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2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8104
Ryo Yamaguchi, Hiromichi Nozaki
In this study, we devised the steering assistance control that feedback of the external information from the laser sensor. We have created the emergency avoidance assistance control program by the obstacle detection in the first one, and the cornering assistance control program by the white line detection to second. Improvement in safety by these driving support can be expected. The effect of the created program was to understand by the driving simulator. In addition, we understand the synergistic effect of these steering assist program and chassis control (camber angle control, derivative steering assistance control). In the emergency avoidance assist by the obstacle detection, it made it possible to also be avoided for adding the handle operation at an early stage by the steering assistance in situations where manual operation collide by too late an obstacle avoidance handle operation.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2061
Andrew S. Babel, Parag Kshirsagar, Suman Dwari
In aerospace actuator applications electric machines are demanded to produce large static and dynamic torque while being constrained with stringent weight and volume restrictions. Among various types of electrical machines, Permanent Magnet (PM) Machines with strong rare earth magnets, offer the highest torque and power density with low rotor inertia. This paper presents design and study of three high-density PM machine topologies from the perspective of aerospace actuator applications. The machine topologies are compared with three key metrics for the same current density: torque per unit mass, torque per unit squared rotational inertia, and torque per unit volume. Such thorough comparison of these three candidates PM machine topologies for aerospace actuator application is not reported in available publications. Key requirements of specific actuation application, such as torque density and active length, are taken into account for the design.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1994
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
For aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling application, the main objectives in axial fan design are high pressure head and high efficiency over a wide operating range including speed variation 1x~3x and pressure 0.2~1atm variation. The fan is based on a thickness of 2.54 cm, 48 mm hub, 86 mm fan diameter. The purpose of this study is to characterize a fan's performance at various rotational speeds and various ambient pressures, from 0.2 atm to 1 atm. Methodology An 86-mm diameter axial fan for electromechanical actuators was designed. The blade shape was obtained by optimization design of the radial blade using CFD technique. Geometrical parameters describing the variations of the blade profile were determined by hub contour and fan’s required parameters given above. The 3,5, 7-blade configurations were compared with the optimal blade profile. A commercial brushless DC axial fan motor is chosen. The fan blades were 3-D printed and tested in a closed test loop.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1997
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Recently there has been increasingly research interest on aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) safety. One approach to prevent EMAs from overheating is to use air cooling fans. Aircraft EMA cooling fan is a critical component because an EMA failure due to overheating could lead to a catastrophic failure in aircraft. Methodology A five-blade and seven-blade dual-fan designs are proposed. Each fan has its own independent shaft running in opposite rotating directions. Fan motors are assumed to be brushless direct current (BLDC) motors. After summarizing the possible failure causes and failure modes of BLDC fans by focusing on each failure mechanism, the life expectancy of fan ball bearings based on a major failure mechanism of lubricant deterioration was calculated and compared to such information in the literature. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of three fault-tolerant approaches are discussed.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2004
M. Parvez Alam, Dinesh Manoharan
Design and development of an "Autonomous Amphibious Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (AAUAV)" that can fly autonomously to the polluted water areas where human accessibility is formidable to test the water quality. The AAUAV system is an integrated Multi-copter with a Hovercraft base to facilitate easy landing and navigation on the water surface. The innovative L1 adaptive control strategy will enable the vehicle to switch between the Multi-copter and Hovercraft dynamics automatically. This robust system will have both Hyper Spectral Imaging sensors & Water Quality Analyzing Sensors on-board to analyze the polluted content of the water in real time and it can be Geo-tagged. This system also offers the collection and storage of water samples from the polluted sites for the further comprehensive research at the laboratory. AAUAV system is a novel solution to the polluted environment by a complete integrated system.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1976
Kiran Thupakula, Adishesha Sivaramasastry, Srikanth Gampa
Aviation safety is one of the key focus areas of the aerospace industry as it involves safety of passengers, crew, assets etc. Due to advancements in technology, aviation safety has reached to safest levels compared to last few decades. In spite of declining trends in in-air accident rate, ground accidents are increasing due to ever increasing air traffic and human factors in the airport. Majority of the accidents occur during initial and final phases of the flight. Rapid increase in air traffic would pose challenge in ensuring safety and best utilization of Airports, Airspace and assets. In current scenario multiple systems like Runway Debris Monitoring System, Runway Incursion Detection System, Aircraft Strike Alert System in taxiways, Obstacle avoidance system, Traffic Collision Avoidance System are used for collision prediction and alerting in airport environment.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1901
Zhenyi liu, Weiwen Deng, Yaxin Li, Hao Sun, Xin Li, Ying Wang
Environmental sensing and perception is one of the key technologies on intelligent driving or autonomous vehicles. As a complementary part to current radar and Lidar sensors, ultrasonic sensor has become more and more popular due to its high value to the cost. Different from other sensors mainly based on propagation of electromagnetic wave, ultrasonic sensor possesses some unique features and physical characteristics that bring many merits to autonomous vehicle research, like transparent obstacle and highly reflective surfaces detection. Its low-cost property can further bring down hardware cost to foster widespread use of intelligent driving or autonomous vehicles. To accelerate the development of autonomous vehicle, this paper proposes a high fidelity ultrasonic sensor model based on its physical characteristics, including obstacle detection, distance measurement and signal attenuation.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1907
Yaxin Li, Ying Wang, Weiwen Deng, Xin Li, Zhenyi liu, Lijun Jiang
LiDAR sensors have played more and more important role on Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICV) and Advanced Driver Assistantance Systems (ADAS)However, development and testing of LiDAR sensors under real driving environment for ADAS applications are greatly limited by various factors, and often are impossible due to safety concerns. This paper proposed a novel functional LiDAR model under virtual driving environment to support development of LiDAR-based ADAS applications under early stage. Unlike traditional approaches on LiDAR sensor modeling, the proposed method includes both geometrical modeling approach and physical modeling approach. While geometric model mainly produces ideal scanning results based on computer graphics, the physical model further brings physical influences on top of the geometric model. The range detection is derived and optimized based on its physical detection and measurement mechanism.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1894
Siyu Chen, Libo Huang, Jie Bai, Haitao Jiang, Liang Chang
Research objective: Intelligent vehicle can improve traffic safety and reduce damage caused by traffic accidents. Environmental perception system is the core of the intelligent vehicle which detects vehicles and pedestrians around the ego vehicle by using sensors. Environmental perception system with the multi-sensor information fusion algorithm can utilize the advantages of the individual sensors and detect the objects with higher probability and accuracy. Most of the published multi-sensor information fusion algorithms are based on the sensor level fusion architecture which is not stable in target tracking. This paper presents a multi-sensor fusion algorithm with central level architecture, which can improve the target tracking stability compare to the sensor level fusion architecture. Methodology:The fusion algorithm with central level architecture tracks the targets based on the targets’ distance, speed and angle measured by the individual sensors.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1900
Yafei Wang, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yoichi Hori
Vehicle lateral states such as lateral distance at a preview point and heading angle are indispensible for lane keeping control systems, and such states are normally estimated by fusing signals from an onboard vision system and inertial sensors. However, the sampling rates and delays are different between the two kinds of sensing devices. Most of the conventional methods simply neglect measurement delay and reduce the sampling rate of the estimator to adapt to the slow sensors/devices, but the estimation accuracy is deteriorated, especially considering the delay of visual signals may not be constant. Moreover, the performance of vehicle lateral control systems such as lane keeping cannot be satisfactory using the lateral states of low updating frequency. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-rate estimation algorithm based on Kalman filter is proposed to provide high frequency lateral states.
2016-07-19
Standard
ARD6888
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircraft (including harsh environments such as found in propulsion systems). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g., pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE committee for connectors (AE-8C1) to study the feasibility of developing a dedicated connector standard.
2016-06-16
Standard
AS5391A
Accelerometers are transducers, or sensors, that convert acceleration into an electrical signal that can be used for airframe, drive, and propulsion system vibration monitoring and analysis within vehicle health and usage monitoring systems. This document defines interface requirements for accelerometers and associated interfacing electronics for use in a helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). The purpose is to standardize the accelerometer-to-electronics interface with the intent of increasing interchangeability among HUMS sensors/systems and reducing the cost of HUMS accelerometers. Although this interface was specified with an internally amplified piezoelectric accelerometer in mind for Airframe and Drive Train accelerometers, this does not preclude the use of piezoelectric accelerometer with remote charge amplifier or any other sensor technology that meets the requirements given in this specification.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1836
Sylvestre Lecuru, Pascal Bouvet, Jean-Louis Jouvray, Shanjin Wang
Abstract The recent use of electric motors for vehicle propulsion has stimulated the development of numerical methodologies to predict their noise and vibration behavior. These simulations generally use models based on an ideal electric motor. But sometimes acceleration and noise measurements on electric motors show unexpected harmonics that can generate acoustic issues. These harmonics are mainly due to the deviation of the manufactured parts from the nominal dimensions of the ideal machine. The rotor eccentricities are one of these deviations with an impact on acoustics of electric motors. Thus, the measurement of the rotor eccentricity becomes relevant to understand the phenomenon, quantify the deviation and then to use this data as an input in the numerical models. An innovative measurement method of rotor eccentricities using fiber optic displacement sensors is proposed.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1844
Jonathan Millitzer, Dirk Mayer, Roman Kraus, Matthias Schmidt
Abstract Current developments in the automotive industry such as downsizing, the use of cylinder deactivation and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise and vibration in vehicles. In the past few years, different configurations of actuators and sensors for the realization of an active control system have been investigated and evaluated experimentally. Active engine mounts, inertial mass actuators and structural integrated actuators can be used to reduce either structural vibrations or the interior noise level. As a result, a variety of different topology concepts for the realization of an active control system arises. These can be divided into an active vibration control scenario, the direct influence of the sound field with loudspeakers or the application of structural actuators for the reduction of the interior sound pressure.
2016-06-01
Magazine
Digital Design Tools Simulating Thermal Expansion in Composites with Expanded Metal Foil for Lightning Protection Rugged Computing Designing VME Power Systems with Standard Modules Optical Sensors Optical Ice Sensors for UAVs Rotorcraft Technology Rotorcraft Icing Computational Tool Development RF & Microwave Technology Curled RF MEMS Switches for On-Chip Design: Design Software Supports BAE System's Mixed-Signal Chip Design
2016-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2016-05-17
WIP Standard
AIR6245
This document is applicable to military aircraft where stakeholders are seeking guidance on the development and approval of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies and on the integration of these technologies into encompassing maintenance and operational support systems. The document will refer to those guidelines prepared under SAE ARP6461 that are relevant and applicable to military applications.
2016-05-17
WIP Standard
JA6268
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) was created to help industry deal with existing barriers to the successful implementation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology in the aerospace and automotive sectors. That is,given the common barriers that exist, this ARP can be applied not only to aerospace but also to the automotive, commercial and military vehicle sectors. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in all of these sectors are heavily dependant upon a large number of component suppliers in order to design and build their products. The advent of IVHM technology has accentuated the need for improved coordination and communication between the OEM and its suppliers –to ensure that suppliers design health ready capabilities into their particular components.
2016-05-17
Standard
AIR6552/3
This document establishes methods to obtain, store, and access data about the health of a fiber optic network using commercial sensors located in or near the transceiver. This document is intended for: Managers, Engineers, Contracting Officers, Third Party Maintenance Agencies, and Quality Assurance.
2016-05-10
WIP Standard
J1817
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a marking system to distinguish long-stroke from standard stroke for service, parking, and combination air-brake actuators, roto-chambers, and components. Said actuators are used for applying cam and disc-type foundation brakes by slack adjuster means.
2016-04-22
WIP Standard
ARP6904
In order to realize the benefits of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) within the aerospace and defense industry there is a need to address five critical elements of data interoperability within and across the aircraft maintenance ecosystem, namely • Approach • Trust • Context • Value • Security In Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) data interoperability is the ability of different authorized components, systems, IT, software, applications and organizations to securely communicate, exchange data, interpret data, use the information and derive consistent insight from the data that has been exchanged to derive value.
2016-04-19
WIP Standard
J1843
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a common electrical and mechanical interface specification that can be used to design electronic accelerator pedal position sensors and electronic control systems for use in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0943
Paul Ragaller, Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, Natarajan Gunasekaran, Jason Warkins, Ryan Wilhelm
Abstract Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1028
Qinqing Chen, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Qiwei Wang, Qi Chen, Si Liu
Abstract Boosting and downsizing is the trend of future gasoline engine technology. For the turbocharged engines, the actuation of intake boosting pressure is very important to the performance output. In this paper, a GT-Power simulation model is built based on a 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine as the research object. The accuracy of model has been verified through the bench test data. Then it is conducted with numerical simulation to analyze the effect of wastegate diameter on the engine performance, including power output and fuel economy. Mainly the wastegate diameter is optimized under full engine operating conditions. Finally an optimal MAP of wastegate diameter is drawn out through interpolation method. By the transmission relationship between wastegate and actuator, a wastegate control MAP for electric actuated wastegate can be obtained.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1547
Jun Yin, Xinbo Chen, Lixin Wu, Jianqin Li
Abstract Traditional active suspension which is equipped with hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator features slow response and high power consumption. However, electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits quick response and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. To design a novel active and energy regenerative suspension (AERS) utilizing electromagnetic actuator, this paper investigates the benchmark cars available on the market and summaries the suspension features. Basing on the investigation, a design reference for AERS design is proposed. To determine the parameters of the actuator, a principle is proposed and the parameters of the actuator are designed accordingly. Compared the linear type and rotary type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the rotary type is selected to construct the actuator of the AERS. Basing on the suspension structure of the design reference model and utilizing rotary type PMSM, a novel AERS structure is proposed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0012
Sebastian Voss, Johannes Eder, Bernhard Schaetz
Abstract The growing complexity of functionalities in automotive vehicles and their safety-criticality, including timing requirements, demands sound and scalable approaches to deal with the increasing design space. Most often, such complex automotive systems are composed of a set of functions that are characterized by multi-period timing behaviors, e.g., due to environment constraints limiting sensing/acting frequencies, or various worst case execution times of software components. As safety-critical systems must perform the desired behavior within guaranteed time bounds, a valid system configuration is needed including a time-correct schedule that fulfills all timing requirements. This contribution proposes a systematic and correct schedule synthesis of complex multi-rate automotive software systems that ensures precise timing behavior of software components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0099
Deepak Venkatesh, Arockia Selvakumar
Abstract The concept of camless engines enables us to optimize the overall engine efficiency and performance, as it provides great flexibility in valve timing and valve displacement. This paper deals with design of camless engines with pneumatic actuator. The main objective is to build a prototype and test its performance at different engine speeds. Also an extensive research on the sensors is done to detect the various sensors that could be used to identify the crankshaft position. Here the features and advantages over conventional engines are discussed. In addition the overview of the camless system in the engine is focused along with the design principle and the components used. The system thus designed is capable of actuating at 1500 rpm and demonstrates the ability of pneumatic actuators to be used in an internal combustion engine with low rpm needs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0100
Sushant Kishor Hingane
High-end vehicles with latest technology and autonomous driving experience have to bear the cost of increasing number of sensors on-board. It would be beneficial to reduce some of the sensors in the vehicle and make use of other available resources, retaining the same functionality. This paper discusses a novel technique of estimating the weight of seat occupant from an already existing DC motor without using additional pressure sensors. Passenger weight information is important for seat-belt reminder system as well as supplemental restraint system that will decide the air-bag deployment. The mathematical model for a series-type DC motor is analyzed and simulated using MATLAB. Further, results of the experiment performed on a lower capacity motor are shared and compared with the simulation results. Formulating a linear relation gives a possibility to develop a device for occupant weight measurement inside the high-end vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0097
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park, Jaekwon Kim
Abstract Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) has become a popular system due to regulation in many countries. TPMS consists of sensors that measure air pressure and temperature in the tires. Each sensor transmits tire information to TPMS central unit for display purpose via RF. Commercial trailers having bodies longer than 7 m require RF repeaters to increase the data transmission range. Located near to rear wheels, RF repeater receives sensor signal in the rear wheels and transmits the signal to TPMS central unit. In this paper, we discuss RF repeater which transmits at multiple frequencies in order to increase signal reception. On TPMS central unit, RF receiver is able to tune to receive frequencies used in sensors and RF repeater. Other method for improving reception is to transmit same payload multiple times at same frequency as that of sensor. In the paper, other important specifications are discussed as RF repeater design is concerned.
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