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2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1293
Eric Hermitte, Alain Lunati
Based on their 25 world-wide years’ experience in refining and fuel formulation using Near Infrared technology, the SP3H team has developed an innovative and miniaturized optical fuel quality sensor (SAE 2007-01-1830, SAE 2008-01-2451). The sensor output is based on an HCP matrix (HydroCarbon Profilers) and provides information on the fine chemistry of fuels such as aromatics, olefins, isoparaffins and oxygenates content and information related to the lengths of the Carbon-Carbon bonds Chain. According to this information, the sensor can also provide : - an accurate information on biodiesel content of diesel/biodiesel mixtures, - the rate and the type of oxygenates used in different mixtures of binary and ternary blends of methanol, ethanol and gasoline for emerging market. This paper presents the results of the latest developments of the sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Abstract Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0204
Biswajit Panja, Lars Wolleschensky
Abstract In this paper we propose a secure wireless sensor network system for vehicle health monitoring (VHM). We discuss the architecture of the proposed model, and it's implementation in vehicles. Modified AES-CCM is used to provide confidentiality in the network. In the proposed scheme combination of interactive and non-interactive methods are used for reliable message delivery.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0618
Zhihong Dong, Ying Sun, Guitao Zhu, Shihu Wang, Jian Zeng, Yuliang Yang
Abstract Based on the modal frequency response theory and experiment, the installation layout evaluation and structural optimization method for SIS(side impact sensors) installation position is studied. Establish the finite element model including B-pillar, roof and floor with local constraint. Than study the key parameter's influence on the frequency response analysis results, and the simulation results are correlated by experiment. In view of the installation layout requirements of side impact sensors, the structure optimization method for installation position of side impact sensor is put forward. The optimal scheme is confirmed by the finite element analysis, and a final experimental verification was implemented by a real vehicle test.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Abstract This paper presents the engineering aspects of an integrated, monolithic, angular position sensor to be developed as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) in accordance with ISO-26262[1]. The sensor is a Hall-effect-based angular sensor, used in a wide range of automotive, safety-critical applications such as accelerator pedal position, throttle-valve position, or any other application requiring the accurate measurement of the angular position of a mechanical part. The assumed safety requirements allocated to this sensor have to be developed according to ASIL-C. The mapping between technical safety requirements and architecture elements, as conveyed by the technical safety concept, will be first presented. Failure mode effect and Diagnostic Analysis (FMEDA)[2], supporting the safety mechanism specification will be discussed next; here a safety mechanism selection guide is also proposed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0241
Milind Potdar, Suyog Wani
Abstract Modern vehicle design involves configuration of various sensors and actuators spread across the vehicle. These sensors and actuators placed at various locations in the vehicle need to be connected with Electronic Control Units (ECUs). As long as wires are used for these connections, cost and time required for installation and maintenance are major concerns for OEMs. A wireless sensor network (WSN) can reduce length of wiring harness and can save time as well as cost of its installation. It also provides flexibility in deciding location of ECU according to desired shape of the vehicle. This paper presents a way to build a strong, secured wireless network in vehicle. The proposed method of encryption and decryption ensures that, sensor and actuator data is available only to required ECUs and not to any other unintended receiver. A novel method is proposed in order to achieve this. Sensors and actuators in the vehicle are segregated according to their location.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1631
Michinori Tani, Atsuhiro Miyauchi, Yoshiaki Matsuzono
Abstract Recently, automotive emission regulations are being further tightened, such as the Tier III/LEV III in the U.S. As a result, reducing cost of after-treatment systems to meet these strict regulations has become an urgent issue, and then the demand for high-precision air-fuel ratio (A/F) control which can achieve this cost reduction is high [1]. On the other hand, in order to meet rapidly changing market needs, it is becoming difficult to keep enough development periods that enable sufficient calibration by trial-and-error, such as feedback-gain calibration. This leads to an increase in three-way catalytic converter costs in some cases. For these reasons, it is necessary to construct control system that can make full use of hardware capabilities, can shorten development periods regardless of the skill level of engineers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1484
Daniel E. Toomey, Eric S. Winkel, Ram Krishnaswami
The evolution of airbag sensing system design has been rapid as electromechanical sensors used in earlier front airbag applications have been replaced by multi-point electronic sensors used to discriminate collision mechanics for potential airbag deployment in front, side and rollover accidents. In addition to multi-point electronic sensors, advanced airbag systems incorporate a variety of state sensors such as seat belt use status, seat track location, and occupant size classification that are taken into consideration by airbag system algorithms and occupant protection deployment strategies. Historically, traditional reconstruction methods and full scale vehicle crash testing were the primary means available to evaluate the field performance of passenger vehicle airbag systems. Electronic sensing systems have allowed for the advent of electronic data recorders (EDRs), which over the past decade, have provided increasingly more information related to airbag deployment events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0309
Mayurika Chatterjee, Atchyuta Rao, Chaitanya Rajguru
Abstract Parking assist systems have become very common in current vehicles. The purpose of such a system is to assist the driver to park the vehicle without collision. The sensors serve as eyes of the driver during parking maneuver by sensing any obstacle in the path. The parking sensors, typically ultrasonic sensors, are mounted on front and rear of vehicle to assist the driver to park the vehicle. Thus, such a system can cover only the front and rear portion of the vehicle and is unable to cover the side portions of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method to monitor the perimeter of a vehicle while parking using minimum sensors placed at strategic locations. A local map of the parking area is generated using data from sensors which helps in identifying static obstacles. The map is constantly updated in real time during parking. The algorithm ascertains that the entire perimeter of the vehicle is protected from impending collisions in real time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
R Danymol, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes and used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filter is used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process of image acquisition. However, RGB and NIR images are captured entirely in two different spectra/wavelengths; thus they retain different information. Since NIR and RGB images compromise complimentary information, we believe that this can be exploited for extracting better features, localization of objects of interest and in multi-modal fusion. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate the NIR image from a given optical image. Using a normal optical camera and based on the compressed sensing framework, the NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty, Vinay Vaidya, Sunita Ugale
Abstract In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
Abstract An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1118
Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin, Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang
Abstract Dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) has played an important role in the high performance applications as well as low-cost market sectors in Asia, with a potential as the future mainstream transmission technology due to its high mechanical efficiency and driving comfort. Control system simplification and cost reduction has been critical in making dry DCT more competitive against other transmission technologies. Specifically, DCT clutch actuation system is a key component with a great potential for cost-saving as well as performance improvement. In this paper, a new motor driven clutch actuator with a force-aid lever has been proposed. A spring is added to assist clutch apply that can effectively reduce the motor size and energy consumption. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of this new clutch actuator, and the force-aid lever actuator's principle, physical structure design, and validation results are discussed in details.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0869
Ningsheng Qiao, Chandrasekar Krishnamurthy, Nicholas Moore
Air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance is a condition where the air-fuel ratio in one or more cylinders is different than the other cylinders. When air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance occurs in one or more cylinders the fuel delivery system is unable to maintain a proper vehicle emission level. It is required for on-board diagnostics to detect air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance levels which cause the fuel delivery system to be unable to maintain vehicle emissions at or below 1.5 times of any of the applicable FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emission standards. Currently California Air Resources Board (CARB) only requires on-board diagnostics to detect exhaust bank specific air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance. In the near future CARB will require on-board diagnostics to detect cylinder specific air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance. This paper presents a non-intrusive approach on determining single cylinder air-fuel ratio imbalance identification (ID) with an oxygen sensor.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0872
Serkan Kulah, Tijs Donkers, Frank Willems
Abstract Cylinder pressure-based combustion control is widely introduced for passenger cars. Benefits include enhanced emission robustness to fuel quality variation, reduced fuel consumption due to more accurate (multi-pulse) fuel injection, and minimized after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced, high-efficient combustion concepts. The application in truck engines is foreseen, but challenges need to be overcome related to durability, increased system costs, and impact on the cylinder head. In this paper, a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty Diesel engines is presented. Compared to previous studies, this work focuses on heavy-duty Diesel powertrains, which are characterized by a relatively flexible crank shaft in contrast to the existing passenger car applications.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1645
Thomas De Cuyper, Gery Fossaert, Olivier Collet, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract In the development of internal combustion engines, measurements of the heat transfer to the cylinder walls play an important role. These measurements are necessary to provide data for building a model of the heat transfer, which can be used to further develop simulation tools for engine optimization. This research will focus on the Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensor. This sensor consists of a platinum RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) on an insulating Macor® (ceramic) substrate. The sensor has a high frequency response (up to 100 kHz) and is small and robust. These properties make the TFG sensor adequate for measurements in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. To use this sensor, its thermal properties - namely the temperature sensitivity coefficient and the thermal product - must be correctly calibrated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0371
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0233
Takamoto Furuichi, Takashige Nagao, Hisanori Yokura, Ryuichirou Abe, Shigemitsu Fukatsu
Abstract This paper presents two newly developed technologies of optimizing impurity diffusion concentration for silicon semiconductor material and controlling internal stress of the top SiN (Silicon Nitride) layer on a membrane of a silicon substrate to apply them to the manufacturing process of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) type air-flow sensor chips. Until today, in MEMS-type airflow sensors, poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) and platinum were widely used as a resistor material of key functional elements on a membrane of air-flow-rate measurement portion. The functional resistors on the membrane are required to monitor high temperatures of about 300 °C and to perform the self-heating operations at that temperature range because of the suppression of contaminant deposition by means of evaporation or incineration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Abstract Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take many years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract This paper presents a simultaneous longitudinal and lateral motion control strategy for a full drive-by-wire autonomous vehicle. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) problem is formulated in which the nonlinear prediction model utilizes a spatial transformation to derive the dynamics of the vehicle about the reference trajectory, which facilitates the acquisition of the tracking errors at varying speeds. A reference speed profile generator is adopted by taking account of the road geometry information, such that the lateral stability is guaranteed and the lane guidance performance is improved. Finally, the nonlinear multi-variable optimization problem is simplified by considering only three motion control efforts, which are strictly confined within a convex set and are readily distributed to the four tires of a full drive-by-wire vehicle.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0094
Supakit Rooppakhun, Pornporm Boonporm, Worawat Puangcha-um
Abstract In this study, the method of analyzing the thin-wall crashing box of impact attenuator for student formula is proposed by the means of simulation and validation following Formula Society of Automotive Engineers-SAE rules. The analysis was performed based on computerized simulation software for calculated the absorption capacity of the simple and multiple cell of thin-walled tubes. The effect of thin-wall thickness consisted of 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm was also evaluated. The simulation results as energy absorption, crashing force efficiency, and absorbed energy per unit mass were identified among nine patterns. According to the results, the increase of interior cell number and the wall thickness contribute the absorbed energy ability. However, the increment of wall thickness lead to the increase of crashing force magnitude. Regarding the kinetic energy, a 2×2 multiple cell box with the thickness of 2 mm is designated for construction and verify.
2015-02-09
WIP Standard
ARD6888
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircrafts (including harsh environment such as the powerplant). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g. pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE connector committee to work on a dedicated connector standard.
2015-02-03
Magazine
Getting a grip on AWD efficiency The safety and performance benefits of all-wheel drive are undeniable, but so are the penalties of added weight, friction losses, and complexity. Clever axle disconnects and E-axles are driving future AWD developments. E pluribus unum Inputs from many sensors are being combined to give safety systems a true vision of vehicle surroundings, with the resulting sensor fusion becoming a mainstay of autonomous vehicle electronics. Lightweighting poses repair challenges Mass-produced aluminum bodies and mixed-material structures present challenges for assembly and repair, as automakers increasingly pursue these lightweight strategies. Setting the standard Meggitt CTO Emeritus begins term at helm of SAE International, seeks to encourage cross-sector relations, elevate image of SAE as aerospace industry leader.
2015-01-26
WIP Standard
AIR6318
This document is intended for discrete and integrated digital, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and analog/radio frequency (RF) photonic components developed for eventual transition to aerospace platforms. The document provides the reasons for verification and validation of photonic device reliability and packaging durability. The document also provides methods for verifying and validating photonic device reliability and packaging durability. Applicable personnel include: Engineering Managers, Research and Development Managers, Program Managers, Designers, Engineers.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
Abstract To meet OBD norms for exhaust gas oxygen sensor component, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for exhaust gas oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to stop state due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here if lambda before fuel cut-off is maintained rich, then rich to lean (i.e. air) transition is realized by oxygen sensor. These are transitions where the oxygen sensor response is evaluated having the coordination with start-stop module.
2014-12-09
WIP Standard
AIR4543/2
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains Lessons Learned from aerospace actuation, control and fluid power systems technologies. The lessons were prepared by engineers from the aerospace industry and government services as part of the work of SAE Committee A-6, Aerospace Actuation, Control and Fluid Power Systems.
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