiments (Columns of L9 (3**4) Array) and contribution of each signal to noise factor calculated by ANOVA.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1683
Bernie Porter, Hugh Blaxill, Noor Jariri
With the introduction of the 2025 Corporate Average Fleet Economy (CAFE) fuel economy and emissions regulations in 2011 a challenge was presented to the automotive industry. These new regulations require dramatic increases in vehicle fleet fuel economy performance and emissions efficiencies. This paper will identify and analyze a portfolio of technologies that have the potential to achieve the 2025 CAFE fuel economy targets. The simulation uses a MAHLE Powertrain developed fleet modeling tool and a range of vehicle technologies and powertrain data taken from MAHLE’s global research and development activities. Powertrain technologies considered include extreme engine downsizing, ultra lean combustion, friction reduction, advanced control strategies, hybridization and alternative fuels (Diesel, Natural Gas and Ethanol / Ethanol Blends).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, Hans-Christian Reuss, Michael Grimm, A. Al-Janabi
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1678
Akshay Kumar, Dhruv Gupta
Increased demand and use of fossil fuels in transportation sector accompanied by the global oil crisis does not support sustainable development for the future generations to come. Not only that, today’s on-road vehicles produce over one third of the CO and NOX present in our atmosphere and over twenty per cent of the global warming pollution. This air pollution carries significant risks for human health and the environment. Through clean vehicle and fuel technologies, it is possible to significantly reduce air pollution from our vehicles. In such a grim situation, Compressed Air Vehicles (CAV) powered by pressurized air stored in high pressure storage tanks seem to be one of the practical solutions available for tackling the fuel crisis and environment related issues.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1679
Lynn C. McLean, Mohamed El-Sayed
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a byproduct of both natural gas processing and crude oil refining. As a chemical, propane (C3H8) is a nontoxic, colorless, and virtually odorless hydrocarbon. In it liquefied form propane is highly compactable and therefore extremely economical to store and transport. Due its availability and adoptability as engine fuel, propane is quickly becoming one of the most viable alternative fuel in the world known as Propane Autogas. While thousands of LPG fueled vehicles such as buses, taxis, delivery and other fleet vehicles are on the road few comprehensive studies on LPG as alternative fuel in mass transportation are documented. In this paper, a comprehensive commercial study for LPG as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel is conducted. The study includes the required infrastructure for fueling, the fuel supply, the fueling station, and the conversion of the fleet vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1680
David H. Myszka, Andrew Murray, Kevin Giaier, Vijay Krishna Jayaprakash, Christoph Gillum
Regenerative brake and launch assist (RBLA) systems are used to capture kinetic energy while a vehicle decelerates and subsequently use that stored energy to assist propulsion. Commercially available hybrid vehicles use generators, batteries, and motors to electrically implement RBLA systems. Substantial increases in vehicle efficiency have been widely cited. This paper presents the development of a primarily mechanical RBLA that stores energy in an elastic medium. An open differential is coupled with a variable transmission to store and release energy to an axle that mainly rotates in a single direction. The concept applies regenerative braking technology to conventional automobiles equipped with only an internal combustion engine where the electrical systems of hybrid vehicles are not available. Governing performance equations are formulated and design parameters are selected based on an optimization of the vehicle operation over a simulated urban driving cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1175
Norishige Konno, Seiji Mizuno, Hiroya Nakaji
Small size, high performance and affordable price are needed to launch a Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) on the market. Toyota makes it possible to adopt the no humidification system (the first among the world) and 3kW/L of power density (double in comparison with previous model) by innovation of structure of flow field and a Membrane Electrode Gas diffusion layer Assembly (MEGA) in the new FC stack for Toyota FCV 2015 model. Also Toyota has succeeded in compatible development with performance and cost by using items in below. Quantity of Pt is decreased by 1/3, replacing the gilding of bipolar plates to carbon nano-coating and simplifying a structure of stacking parts. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) type fuel cell is generally used in vehicle, and generate electricity by chemical reaction utilize Pt as catalyst, H2 as fuel and O2 as oxidant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1298
Sangram Jadhav
In this study, the optimization of experimental parameters, such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), homogeneous catalyst loading (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %), homogeneous catalyst types (NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) on the transesterification for the production of Mangifera oil methyl ester (Biodiesel) was performed. Homogenous alkali catalyzed method has been used for biodiesel production by using homogenous catalyst such as NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3. The taguchi method was adopted as the experimental conditions from a limited number of experiments (Columns of L9 (3**4) Array) and contribution of each signal to noise factor calculated by ANOVA. The optimum experimental condition obtained from this study are; 1:16 methanol to oil molar ratio, KOH as the catalyst type, at a loading 1.5 wt% and a reaction temperature of 64°C played the most important role in the yield of Mangifera methyl ester.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
Shivaprasad K V, Kumar GN
Fast depletion of fossil fuels and their detrimental effect to the environment is demanding an urgent need of alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact. A lot of research is being carried throughout the world to evaluate the performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics of the existing engines using several alternative fuels. Expert studies indicate hydrogen is one of the most promising energy carriers for the future due to its superior combustion qualities and availability. This article experimentally characterizing the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1299
Rod Emery
There is increasing pressure for manufacturers to go “green.” Automotive OEMs are improving their own sustainability practices and demanding environmental accountability from their vendors. Sustainable manufacturing is defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce as the creation of manufactured products using processes that: 1. Minimize negative environmental impacts 2. Conserve energy and natural resources 3. Are safe for employees, communities and consumers 4. Are economically sound Installing low-energy lighting and adding recycling bins have had a positive effect, but manufacturers must take a comprehensive view of sustainability to have a continuing impact. This white paper will address some “out of the box” methods to improve sustainability of automotive assembly. Case study data will be included with examples of applications in each area. 1. Minimize Negative Environmental Impacts 1.1.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1303
Wenli LI, Xiao-hui SHI, Dong GUO, Peng YI
An approach using dynamic emulation of mechanical loads for testing and validation of the vehicles' Transmission will be presented in the paper. In order to reduce costs and shorten new vehicle development cycle time, vehicle simulation on the driveline test bench is an attractive alternative at the development phase to reduce the quantity of proto vehicles. This test method moves the test site from the road to the bench without the need for real chassis parts. Dynamic emulation of mechanical loads is a Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) procedure, which can be used as a supplement of the conventional simulations in testing of the operation of algorithms without the need for the prototypes. The combustion engine is replaced by a electric drive dynamometer, which replicates the torque and speed signature of an actual engine, The road load sistance of the vehicle on a real test road is accurately simulated on Load dynamometer by corrected road load forces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Amar Deep
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks is required. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (oC) were considered as the factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated. The results of the experimental matrix were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1233
Thomas Bradley, Clinton Knackstedt, Eric jambor
In response to the challenges of the General Motors and US Department of Energy EcoCAR 3 Challenge, Colorado State University has performed a series of vehicle modeling and simulation investigations. A conventional gasoline vehicle, conventional diesel (B20) vehicle, battery electric vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle were designed, simulated, and analyzed by Colorado State University for EcoCAR 3. Combining a small E85-fueled engine with a large battery pack, a plug-in hybrid architecture is able to provide similar benefits as the battery electric vehicle, but with less mass addition (300kg) and lower incremental costs ($10537). In order for any vehicle architecture to meet the EcoCAR 3 design criteria, the results show it must utilize an electrified drivetrain which can displace the fuel consumption and emissions production of conventional engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1681
Girish Khairnar, Jagrit Shrivas, Sachin Pande, Rohit Londhe, Yaser Hussaini, Yogesh Ambekar
Last mile transportation is an important supply chain & transportation requirement for the movement of people and goods from a transport hub to a final destination in the area. In India this requirement is largely met by 3 wheelers & small 4 wheelers (below 1 ton payload). Greaves cotton Ltd. (GCL) has played an important role for last mile transportation solutions in India by developing suitable engines for the above category vehicles. GCL is already supplying single cylinder air cooled 400 cc diesel / CNG, 435 cc & 510 cc diesel BSIII engines for 3 wheeler applications and single cylinder water cooled 510 cc & 611 cc BSIII diesel engines for small commercial 4 wheeler applications. In India, BSIV emission norms are in place since April 2010 in metro cities for 4 wheelers. Also CNG network is well established in most of these cities. Hence to serve this market, the CNG engine variant development of the 611 cc diesel BSIII engine was initiated.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2232
Samira Keivanpour, Christian Mascle, Daoud Ait Kadi
The End of Life phase of Aircraft is a relatively complex phase in life cycle of this product. The retired Aircrafts need to be parked in certain conditions. Some valuable parts are disassembled and the rest of them are dismantled. Materials are separated and upgraded, waste is burned or deserted and toxic materials restrained or incinerated. All of these activities should be performed in an ecologically right manner; however, collectively produced added values for all stakeholders need to be considered. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework for value chain analysis of Aircraft recycling process in the context of sustainable development. The value chain related to recycling aircraft at the end of life was chosen to generate an in-depth analysis of the value chain, considering environmental and socio-economic concerns. The value chain framework for recycling of fleets is identified. The key processes with environmental and social impacts are determined.
2014-05-08
Magazine
Executive Viewpoints Off-highway industry executives write about some of the challenges and trends facing the industry over the next 20 years, and the innovation that will be required to stay competitive and sustainable. Annual product guide A product roundup showcasing the newest and most innovative supplier technologies in a variety of areas such as Powertrain & Energy, Electronics, Hydraulics, Materials, Testing & Simulation, Body and Chassis, and Interiors.
2014-04-01
Collection
This technical paper collection explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0781
Aaron Hula, Jeffrey Alson, Amy Bunker, Kevin Bolon
Abstract This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1956
Alessandro Libriani
Abstract Synthetic rubber is used in automobiles for various applications. Tires, seals, gaskets, engine mounts, wiring cables and under the hood hoses are just a few examples. Synthetic rubber is a man-made material that uses several components as polymers, resins, carbon black, fillers, vulcanizing agents, reinforcement agents. It is a material that heavily depends on oil for its constituency, therefore it has a large carbon footprint. This study proposes the use of natural filler for automotive seals using synthetic rubber in order to reduce the impact on the environment. Calcium carbonate is the most preponderant choice as material filler because it is abundant in nature and is mined extensively. Calcium carbonate is also present in several structures in nature. Oyster shells have a great amount of it as well as egg shells. Egg shells also constitute an environmental bio-hazard when discarded in a landfill due to the organic inner membrane.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1874
Tae-il Yoo, Hanhee Park, Gubae Kang, Seongyeop Lim
Abstract Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2856
Kalyan S. Hatti, Sai sankaranarayana
The automotive industry is one of the industries that have visibility suffered a strong demand for higher environmental performance. This industry have enjoyed years as the main source of employment and economic growth, today it is being pointed out as one of the major contributors to air pollution in urban centers. Indeed the benefits of automobile provide the means of gaining access to life's necessities and employment and a source of pleasure. However, despite these benefits there are environmental burdens as well: local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, road congestion, noise, mortality and morbidity from accidents and less open space to roads. Thus companies in the sector have been trying different strategies to overcome these challenges Evaluation of Emission development for commercial vehicles had always been great challenge to continuously migrate from one level of emission norm to other maintaining the business continuity.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0576
Robson Barbosa, Anderson Gomes Lima, Andre Luiz Pereira
In recent years it's noticed a considerable growth in vehicles sales, resulting a great gas emissions volume increase and consequently a higher environment impact. Currently Brazilian automotive scenario faces a moment which government and market requires energetic efficiency increase, on the other hand it is challenges the OEM's to develop lighter cars, providing thereby an “environmentally friendly” vehicle. Considering this scenario, natural fibers application in automotive parts has a great contribution, because in a large parts variety it application is possible. This application studies has contributed and earned great highlight in sustainability terms. Natural fibers provides great environmental benefits because it's renewable, biodegradable and require low energy consumption in its manufacturing process, further it's lighter than fiberglass and others conventional fibers.
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