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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Nils Olof Nylund, Veikko Karvonen, Hannu Kuutti, Juhani Laurikko
Over the years, natural gas has been promoted as a clean-burning fuel, especially for transit buses. VTT Technical Research Centre has monitored the performance of both diesel and natural gas buses for more than a decade, and has a very comprehensive data base on bus performance. VTT also has carried out work on buses for the Energy Technology Network of the International Energy Agency. A decade ago one could claim that natural gas buses deliver significant emission benefits over diesel buses, especially regarding particulate emissions. The spread in nitrogen oxide emissions has always been significant for natural gas engines, high for lean-burn engines and low for three-way catalyst equipped stoichiometric engines. With the introduction of US 2010 and Euro VI exhaust emission regulations, independent of the fuel, the regulated emissions of all engines, have, in a historical perspective, been brought close to zero level. This means that the competitive advantage of natural gas as a clean fuel is diminishing, especially in a situation where electric city buses are also entering the market.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Abhishake goyal, Nadeem Yamin, Naveen Kumar
Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmentally-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90 0C), hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, it is believed that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it. Presence of platinum in PEM fuel cells is one of the reasons why fuel cells are excluded from commercialization. Therefore, reducing the amount of platinum used in fuel cells is very important for their commercialization.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved singh, A K Sehgal, B basu, R K Malhotra, S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil kumar, G Gopal
Air Pollution is a serious global problem. Increase in population the growing demands further aggravates it. This has resulted in exploring alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines. Some of the promising alternative fuels are Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Hydrogen, LPG, Ethanol etc. CNG is gaining popularity as fuel in transport sector due to lower carbon to hydrogen ratio, cost & infrastructure. Hydrogen (H2) for IC engines is considered as a future fuel due to carbonless structure. But several obstacles need to be overcome before commercialization of H2 as an IC engine fuel for transport sector. Presently, lack of hydrogen infrastructure and refuelling stations prevent widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles. One of the solutions is to blend hydrogen to CNG. Such types of blends acquire benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Also these blends can use the existing natural gas infrastructure and existing CNG engine without any major hardware modification.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Burcu Guleryuz, Cagkan Kocabas, Erkan OZTURK
Remanufacturing is a process in which used products are disassembled, and their components are repaired and used in the production of new products. This study investigates the impact of various remanufacturing decisions on profitability and market cannibalization in an infinite-horizon production scenario for heavy duty vehicle (HDV) clutches. A discrete event simulation model is developed for benchmarking of different scenarios using various factors and their levels. There are two consumer segments as primary customer and grey customer in the market. Three different end of life (EOL) clutch quality conditions are defined, and three different percentages of clutch collect strategies are defined for all EOL products in the market. Therefore, a total of nine combinations (i.e., three quality index and three collecting strategies) are benchmarked in terms of total profit from new and remanufactured HDV clutches, number of customers won, and amount of saved raw material for environmental considerations.
Magazine
2014-05-08
Executive Viewpoints Off-highway industry executives write about some of the challenges and trends facing the industry over the next 20 years, and the innovation that will be required to stay competitive and sustainable. Annual product guide A product roundup showcasing the newest and most innovative supplier technologies in a variety of areas such as Powertrain & Energy, Electronics, Hydraulics, Materials, Testing & Simulation, Body and Chassis, and Interiors.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alessandro Libriani
Abstract Synthetic rubber is used in automobiles for various applications. Tires, seals, gaskets, engine mounts, wiring cables and under the hood hoses are just a few examples. Synthetic rubber is a man-made material that uses several components as polymers, resins, carbon black, fillers, vulcanizing agents, reinforcement agents. It is a material that heavily depends on oil for its constituency, therefore it has a large carbon footprint. This study proposes the use of natural filler for automotive seals using synthetic rubber in order to reduce the impact on the environment. Calcium carbonate is the most preponderant choice as material filler because it is abundant in nature and is mined extensively. Calcium carbonate is also present in several structures in nature. Oyster shells have a great amount of it as well as egg shells. Egg shells also constitute an environmental bio-hazard when discarded in a landfill due to the organic inner membrane. The use of discarded egg shells is limited to few applications, mainly pharmaceutical.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tae-il Yoo, Hanhee Park, Gubae Kang, Seongyeop Lim
Abstract Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability. Therefore, accomplishing both fuel economy and good NVH performance has become a significantly challenging task in eco-friendly vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Aaron Hula, Jeffrey Alson, Amy Bunker, Kevin Bolon
Abstract This paper examines the pace at which manufacturers have added certain powertrain technology into new vehicles from model year 1975 to the present. Based on data from the EPA's Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends database [1], the analysis will focus on several key technologies that have either reached a high level of penetration in light duty vehicles, or whose use in the new vehicle fleet has been growing in recent years. The findings indicate that individual manufacturers have, at times, implemented new technology across major portions of their new vehicle offerings in only a few model years. This is an important clarification to prior EPA analysis that indicated much longer adoption times for the industry as a whole. This new analysis suggests a technology penetration paradigm where individual manufacturers have a much shorter technology penetration cycle than the overall industry, due to “sequencing” by individual manufacturers.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection explores advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation sector. Topics can include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials.
Technical Paper
2013-11-27
Kalyan S. Hatti, Sai sankaranarayana
The automotive industry is one of the industries that have visibility suffered a strong demand for higher environmental performance. This industry have enjoyed years as the main source of employment and economic growth, today it is being pointed out as one of the major contributors to air pollution in urban centers. Indeed the benefits of automobile provide the means of gaining access to life's necessities and employment and a source of pleasure. However, despite these benefits there are environmental burdens as well: local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, road congestion, noise, mortality and morbidity from accidents and less open space to roads. Thus companies in the sector have been trying different strategies to overcome these challenges Evaluation of Emission development for commercial vehicles had always been great challenge to continuously migrate from one level of emission norm to other maintaining the business continuity. With every migration its necessary to cross the technological barriers one such challenge had been during the migration from BSII to BSIII the option available had been to go for CRS engines with an incremental cost of approximately one lakh rupee per engine compared to conventional IL engines this would have eventually impacted the customer base for reasons of high cost and high maintenance.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Robson Barbosa, Anderson Gomes Lima, Andre Luiz Pereira
In recent years it's noticed a considerable growth in vehicles sales, resulting a great gas emissions volume increase and consequently a higher environment impact. Currently Brazilian automotive scenario faces a moment which government and market requires energetic efficiency increase, on the other hand it is challenges the OEM's to develop lighter cars, providing thereby an “environmentally friendly” vehicle. Considering this scenario, natural fibers application in automotive parts has a great contribution, because in a large parts variety it application is possible. This application studies has contributed and earned great highlight in sustainability terms. Natural fibers provides great environmental benefits because it's renewable, biodegradable and require low energy consumption in its manufacturing process, further it's lighter than fiberglass and others conventional fibers. This paper will address the natural fibers importance using in the automotive parts production process, such as plastic and acoustic insulation parts, as the instrument panel, door panel, headliners etc.
Collection
2013-04-09
The 9 papers in this technical paper collection review life cycle assessments on materials, technologies, and processes. Also included are updates on the development of life cycle analysis databases for use by the national and international community.
Collection
2013-04-09
The 9 papers in this technical paper collection cover advances in the creation of sustainable energy sources and their usage in the transportation section. Topics include research and in-production technology used to produce renewable energy sources and materials.
Collection
2013-04-09
The 14 papers in this technical paper collection explore the issues and design strategies of bringing sustainable EV, PHEV, and vehicle electrification technologies to market.
Technical Paper
2013-04-09
Boris Bryskin, Alexander Kostylev, Yuriy Pokrovskiy, Alexander Lumpov
A chemical vapor deposition method for preparing high-quality chromium carbide coatings was developed. The resulting coatings exhibit high adhesion and increase wear resistance of the cylinder piston group components as compared to common coatings prepared by electrolytic chromium plating. The operation performance of the coatings was tested using scrapper piston of the Raba-Man diesel engine of Ikarus bus and compression and oil scrapper rings of the diesel engine 10D100. It was found that chromium coatings prepared by the method proposed are characterized by relatively low coefficient of friction and high corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Nicoletta Filippo, Massimiliana Carello, Massimo D'Auria, Alex Marcello
Given the growing concern for environmental issues, the automotive industry is working more deeply on the development of innovative technologies that reduce gas emissions and fuel consumption. Many car manufacturers have identified hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and fuel cell vehicles as the most promising solutions alternatives. IDRApegasus is a fuel cell hydrogen vehicle developed at the Politecnico of Turin. It participated at the Shell Eco-marathon Europe in Rotterdam (Netherlands) from 17-19 May 2012, a competition for low energy consumption vehicles and also an educational project that joins the value of sustainable development with a vehicle that will use the smallest amount of fuel and produce the lowest emissions possible. The vehicle raced in prototype category with the objective to complete ten laps of a representative urban circuit in the normal driving direction, covering a total distance of 16.3 km in a maximum time of 39 minutes, with an average speed of approximately 25 km/h.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Prashant Kumar Banerjee, Manohar Chaudhari, Uday Salunkhe, S Ravishankar
Sustainable development is a very complex concept involving several inter-related issues and concerns. Globalization has given a new dimension to social, economic and environmental development associated with the perceived responsibilities and growth indicators. Both developing and developed countries have the opportunities to exploit comparative advantages in the changing economic, social and environmental scenario while targeting sustainable growth together with expansion of the business prospects. Every region perceives these opportunities with different notion. There is a plethora of indicators for assessing sustainability. However, assessment criteria, prioritization and trade off for a given sustainability parameter against the other could be very complex while evolving transport growth model in emerging economies. The paper intends to deliberate the various yard sticks to evolve sustainable development of transport sector, highlighting issues and concerns in the developing countries.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Yaamini Devi Loganathan
Sustainability in general means meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Sustainability has 3 major dimensions-environment, economic and social. Each dimension is governed by many factors. Economic sustainability can be analyzed by using different methods and also using different economic indicators. There is an increasing value of Greenfield investment (Domestic Investment and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)) projects in the developing economies and transition economies. These nations seem to absorb a major portion of the global FDI. There have been theories stating that FDI can have a positive impact on growth through transfer of capital, technology, innovations, management knowledge. There has been growth in the manufacturing sector in many countries because of FDI and manufacturing sector in turn contributing to economic growth. This paper focuses on the Greenfield projects in India and in particular, the automobile segment.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Sandra Winkler, Daniel Reich, Erica Klampfl, Timothy Wallington
Ford's portfolio approach to sustainable mobility offers a large range of fuel-efficient engines and alternative-fuel vehicles - including EcoBoost®, hybrid, plug-in hybrid, flexible fuel, battery-electric, B20 biodiesel and compressed natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (CNG/LPG) vehicles. The Ford Fleet Purchase Planner has been developed to assist fleet customers in comparing these alternatives and understanding which vehicles offer the optimal mix to achieve CO₂ emission reductions while balancing corporate financial goals. Vehicle fleets for large corporations can have thousands of vehicles that are replaced on a timescale of months to years. We present the three main components of the Fleet Purchase Planner (patent pending) that provide fleet customers the lowest cost solution to achieving their sustainability goals: the Vehicle Emissions & Fuel Cost Calculator, the Fleet CO₂ Emissions Footprint Status Calculator, and the Purchase Recommender. The Vehicle Emissions & Fuel Cost Calculator applies customer-specific information, such as vehicle type, fuel type and price, driving conditions (city or highway), geographic region where the vehicle will operate, and fuel efficiency to generate the vehicle sustainability and fuel cost information.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Ramesh K. Agarwal
Currently there are nearly 750 million ground vehicles in service worldwide. They are responsible for 50% of petroleum (oil) consumption and 60% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The number of vehicles is forecasted to double by 2050. Therefore the environmental issues such as noise, emissions and fuel burn have become important for energy and environmental sustainability. This paper provides an overview of specific energy and environmental issues related to ground transportation. The technologies related to reduction in energy requirements such as reducing the vehicle mass by using the high strength low weight materials and reducing the viscous drag by active flow control and smoothing the operational profile, and reducing the contact friction by special tire materials are discussed along with the portable energy sources for reducing the GHG emissions such as low carbon fuels (biofuels), Lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and stability, and fuel cells. The technological challenges and opportunities for innovations are discussed.
Technical Paper
2013-03-10
Yuichi Goto
As alternatives to heavy-duty vehicles, this project seeks to promote the development of Next-Generation EFVs, which will present a solution to the severe air pollution problem particularly in big cities, and drastically improve exhaust gas emissions and reduce carbon dioxide emissions in order to lessen the contribution to global warming. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) started the Next-Generation Environmentally Friendly Vehicles Development and Commercialization Project in 2002. MLIT at that time entrusted this project to National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL). NTSEL as a core research organization organized a cooperative system with automobile manufacturers, suppliers, universities, academic experts, that is to say, “industry-academic-government” and launched the development activities. In 1st Stage (2002-2004), several target vehicles were developed such as, Dimethyl Ether (DME) Truck, IPS Hybrid Bus, Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine, and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Truck.
Technical Paper
2013-03-10
Chris Vagg, Chris Brace, Deepak Hari, Sam Akehurst, Lloyd Ash
Driver behaviour can strongly affect fuel consumption, and driver training in eco-driving techniques has been shown to reduce fuel consumption by 10% on average. However the effects of this training can be short-lived, so there is an apparent need for continuous monitoring of driver behaviour. This study presents a driver advisory tool which encourages eco-driving, and its evaluation in the field. The system, developed by Ashwoods Automotive Ltd (UK) and the University of Bath (UK), is aimed at fleet operators of light commercial vehicles, where the driver is typically a company employee. A significant strength of the system is that it has been designed for easy integration with the vehicle CAN-bus, reducing complexity and cost. By considering the Inertial Power Surrogate (speed times acceleration) the core algorithm is able to identify behaviour which is likely to increase fuel consumption. The algorithm also enforces the advice of the Gear Shift Indicator to encourage earlier upshifting.
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