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2017-04-11
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This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0040
Michael Hafner, Thomas Pilutti
We propose a steering controller for automated trailer backup, which can be used on tractor-trailer configurations including fifth wheel campers and gooseneck style trailers. The controller steers the trailer based on real-time driver issued trailer curvature commands. We give a stability proof for the hierarchical control system, and demonstrate robustness under a specific set of modeling errors. Simulation results are provided along with experimental data from a test vehicle and 5th wheel trailer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1640
Peng Liu, Liyun Fan, Wenbo Peng, Xiuzhen Ma, Enzhe Song
A novel high-speed electromagnetic actuator for electronic fuel injection system of diesel engine is proposed in this paper. By using permanent magnet and annular flange, the design of novel actuator aims to overcome the inherent drawbacks of the conventional solenoid electromagnetic actuator, such as high power consumption and so on. The finite element model (FEM) of novel actuator is developed. Combined with design of experiments and finite element analysis, the second order polynomial response surface models (RSM) of electromagnetic force of novel actuator are produced by the least square principle. Then the influence mechanisms and interaction effects of key design variables on the electromagnetic characteristics of novel actuator are revealed by RSM.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0050
Mario Berk, Hans-Martin Kroll, Olaf Schubert, Boris Buschardt, Daniel Straub
With increasing levels of driving automation, the information provided by automotive environment sensors becomes highly safety relevant. A correct assessment of the sensor’s reliability is therefore crucial for ensuring the safety of the customer functions. There are currently no standardized procedures or guidelines for demonstrating the reliability of the sensor information. Engineers are faced with setting up test procedures and estimating efforts. Statistical hypothesis tests are commonly employed in this context. In this contribution, we present an alternative method based on Bayesian parameter inference, which is easy to implement and whose interpretation is more intuitive for engineers without a profound statistical education. It also enables a more realistic representation of dependencies among errors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0044
Roman Schmied, Gunda Obereigner, Harald Waschl
In the field of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) the capability to accurately estimate and predict the driving behavior of surrounding traffic participants has shown to enable significant improvements of the respective ADAS in terms of economy and comfort. The interaction between the different participants can be an important aspect. One example for this interaction is the car-following behavior in dense urban traffic situations.There are different phenomenological or psychological models of human car following which also consider variations between different participants. Unfortunately, these models can seldom be applied for control directly or prediction in vehicle applications. A different way is to follow a control oriented approach, to model the human as a time delay controller which tracks the inter-vehicle distance. The parameters are typically chosen based on empirical rules and do not consider variations between drivers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0071
Vahid Taimouri, Michel Cordonnier, Kyoung Min Lee, Bryan Goodman
While operating a vehicle in either autonomous or occupant piloted mode, an array of sensors can be used to guide the vehicle including stereo cameras. The state-of-the-art distance map estimation algorithms, e.g. stereo matching, usually detect corresponding features in stereo images, and estimate disparities to compute the distance map in a scene. However, depending on the image size, content and quality, the feature extraction process can become inaccurate, unstable and slow. In contrast, we employ deep convolutional neural networks, and propose two architectures to estimate distance maps from stereo images. The first architecture is a simple and generic network that identifies which features to extract, and how to combine them in a multi-resolution framework. The second architecture is a more specialized one that extracts local similarity information from two images, which are used for stereo feature matching, and fuses them at multiple resolutions to generate the distance map.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0068
Pablo Sauras-Perez, Andrea Gil, Jasprit Singh Gill, Pierluigi Pisu, Joachim Taiber
In the next 20 years fully autonomous vehicles are expected to be in the market. The advance on their development is creating paradigm shifts on different automotive related research areas. Vehicle interiors design and human vehicle interaction are evolving to enable interaction flexibility inside the cars. However, today’s vehicle manufacturers’ autonomous car concepts maintain the steering wheel as a control element. While this approach allows the driver to take over the vehicle route if needed, it causes a constraint in the previously mentioned interaction flexibility. Other approaches, such as the one proposed by Google, enable interaction flexibility by removing the steering wheel and accelerator and brake pedals. However, this prevents the users to take control over the vehicle route if needed, not allowing them to make on-route spontaneous decisions, such as stopping at a specific point of interest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1222
Jeongwon Rho, Jeongbin Yim, Daewoong Han, Gubae Kang, Seongyeop Lim
The current sensor for motor control is one of the main components in inverters for eco-friendly vehicles. Recently, as higher performance of torque control has become required, the current sensor measurement error and accuracy of motor controls have become more significant. Since the response time of the sensor affects the motor output power, the response delay of the sensor causes measurement errors of the current. Accordingly, the voltage vector changes, and a motor output power deviation occurs. In the case of large response delay of the sensor, as motor speed increases, then difference between motoring and generating output power becomes larger and larger. This results in the deterioration of power performance in high-speed operation. The deviation of the voltage vector magnitude is the main cause of motor output power deviation and imbalance through the simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0043
Michael Smart, Satish Vaishnav, Steven Waslander
Robust lane marking detection remains a challenge, particularly in temperate climates where markings degrade rapidly due to winter conditions and snow removal equipment. In previous work on stereo images, dynamic Bayesian networks with heuristic features were used whose distributions are identified using unsupervised expectation maximization, which greatly reduced sensitivity to initialization. This work has been extended in three important respects. The situations where poor RANSAC hypotheses were generated and significantly contributed to false alarms have been corrected. The null hypothesis is reformulated to guarantee that detected hypothesis satisfy a minimum likelihood. The computational requirements have been reduced for tracking and pairing by computing an upper bound on the marginal likelihood of all part hypotheses and rejecting part hypothesis if its upper bound is less likely than the null hypothesis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0102
Mahdi Heydari, Feng Dang, Ankit Goila, Yang Wang, Hanlong Yang
In this paper, a sensor fusion approach is introduced to estimate lane departure. The proposed algorithm combines the camera and inertial navigation sensor data with the vehicle dynamics to estimate the vehicle path and the lane departure time. The lane path and vehicle path are estimated by using extended Kalman filters. This algorithm can be used to provide early warning for lane departure in order to increase driving safety. Additionally, the algorithm can be used to reduce the latency of information embedded in the controls, so that the vehicle lateral control performance can be significantly improved during lane keeping in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) or autonomous vehicles. Furthermore, it improves lane detection reliability in situations when camera fails to detect lanes. Several scenarios are simulated in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0046
Mohamed Aladem, Samir Rawashdeh, Nathir Rawashdeh
To reliably implement driver-assist features and ultimately, self-driving cars, autonomous driving systems will likely rely on a variety of sensor types including GPS, RADAR, LASER range finders, and cameras. Cameras are an essential sensory component because they lend themselves to the task of identifying object types that a self-driving vehicle is likely to encounter such as pedestrians, cyclists, animals, other cars, or objects on the road. A stereo vision system adds the capability of tracking object locations and trajectories relative to the vehicle. This information can be essential for an autonomous driving control system that aims to avoid collisions and localize itself in the street scene. In this paper, we present a visual odometry algorithm based on a stereo-camera to perform localization relative to the surrounding environment for purposes navigation and hazard avoidance. Using a stereo-camera enhances the accuracy with respect to monocular visual odometry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1442
Dawei Luo, Jianbo Lu, Gang Guo
This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect system which can be used for occupancy detection and occupant counting. The system can serve as a way to confirm the number of occupants riding inside a car or the only way to determine the occupancy where the other means is not reliable (e.g., 2nd row occupants might not use seat belts and weight sensors might not be installed). The system can be used for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, etc. The system utilizes existing motion sensors, such as those used for the Roll Stability Control function, together with door ajar signals. The motion signature during occupant’s on-boarding and off-boarding a car is first extracted from the response of the vehicle body which are reflected by the motion sensors. Then the weight of the occupant, during on-boarding and off-boarding, is determined through fitting the vehicle response signals to a transient response from a vehicle model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0037
Xianyao Ping, Gangfeng Tan, Yahui Wu, Binyu Mei, Yuxin Pang
The heavy-duty vehicles travel with complex driving conditions and long-distance transportation in the mountainous areas. The driver's hysteretic perception to the environment will affect the fuel economy of the vehicle. Unreasonable acceleration and deceleration on the slope will increase the fuel consumption. Improving the performance of the engine and transmission system has limited energy-saving space, and the most fuel-efficient driving assistant systems don't consider the road conditions. In the research, the low space dimensions of the economic driving optimization algorithm with the fast calculation speed is established to plan the accurate and real-time economic driving scheme based on the slope information. The optimization algorithm with less dependence on the experimental data of the fuel consumption characteristics has the good adaptability to most vehicles. For the first drive on the slope, the slope gradient and length are measured and stored.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0039
Toshiya Hirose, Yasufumi Ohtsuka, Masato Gokan
1. Background Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and use as a safety driving assist for driver. In particular, it is investigated to clarify appropriate activation timing for assist levels of (a) collision information, (b) collision caution and (c) collision warning. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information, caution and warning with V2V. The experiment carried out with a driving simulator, and this study investigated an effective activation timing for three assist levels. 2. Experimental method The experimental scenario had four situations of (1) “Assist for braking”, (2) “Assist for accelerating”, (3) “Assist for right turn” and (4) “Assist for left turn” in blind intersection. These were set on the basis of data of traffic accidents in Japan. The activation timings of three levels were based on TTI (Time to Intersection) and TTC (Time to Collision).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1638
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park
TPMS sensor measures air pressure and temperature in the tire and transmits tire information as wireless messages to TPMS central unit which consists of RF receiver. TPMS central unit needs to determine the exact sensor locations (e.g. Front Left, Front Right, Rear Left or Rear Right) in order to correctly identify the location of the tire with low pressure. The identified tire with low pressure is displayed on dash board in the car. Thus, determination of the location of a particular tire made automatically by the TPMS system itself or tire auto localization is required. Tire auto localization is implemented in several methods. A new method is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses at least two RF transceivers as repeaters. Each transceiver receives wireless messages (eg. Pressure, temperature, sensor ID) from the nearest TPMS sensor and transmits them with RF transceiver identity to TPMS central unit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0070
Longxiang Guo, Sagar Manglani, Xuehao Li, Yunyi Jia
Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation. Most research in this area main focus on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve autonomous driving functions such as model based approaches and neural network based approaches. However, even if the autonomous driving functions are ideally achieved, the performance of the system is still subject to sensing exceptions. Few research has studied how to efficiently handle such sensing exceptions. In existing autonomous approaches, sensors, such as cameras, radars and lidars, usually need to be full calibrated or trained after mounted on the vehicles and before being used for autonomous driving. A simple unexpected on the sensors, e.g., mounting position or angle of a camera is changed, may lead the autonomous driving function to fail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0072
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
The proliferation of smartphone application has made a great impact in the automotive industry. Smartphones contain a variety of useful sensors including cameras, microphones, as well as their Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) such as accelerometer, gyroscope, and GPS. These multi-channel signals would also be synchronized to provide a comprehensive description of driving scenarios. Therefore, the smartphone could potentially be leveraged for in-vehicle data collection, monitoring, and added safety options/feedback strategies. In our previous study, a smartphone/tablet solution with our Android App - MobileUTDrive - was developed. This platform provides a cost effective approach, which allows for a wider range of naturalistic driving study opportunities for drivers operating their own vehicles. The most meaningful reason for introducing the smartphone platform is its potential ability to be integrated with intelligent telematics services.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0108
Zaydounr Y. Rawashdeh, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Anoop Pottammal, Rajesh Malhan
In this work, DSRC capabilities combined with autonomous vehicles' on-board sensors (camera) are used to trigger an Automated Emergency Brake (AEB) for urban traffic light intersection scenario. The system is designed to achieve AEB in two phases, the comfortable brake and the full stop emergency brake. The comfortable brake is applied first based on the content of the Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) / Map data (MAP) messages received from the Road Side Unit (RSU) at larger distances. And, once the traffic light becomes in the detection field of view of the camera, the output of the camera-based Traffic Light Detection (TLD) and recognition software is fused with the SPaT/MAP content to decide on triggering the full stop emergency brake. On the automated vehicle, the content of the received SPaT/MAP is parsed and communicated through UDP packets to the central processing unit that runs the camera-based TLD software for traffic light state matching and distance calculation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0117
Raja Sekhar Dheekonda, Sampad Panda, Md Nazmuzzaman khan, Mohammad Hasan, Sohel Anwar
Accuracy in detecting a moving object is critical to autonomous driving or advanced driver assistance systems. By including the object classification from multiple sensor detections, the model of the object or environment can be identified more accurately. The critical parameters involved in improving the accuracy are the size and speed of the moving object. In a laboratory experiment, we used three different type of sensor, a digital camera with 8 megapixel resolution, a LIDAR with 40m range, and an ultrasonic distance transducer sensor to identify the object in real-time. The moving object that is to be detected was set in motion at different speeds in the transverse direction to the vehicle (sensor). The size of the moving object was also varied. All sensor data were processed on a real-time prototyping microcontroller. All sensor data were used to define a composite object representation so that it could be used for the class information in the core object’s description.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0038
Corwin Stout, Milos Milacic, Fazal Syed, Ming Kuang
In recent years, we have witnessed increased discrepancy between fuel economy numbers reported in accordance with EPA testing procedures and real world fuel economy reported by drivers. The debates range from needs for new testing procedures to the fact that driver complaints create one-sided distribution; drivers that get better fuel economy do not complain about the fuel economy, but only the ones whose fuel economy falls short of expectations. In this paper, we demonstrate fuel economy improvements that can be obtained if the driver is properly sophisticated in the skill of driving. Implementation of SmartGauge with EcoGuide into the Ford C-MAX Hybrid in 2013 helped drivers improve their fuel economy on hybrid vehicles. Further development of this idea led to the EcoCoach that would be implemented into all future Ford vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0035
Binyu Mei, Xuexun Guo, Gangfeng Tan, Yongbing Xu, Mengying Yang
Vehicle speed is an important factor to driving safety, which is directly related to the stability and braking performance of the vehicle. Besides, the precise measurement of the vehicle speed is the basis of some vehicle active safety systems. Even in the future intelligent transportation, high quality speed information will also play an important role. The commonly used vehicle speed measurement new techniques are radar, infrared and ultrasonic. But the low speed performance of radar detection is poor, and infrared is easy affected by environmental factors, and the ultrasonic measurement accuracy is low. Focusing on these issues, image matching technology is been used to measure the vehicle speed in this paper. The image information of the road in front of the vehicle is collected, and the pixel displacement of the vehicle is calculated by the matching system, thus accurately vehicle speed can be obtained.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0069
Venkatesh Raman, Mayur Narsude, Damodharan Padmanaban
This paper describes main challenges encountered during data enrichment phase of connected vehicle experiments. It also compares data imputation approaches for data coming from actual driving scenarios and obtained using in-vehicle data acquisition devices. Three distinct window-based approaches were used for cleaning and imputing the missing values in different CAN-bus (Controller Area Network) signals. Lengths of windows used for data imputation for the three approaches were: 1) entire time-course, 2) day, and 3) trip (defined as duration between vehicle engine ON to OFF). An algorithm for identification of engine ON and OFF events will also be presented, in case this signal is not explicitly captured during the data acquisition phase. As a case study, these imputation techniques were applied to the data from vehicle’s CAN information in a driver behavior classification experiment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0949
Makoto Ito, Mitsuru Sakimoto, Zhenzhou Su, Go Hayashita, Keiichiro Aoki
New two-A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the two-A/F systems, two A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the two-A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the two-A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1636
Lukas Preusser
Problem Already in the initial design failure mode analysis of this relatively young feature it became clear that an accurate sensor reading is critical to the performance of the heated steering wheel system. As the temperature reception capability of the human palm is very distinct, small deviations [≤0.1°??/??] from the targeted wheel temperature may be registered as "getting too hot" or "remaining too cold". As per industry standard, heated wheels only utilize a single sensor input to the temperature control circuitry, making it even more important for the sensor to reflect the current surface temperature. Certainly the sensor must be placed where it neither can be seen nor felt, decoupling surface from the sensor's temperature. Production tolerances for sensor placement on the heater mat along with heater mat placement tolerances relative to the armature's position add to the decoupling issue, causing unacceptably high or low steering wheel surface temperatures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0042
David Andrade, Rodrigo Adamshuk, William Omoto, Felipe Franco, João Henrique Neme, Sergio Okida, Angelo Tusset, Rodrigo Amaral, Artur Ventura, Max Mauro Dias Santos
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are designed to improve driving safety and reduce driving stress in roads. These systems are applied to maintain safe distance from the car in front, alert driver to objects in their path, alert driver of an unintended departure from the lane or even automatic intervention. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 94 percent of the immediate reason for the critical pre-crash and often the last failure in the causal chain of events leading up to the crash is assigned to the driver. ADAS testing and rating are a development trend in NHTSA’s New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), which increases the manufactures investment in such solutions. Camera based ADAS solutions for Lane Departure Warning (LDW) requires extensive use of mathematical operations in image processing. Edge detection methods are frequently used in such applications, however noise and outlier reduction are still challenging tasks.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1288
Noriko Shisa, Shinsuke Ishihara, Yougui Huang, Mikio Asai, Katsuhiko Ariga
Despite methanol is toxic to human health and causes serious damage to automobile engine and components in fuel system, there are increasing distribution of methanol-containing gasoline in some area. Methanol demonstrates similar chemical properties to ethanol (which is established as an additive to gasoline), so that it is challenging to identify methanol-containing gasoline without performing proper chemical analysis (e.g., GC-MS). In this study, we aim to develop low-cost, portable, and easy-operation sensor that selectively changes its color (from red purple to blue purple) in response to methanol-containing gasoline. The colorimetric sensor will be useful for automobile users to avoid unexpected refueling of methanol-containing gasolines. Our methanol sensor is a thin film of clay mineral (layered double hydroxide, LDH) embedded with dye molecules (oxoporphyrinogen, OxP).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1633
Eiji Kojima, Kazuhiko Kano, Hiroyuki Wado, Noriyuki Iwamori
Recently, graphene has attracted attention as a new material for the electronic applications. Graphene is a monolayer of carbon, and it has outstanding properties, high carrier mobility, ultrathin body, and linear band structure. Therefore various electronic applications have been studied vigorously such as high-speed transistors, photo detectors, flexible electronics, chemical and physical sensors. In automotive applications, magnetic field sensors is widely used for detecting position and current, nowadays the production is around 10 billion units per year. However, magnetic field sensors are required to be highly precise with good usability. To satisfy the demand, we have developed graphene Hall elements that sense magnetic field by Hall effect.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0047
Jie Bai, Sihan CHEN, Hua Cui, Xin Bi, Libo Huang
The radar-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) like autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and forward collision warning (FCW) can reduce accidents, so as to make vehicles, drivers and pedestrians safer. For active safety, automotive millimeter-wave radar is an indispensable role in the automotive environmental sensing system since it can work effectively regardless of the bad weather while the camera fails. One crucial task of the automotive radar is to detect and distinguish some objects close to each other precisely with the increasingly complex of the road condition. Nowadays almost all the automotive radar products work in bidimensional area where just the range and azimuth can be measured. However, sometimes in their field of view it is not easy for them to differentiate some objects, like the car, the manhole covers and the guide board, when they align with each other in vertical direction.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1065
Douglas R. Martin, Benjamin Rocci
Paper Title: Virtual Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurement Abstract: Exhaust temperature models are widely used in the automotive industry to estimate catalyst and exhaust gas temperatures and to protect the catalyst and other vehicle hardware against over-temperature conditions. Modeled exhaust temperatures rely on air, fuel, and spark measurements to make their estimate. Inaccuracies or errors in any of these measurements have a large impact on the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, air-fuel imbalances, air leaks, ECT or ACT inaccuracies, or any unforeseen source of heat entering the exhaust may also have a large impact on the accuracy of the modeled estimate. Modern UEGO sensors have heaters with controllers in the UEGO ASIC to precisely regulate the oxygen sensing element temperature. These controllers are duty cycle based and supply more or less current to the heating element depending on the temperature of the surrounding exhaust gas.
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