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2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0230
Shuhan Tang, Yanfang Liu, Xiao Han
As a significant control component of vehicles, automatic transmissions should have failure protection function. The failure protection function partly is determined by the hydraulic control system. However traditional design could not cover all of failures, and there is no general design method. A design method is proposed for designing the shift control oil circuit of the hydraulic control system with the failure protection function. . The design method is applied to optimize the hydraulic control system of a six-speed automatic transmission. The function of the optimized hydraulic control system is confirmed by the dynamic simulation. The results show that the design method can simplify the hydraulic control system without losing any original functions. The proposed design method is proved to be suitable for all kinds of hydraulic control systems of automatic transmissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1294
Michael Andrie
The objective of this research is to continue development of a system for measuring in-cylinder pressure using a low cost, non-intrusive valve movement sensor as detailed in SAE paper 2009-01-0245. This research should enable the use of cylinder pressure information to be extended into smaller in-service internal combustion engines particularly when “closed loop” control is required to control combustion. This update details the latest development results for this cylinder pressure concept. The conclusions drawn in the original paper are that a system for measuring in-cylinder pressure using a valve movement sensor were possible at the required accuracy and had the potential to be lower cost than the current best technology. This update strengths these conclusions with motoring and firing test results using the signal output from a low cost Hall-effect sensor. The firing results are then used to calculate key combustion metrics for engine control.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1293
Eric Hermitte, Alain Lunati
Based on their 25 world-wide years’ experience in refining and fuel formulation using Near Infrared technology, the SP3H team has developed an innovative and miniaturized optical fuel quality sensor (SAE 2007-01-1830, SAE 2008-01-2451). The sensor output is based on an HCP matrix (HydroCarbon Profilers) and provides information on the fine chemistry of fuels such as aromatics, olefins, isoparaffins and oxygenates content and information related to the lengths of the Carbon-Carbon bonds Chain. According to this information, the sensor can also provide : - an accurate information on biodiesel content of diesel/biodiesel mixtures, - the rate and the type of oxygenates used in different mixtures of binary and ternary blends of methanol, ethanol and gasoline for emerging market. This paper presents the results of the latest developments of the sensor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1296
Craig Jarrard, Micah Anderson
The paper will outline development and test methodologies applied to an intelligent mechatronic actuator. This actuator technology has similar controls architecture and communication interfaces as other powertrain control modules, and in addition, has similar calibration and application optimization requirements. In lieu of leveraging the typically high investment costs associated with the more conventional commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toolchains for calibration and optimization, this paper will highlight activities to provide a more cost-effective development architecture that offers flexibility, extensibility and customization required to enable automated/unattended testing, as well as mechanisms to acquire, evaluate, and react to actuator performance test results in order to pursue targeted actuator performance optimization. In addition to explaining the elements of the development infrastructure, a roadmap for potential avenues for future improvements will be discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1295
Daryao Singh Khatri
Air intake filter is generally designed to meet the different requirement of engine and vehicle like intake air filtration, air flow rate, engine life, NVH, emission and service requirement. The pressure drop across the air filter increases due to accumulation of dust, metal particles, organic particle etc. during the driving of the vehicle. The service life of the air filter is recommended by the vehicle manufacturer in terms of km covered. The type of dust and its accumulation in the air filter also depend upon traffic condition and environmental condition which may differ from country to country and from region to region especially in Asian countries. Hence, the mileage based service interval of intake air filter may not be optimum for different region to keep the optimum performance of the engine and vehicle for a longer period. An attempt has been made to monitor the condition of the intake air filter in the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0233
Takamoto Furuichi, Takashige Nagao, Hisanori Yokura, Ryuichirou Abe, Shigemitsu Fukatsu
In recent years, the request for the air flow sensor with the detectability function of reverse-air-flow has increased to monitor the state of the engine intake manifold air because of responding to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulation and improving the fuel efficiency. According to the request, such air flow sensor has been realized and commercialized by using MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology: formation of a membrane and heaters to the silicon semiconductor chip. In addition to the detectability function of reverse flow, air flow sensors are required to be highly precise, reliable and strong. This paper describes the newly developed MEMS-based air flow sensor, with those properties including the reverse-flow detectability, which is expected to become a key device for vehicle engine control.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0234
Vincenzo Sacco, Mathieu Poezart, Gael F. Close
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs. ASILs are used to specify applicable requirements of the ISO-26262 standard so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk; Smart integrated sensors, such as angular position sensors, are used extensively in automotive safety-critical applications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1645
Thomas De Cuyper, Gery Fossaert, Olivier Collet, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
In the development and optimization of internal combustion engines, simulation tools gain in importance as they are a more cost effective solution in the optimization process than just relying on experimental optimization. An important sub-model in these simulation tools is the heat transfer model that predicts the heat loss from the combustion gases to the chamber walls. This heat transfer has a large effect on the efficiency, emissions and power output. Accurate measurements of the heat flux are essential to build an adequate heat transfer model. These measurements are required to fully understand the heat transfer phenomena in a combustion chamber. The Thin Film Gauge heat flux sensor has been proven to be an adequate sensor for this purpose. This paper reports on the calibration of the TFG sensor for measurements in internal combustion engines. A TFG sensor consists of a platinum thin film which serves as a resistance temperature detector on an insulating substrate (ceramic).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
Danymol R, Krishnan kutty
Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes, used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as NIR wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filters are used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process. RGB and NIR images are captured in entirely two different spectra/wavelength, thereby retaining different information. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate an NIR image from a given optical image. This was undertaken using the compressed sensing framework. The NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem in compressed sensing. The NIR data is considered as missing pixel information and its approximation is done during the image recovery phase. Thus for a given optical image, with NIR data being considered as missing information, the recovered NIR data gives the corresponding NIR image.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinay Vaidya, Krishnan kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0321
Pan Song, Changfu Zong, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Because all the actuators in a full drive-by-wire vehicle are using X-by-wire technology, autonomous driving will be realized just by introducing the exteroceptive sensors and by re-programming the electronic control unit (ECU). The control objective is to follow a desired path, while keeping the longitudinal velocity as close as possible to a given reference. Model predictive control (MPC) or receding horizon control (RHC) is effective in solving the combined motion control problem under the state and input constraints, which predicts the evolution of the plant model over a finite horizon based on a sequence of future inputs in order to optimize a performance index by using the preview information. This makes it an attractive method for use in the automated lane-keeping tasks.
2015-01-26
WIP Standard
AIR6318
This document is intended for discrete and integrated digital, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and analog/radio frequency (RF) photonic components developed for eventual transition to aerospace platforms. The document provides the reasons for verification and validation of photonic device reliability and packaging durability. The document also provides methods for verifying and validating photonic device reliability and packaging durability. Applicable personnel include: Engineering Managers, Research and Development Managers, Program Managers, Designers, Engineers.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
Abstract To meet OBD norms for exhaust gas oxygen sensor component, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for exhaust gas oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to stop state due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here if lambda before fuel cut-off is maintained rich, then rich to lean (i.e. air) transition is realized by oxygen sensor. These are transitions where the oxygen sensor response is evaluated having the coordination with start-stop module.
2014-12-09
WIP Standard
AIR4543/2
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains Lessons Learned from aerospace actuation, control and fluid power systems technologies. The lessons were prepared by engineers from the aerospace industry and government services as part of the work of SAE Committee A-6, Aerospace Actuation, Control and Fluid Power Systems.
2014-11-25
WIP Standard
AIR6853
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on the thrust vectoring flight control systems incorporated on various aircraft development programs and production military aircraft. This report includes V/STOL aircraft thrust vector applications in addition to recommendations for use of thrust vectoring for the improvement of low speed maneuverability in conventional aircraft. Descriptions of each aircraft are provided along with a summary of the thrust vector control system, and, mechanical design methodologies used. Block diagrams, system schematics, and, several system level components are presented.
2014-11-20
Standard
ARP739A
This ARP is intended to promote better understanding of gas system characteristics and operation in order to aid in system selection and design. Various gas systems are classified in a broad sense, component operation is described in moderate detail, pertinent design parameters are discussed, and possible modes for system operation are listed.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0007
Joseph K. Ausserer, Alexander K. Rowton, Keith D. Grinstead, Paul J. Litke, Marc D. Polanka
Abstract In this work, in-cylinder pressure was measured in a 55 cc single cylinder, 4.4 kW, two stroke, spark ignition engine. In cylinder pressure measurements were taken using two different pressure transducers to determine if the performance differences between the two transducers are discernible in a small, spark ignition engine. A Kistler brand measuring spark plug was compared to a Kistler brand flush mount high temperature pressure sensor. Both sensors employ piezo-electric pressure sensing elements and were designed to measure indicated mean effective pressure as well as to detect knock at high temperature engine conditions. The pressure sensors were installed and adjusted to ensure cylinder volume after sensor installation matched the engine's original configuration within reasonable manufacturing tolerances. A series of tests at four throttle settings ensued to determine if either device altered the combustion volume or the engine's performance.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0075
Kazuyoshi Shimatani
Abstract Various sensors including throttle position sensors (TPS), manifold pressure sensors (MPS), crank angle sensors, engine temperature sensors, and oxygen sensors are mounted in electronically controlled fuel injection (FI) systems to accurately regulate the air-fuel ratio according to the operating state and operating environment. Among these vehicle-mounted sensors, TPS has functions for detecting a fully-closed throttle and estimating intake air volume by the amount of throttle opening. Currently, we have conducted a study on transferring TPS functions into the MPS (manifold pressure sensor) in order to eliminate the TPS. Here we report on detecting a fully-closed throttle for achieving fuel cut control (FCC) and idle speed control (ISC) in fuel injection systems. We contrived a means for fully-closed throttle detection during ISC and controlling changes in the bypass opening during FCC in order to accurately judge each fully-closed throttle state via the manifold pressure.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0073
Horizon Walker Gitano, Ray Chim, Jian Loh
Abstract Recent concern over air quality has lead to increasingly stringent emissions regulations on ever smaller displacement engines, resulting in the application of Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) to the 100cc-200cc class 2-wheelers in many countries. In the pursuit of ever smaller and less expensive EFI systems a number of unique technologies are being explored, including resistive type oxygen sensors. In this paper we investigate the application of a prototype resistive oxygen sensor to a small motorcycle EFI system. Measurements of the exhaust system temperatures, and Air/Fuel Ratio (AFR) and resistive sensor response are carried out, and compared to the standard zirconia oxygen sensor to create an estimate of the sensor's in-use performance. Motorcycle performance data are compared using both a standard zirconia switching type oxygen sensor, and the new resistive type oxygen sensor to control the air/fuel ratio.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0069
Ken Fosaaen
Abstract Global concerns over pollution have led to increasingly strict emissions legislation targeting small engines, which currently pollute at a much greater level than modern multi-cylinder automotive engines. Closed-loop control may be required to meet many future legislation requirements; however, such systems can be impractical due to high added component costs. A necessary component for closed-loop engine control is an oxygen sensor. Existing automotive oxygen sensors are too large, require too much power, and are far too expensive to be suitable for the vast majority of the global small engine applications; therefore, some manufacturers have developed smaller and/or unheated versions based on their existing sensors to meet this emerging need. The ability to miniaturize resistive based sensors well below that of traditional Nernst (zirconia based) oxygen sensors affords the opportunity to meet future emissions standards with less of an impact on cost.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0137
Ken Fosaaen
Abstract Global concerns over pollution have led to increasingly strict emissions legislation targeting small engines, which currently pollute at a much greater level than modern multi-cylinder automotive engines. Closed-loop control may be required to meet many future legislation requirements; however, such systems can be impractical due to high added component costs. A necessary component for closed-loop engine control is an oxygen sensor. Existing automotive oxygen sensors are too large, require too much power, and are far too expensive to be suitable for the vast majority of the global small engine applications; therefore, some manufacturers have developed smaller and/or unheated versions based on their existing sensors to meet this emerging need. The ability to miniaturize resistive based sensors well below that of traditional Nernst (zirconia based) oxygen sensors affords the opportunity to meet future emissions standards with less of an impact on cost.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0143
Ken Fosaaen
Abstract Global concerns over pollution have led to increasingly strict emissions legislation targeting small engines, which currently pollute at a much greater level than modern multi-cylinder automotive engines. Closed-loop control may be required to meet many future legislation requirements; however, such systems can be impractical due to high added component costs. A necessary component for closed-loop engine control is an oxygen sensor. Existing automotive oxygen sensors are too large, require too much power, and are far too expensive to be suitable for the vast majority of the global small engine applications; therefore, some manufacturers have developed smaller and/or unheated versions based on their existing sensors to meet this emerging need. The ability to miniaturize resistive based sensors well below that of traditional Nernst (zirconia based) oxygen sensors affords the opportunity to meet future emissions standards with less of an impact on cost.
2014-11-06
Standard
ARP777A
It is intended that this ARP will set down guidelines for the development and test of reliable rotary vane and/or linear gas actuators. Specific operational and test requirements shall be specified in a detail specification. The areas to be discussed are: requirements (performance, environment, life, and reliability), design and fabrication, and test considerations.
2014-11-05
WIP Standard
AIR5601A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is devoted to the challenges of applying optics to new advanced RF analog systems only; digital data link applications are covered elsewhere in protocol/architecture specific documents like Fibre Channel, ATM, Ethernet, Sonet, etc.
2014-11-05
WIP Standard
ARP6887
The ARP shall cover the objectives and activities of Verification & Vallidation Processes required to assure high quality and/or criticality level of an IVHM Systems and Software.
2014-10-22
WIP Standard
AS7997A
This specification covers constant displacement hydraulic motors, generally remotely mounted, using hydraulic fluid under pressure as the energy transfer medium for driving various accessories. Hydraulic motors shall be suitable for use in aircraft hydraulic systems conforming to and as defined in MIL-H-5440 and MIL-H-8891 as applicable.
2014-10-08
Standard
AIR6226
Most of the Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer Actuators (THSA) feature a dual structural load path, the primary load path being loaded, the secondary load path being normally unloaded, or both load paths sharing in parallel the Horizontal Stabilizer load. This document describes existing methods for detecting rupture or disconnection of loaded load paths as an overview for those specifying or designing Horizontal Stabilizer Trim Actuators in order to compare existing solutions as reference for implementation in new aircraft programs.
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