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2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1293
Eric Hermitte, Alain Lunati
Based on their 25 world-wide years’ experience in refining and fuel formulation using Near Infrared technology, the SP3H team has developed an innovative and miniaturized optical fuel quality sensor (SAE 2007-01-1830, SAE 2008-01-2451). The sensor output is based on an HCP matrix (HydroCarbon Profilers) and provides information on the fine chemistry of fuels such as aromatics, olefins, isoparaffins and oxygenates content and information related to the lengths of the Carbon-Carbon bonds Chain. According to this information, the sensor can also provide : - an accurate information on biodiesel content of diesel/biodiesel mixtures, - the rate and the type of oxygenates used in different mixtures of binary and ternary blends of methanol, ethanol and gasoline for emerging market. This paper presents the results of the latest developments of the sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1118
Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin, Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang
A New Clutch Actuation System for a Dry DCT Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Cheng-Liang Yin Shanghai Jiao Tong University Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang General Motors LLC Abstract Dry DCT has played an important role in the high performance applications as well as low-cost market sectors in Asia, with a potential as the future mainstream transmission technology due to its high mechanical efficiency and driving comfort. Control system simplification and cost reduction has been critical in making dry DCT more competitive against other transmission technologies. Specifically, DCT clutch actuation system is a key component with a great potential for cost-saving as well as performance improvement. This paper is to propose a new actuation system that has a unique force-aid spring and consume less power. The main components of this mechanism include a lever and a pre-loaded spring. The spring can store and release energy when needed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0241
Milind Potdar, Suyog Wani
Modern vehicle design involves multiple set of data from various sensors and controlling devices spread across the vehicle. The sensors and devices placed at various locations in the vehicle need to be connected with various Electronic Control Unit (ECU). As long as wires are used, its maintenance and installation cost and time are major disadvantages for OEMs. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) reduces the cabling and installation cost. It also provides flexibility in deciding location of ECU according to desired shape of the vehicle. This paper presents a way which can provide a strong secured wireless network. The proposed method of encryption and decryption ensures that the data from sensors and to devices is available to ECU and is not accessible to any other unintended receiver. A novel method is proposed in order to achieve this. Sensors and devices in the vehicle are segregated according to their location. Hence, same wireless node can be used for sensors as well as devices e.g.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0204
Biswajit Panja, Lars Wolleschensky
Vehicle Health Monitoring (VHM) is one of the most active fields of research for wireless sensor networks. VHM involves the implementation of an autonomous system for actively monitoring the internal parameters including engine temperature, fluid levels, tire pressure, etc. The benefits of VHM include a longer lifetime for the vehicle, lower operational cost, and improved safety. The results of VHM is also used for scheduled maintenance visits. The challenge with using wireless sensor networks to perform VHM tasks stems from various issues with wireless technology. Wireless sensor networks use RF channels which are easy to break into. Hackers can attack the system without physical access. Though there are many obstacles to successfully performing VHM with wireless sensor networks, the benefits that would be realized are much larger. In this paper we propose a secure wireless sensor network system for vehicle health monitoring.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1484
Daniel E. Toomey, Eric S. Winkel, Ram Krishnaswami
The evolution of airbag sensing system design has been rapid as electromechanical sensors used in earlier front airbag applications have been replaced by multi-point electronic sensors used to discriminate collision mechanics for potential airbag deployment in front, side and rollover accidents. In addition to multi-point electronic sensors, advanced airbag systems incorporate a variety of state sensors such as seat belt use status, seat track location, and occupant size classification that are taken into consideration by airbag system algorithms and occupant protection deployment strategies. Historically, traditional reconstruction methods and full scale vehicle crash testing were the primary means available to evaluate the field performance of passenger vehicle airbag systems. Electronic sensing systems have allowed for the advent of electronic data recorders (EDRs), which over the past decade, have provided increasingly more information related to airbag deployment events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
R Danymol, Krishnan Kutty
Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes, used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as NIR wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filters are used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process. RGB and NIR images are captured in entirely two different spectra/wavelength, thereby retaining different information. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate an NIR image from a given optical image. This was undertaken using the compressed sensing framework. The NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem in compressed sensing. The NIR data is considered as missing pixel information and its approximation is done during the image recovery phase. Thus for a given optical image, with NIR data being considered as missing information, the recovered NIR data gives the corresponding NIR image.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0309
Mayurika Chatterjee, Atchyuta Rao, Chaitanya Rajguru
Parking assist systems have become very common in current vehicles. The purpose of such a system is to assist the driver to park the vehicle without collision. The sensors serve as eyes of the driver during parking maneuver by sensing any obstacle in the path. The parking sensors, typically ultrasonic sensors, are mounted on front and rear of vehicle to assist the driver to park the vehicle. Thus, such a system can cover only the front and rear portion of the vehicle and is unable to cover the side portions of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method to monitor the perimeter of a vehicle while parking using minimum sensors placed at strategic locations. A local map of the parking area is generated using data from sensors which helps in identifying static obstacles. The map is constantly updated in real time during parking. The algorithm ascertains that the entire perimeter of the vehicle is protected from impending collisions in real time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty, Vinay Vaidya, Sunita Ugale
In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0881
Sunyu Tong, Haimiao Li, Zhaohui Yang, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
For the purpose of fuel economy improvement, engine downsizing with turbocharger and the need of more accurate control of combustion process optimization are strongly desired. The cylinder pressure transducer is usually used to detect the in-cylinder combustion condition, but it is now too expensive to equip each cylinder with a pressure sensor for the automotive engines. Ion current sensor is more preferred because of its low cost and easy installation. In this paper, a robust ion current sensor and a spark plug type pressure transducer are installed on the cylinder of a 1.8L turbo boosted PFI engine. And the ion current signal and the cylinder pressure are sampled simultaneously. The parameters of ion current signal such as ion current integral value, ion current peak value and the ion current peak phase are calculated and then the relationship between ion current signal and cylinder pressure could berevealed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1631
Michinori Tani, Atsuhiro Miyauchi, Yoshiaki Matsuzono
Stringent emission regulations for passenger vehicles are demanded. Reducing costs of high-grade exhaust gas after-treatment systems is necessary. The demand for high-precision engine air-fuel ratio control remains high. Higher efficiency in development and shortening of the development period are required, and control system construction that is accomplished in a short period regardless of the developer's technical skills and can harness the hardware potential has become essential. To achieve high-precision control, there is a trial-and-error element in configuration such as feedback-gain settings, and the tradeoff between high-precision air-fuel ratio control and shortening of the development period. We investigated a system based on a control method that constantly performs optimum air-fuel ratio feedback control to suit air-fuel ratio sensor responsiveness that changes with vehicle driving conditions, and eliminates the trial-and-error element.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0618
Zhihong Dong, Ying Sun, Guitao Zhu, Shihu Wang, Jian Zeng, Yuliang Yang
Based on the modal frequency response theory and experiment ,the installation layout evaluation and structural optimization method for SIS(side impact sensors) installation position is studied. Establish the finite element model including B-pillar, roof and floor with local constraint .Than study the key parameter's influence on the frequency response analysis results ,and the simulation results are correlated by experiment. In view of the installation layout requirements of side impact sensors ,the structure optimization method for installation position of side impact sensor is put forward . The optimal scheme is confirmed by the finite element analysis, and a final experimental verification was implemented by a real vehicle test.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1645
Thomas De Cuyper, Gery Fossaert, Olivier Collet, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
In the development and optimization of internal combustion engines, simulation tools gain in importance as they are a more cost effective solution in the optimization process than just relying on experimental optimization. An important sub-model in these simulation tools is the heat transfer model that predicts the heat loss from the combustion gases to the chamber walls. This heat transfer has a large effect on the efficiency, emissions and power output. Accurate measurements of the heat flux are essential to build an adequate heat transfer model. These measurements are required to fully understand the heat transfer phenomena in a combustion chamber. The Thin Film Gauge heat flux sensor has been proven to be an adequate sensor for this purpose. This paper reports on the calibration of the TFG sensor for measurements in internal combustion engines. A TFG sensor consists of a platinum thin film which serves as a resistance temperature detector on an insulating substrate (ceramic).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0872
Serkan Kulah, Tijs Donkers, Frank Willems
With the introduction of mass production in-cylinder pressure sensors, closed-loop combustion control became feasible. This was beneficial for conventional diesel engines to enhance robustness against fuel quality variation, injector wear, and (multi-pulse) fuelling accuracy, and to optimize after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced combustion concepts, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), that all rely on controlled auto ignition. Although research shows that cylinder pressure-based control is promising, especially the system costs related to the case in which pressure sensors are instrumented in all cylinders are assumed to be unacceptably high for truck engines. This paper introduces a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty diesel engines.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0869
Ningsheng Qiao, Chandrasekar Krishnamurthy, Nicholas Moore
Air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance is a condition where the air-fuel ratio in one or more cylinders is different than the other cylinders. When air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance occurs in one or more cylinders the fuel delivery system is unable to maintain a proper vehicle emission level. It is required for on-board diagnostics to detect air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance levels which cause the fuel delivery system to be unable to maintain vehicle emissions at or below 1.5 times of any of the applicable FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emission standards. Currently California Air Resources Board (CARB) only requires on-board diagnostics to detect exhaust bank specific air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance. In the near future CARB will require on-board diagnostics to detect cylinder specific air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance. This paper presents a non-intrusive approach on determining single cylinder air-fuel ratio imbalance identification (ID) with an oxygen sensor.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0371
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Human thermal comfort is a principal objective of the climate control systems such as the automotive air conditioning system. Applying the results of research studies on human thermal comfort to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environmental parameters, such as the impinging solar radiation. Photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in automotive climate control systems for the measurement of impinging solar radiation intensity. The erroneous information from sensor can cause thermal discomfort. Such an erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to opaque body elements of vehicle is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement. Fundamental geometric principles can be used to determine if sensor is shaded, for a given position of the sun with respect to vehicle and for a given geometry of the vehicle passenger compartment.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0233
Takamoto Furuichi, Takashige Nagao, Hisanori Yokura, Ryuichirou Abe, Shigemitsu Fukatsu
In recent years, the request for the air flow sensor with the detectability function of reverse-air-flow has increased to monitor the state of the engine intake manifold air because of responding to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulation and improving the fuel efficiency. According to the request, such air flow sensor has been realized and commercialized by using MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology: formation of a membrane and heaters to the silicon semiconductor chip. In addition to the detectability function of reverse flow, air flow sensors are required to be highly precise, reliable and strong. This paper describes the newly developed MEMS-based air flow sensor, with those properties including the reverse-flow detectability, which is expected to become a key device for vehicle engine control.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs. ASILs are used to specify applicable requirements of the ISO-26262 standard so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk; Smart integrated sensors, such as angular position sensors, are used extensively in automotive safety-critical applications.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0286
Radovan Miucic, David Weber
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cooperative applications for advanced safety is becoming a reality. Many automotive manufactures are entering advanced research phases or even planning deployments of such applications in the near future. However, the success of most V2V applications requires full or near-full deployment of the DSRC devices in new and existing vehicles, which will take ten or more years to accomplish. In the meantime, use of autonomous sensors in combination with V2V can augment this deployment transitional period. In this paper we propose a hybrid approach that uses autonomous sensors to rebroadcast information about unequipped neighboring vehicles. In addition to messages that a host vehicle sends about its own state (such as position, speed, and direction), additional sensing capabilities also allow sending information about neighboring vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Because all the actuators in a full drive-by-wire vehicle are using X-by-wire technology, autonomous driving will be realized just by introducing the exteroceptive sensors and by re-programming the electronic control unit (ECU). The control objective is to follow a desired path, while keeping the longitudinal velocity as close as possible to a given reference. Model predictive control (MPC) or receding horizon control (RHC) is effective in solving the combined motion control problem under the state and input constraints, which predicts the evolution of the plant model over a finite horizon based on a sequence of future inputs in order to optimize a performance index by using the preview information. This makes it an attractive method for use in the automated lane-keeping tasks.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0094
Supakit Rooppakhun, Pornporm Boonporm, Worawat Puangcha-um
Abstract In this study, the method of analyzing the thin-wall crashing box of impact attenuator for student formula is proposed by the means of simulation and validation following Formula Society of Automotive Engineers-SAE rules. The analysis was performed based on computerized simulation software for calculated the absorption capacity of the simple and multiple cell of thin-walled tubes. The effect of thin-wall thickness consisted of 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm was also evaluated. The simulation results as energy absorption, crashing force efficiency, and absorbed energy per unit mass were identified among nine patterns. According to the results, the increase of interior cell number and the wall thickness contribute the absorbed energy ability. However, the increment of wall thickness lead to the increase of crashing force magnitude. Regarding the kinetic energy, a 2×2 multiple cell box with the thickness of 2 mm is designated for construction and verify.
2015-02-09
WIP Standard
ARD6888
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircrafts (including harsh environment such as the powerplant). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g. pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE connector committee to work on a dedicated connector standard.
2015-02-03
Magazine
Getting a grip on AWD efficiency The safety and performance benefits of all-wheel drive are undeniable, but so are the penalties of added weight, friction losses, and complexity. Clever axle disconnects and E-axles are driving future AWD developments. E pluribus unum Inputs from many sensors are being combined to give safety systems a true vision of vehicle surroundings, with the resulting sensor fusion becoming a mainstay of autonomous vehicle electronics. Lightweighting poses repair challenges Mass-produced aluminum bodies and mixed-material structures present challenges for assembly and repair, as automakers increasingly pursue these lightweight strategies. Setting the standard Meggitt CTO Emeritus begins term at helm of SAE International, seeks to encourage cross-sector relations, elevate image of SAE as aerospace industry leader.
2015-01-26
WIP Standard
AIR6318
This document is intended for discrete and integrated digital, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and analog/radio frequency (RF) photonic components developed for eventual transition to aerospace platforms. The document provides the reasons for verification and validation of photonic device reliability and packaging durability. The document also provides methods for verifying and validating photonic device reliability and packaging durability. Applicable personnel include: Engineering Managers, Research and Development Managers, Program Managers, Designers, Engineers.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
Abstract To meet OBD norms for exhaust gas oxygen sensor component, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for exhaust gas oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to stop state due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here if lambda before fuel cut-off is maintained rich, then rich to lean (i.e. air) transition is realized by oxygen sensor. These are transitions where the oxygen sensor response is evaluated having the coordination with start-stop module.
2014-12-09
WIP Standard
AIR4543/2
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains Lessons Learned from aerospace actuation, control and fluid power systems technologies. The lessons were prepared by engineers from the aerospace industry and government services as part of the work of SAE Committee A-6, Aerospace Actuation, Control and Fluid Power Systems.
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