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2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2112
Thomas Schlegl, Michael Moser, Hubert Zangl
Abstract We present a wireless sensor system for temperature measurement and icing detection for the use on aircraft. The sensors are flexible (i.e. bendable), truly wireless, do not require scheduled maintenance, and can be attached easily to almost any point on the aircraft surface (e.g. wings, fuselage, rudder, elevator, etc.). With a sensor thickness of less than two millimeters at the current state of development, they hardly affect the aero dynamical behavior of the structure. In this paper, we report laboratory and field results for temperature measurement and icing detection.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2248
Florian Pignol, Emiel Tijs, Daniel Fernandez Comesana, Daewoon Kim
Abstract In order to apply an effective noise reduction treatment determining the contribution of different engine components to the total sound perceived inside the cabin is important. Although accelerometer or laser based vibration tests are usually performed, the sound contributions are not always captured accurately with such approaches. Microphone based methods are strongly influenced by the many reflections and other sound sources inside the engine bay. Recently, it has been shown that engine radiation can be effectively measured using microphones combined with particle velocity sensors while the engine remains mounted in the car [6]. Similar results were obtained as with a dismounted engine in an anechoic room. This paper focusses on the measurement of the transfer path from the engine to the vehicle interior in order to calculate the sound pressure contribution of individual engine sections at the listener's position.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2281
Shrirang Deshpande, Randall Allemang
Abstract Spectral maps and order tracks are tools which are susceptible to improper sensor location on rotating machinery and to measurement noise. On a complex/large rotating system, the major behavior in a particular direction cannot be observed by using standard digital signal processing averaging techniques on different sensor outputs. Also, measurement noise cannot be reduced by applying averaging - due to the slew rate of the system. A newly developed technique tested on experimental data, is presented which uses singular value decomposition (SVD) as its basis to improve the observability of rotating systems. By using data acquired from multiple accelerometers on a machine, singular values - obtained from a SVD of the cross-power matrix at each 2-D point in the frequency-RPM domain - can be plotted in a color-map format similar to a RPM spectral map.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2222
Nikos Zafeiropoulos, Marco Ballatore, Andy Moorhouse, Andy Mackay
Abstract Axle forces from tire-road interaction can excite different structural resonances of the vehicle hence a high number of sensors is required for observing and separating all the vibrations dynamics that are coherent with the cabin noise. Feed-forward road noise control strategies adopted so far rely mainly on capturing these dynamics and thus the number of sensors constitutes one major limitation of this approach. Therefore there is a necessity for reducing the number of sensors without degrading the performance of an ANC system. In the past coherence function analysis has been found to be a useful tool for optimizing the sensor location. In this case coherence function mapping was performed between an array of vibration sensors and the headrest microphones in order to identify the locations on the structure that are highly correlated with road noise bands in the compartment.
2015-06-12
Standard
AIR6258
This document is intended to describe technologies available, application needs, and operational requirements relating to the use of fiber optic sensing systems on aerospace platforms: a. To define standard terminology used in describing fiber optic sensing systems and their performance. b. To identify current interfaces used for fiber optic sensing systems. c. To define environmental, reliability, and maintainability capabilities of fiber optic sensing system components. d. To describe the fiber optic sensor and instrumentation technologies that forms the current state of the art. e. To describe current and future unmet needs of the aerospace industry for measurements using fiber optic sensors.
2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-05-04
WIP Standard
ARP5384
This Recommended Practice provides a guide for specifying general design, performance, and test requirements for Power Drive Units (PDUs) for aerospace flight controls or other aerospace applications.
2015-04-28
WIP Standard
AIR6892
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is applicable to rotorcraft structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, both commercial and military, where end users are seeking guidance on the definition, development, integration, qualification, and certification of SHM technologies to achieve enhanced safety and reduced maintenance burden based on the lessons learned from existing Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS). While guidance on SHM business case analysis would be useful to the community, such guidance is beyond the scope of this AIR. For the purpose of this document, SHM is defined as “the process of acquiring and analyzing data from on-board sensors to evaluate the health of a structure.” The suite of on-board sensors could include any presently installed aircraft sensors as well as new sensors to be defined in the future. Interrogation of the sensors could be done onboard during flight or using ground support equipment.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Automated Vehicles: Sensors and Future Technologies” (24:31), highly automated driving is looked at in detail as the culmination of years of research in automotive technology, sensors, infrastructure, software, and systems integration. Real-life case studies show how organizations are actually developing solutions to the challenge of making cars safer with less driver intervention. IAV Automotive Engineering demonstrates how a highly automated vehicle capable of lane changing was created.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing costs, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Sensors are essential to the safety, efficiency, and dependability of modern vehicles. Crash sensors can anticipate a collision faster than humans would, and tire pressure sensors can alert the driver or pilot in case action is needed. In the episode “Sensors: Advanced Safety” (20:36) Continental engineers look at the evolution of passive safety systems, discuss the changes in sensors over the last ten years and what is coming next. Engineers at Meggitt demonstrate how tire pressure monitoring system sensors for aerospace are built and tested.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Accurate data is critical for the testing and development of parts and systems for cars, trucks, and airplanes. To obtain this data, engineers rely on high-end specialty sensors that can fit into cramped spaces and operate reliably under extreme heat and pressure. In the episode “Sensors: Miniaturization and Testing” (21:02), AVL engineers explain how a new crystalline material was developed to accurately measure the high pressures in the combustion chamber of turbocharged engines, and Meggitt Sensing Systems profiles the world’s smallest triaxial IEPE accelerometer.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Proactive Maintenance and Failure Prevention” (21:04), Delphi engineers explain how they leverage the growing number of sensors and computing power in vehicles to diagnose and proactively solve emerging mechanical or electronic problems, before a breakdown occurs. This video also looks at the next generation of automotive telematics, with HEM Data demonstrating how in-vehicle data acquisition is used to monitor the inner workings of vehicles.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Automated driving is made possible through the data acquisition and processing of many different kinds of sensors working in unison. Sensors, cameras, radar, and lidar must work cohesively together to safely provide automated features. In the episode “Automated Vehicles: Converging Sensor Data” (8:01), engineers from IAV Automotive Engineering discuss the challenges associated with the sensor data fusion, and one of Continental North America’s technical teams demonstrate how sensors, radars, and safety systems converge to enable higher levels of automated driving.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Telematics, the convergence of telecommunications and informatics, uses electronic and computer technology built in to the vehicle to provide vehicle tracking, satellite navigation, wireless technology, and diagnostic information. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive” (8:09), an engineer from Delphi’s Telematics program discusses the advantages and challenges of telematics devices for the automotive industry, demonstrates the installation of an aftermarket telematics device, and shows how telematics can enhance diagnostics and preventative maintenance.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Extreme environment sensors require extreme environment cables that can reliably perform in temperatures up to 2300° F, withstand intense vibration, and have extraordinary strength.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. The quality of fluids used in aviation, such as oil or fuel, is an extremely important safety issue. One way to reliably monitor fluids is through the use of special measurement sensors. In the episode “Fluid Measurements and Avionics” (9:13), an engineer at Meggitt demonstrates the capabilities of time-domain reflectometry sensors, explaining how they are assembled and used. The business case for monitoring oil and fuel degradation, and how to proactively take advantage of preventative maintenance is also explained.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Abstract This paper presents the engineering aspects of an integrated, monolithic, angular position sensor to be developed as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) in accordance with ISO-26262[1]. The sensor is a Hall-effect-based angular sensor, used in a wide range of automotive, safety-critical applications such as accelerator pedal position, throttle-valve position, or any other application requiring the accurate measurement of the angular position of a mechanical part. The assumed safety requirements allocated to this sensor have to be developed according to ASIL-C. The mapping between technical safety requirements and architecture elements, as conveyed by the technical safety concept, will be first presented. Failure mode effect and Diagnostic Analysis (FMEDA)[2], supporting the safety mechanism specification will be discussed next; here a safety mechanism selection guide is also proposed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0233
Takamoto Furuichi, Takashige Nagao, Hisanori Yokura, Ryuichirou Abe, Shigemitsu Fukatsu
Abstract This paper presents two newly developed technologies of optimizing impurity diffusion concentration for silicon semiconductor material and controlling internal stress of the top SiN (Silicon Nitride) layer on a membrane of a silicon substrate to apply them to the manufacturing process of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) type air-flow sensor chips. Until today, in MEMS-type airflow sensors, poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) and platinum were widely used as a resistor material of key functional elements on a membrane of air-flow-rate measurement portion. The functional resistors on the membrane are required to monitor high temperatures of about 300 °C and to perform the self-heating operations at that temperature range because of the suppression of contaminant deposition by means of evaporation or incineration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Abstract Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take many years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0618
Zhihong Dong, Ying Sun, Guitao Zhu, Shihu Wang, Jian Zeng, Yuliang Yang
Abstract Based on the modal frequency response theory and experiment, the installation layout evaluation and structural optimization method for SIS(side impact sensors) installation position is studied. Establish the finite element model including B-pillar, roof and floor with local constraint. Than study the key parameter's influence on the frequency response analysis results, and the simulation results are correlated by experiment. In view of the installation layout requirements of side impact sensors, the structure optimization method for installation position of side impact sensor is put forward. The optimal scheme is confirmed by the finite element analysis, and a final experimental verification was implemented by a real vehicle test.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0309
Mayurika Chatterjee, Atchyuta Rao, Chaitanya Rajguru
Abstract Parking assist systems have become very common in current vehicles. The purpose of such a system is to assist the driver to park the vehicle without collision. The sensors serve as eyes of the driver during parking maneuver by sensing any obstacle in the path. The parking sensors, typically ultrasonic sensors, are mounted on front and rear of vehicle to assist the driver to park the vehicle. Thus, such a system can cover only the front and rear portion of the vehicle and is unable to cover the side portions of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method to monitor the perimeter of a vehicle while parking using minimum sensors placed at strategic locations. A local map of the parking area is generated using data from sensors which helps in identifying static obstacles. The map is constantly updated in real time during parking. The algorithm ascertains that the entire perimeter of the vehicle is protected from impending collisions in real time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
R Danymol, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes and used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filter is used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process of image acquisition. However, RGB and NIR images are captured entirely in two different spectra/wavelengths; thus they retain different information. Since NIR and RGB images compromise complimentary information, we believe that this can be exploited for extracting better features, localization of objects of interest and in multi-modal fusion. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate the NIR image from a given optical image. Using a normal optical camera and based on the compressed sensing framework, the NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty, Vinay Vaidya, Sunita Ugale
Abstract In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract This paper presents a simultaneous longitudinal and lateral motion control strategy for a full drive-by-wire autonomous vehicle. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) problem is formulated in which the nonlinear prediction model utilizes a spatial transformation to derive the dynamics of the vehicle about the reference trajectory, which facilitates the acquisition of the tracking errors at varying speeds. A reference speed profile generator is adopted by taking account of the road geometry information, such that the lateral stability is guaranteed and the lane guidance performance is improved. Finally, the nonlinear multi-variable optimization problem is simplified by considering only three motion control efforts, which are strictly confined within a convex set and are readily distributed to the four tires of a full drive-by-wire vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Abstract Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1118
Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin, Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang
Abstract Dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) has played an important role in the high performance applications as well as low-cost market sectors in Asia, with a potential as the future mainstream transmission technology due to its high mechanical efficiency and driving comfort. Control system simplification and cost reduction has been critical in making dry DCT more competitive against other transmission technologies. Specifically, DCT clutch actuation system is a key component with a great potential for cost-saving as well as performance improvement. In this paper, a new motor driven clutch actuator with a force-aid lever has been proposed. A spring is added to assist clutch apply that can effectively reduce the motor size and energy consumption. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of this new clutch actuator, and the force-aid lever actuator's principle, physical structure design, and validation results are discussed in details.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1484
Daniel E. Toomey, Eric S. Winkel, Ram Krishnaswami
Abstract Since their inception, the design of airbag sensing systems has continued to evolve. The evolution of air bag sensing system design has been rapid. Electromechanical sensors used in earlier front air bag applications have been replaced by multi-point electronic sensors used to discriminate collision mechanics for potential air bag deployment in front, side and rollover accidents. In addition to multipoint electronic sensors, advanced air bag systems incorporate a variety of state sensors such as seat belt use status, seat track location, and occupant size classification that are taken into consideration by air bag system algorithms and occupant protection deployment strategies. Electronic sensing systems have allowed for the advent of event data recorders (EDRs), which over the past decade, have provided increasingly more information related to air bag deployment events in the field.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
Abstract An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0204
Biswajit Panja, Lars Wolleschensky
Abstract In this paper we propose a secure wireless sensor network system for vehicle health monitoring (VHM). We discuss the architecture of the proposed model, and it's implementation in vehicles. Modified AES-CCM is used to provide confidentiality in the network. In the proposed scheme combination of interactive and non-interactive methods are used for reliable message delivery.
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