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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2283
Anand Prabu Kalaivanan, Gnanasekaran Sakthivel
Abstract Electronic Fuel Injection Systems have revolutionised Fuel Delivery and Ignition timing in the past two decades and have reduced the Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions, ultimately enhancing the Economy and Ecological awareness of the engines. But the ignition/injection timing that commands the combustion is mapped to a fixed predefined table which is best suited during the stock test conditions. However continuous real time adjustments by monitoring the combustion characteristics prove to be highly efficient and be immune to varying fuel quality, lack of transient performance and wear related compression losses. For developing countries, Automotive Manufacturers have been Tuning the Ignition/Injection timing Map assuming the worst possible fuel quality. Conventional knock control system focus on engine protection only and doesn't contribute much in improving thermal efficiency.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1953
Manfei Bai, Lu Xiong, Zhiqiang Fu, Renxie Zhang
Abstract In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation requires an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1954
Peng Hang, Xinbo Chen, Fengmei Luo
Abstract Path tracking is the rudimentary capability and primary task for autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). In this paper, a novel four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-drive (4WID) electric vehicle (EV) is proposed which is equipped with steer-by-wire (SBW) system. For path-tracking controller design, the nonlinear vehicle model with 2 degrees of freedom (DOF) is built utilizing the nonlinear Dugoff tire model. The nonlinear dynamic model of SBW system is conducted as well considering the external disturbances. As to the path-tracking controller design, an integrated four-wheel steering (4WS) and direct yaw-moment control (DYC) system is designed based on the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm to track the target path described by desired yaw angle and lateral displacement. Then, the fast terminal sliding mode controller (FTSMC) is proposed for the SBW system to suppress disturbances.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1971
Sihan Chen, Libo Huang, Xin Bi, Jie Bai
Abstract For sensing system, the trustworthiness of the variant sensors is the crucial point when dealing with advanced driving assistant system application. In this paper, an approach to a hybrid camera-radar application of vehicle tracking is presented, able to meet the requirement of such demand. Most of the time, different types of commercial sensors available nowadays specialize in different situations, such as the ability of offering a wealth of detailed information about the scene for the camera or the powerful resistance to the severe weather for the millimeter-wave (MMW) radar. The detection and tracking in different sensors are usually independent. Thus, the work here that combines the variant information provided by different sensors is indispensable and worthwhile. For the real-time requirement of merging the measurement of automotive MMW radar in high speed, this paper first proposes a fast vehicle tracking algorithm based on image perceptual hash encoding.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1989
Yi Chen, Gaoxiang Lin, Ying He
Abstract Chinese National projects “13th Five Year Plan” and “Made in China 2025” have both put forward a goal of developing Intelligent and Connected Vehicles(ICV). Shanghai is a typical city of automobile industry which spearhead the development of China’s ICV industry. After the adjustment and transition of industrial structure, Shanghai has initially formed the industrialization layout of ICV covering core areas including environmental perception, intelligent decision-making, actuator, human-computer interaction and vehicle integration. However, currently Shanghai is still in the beginning stage and there exists a large gap with world advanced level in both the core technology and marketization. This article is based on former qualitative survey combined with quantitative analysis which uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) method to objectively evaluate the status quo and development trend of Shanghai’s ICV.
2017-09-21
WIP Standard
AIR8012
The purpose of the document is to provide the guidelines of the technological approach for developing a PHM system for EMAs with particular reference to their possible use as primary flight control actuators. It provides a basic description of the physics of the most common degradation processes,a reliability assessment and a discussion on the signals, with the associated data processing, required to build up an effective health monitoring system.
CURRENT
2017-09-19
Standard
AMS2690D
This specification defines the equipment, procedures, and requirements for joining leads by parallel gap resistance welding. For attaching leads by parallel gap resistance welding in the assembly of microelectronic circuitry to thin film substrates.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2109
Kiran Thupakula
Abstract Airport environments consist of several moving objects both in the air and on the ground. In air moving objects include aircraft, UAVs and birds etc. On ground moving objects include aircraft, ground vehicles and ground personnel etc. Detecting, classifying, identifying and tracking these objects are necessary for avoiding collisions in all environmental situations. Multiple sensors need to be employed for capturing the object shape and position from multiple directions. Data from these sensors are combined and processed for object identification. In current scenario, there is no comprehensive traffic monitoring system that uses multisensor data for monitoring in all the airport areas. In this paper, for explanation purposes, a hypothetical airport traffic monitoring system is presumed that uses multiple sensors for avoiding collisions.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2113
Michael Schultz
Abstract Passenger boarding is always part of the critical path of the aircraft turnaround: both efficient boarding and online prediction of the boarding progress are essential for a reliable turnaround progress. However, the boarding progress is mainly controlled by the passenger behavior. A fundamental scientific approach for aircraft boarding enables the consideration of individual passenger behaviors and operational constraints in order to develop a sustainable concept for enabling a prediction of the boarding progress. A reliable microscopic simulation approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the individual movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. The simulation covers a broad range of behaviors and boarding strategies as well as the integration of new technologies and procedures.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2030
Benjamin Cheong, Paolo Giangrande, Patrick Wheeler, Pericle Zanchetta, Michael Galea
Abstract High power density for aerospace motor drives is a key factor in the successful realization of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept. An integrated system design approach offers optimization opportunities, which could lead to further improvements in power density. However this requires multi-disciplinary modelling and the handling of a complex optimization problem that is discrete and nonlinear in nature. This paper proposes a multi-level approach towards applying random heuristic optimization to the integrated motor design problem. Integrated optimizations are performed independently and sequentially at different levels assigned according to the 4-level modelling paradigm for electric systems. This paper also details a motor drive sizing procedure, which poses as the optimization problem to solve here. Finally, results comparing the proposed multi-level approach with a more traditional single-level approach is presented for a 2.5 kW actuator motor drive design.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2063
Patrick Browning, Bryan Shambaugh, Joseph Dygert
Abstract The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been studied significantly in the past two decades for its applications to various aerodynamic problems. The most common aerodynamic applications have been stall/separation control and boundary layer modification. Recently several researchers have proposed utilizing the DBD in various configurations to act as viable propulsion systems for micro and nano aerial vehicles. The DBD produces stable atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma in a thin sheet with a preferred direction of flow. The plasma flow, driven by electrohydrodynamic body forces, entrains the quiescent air around it and thus develops into a low speed jet on the order of 10-1 to 101 m/s. Several researchers have utilized DBDs in an annular geometric setup as a propulsion device. Other researchers have used them to alter rectangular duct flows and directional jet devices. This study investigates 2-D duct flows for applications in micro plasma thrusters.
2017-09-07
WIP Standard
J3088
The current document is a part of an effort of the Active Safety Systems Sensor Committee whose objectives are to: a. Identify the functionality and performance you could expect from active safety sensors b. Establish a basic understanding of how sensors work c. Establish a basic understanding of how sensors can be tested d. Describe an exemplar set of acceptable requirements and tests associated with each technology e. Describe the key requirements/functionality for the test targets f. Describe the unique characteristics of the targets or tests This document will cover items (a) and (b)
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0003
Andreas Sidorow, Vincent Berger, Ghita Elouazzani
Abstract Gasoline engines have typically a waste gate actuator to control the boost pressure. The electrification of the vehicle and combustion engine components leads to new challenges of application of electric actuators in engine components, like turbochargers, which are faced with relatively high ambient temperatures. Another challenge is a simulation and prediction of the mechanical load on the actuator and kinematic components at different application scenarios, which can help to find the optimal solution which fulfills the durability, controllability, etc. targets. This paper deals with a physical dynamic model of an electric waste-gate actuator and kinematic components. The modeling includes a thermal, electrical and mechanical parts of the turbocharger control system and is validated on test-bench and engine measurements including pulsation effects.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0050
Anjan Rao Puttige, Robin Hamberg, Paul Linschoten, Goutham Reddy, Andreas Cronhjort, Ola Stenlaas
Abstract Improving turbocharger performance to increase engine efficiency has the potential to help meet current and upcoming exhaust legislation. One limiting factor is compressor surge, an air flow instability phenomenon capable of causing severe vibration and noise. To avoid surge, the turbocharger is operated with a safety margin (surge margin) which, as well as avoiding surge in steady state operation, unfortunately also lowers engine performance. This paper investigates the possibility of detecting compressor surge with a conventional engine knock sensor. It further recommends a surge detection algorithm based on their signals during transient engine operation. Three knock sensors were mounted on the turbocharger and placed along the axes of three dimensions of movement. The engine was operated in load steps starting from steady state. The steady state points of operation covered the vital parts of the engine speed and load range.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0153
Sergey Shcherbanev, Alexandre De Martino, Andrey Khomenko, Svetlana Starikovskaia, Srinivas Padala, Yuji Ikeda
Abstract Requirements for reducing consumption of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as reducing emissions force the scientific community to develop new ignition systems. One of possible solutions is an extension of the lean ignition limit of stable combustion. With the decrease of the stoichiometry of combustible mixture the minimal size of the ignition kernel (necessary for development of combustion) increases. Therefore, it is necessary to use some special techniques to extend the ignition kernel region. Pulsed microwave discharge allows the formation of the ignition kernels of larger diameters. Although the microwave discharge igniter (MDI) was already tested for initiation of combustion and demonstrated quite promising results, the parameters of plasma was not yet studied before. Present work demonstrates the results of the dynamics of spatial structure of the MDI plasma with nanosecond time resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0130
Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Marco Benegiamo, Sergio Camporeale, Daniela Ingrosso
Abstract 1 Nowadays, In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors (ICPS) have become a mainstream technology that promises to change the way the engine control is performed. Among all the possible applications, the prediction of raw (engine-out) NOX emissions would allow to eliminate the NOX sensor currently used to manage the after-treatment systems. In the current study, a semi-physical model already existing in literature for the prediction of engine-out nitric oxide emissions based on in-cylinder pressure measurement has been improved; in particular, the main focus has been to improve nitric oxide prediction accuracy when injection timing is varied. The main modification introduced in the model lies in taking into account the turbulence induced by fuel spray and enhanced by in-cylinder bulk motion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0137
Zhen Zhang, Luigi del Re, Richard Fuerhapter
Abstract During transients, engines tend to produce substantially higher peak emissions like soot - the main fraction of particular matter (PM) - which are the longer the more important as the steady state emissions are better controlled. While Diesel particulate filters are normally able to block them, preventing their occurrence would of course be more important. In order to achieve this goal, however, they must be measurable. While for most emissions commercial sensors of sufficient speed and performance are available, the same is not true for PMs, especially for production engines. Against this background, in the last years the possible use of a full stream 50Hz sensor based on Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) was investigated, and the results were very encouraging, showing that the sensor could recognize transient changes undetected by conventional measurement systems (like the AVL Opacimeter) but confirmed by the analysis of combustion.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0045
Blane Scott, Christopher Willman, Ben Williams, Paul Ewart, Richard Stone, David Richardson
Abstract In-cylinder temperature measurements are vital for the validation of gasoline engine modelling and useful in their own right for explaining differences in engine performance. The underlying chemical reactions in combustion are highly sensitive to temperature and affect emissions of both NOx and particulate matter. The two techniques described here are complementary, and can be used for insights into the quality of mixture preparation by measurement of the in-cylinder temperature distribution during the compression stroke. The influence of fuel composition on in-cylinder mixture temperatures can also be resolved. Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) provides point temperature measurements with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1 to 1.0 % when the gas composition is well characterized and homogeneous; as the pressure increases the precision improves.
2017-08-24
Magazine
On-Orbit Satellite Refueling Flow Measurement The Path from Concept to Operational Status Radiation Tolerant "Smart Backplanes" for Spacecraft Avionics Using Heat Pipes to Cool Embedded Computers Electronically Dimmable Aircraft Windows How do you block the light of the sun? Eliminating Electrical Arcing in Satellite Systems NASA Miniaturizes Century-Old Radio Sounder Technology Developing an Airborne Optical Systems Testbed (AOSTB) New Class of Excimer-Pumped Atomic Lasers (XPALS) Research demonstrates the viability of an atomic laser having a quantum efficiency greater than one. Hydrodynamic Drag Force Measurement of a Functionalized Surface Exhibiting Superhydrophobic Properties Comparing the skin friction drag effects of a superhydrophobic flat plate to an untreated flat plate of the same material and geometry.
2017-08-03
Magazine
Collaborating on diesel emission control Stringent fuel-efficiency and criteria-pollutant standards call for new combustion strategies. The SwRI-led Advanced Combustion Catalyst and Aftertreatment Technologies consortium reinvents existing technologies and experiments with new catalysts to meet standards. More intelligence equals more efficiency, enhanced functionality Advanced systems require renewed focus on architectures, processors, sensors and networks. Appraising the potential for platooning in the U.S. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory perform statistical analysis based on a large collection of real-world U.S. truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning. Connected commercial vehicles bring cybersecurity to the fore Connectivity, automation and electrification will largely drive vehicle developments in the coming years, according to experts presenting at the revamped SAE COMVEC 17.
2017-07-27
Magazine
The Rapid Rise of Beryllium-Aluminum Alloys in Aerospace Aeroacoustic Simulation Delivers Breakthroughs in Aircraft Noise Reduction Using System Simulation to Manage Increasing Thermal Loads on Aircraft Fuel Systems Ensuring the Compliance of Avionics Software with DO-178C Microwave Photonic Notch Filter Helps Ensure Critical Mission Success Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer New testing technique requires less material, gives more accurate results. Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Droplets Induced by Photoignition of Aluminum Nanoparticles Test methodology allows analysis of combustion dynamics for subscale rocket injectors under super critical conditions. Vapor Pressure Data and Analysis for Selected Organophosphorous Compounds: DIBMP, DCMP, IMMP, IMPA, EMPA, and MPFA Determining the thermophysical properties of chemical warfare agent simulants can help evaluate the performance of defensive equipment.
2017-07-24
Book
Timothy Wilmering
Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) is the unified capability of a system of systems (SoS) to assess the current or future state of the member system health, and integrate it within a framework of available resources and operational demand. As systems complexities have increased, so have system support costs, driven by more frequent and often enigmatic subsystem failures. IVHM strategies can be used to mitigate these issues by taking a Systems of Systems view. Combined with advanced decision support methods, this approach can be used to more effectively predict, isolate, schedule, and repair failed subsystems, reducing platform support costs and minimizing platform down time. Integrated Vehicle Health Management- System of Systems Integration brings together ten seminal SAE technical papers addressing the challenges and solutions to maintaining highly complex vehicles.
CURRENT
2017-07-18
Standard
ARP4386D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides the technical terms and nomenclature, together with their definitions and abbreviations/acronyms that are used in aerospace fluid power, actuation and control systems. NOTE: ARP490 and ARP4493 are sources for definitions specifically for electrohydraulic servovalves.
CURRENT
2017-07-10
Standard
AIR5565
This aerospace information report (AIR) provides historical design information for various aircraft landing gear and actuation/control systems that may be useful in the design of future systems for similar applications. It presents the basic characteristics, hardware descriptions, functional schematics, and discussions of the actuation mechanisms, controls, and alternate release systems.
2017-06-13
WIP Standard
J2932
This document provides test performance requirements for air disc brake actuators for service and combination service parking brake actuators with respect to function, durability and environmental performance when tested according to SAE J2902.
CURRENT
2017-06-09
Standard
J2899_201706
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to S-CAM, Wedge, and Disc air brake actuators where the stroke can be measured without disassembly from the brake.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1829
Guillaume Loussert
Abstract The new fuel efficiency and emission standards have forced OEMs to put emphasis on different strategies such as engine downsizing, cylinder deactivation… Unfortunately these new technologies may lead to increased powertrain vibrations generated by the engine and transmitted to the chassis and the car cabin, such that their reduction or elimination has become a key topic for the automotive industry. The use of active engine mounts, acting directly on the fluid of an hydromount, or active vibration dampers, acting as an inertial mass-spring system, are very effective solutions, particularly when using electromagnetic based actuators. Nevertheless, all electromagnetic actuators technologies are not equals and the choice of such actuators must be considered carefully by taking into account the full performances and the overall cost of the solutions.

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