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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3171
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0050
Shuhei Takahata, Takahiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Yamashita, Takuya Izako Hiroki Kudo, Kento Shimizu, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Internal combustion engines have been required to achieve even higher efficiency in recent years in order to address environmental concerns. However, knock induced by abnormal combustion in spark-ignition engines has impeded efforts to attain higher efficiency. Knock characteristics during abnormal combustion were investigated in this study by in-cylinder visualization and spectroscopic measurements using a four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine. The results revealed that knock intensity and the manner in which the autoignited flame propagated in the end gas differed depending on the engine speed.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0065
Riccardo Basso, Hans-Jürgen Schacht, Schmidt Stephan, Roland Kirchberger, Matthias Rath, Markus Neumayer, Christian Reisenberger
Small engines for non-automotive and two wheeler applications have a reduced number of sensors. For fulfilling emission regulations a cost effective way is an enhanced use of standard sensors in order to obtain more information from the existing sensors. The delivered information can then be used for an on-board diagnosis. Moreover, it is important to control the quality of the product during engine production; therefore an end-of-line cold engine test is often made. With this measure it is possible to detect faults, wrong tolerances or assembly in order not to deliver faulty engines to the customers. In this paper, an enhanced use of sensors for fault detection will be discussed. It is possible to obtain more information from the signal or to use the sensor for detecting other parameters. For extracting information signal analysis methods will be used with focus on the computational power need since the ECU performance is limited.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0092
S. Di Iorio, A. Irimescu, S.S. Merola, P. Sementa, B. M. Vaglieco
It is well known that ethanol can be used in spark-ignition (SI) engines as a pure fuel or blended with gasoline. High enthalpy of vaporization of alcohols can affect air-fuel mixture formation prior to ignition and may form thicker liquid films around the intake valves, on the cylinder wall and piston crown. These liquid films can result in mixture non-homogeneities inside the combustion chamber and hence strongly influence the cyclic variability of early combustion stages. Starting from these considerations, the paper reports an experimental study of the initial phases of the combustion process in a single cylinder SI engine fueled with commercial gasoline and anhydrous ethanol, as well as their blend (50%vol alcohol). The engine was optically accessible and equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial power unit for two-wheel applications, with the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio).
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0113
Daijiro Ishii, Hiromi Saito, Yuji Mihara, Yasuo Takagi
In order to establish standard method to evaluate cooling loss in combustion chamber of internal combustion engines based on measurement of instantaneous heat flux / wall temperature with higher response and accuracy than previously reported coaxial type thin-film temperature sensor by applying thin film fabrication technology based on PVD method (Physical Vapor Deposition method) which improved to realize higher responsiveness than the conventional sensor was developed by the authors, and it was confirmed that the sensor has sufficient durability in conditions in which the hydrogen jet and flame directly contacts surface of the sensor by thin-film material change. The influence of the improvement on the measurement accuracy was verified by numerical analysis including thermoproperty evaluation. In this report, the configuration of measurement system that can measure minute voltage from the sensor with low noise and high response is reported.
2017-10-31
White Paper
WP-0003
Actuators are the key to sophisticated machines that can perform complex tasks previously done by humans.
2017-10-12
White Paper
WP-0005
Annie Chang, Nicolas Saunier, Aliaksei Laureshyn
To date, the universal metric for road safety has been historical crash data, specifically, crash frequency and severity, which are direct measures of safety. However, there are well-recognized shortcomings of the crash-based approach; its greatest drawback being that it is reactive and requires long observational periods. Surrogate measures of safety, which encompass measures of safety that do not rely on crash data, have been proposed as a proactive approach to road safety analysis. This white paper provides an overview of the concept and evolution of surrogate measures of safety, as well as the emerging and future methods and measures. This is followed by the identification of the standards needs in this discipline as well as the scope of SAE’s Surrogate Measures of Safety Committee.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2283
Anand Prabu Kalaivanan, Gnanasekaran Sakthivel
Abstract Electronic Fuel Injection Systems have revolutionised Fuel Delivery and Ignition timing in the past two decades and have reduced the Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions, ultimately enhancing the Economy and Ecological awareness of the engines. But the ignition/injection timing that commands the combustion is mapped to a fixed predefined table which is best suited during the stock test conditions. However continuous real time adjustments by monitoring the combustion characteristics prove to be highly efficient and be immune to varying fuel quality, lack of transient performance and wear related compression losses. For developing countries, Automotive Manufacturers have been Tuning the Ignition/Injection timing Map assuming the worst possible fuel quality. Conventional knock control system focus on engine protection only and doesn't contribute much in improving thermal efficiency.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1989
Yi Chen, Gaoxiang Lin, Ying He
Abstract Chinese National projects “13th Five Year Plan” and “Made in China 2025” have both put forward a goal of developing Intelligent and Connected Vehicles(ICV). Shanghai is a typical city of automobile industry which spearhead the development of China’s ICV industry. After the adjustment and transition of industrial structure, Shanghai has initially formed the industrialization layout of ICV covering core areas including environmental perception, intelligent decision-making, actuator, human-computer interaction and vehicle integration. However, currently Shanghai is still in the beginning stage and there exists a large gap with world advanced level in both the core technology and marketization. This article is based on former qualitative survey combined with quantitative analysis which uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) method to objectively evaluate the status quo and development trend of Shanghai’s ICV.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1954
Peng Hang, Xinbo Chen, Fengmei Luo
Abstract Path tracking is the rudimentary capability and primary task for autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). In this paper, a novel four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-drive (4WID) electric vehicle (EV) is proposed which is equipped with steer-by-wire (SBW) system. For path-tracking controller design, the nonlinear vehicle model with 2 degrees of freedom (DOF) is built utilizing the nonlinear Dugoff tire model. The nonlinear dynamic model of SBW system is conducted as well considering the external disturbances. As to the path-tracking controller design, an integrated four-wheel steering (4WS) and direct yaw-moment control (DYC) system is designed based on the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm to track the target path described by desired yaw angle and lateral displacement. Then, the fast terminal sliding mode controller (FTSMC) is proposed for the SBW system to suppress disturbances.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1953
Manfei Bai, Lu Xiong, Zhiqiang Fu, Renxie Zhang
Abstract In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation requires an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1971
Sihan Chen, Libo Huang, Xin Bi, Jie Bai
Abstract For sensing system, the trustworthiness of the variant sensors is the crucial point when dealing with advanced driving assistant system application. In this paper, an approach to a hybrid camera-radar application of vehicle tracking is presented, able to meet the requirement of such demand. Most of the time, different types of commercial sensors available nowadays specialize in different situations, such as the ability of offering a wealth of detailed information about the scene for the camera or the powerful resistance to the severe weather for the millimeter-wave (MMW) radar. The detection and tracking in different sensors are usually independent. Thus, the work here that combines the variant information provided by different sensors is indispensable and worthwhile. For the real-time requirement of merging the measurement of automotive MMW radar in high speed, this paper first proposes a fast vehicle tracking algorithm based on image perceptual hash encoding.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2030
Benjamin Cheong, Paolo Giangrande, Patrick Wheeler, Pericle Zanchetta, Michael Galea
Abstract High power density for aerospace motor drives is a key factor in the successful realization of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept. An integrated system design approach offers optimization opportunities, which could lead to further improvements in power density. However this requires multi-disciplinary modelling and the handling of a complex optimization problem that is discrete and nonlinear in nature. This paper proposes a multi-level approach towards applying random heuristic optimization to the integrated motor design problem. Integrated optimizations are performed independently and sequentially at different levels assigned according to the 4-level modelling paradigm for electric systems. This paper also details a motor drive sizing procedure, which poses as the optimization problem to solve here. Finally, results comparing the proposed multi-level approach with a more traditional single-level approach is presented for a 2.5 kW actuator motor drive design.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2109
Kiran Thupakula
Abstract Airport environments consist of several moving objects both in the air and on the ground. In air moving objects include aircraft, UAVs and birds etc. On ground moving objects include aircraft, ground vehicles and ground personnel etc. Detecting, classifying, identifying and tracking these objects are necessary for avoiding collisions in all environmental situations. Multiple sensors need to be employed for capturing the object shape and position from multiple directions. Data from these sensors are combined and processed for object identification. In current scenario, there is no comprehensive traffic monitoring system that uses multisensor data for monitoring in all the airport areas. In this paper, for explanation purposes, a hypothetical airport traffic monitoring system is presumed that uses multiple sensors for avoiding collisions.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2113
Michael Schultz
Abstract Passenger boarding is always part of the critical path of the aircraft turnaround: both efficient boarding and online prediction of the boarding progress are essential for a reliable turnaround progress. However, the boarding progress is mainly controlled by the passenger behavior. A fundamental scientific approach for aircraft boarding enables the consideration of individual passenger behaviors and operational constraints in order to develop a sustainable concept for enabling a prediction of the boarding progress. A reliable microscopic simulation approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the individual movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. The simulation covers a broad range of behaviors and boarding strategies as well as the integration of new technologies and procedures.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2063
Patrick Browning, Bryan Shambaugh, Joseph Dygert
Abstract The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been studied significantly in the past two decades for its applications to various aerodynamic problems. The most common aerodynamic applications have been stall/separation control and boundary layer modification. Recently several researchers have proposed utilizing the DBD in various configurations to act as viable propulsion systems for micro and nano aerial vehicles. The DBD produces stable atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma in a thin sheet with a preferred direction of flow. The plasma flow, driven by electrohydrodynamic body forces, entrains the quiescent air around it and thus develops into a low speed jet on the order of 10-1 to 101 m/s. Several researchers have utilized DBDs in an annular geometric setup as a propulsion device. Other researchers have used them to alter rectangular duct flows and directional jet devices. This study investigates 2-D duct flows for applications in micro plasma thrusters.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0130
Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Marco Benegiamo, Sergio Camporeale, Daniela Ingrosso
Abstract 1 Nowadays, In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors (ICPS) have become a mainstream technology that promises to change the way the engine control is performed. Among all the possible applications, the prediction of raw (engine-out) NOX emissions would allow to eliminate the NOX sensor currently used to manage the after-treatment systems. In the current study, a semi-physical model already existing in literature for the prediction of engine-out nitric oxide emissions based on in-cylinder pressure measurement has been improved; in particular, the main focus has been to improve nitric oxide prediction accuracy when injection timing is varied. The main modification introduced in the model lies in taking into account the turbulence induced by fuel spray and enhanced by in-cylinder bulk motion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0050
Anjan Rao Puttige, Robin Hamberg, Paul Linschoten, Goutham Reddy, Andreas Cronhjort, Ola Stenlaas
Abstract Improving turbocharger performance to increase engine efficiency has the potential to help meet current and upcoming exhaust legislation. One limiting factor is compressor surge, an air flow instability phenomenon capable of causing severe vibration and noise. To avoid surge, the turbocharger is operated with a safety margin (surge margin) which, as well as avoiding surge in steady state operation, unfortunately also lowers engine performance. This paper investigates the possibility of detecting compressor surge with a conventional engine knock sensor. It further recommends a surge detection algorithm based on their signals during transient engine operation. Three knock sensors were mounted on the turbocharger and placed along the axes of three dimensions of movement. The engine was operated in load steps starting from steady state. The steady state points of operation covered the vital parts of the engine speed and load range.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0045
Blane Scott, Christopher Willman, Ben Williams, Paul Ewart, Richard Stone, David Richardson
Abstract In-cylinder temperature measurements are vital for the validation of gasoline engine modelling and useful in their own right for explaining differences in engine performance. The underlying chemical reactions in combustion are highly sensitive to temperature and affect emissions of both NOx and particulate matter. The two techniques described here are complementary, and can be used for insights into the quality of mixture preparation by measurement of the in-cylinder temperature distribution during the compression stroke. The influence of fuel composition on in-cylinder mixture temperatures can also be resolved. Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) provides point temperature measurements with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1 to 1.0 % when the gas composition is well characterized and homogeneous; as the pressure increases the precision improves.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0153
Sergey Shcherbanev, Alexandre De Martino, Andrey Khomenko, Svetlana Starikovskaia, Srinivas Padala, Yuji Ikeda
Abstract Requirements for reducing consumption of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as reducing emissions force the scientific community to develop new ignition systems. One of possible solutions is an extension of the lean ignition limit of stable combustion. With the decrease of the stoichiometry of combustible mixture the minimal size of the ignition kernel (necessary for development of combustion) increases. Therefore, it is necessary to use some special techniques to extend the ignition kernel region. Pulsed microwave discharge allows the formation of the ignition kernels of larger diameters. Although the microwave discharge igniter (MDI) was already tested for initiation of combustion and demonstrated quite promising results, the parameters of plasma was not yet studied before. Present work demonstrates the results of the dynamics of spatial structure of the MDI plasma with nanosecond time resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0137
Zhen Zhang, Luigi del Re, Richard Fuerhapter
Abstract During transients, engines tend to produce substantially higher peak emissions like soot - the main fraction of particular matter (PM) - which are the longer the more important as the steady state emissions are better controlled. While Diesel particulate filters are normally able to block them, preventing their occurrence would of course be more important. In order to achieve this goal, however, they must be measurable. While for most emissions commercial sensors of sufficient speed and performance are available, the same is not true for PMs, especially for production engines. Against this background, in the last years the possible use of a full stream 50Hz sensor based on Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) was investigated, and the results were very encouraging, showing that the sensor could recognize transient changes undetected by conventional measurement systems (like the AVL Opacimeter) but confirmed by the analysis of combustion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0003
Andreas Sidorow, Vincent Berger, Ghita Elouazzani
Abstract Gasoline engines have typically a waste gate actuator to control the boost pressure. The electrification of the vehicle and combustion engine components leads to new challenges of application of electric actuators in engine components, like turbochargers, which are faced with relatively high ambient temperatures. Another challenge is a simulation and prediction of the mechanical load on the actuator and kinematic components at different application scenarios, which can help to find the optimal solution which fulfills the durability, controllability, etc. targets. This paper deals with a physical dynamic model of an electric waste-gate actuator and kinematic components. The modeling includes a thermal, electrical and mechanical parts of the turbocharger control system and is validated on test-bench and engine measurements including pulsation effects.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1829
Guillaume Loussert
Abstract The new fuel efficiency and emission standards have forced OEMs to put emphasis on different strategies such as engine downsizing, cylinder deactivation… Unfortunately these new technologies may lead to increased powertrain vibrations generated by the engine and transmitted to the chassis and the car cabin, such that their reduction or elimination has become a key topic for the automotive industry. The use of active engine mounts, acting directly on the fluid of an hydromount, or active vibration dampers, acting as an inertial mass-spring system, are very effective solutions, particularly when using electromagnetic based actuators. Nevertheless, all electromagnetic actuators technologies are not equals and the choice of such actuators must be considered carefully by taking into account the full performances and the overall cost of the solutions.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1783
Chris Todter, Olivier Robin, Paul Bremner, Christophe Marchetto, Alain Berry
Abstract Surface pressure measurements using microphone arrays are still challenging, especially in an automotive context with cruising speeds around Mach 0.1. The separated turbulent boundary layer excitation and the side mirror wake flow generate both acoustic and aerodynamic components, which have wavenumbers that differ by a factor of approximately 10. This calls for high spatial resolution measurements to fully resolve the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. In a previous publication [1], the authors reported a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) surface microphone array that successfully used wavenumber analysis to quantify acoustic versus turbulence loading. It was shown that the measured surface pressure at each microphone could be strongly influenced by self-noise induced by the microphone “packaging”, which can be attenuated with a suitable windscreen.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0015
Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Hubert Zangl
Abstract Functional safe products conforming to the ISO 26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent. This paper focuses on the diagnostic coverage figure calculation of such data correlation-checks for linear sensors which are also shown in ISO 26262 part5:2011 ANNEX D2.10.2.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0027
Li Xu, Eric Tseng, Thomas Pilutti, Steven Schondorf
Abstract In the current Ford Pro-Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, trailer hitch angle is determined utilizing the reverse camera of the vehicle. In addition to being sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting conditions and occlusion, the vision-based approach is difficult to be applied to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA. Based on the kinematic model of the vehicle-trailer, an instantaneous hitch angle is first derived by utilizing vehicle yaw rate, trailer yaw rate, vehicle velocity and vehicle/trailer parameters provided by the TBA system. Due to signal errors and parameter uncertainties, this instantaneous hitch angle may be noisy, especially at lower vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0025
Takayuki Kitamura, Naotsugu Shimizu, Yasuyuki Miyake
Abstract In the last decade, radar-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have improved safety of transportation. Today, the standardization of ADAS established by New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) is expected to expand its market globally. One of the key technologies of ADAS is the rear-side monitoring system such as Blind Spot Warning (BSW) and Closing Vehicle Warning (CVW). It is required to expand its detection range so that it can monitor not only nearside targets for BSW, but farther targets for CVW. These applications can be achieved using two radar sensors installed at rear-side corner of the vehicle. However, the expanded detection range causes undesirable target detections and decreases target recognition performance. In this paper, a novel solution to improve the performance using DCMP(Directional-Constrained Minimization of Power)-based Beamspace technology using Two-frequency continuous wave (2FCW also known as FSK) is introduced.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0024
Yuto Imanishi, Naoyuki Tashiro, Yoichi Iihoshi, Takashi Okada
Abstract In recent years, improvement of in-use fuel economy is required with tightening of exhaust emission regulation. We assume that one of the most effective solutions is ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), which can control a powertrain accurately more than a driver. We have been developing a fuel saving ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) application named “Sailing-ACC”. Sailing-ACC system uses sailing stop technology which stops engine fuel injection, and disengages a clutch coupling a transmission when a vehicle does not need acceleration torque. This system has a potential to greatly improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, we present a predictive powertrain state switching algorithm using external information (route information, preceding vehicle information). This algorithm calculates appropriate switching timing between a sailing stop mode and an acceleration mode to generate a “pulse-and-glide” pattern.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0019
Yang Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Rui He
Abstract Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1572
Wesley Kerstens
Abstract The detection and diagnosis of sensor faults in real-time is necessary for satisfactory performance of vehicle Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) systems. This paper presents an observer designed to detect faults of a roll rate sensor that is robust to model uncertainties and disturbances. A reference vehicle roll angle estimate, independent of roll-rate sensor measurement, is formed from available ESC inertial sensor measurements. Residuals are generated by comparing the reference roll angle and roll rate, with the observer outputs. Stopping rules based on the current state of the vehicle and the magnitude of the residuals are then used to determine if a sensor fault is present. The system’s low order allows for efficient implementation in real-time on a fixed-point microprocessor. Modification of the roll rate sensor signal during in vehicle experiments shows the algorithm’s ability to detect faults.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1626
Tomas Poloni, Jianbo Lu
Abstract This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3171