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2016-12-01
Book
Kenneth Hummel
Actuators are the key to allowing machines to become more sophisticated and perform complex tasks that were previously done by humans, providing motion in a safe, controlled manner. As defined in this book, actuator design is a subset of mechanical design. It involves engineering the mechanical components necessary to make a product move as desired. Fundamentals of Engineering High-Performance Actuator Systems, by Ken Hummel, was written as a text to supplement actuator design courses, and a reference to engineers involved in the design of high-performance actuator systems. It highlights the design approach and features what should be considered when moving a payload at precision levels and/or speeds that are not as important in low-performance applications.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0084
Shinichi Okunishi, Ken Ogawa
Accurate measurement of air volume is one of the large problems in LPL-EGR system. Measurement of air is difficult, because the intake volume of LPL-EGR system from the EGR valve to combustion chamber is much larger than HPL-EGR. Equally, it is difficulties to measure the correct LPL-EGR rate. By a conventional method, the best ignition timing control is difficult. The measurement of the LPL-EGR rate by using intake O2 sensor has been developed. Around 0% of LPL-EGR rate, this technique is poor accuracy.There is not a use except the LPL-EGR rate measurement. We thought that it was preferable for application of the engine control to use a wide sensor. About the ignition timing control, MFB 50% feedback control is to enable optimum ignition timing control by using the cylinder pressure. We thought about engine control by using the cylinder pressure, and we examined the following application.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0053
Hisato Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Tatsuo Ichige, Tomoyuki Ishimori, Yoichi Sansho
Owing to the recent developments in sensors with reduced size and weight, it is now possible to install sensors on a body of a motorcycle to monitor its behavior during running. The analysis of maneuverability and stability has been performed based on the data resulted from measurements by these sensors. The tire forces and moments is an important measurement item in maneuverability and stability studies. However, the tire forces and moments is difficult to measure directly, therefore, it is a common practice to measure the force and the moment acting on the center of the wheel. The measuring device is called a wheel forces and moments sensor, and it is widely used for cars. The development of a wheel forces and moments sensor for motorcycles has difficulty particular to motorcycles. First, motorcycles run with their bodies largely banked, which restricts positioning the sensors.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0052
Michael Schoenherr, Mathieu Grelaud, Ami Hirano
The Side View Assist is the World’s first rider assistance system for two-wheelers. This is a Blind Spot Warning system, which uses four ultrasonic sensors to monitor the surrounding of the rider. Whenever there is a vehicle (i.e. a car, truck, or another motorbike) in the rider’s blind spot, the technology warns the rider with an optical signal close to the mirror. This will allow the rider to avoid a collision when changing lanes. In the current vehicle application, Side View Assist is active at speeds ranging from 25 to 80 kilometers per hour and supports riders whenever the difference in relative speed to other road users is small. The system helps to improve safety especially in cities, where heavy traffic makes it necessary to change lanes more often. Originally such systems have been developed for cars and different system solutions for cars have been in serial production for several years. The challenge was to adapt these systems so they would work for two-wheelers as well.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0027
Alexander Winkler, Gernot Grabmair
Vehicle dynamics control (VDC) for motorcycles had a fast growth during the last 10 years. The available technologies comprise curve-safe ABS and traction control (TC) systems, anti-wheelie control, right up to comprehensive motorcycle stability systems including even more control functions. VDC systems rely on real-time information about the current motorcycle dynamic state. Thus motorcycles are equipped with additional sensor units, namely MEMS inertial measurement devices, capable of gathering accelerations and angular rates. The application of model-based estimation theory enables the determination of the necessary information about the in-plane and out-of-plane motion, e.g. the motorcycle lean angle. Since VDC systems include safety critical control functions, the validation within simulations including sensor characteristics is mandatory.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2310
Jeff Yeo, Jeremy Rochussen, Patrick Kirchen
Abstract As global energy demands continue to be met with ever evolving and stricter emissions requirements, natural gas (NG) has become a highly researched alternative to conventional fossil fuels in many industrial sectors. Transportation is one such field that can utilize the benefits of NG as a primary fuel for use in internal combustion engines (ICEs). In the context of heavy-duty on-highway transportation applications, diesel-ignited dual-fuel (DIDF) combustion of NG has been identified as a commercially viable alternative technology. Previous investigations of DIDF have examined the various trends present across the spectrum of DIDF operating space. However, in-cylinder processes are still not well understood and this investigation aims to further understanding in this area. An in-cylinder, local infrared absorption fuel concentration sensor is used to examine in-cylinder processes by comparison with previous optical and thermodynamic studies.
2016-10-03
Magazine
Achieving Performance Advantages in Unmanned Systems Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) are reaching new levels of functionality and performance, and it’s not just for air vehicles either. COTS Embedded Systems and Link Budgets The days of proprietary embedded computing systems in military systems are numbered. Custom Designing Enclosures Using 3-D CAD Modeling Due to the advancement of 3-D computer-aided design software, enclosure manufacturing is not what it used to be. Technology advances industry. Fiber Optic Multi-Sensing Platforms Enabling Innovation Across Aerospace Organizations RECAT Wake Turbulence Recategorization New Concept for Improving the Performance of Electrically Small Antennas Microwave Radiometer for Advanced Nanosatellite Control Systems Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard SIPHER: Scalable Implementation of Primitives for Homomorphic Encryption Using Mathematics to Make Computing on Encrypted Data Secure and Practical
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8104
Ryo Yamaguchi, Hiromichi Nozaki
Abstract In this study, we report on the development of a steering assistance control system that feeds back information on the outside environment collected by laser sensors to the vehicle driver. The system consists of an emergency avoidance assistance control program that performs obstacle detection and avoidance, as well as a cornering assistance control program that operates by detecting the white lines painted on roadways. Driving simulator experiments were conducted in order to confirm the effectiveness of these functions, as well as to improve understanding of the synergistic effects of the steering assistance and chassis control functions: camber angle control and derivative steering assistance (DSA) control.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1997
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Abstract The aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling fan is a critical component because an EMA failure caused by overheating could lead to a catastrophic failure in aircraft. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is used to access the failure probability of EMA fans with the goal of improving their mean time to failure (MTTF) from ∼O(5×104) to ∼ O(2.5×109) hours without incurring heavy weight penalty and high cost. The dual-winding and dual-bearing approaches are analyzed and a contra rotating dual-fan design is proposed. Fan motors are assumed to be brushless direct current (BLDC) motors. To have a full understanding of fan reliability, all possible failure mechanisms and failure modes are taken into account.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1994
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Abstract For aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling applications using forced air produced by axial fans, the main objective in fan design is to generate high static pressure head, high volumetric flow rate, and high efficiency over a wide operating range of rotational speed (1x∼3x) and ambient pressure (0.2∼1 atm). In this paper, a fan design based on a fan diameter of 86 mm, fan depth (thickness) of 25.4 mm, and hub diameter of 48 mm is presented. The blade setting angle and the chord lengths at the leading and trailing edges are varied in their suitable ranges to determine the optimal blade profiles. The fan static pressure head, volumetric flow rate, and flow velocity are calculated at various ambient pressures and rotational speeds. The optimal blade design in terms of maximum total-to-total pressure ratio and efficiency at the design point is obtained via CFD simulation.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2004
M. Parvez Alam, Dinesh Manoharan
In this paper we discuss about the design and development of an “Autonomous Amphibious Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (AAUAV)” that can fly autonomously to the polluted water areas where human accessibility is formidable to test the water quality. The AAUAV system is an integrated multi-copter with tilt rotor capability to facilitate easy landing, navigation and maneuver on water. A 3D CAD model has been designed and analyzed. A specific propulsion system has been devised and lab tested. A proof of concept model has been made and tested in the field with its instruments to ascertain its technical/ operational feasibility. This system can also be tailored to collect and store the water samples from the polluted sites for further comprehensive research at the laboratory. AAUAV system is the novel solution to the polluted environment through a complete integrated system. This will be an effective alternative for the conventional water sampling techniques.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2050
Martin Espinosa Sanchez, Mario Pérez Millás
Abstract The effect of air pockets in capillaries in terms of pressure variations is investigated experimentally. Pressure sensors in aircraft are often installed separate to the pipes and connected with capillaries to minimise ignition sources within fuel tanks. Trapped air within these capillaries might distort the measurement. These effects are characterised in this paper. Extensive tests with different capillary configurations, trapped air volumes and pressure transients are studied. The data obtained shows that the main effect of trapped air during pressure transients is a delay in the pressure response against its excitation, causing local pressure oscillations around its source value until the pressure is equal in both places again. These oscillations can turn into high pressure peaks under critical conditions. Greater amounts of air can cause greater delays and viceversa.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1976
Kiran Thupakula, Adishesha Sivaramasastry, Srikanth Gampa
Abstract Aviation safety is one of the key focus areas of the aerospace industry as it involves safety of passengers, crew, assets etc. Due to advancements in technology, aviation safety has reached to safest levels compared to last few decades. In spite of declining trends in in-air accident rate, ground accidents are increasing due to ever increasing air traffic and human factors in the airport. Majority of the accidents occur during initial and final phases of the flight. Rapid increase in air traffic would pose challenge in ensuring safety and best utilization of Airports, Airspace and assets. In current scenario multiple systems like Runway Debris Monitoring System, Runway Incursion Detection System, Obstacle avoidance system and Traffic Collision Avoidance System are used for collision prediction and alerting in airport environment. However these approaches are standalone in nature and have limitations in coverage, performance and are dependent on onboard equipment.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1894
Siyu Chen, Libo Huang, Jie Bai, Haitao Jiang, Liang Chang
Abstract Intelligent vehicles can improve traffic safety and reduce damage caused by traffic accidents. Environmental perception system is the core of the intelligent vehicle which detects vehicles and pedestrians around the ego host-vehicle by using vehicle environmental perception sensors. Environmental perception system with the multi-sensor information fusion algorithm can utilize the advantages of each environmental perception sensor and detects targets with higher detection probability and precision. Most of the published papers are based on the sensor level fusion architecture which is not stable and robust in detecting target. This paper presents a multi-sensor fusion algorithm with central level architecture, which can improve the target detection probability compare to these with the sensor level fusion architecture.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1901
Zhenyi Liu, Weiwen Deng, Yaxin Li, Lijun Jiang, Xin Li, Ying Wang
Abstract Environmental sensing and perception is one of the key technologies on intelligent driving or autonomous vehicles. As a complementary part to current radar and lidar sensors, ultrasonic sensor has become more and more popular due to its high value to the cost. Different from other sensors mainly based on propagation of electromagnetic wave, ultrasonic sensor possesses some unique features and physical characteristics that bring many merits to autonomous vehicle research, like transparent obstacles and highly reflective surfaces detection. Its low-cost property can further bring down hardware cost to foster widespread use of intelligent driving or autonomous vehicles. To accelerate the development of autonomous vehicle, this paper proposes a high fidelity ultrasonic sensor model based on its physical characteristics, including obstacle detection, distance measurement and signal attenuation.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1907
Yaxin Li, Ying Wang, Weiwen Deng, Xin Li, Zhenyi liu, Lijun Jiang
Abstract LiDAR sensors have played more and more important role on Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICV) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) .However, the development and testing of LiDAR sensors under real driving environment for ADAS applications are greatly limited by various factors, and often are impossible due to safety concerns. This paper proposed a novel functional LiDAR model under virtual driving environment to support development of LiDAR-based ADAS applications under early stage. Unlike traditional approaches on LiDAR sensor modeling, the proposed method includes both geometrical modeling approach and physical modeling approach. While geometric model mainly produces ideal scanning results based on computer graphics, the physical model further brings physical influences on top of the geometric model. The range detection is derived and optimized based on its physical detection and measurement mechanism.
CURRENT
2016-09-14
Standard
AS1145C
This specification covers minimum requirements for brake temperature monitoring equipment whenever used on any type and model of civil aircraft. It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to determine the compatibility of these requirements with the application aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minimums as necessary.
2016-09-14
Technical Paper
2016-01-1900
Yafei Wang, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yoichi Hori
Abstract Vehicle lateral states such as lateral distance at a preview point and heading angle are indispensable for lane keeping control systems, and such states are normally estimated by fusing signals from an onboard vision system and inertial sensors. However, the sampling rates and measurement delays are different between the two kinds of sensing devices. Most of the conventional methods simply neglect measurement delay and reduce sampling rate of the estimator to adapt to the slow sensors/devices. However, the estimation accuracy is deteriorated, especially considering the delay of visual signals may not be constant. In case of electric vehicles, the actuators for steering and traction are motors that have high control frequency. Therefore, the frequency of vehicle state feedback may not match the control frequency if the estimator is infrequently updated.
2016-09-01
Magazine
Ruling the skies Warsaw University of Technology and Georgia Tech dominate SAE Aero Design competitions. European teams take top spots at FSAE Michigan, U.S. teams at FSAE Lincoln Universitat Stuttgart of Germany and Auburn University of the U.S. take crowns at SAE Collegiate Design Series Formula competitions. Michigan Baja Racing repeats as Baja SAE season champion Coming in second is Rochester Institute of Technology, which was victorious in one of the 3 Baja SAE competitions.
2016-09-01
Magazine
Solving the Greenhouse Gas puzzle While automakers and policymakers debate the TAR, engineers and product planners prepare for the steep climb to meet GHG and CAFE rules beyond 2022. Revving up thermal characterization in the component lab The latest generation of high-speed infrared cameras can capture airbag deployments and other fast-moving actions quickly and accurately. C3 consortium aims for soot solution A newly formed group of companies led by CFD specialists Convergent Science targets exhaust particulate reduction in the combustion chamber. Inside the autonomous vehicle With less focus on driver needs, comfort, safety, and occupant productivity will become key. Editorial: Bad gas?
2016-08-17
WIP Standard
ARP4553B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to provide design and qualification requirements for self-displacing hydraulic accumulators.

These requirements are intended to be included in the Producrement Specification for the accumulator. Those requirements identified by the use of "shall" are considered to be essential requirements; those requirements identified by the use of "should" are considered to be optional requirements for inclusion in the Specificaiton at the discretion of the Purchaser.

In addition, test methods for production acceptance and qualification purposes are provided.

The accumulator is intended for use in military aerospace hydraulic systems with rated pressures of up to 8000 psi (55,158 kPa) and of the following types as specified in SAE AS 5440: Type I: -65 to +160 °F (-54 to +71 °C) fluid temperature; Type II: -65 to +275 °F (-54 to +135 °C) fluid temperature.

CURRENT
2016-08-12
Standard
AIR1184B
This report is intended to identify the various errors typically encountered in capacitance fuel quantity measurement systems. In addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of fuel measurement accuracy using capacitance based sensing is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of capacitive fuel gauging operation can be found in AIR5691.
2016-08-05
Magazine
Clearing the air Sensors, diagnostics and controls advance to help trap emissions. Bringing the heat on cooling technologies Electronic controls, variable-speed fans cool engines, heat aftertreatment systems. 3D printing machines can't be built fast enough In the additive manufacturing world, the costs of components are dropping, the technology is becoming more reliable and parts are fabricated faster, allowing industries beyond aerospace to adopt additive technologies, says Oak Ridge Lab's Ryan Dehoff.
CURRENT
2016-07-19
Standard
ARD6888
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional requirements for a miniature connector to be used for health monitoring purposes on aircraft (including harsh environments such as found in propulsion systems). It is actually a family of miniature connectors that is specified in this document for various uses (e.g., pin counts) and environments. This specification will be used by the SAE committee for connectors (AE-8C1) to study the feasibility of developing a dedicated connector standard.
CURRENT
2016-06-16
Standard
AS5391A
Accelerometers are transducers, or sensors, that convert acceleration into an electrical signal that can be used for airframe, drive, and propulsion system vibration monitoring and analysis within vehicle health and usage monitoring systems. This document defines interface requirements for accelerometers and associated interfacing electronics for use in a helicopter Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS). The purpose is to standardize the accelerometer-to-electronics interface with the intent of increasing interchangeability among HUMS sensors/systems and reducing the cost of HUMS accelerometers. Although this interface was specified with an internally amplified piezoelectric accelerometer in mind for Airframe and Drive Train accelerometers, this does not preclude the use of piezoelectric accelerometer with remote charge amplifier or any other sensor technology that meets the requirements given in this specification.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1836
Sylvestre Lecuru, Pascal Bouvet, Jean-Louis Jouvray, Shanjin Wang
Abstract The recent use of electric motors for vehicle propulsion has stimulated the development of numerical methodologies to predict their noise and vibration behavior. These simulations generally use models based on an ideal electric motor. But sometimes acceleration and noise measurements on electric motors show unexpected harmonics that can generate acoustic issues. These harmonics are mainly due to the deviation of the manufactured parts from the nominal dimensions of the ideal machine. The rotor eccentricities are one of these deviations with an impact on acoustics of electric motors. Thus, the measurement of the rotor eccentricity becomes relevant to understand the phenomenon, quantify the deviation and then to use this data as an input in the numerical models. An innovative measurement method of rotor eccentricities using fiber optic displacement sensors is proposed.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1844
Jonathan Millitzer, Dirk Mayer, Roman Kraus, Matthias Schmidt
Abstract Current developments in the automotive industry such as downsizing, the use of cylinder deactivation and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise and vibration in vehicles. In the past few years, different configurations of actuators and sensors for the realization of an active control system have been investigated and evaluated experimentally. Active engine mounts, inertial mass actuators and structural integrated actuators can be used to reduce either structural vibrations or the interior noise level. As a result, a variety of different topology concepts for the realization of an active control system arises. These can be divided into an active vibration control scenario, the direct influence of the sound field with loudspeakers or the application of structural actuators for the reduction of the interior sound pressure.
2016-06-01
Magazine
Digital Design Tools Simulating Thermal Expansion in Composites with Expanded Metal Foil for Lightning Protection Rugged Computing Designing VME Power Systems with Standard Modules Optical Sensors Optical Ice Sensors for UAVs Rotorcraft Technology Rotorcraft Icing Computational Tool Development RF & Microwave Technology Curled RF MEMS Switches for On-Chip Design: Design Software Supports BAE System's Mixed-Signal Chip Design
2016-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
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