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Viewing 1 to 30 of 53
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2448
Jesse Schneider, Kensuke Kamichi, Daniel Mikat, Robert Sutton, Mohamad Abdul-Hak, Yusuke Minagawa, Hiroyuki Abeta, Eloi Taha, Rich Boyer, Jonathan Sirota, Morris Kesler, Richard Carlson, Mark Klerer, Sebastian Mathar
Abstract Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is presently being applied to consumer electronics in the low-power range and is planned to be commercialized in the high-power range for plug-in and electric vehicles in 2018. There are, however, many technology challenges remaining before widespread implementation of high-power WPT will occur. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Technical Information Report J2954 in 2016 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 adopts a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies for SAE TIR J2954.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2534
Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado
Summary Considering that the most part of commercial vehicles are equipped with air brakes it is very important assure specific technical requirements for air brake system and its components. In addition, the effects of brake system failure are more critical for commercial vehicles which require more attention on their requirements details. Historically, the development of air brakes technology started on North America and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct resolutions were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE R.13, respectively. For passenger cars were developed the ECER.13H to harmonize North American and European resolutions. However, for commercial vehicles regional applications, culture and implementation time must be considered. These commercial vehicles peculiarities must be understood and their specific requirements harmonized to attend the global marketing growth.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2504
Scott Lambert
Abstract As the brake industry moves completely into globalization, a standardized method to define and validate the dimensions of backing plates, in a way that is both clear and feasible, is of critical importance for manufacturers at all tiers. The plate drawing not only defines the component as it fits into a brake assembly; it is also what the plate supplier relies on to define the plate for manufacture. If a drawing does not define every dimensional aspect of the product with perfect clarity, in ways that are easily measured, loss of time and resources will result from questions and/or mistakes. This paper proposes an SAE standard for defining the dimensional requirements of backing plates on the drawings themselves, and defining the measuring procedures used to validate those dimensions.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2498
David B. Antanaitis, E Lloyd
Abstract This paper describes the development work that went into the creation of the SAE J3052 “Brake Hydraulic Component Flow Rate Measurement at High Delta Pressure”, and also shows some example applications. The SAE J3052 recommended practice is intended to measure flow characteristics through brake hydraulic components and subsystems driven by pressure differentials above 1 bar, and was anticipated by the task force to be invoked for components and subsystems for which pressure response characteristics are critical for the operation of the system (such as service brake pressure response and stopping distance, or pressure rise rate of a single hydraulic circuit in response to an Electronic Stability Control command). Data generated by this procedure may be used as a direct assessment of the flow performance of a brake hydraulic component, or they may be used to build subsystem or system-level models.
2017-08-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9002
Abdul Hakim Siddique Miah, Stephen Morse, James Goddin, Gary Moore, Kevin M Morris, Jayne Rogers, Isabelle Delay-Saunders, Andrew Clifton, Jacquetta Lee
Abstract Within the aerospace industry there is a growing interest in evaluating and reducing the environmental impacts of products and related risks to business. Consequently, requests from governments, customers, manufacturers, and other interested stakeholders, for environmental information about aerospace products are becoming widespread. Presently, requests are inconsistent and this limits the ability of the aerospace industry to meet the informational needs of various stakeholders and reduce the environmental impacts of their products in a cost-effective manner. Energy consumption is a significant business cost, risk, and a simple proxy value for overall environmental impact. This paper presents the initial research carried out by an academic and industry consortium to develop standardised methods for calculating and reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content of aerospace products.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0022
Holger Zeltwanger
Abstract In-vehicle networks (IVN) have been standardized from the beginning. The story of IVN standardization started at the beginning of the 90s. Today, several IVN technologies have been internationally standardized by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) including the related conformance test plans. But as all electronic technologies, IVNs are a matter of improvement and change due to new requirements and gained experiences. This makes it difficult to always keep the standard backwards compatible, in particular if immature approaches are submitted. Furthermore, new communication protocols are knocking on the door of international standardization bodies. The automotive industry itself is conservative and adapts new IVNs slowly. There are also concerns regarding too many different bus systems and networks in one vehicle. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of the standardization of IVNs.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL-D) Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. This paper presents an approach for model-based “dependent failure analysis” which is required from ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts with decomposition approach.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1621
Andre Kohn, Karsten Schmidt, Jochen Decker, Maurice Sebastian, Alexander Züpke, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0225
Yakov lobachevskii, Zahid Godzhaev, Vladimir Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Aleksandr Merzlyakov, Oleg Sizov
Abstract The present article addresses issues related to the development of a scientifically-based classification of agricultural tractors with consideration of problems associated with international harmonization of testing requirements and classification parameters; it describes the disadvantages of classification of tractors by maximum towing power achieved on a concrete surface, which is used abroad. The authors state the requirements for towing and power classification of agricultural tractors, which should act as a framework for energy harmonization of sets of tractors with sets of machines independently from developers and manufacturers; and demonstrate the need for harmonization of typical size classification series of towing and power parameters with series of preferred numbers recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2039
Prashant S. Vadgaonkar, Ullas Janardhan
Avionics industry is moving towards fly-by wire aircrafts with less reliance on mechanical systems leading to increase in the complexity of in-flight hardware elements. RTCA/DO-254 and EUROCAE ED-80 plays a vital role in the design assurance of airborne electronic hardware. RTCA/ DO-254 and EUROCAE ED-80 are the industry standards for Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware. The two different agencies FAA and EU regulate and apply this design assurance guidance to the regulatory law in CFR and EASA CS respectively. This paper discusses the need for DO-254 /ED-80 certification in Aerospace industry, the advantages and benefits to the avionics manufacturers. The paper presents the study made on similarities and differences between DO-254/ED-80.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1573
Ken Archibald, Kyle Archibald, Donald Neubauer
Abstract This paper will document a rationale for wheel straightening based on the rise of declining roads, increased consumer preference for lower profile tires, unintended consequences of wheel customization and the reduction in energy consumption. A recommended patented procedure detailing how A356-T6 wheels can be straightened will be presented. To validate the recommended procedure a sample of wheels was uniformly deformed and straightened and subsequently tested per SAE J328 and SAE J175. Test results are provided that indicate straightened wheels should be fully serviceable in their intended service. A laboratory protocol to replicate the wheel flange cracks is described. The protocol is used to demonstrate that wheels without deformations do not result in flange cracks. Conversely wheels with deformations in excess of 1.5mm do result in cracks at less than 750,000 cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1429
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
Abstract This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure SAE J2732 (2008) seat dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated dimension-extraction process consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, back and cushion angles, (2) calculate centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1500
Renran Tian, Keyu Ruan, Lingxi Li, Jerry Le, Mike Rao
Abstract Driver state sensing technologies start to be widely used in vehicular systems developed from different manufacturers. To optimize the cost and minimize the intrusiveness towards driving, majority of these systems rely on in-cabin camera(s) and other optical sensors. With their great capabilities of detecting and intervening driver distraction and inattention, these technologies might become key components in future vehicle safety and control systems. However, currently there are no common standards available to compare the performance of these technologies, thus it is necessary to develop one standardized process for the evaluation purpose.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0075
Steven Holland, Tim Felke, Luis Hernandez, Robab Safa-Bakhsh, Matthew A. Wuensch
Abstract Health Ready Components are essential to unlocking the potential of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) as it relates to real-time diagnosis and prognosis in order to achieve lower maintenance costs, greater asset availability, reliability and safety. IVHM results in reduced maintenance costs by providing more accurate fault isolation and repair guidance. IVHM results in greater asset availability, reliability and safety by recommending preventative maintenance and by identifying anomalous behavior indicative of degraded functionality prior to detection of the fault by other detection mechanisms. The cost, complexity and effectiveness of the IVHM system design, deployment and support depend, to a great extent, on the degree to which components and subsystems provide the run-time data needed by IVHM and the design time semantic data to allow IVHM to interpret those messages.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0309
Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Abstract This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back-angle measurement probe was designed and fitted to the SIPT. Comparisons between the two tools in a wide range of seating conditions showed that the mean SIP location was 5 mm aft of the H-point, with a standard deviation of 7.8 mm. Vertical location was not significantly different between the two tools (mean - 0.7 mm, sd 4.0 mm). A high correlation (r=0.9) was observed between the back angle measurements from the two tools. The SIPT was slightly more repeatable across installations and installers than the J826 manikin, with most of the discrepancy arising from situations with flat seat cushion angles and either unusually upright or reclined back angles that caused the J826 manikin to be unstable.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0138
Bernard Dion
Abstract Automotive manufacturers and their suppliers increasingly need to follow the objectives of ISO 26262 as it is now state-of-the art and as it is the case that an ever increasing number of active and passive safety systems are developed within cars. This has increased the need to define a safe system development process. This paper proposes a model-based approach including automatic and certified code generation to efficiently implement the embedded software that controls these systems while meeting the needed safety requirements and obeying the rules of ISO 26262.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0133
Masahiro Matsubara, Fumio Narisawa, Atsuhiro Ohno, Toshiaki Aoki, Yuki Chiba
Abstract Safety concepts are essential to conform to functional safety standard ISO 26262 for automotive products. Safety requirements, which are a part of safety concepts, shall be satisfied by products to avoid hazards by vehicles to maintain their safety. Incompleteness of safety requirements must be avoided in deriving parent requirements to its children. However, measure for checking is only reviewing when the safety requirements are described in a natural language. This measure for checking is not objective or stringent. We developed a specification technique written in formal notation that addresses some of the shortcomings of capturing safety requirements for verification purposes. Safety requirements in this notation are expressed in goal tree models, which originate from goal-oriented requirement engineering Knowledge Acquisition in autOmated Specification (KAOS). Each requirement is written with propositional logic as the node of a tree.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0137
Heiko Doerr, Ingo Stuermer
Abstract A key component of developing a safety-critical automotive system in compliance with ISO 26262 is developing what is known as the safety case. This delivery justifies that the system is free from unreasonable risk and that the safety requirements are complete and satisfied according to evidence from ISO 26262 work products. However, the standard provides neither practical guidance on how the safety case should be developed, nor how the safety argument should be evaluated in the functional safety assessment process. This paper discusses quality and product readiness of the system under development in the context of safety case generation. We will focus on the software level and ISO 26262-6 requirements that relate to this. We will look at the software lifecycle of the system and how to measure and deliver key data throughout this lifecycle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0127
Agish George, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
Abstract One of the key premises of the ISO 26262 functional safety standard is the development of an appropriate Technical Safety Concept for the item under development. This is specified in detail in Part 4 of the standard - Product development at the system level. The Technical safety requirements and the technical safety concept form the basis for deriving the hardware and software safety requirements that are then used by engineering teams for developing a safe product. Just like any other form of product development, making multiple revisions of the requirements are highly undesirable. This is primarily due to cost increases, chances of having inconsistencies within work products and its impact on the overall project schedule. Good technical safety requirements are in fact the foundation for an effective functional safety implementation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
Abstract SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2439
Martin Hunter
Abstract It is generally accepted that the development of hardware and software for safety critical systems follow their own lifecycles as defined by standards such as RTCA DO254 and RTCA DO178C. What is less clear is what should be done to ensure the system safety objectives are met when the software is installed in the electronic hardware. This paper seeks to discuss the activities that may be undertaken do demonstrate not only that the integration of the software and hardware “work” together, but they do so in a manner that meets the safety objectives in line with the guidelines described in SAE ARP4754A. According to ARP4754A, hardware and software are different “items” developed according to their own requirements and standards, when two or more items are brought together, they are a system, which may be part of a larger system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2550
Kiran Thupakula
Abstract In Aerospace Industry, the major challenge is to meet the safety and quality of subsystem / system elements to comply with the standards defined by regulatory authorities for product certification. Engineering test labs are created to provide such precision oriented test platforms ranging from component level to fully integrated test labs/test systems, standalone or distributed network. Even after massive initial capital investment and with the evolution of technologies followed by principles of practice in establishing test facilities, industry is facing open challenges in meeting the performance parameters like productivity, optimum usage, accessibility, monitoring, control and ease of maintenance to list a few. It's very important to standardize the test facilities to optimize time to market and reduce the product cost.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2438
Robert E. Voros
Abstract Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems [1], and ARP4761, Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment [2], together describe a complex set of intertwining processes which comprehensively prioritize development activities for a product's systems based on their safety criticality. These processes work at specific levels of detail (aircraft and system) and interact with a set of processes at lower levels of detail (item) defined by Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) standards. The aircraft and system development process (ARP4754A) supplies functions, requirements, and architectural definitions to the System Safety process (ARP4761), which in turn supplies Development Assurance Levels back to the development process and on to the RTCA processes.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2431
Robert E. Voros
Abstract Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), “Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,” [1] is recognized through Advisory Circular (AC) 20-174 (AC 20-174) [2] as a way (but not the only way) to provide development assurance for aircraft and systems to minimize the possibility of development errors. ARP4754A and its companion, Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6110, “Contiguous Aircraft/System Development Process Example,” [3] primarily describe development processes for an all new, complex and highly integrated aircraft without strong consideration for reused systems or simple systems. While ARP4754A section 5 mentions reuse, similarity, and complexity, and section 6 is intended to cover modification programs, the descriptions in these sections can be unclear and inconsistent. The majority of aircraft projects are not completely new Products nor are they entirely comprised of complex and highly integrated systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2535
Steven Donald Ellersick, Bill Reisenauer, Mickey Jacobson, Newel Stephens
Abstract The past twenty years have seen tremendous changes in the Avionics display and flight deck lighting due to the application of solid-state LED (light emitting diode) light sources and LCDs (liquid crystal displays). These advances significantly benefit the customer and pilot users when integrated correctly. This paper discusses recommended practices and guidance given in SAE ARP 4103 for modern Avionics flight deck lighting systems to satisfy the end user and obtain certification. SAE ARP 4103 Flight Deck Lighting for Commercial Transport Aircraft has recently been revised to keep up with the Avionics state-of-the-art and add clarification where needed. ARP 4103 contains recommended Avionics flight deck lighting design and performance criteria to ensure prompt and accurate readability and visibility, color identification and discrimination of needed information under all expected ambient lighting and electrical power conditions. For additional details, see the actual ARP 4103.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2428
Richard Ambroise, Gabriel Godfrey
The smartphone in your pocket, the tablet you use to browse the web, the safety systems in your automobile: they all benefit from fast-evolving computer and electronic component technology. These components are lighter, hold more data, and can perform increasingly complex tasks. This electronic evolution has had an impact in the aviation industry as well. The electronic components used in today's engines can do more than ever before, but the need to replace older components has introduced some added complexity. Until now. The problem is obsolescence. Driven by an ever-demanding consumer market, electrical components - including those used for aircraft engines - are evolving faster than ever. Engine components installed just a few years ago are no longer being made. This means engine manufacturers need to install new models when replacing these older models or when building new engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Abstract Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0069
Srideep Chatterjee, Ravi Chandra Kyasa, Nithin Reddy Gopidi, Prakash Prashanth Ravi
Abstract Every organization needs to effectively manage its data collection and analysis process in order to efficiently collaborate on a global scale. This paper describes a model for standardizing the data collection and analysis process and specifically deals with two challenges in this regard: 1) A method for standardization of the nomenclature of different physical parameters measured during a typical engine test. This is essential for processing data from facilities spread across the globe to run them through a standard set of calculations. The process of storing and performing a given set of complex processes on the data while allowing analysts to view the steps of the processing in a transparent intuitive manner is also described in the paper. 2) Building on the first point, the paper also describes a process for performing a standard set of data quality checks on data as it is being collected. This allows for detection of issues in the data on a real-time basis.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2394
Demetrio Cortese
Abstract Using a Model-based approach to the embedded software development process contributed significantly in reducing the development time while also supporting a high quality level of the software code implementation. However, based on our experience with CNH Industrial application scenarios, involving multiple suppliers from vehicle ECU to the engine ECU, it only addressed the need of the implementation phase without any consistent influence in other software development life-cycle phases such as requirements and specification. Mandatory functional safety requirements, new complex functionalities, and reducing time to delivery while maintaining high quality level of software are driving factors in our new software development projects. Ideally the adoption of international standards, as for example the ISO 12007, and the safety standards, as the ISO 26262, ISO 25119 and ISO 13849, should represent a consistent guide to develop software.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0066
Ben Wen, Gregory Rogerson, Alan Hartke
Abstract Tire rolling resistance is one of tire performance indicator that represents a force needed to maintain the constant rolling of a tire. There are quite few methods and standards to measure tire rolling resistance, such as ISO-28585, ISO-18164, SAE-J1269, SAE-J2452, …. These tests have been used by tire companies, vehicle manufactures, and government agencies to evaluate tire rolling resistance performance. SAE-J1269 and SAE-J2452 are two popularly used multi-condition rolling resistance tests for passenger and light truck tires. Examining the test conditions and procedures of these two test standards showed that some key procedures and conditions from both standards are similar although there are many difference as well. The study presented here is to analyze test results from both tests and their correlation under certain conditions. If the correlation exists, one test may provide test results for both test conditions, therefore, test efficiency can be improved.
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