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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0012
Sebastian Voss, Johannes Eder, Bernhard Schaetz
The growing complex functionalities of automotive vehicles and their safety-criticality including timing requirements demands sound and scalable approaches to deal with the increasing design space. Most often, such complex automotive systems are composed of a set of functions that are characterized by multi-period timing behaviors, e.g. due to environment constraints limiting sensing/acting frequencies, or various worst case execution times of software components. As safety-critical systems must perform the desired behavior within guaranteed time bounds, a valid system configuration is needed including a time-correct schedule that fulfills all timing requirements. Consequently, standards like the ISO26262 require methods and techniques that are needed for a systematic and provably correct development of automotive software that includes precise timing behavior of software components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1065
Jens Gaechter, Mario Hirz
Besides positive environmental effects, electric or hybrid propulsion technologies provide high torque potential that can be used from the start, which leads to an advantageous vehicle acceleration behavior. An important aspect for efficient operation and benefiting speed-torque characteristics of electric machines states an effective control strategy, which requires the implementation of specific sensors. The aim of the present work is the examination and evaluation of different sensor technologies for the use in such automotive applications to exactly determine the rotor position of synchronous electric motors. In this way, different sensors, e.g. resolver, eddy current sensors or sensor methods based on magneto-resistive effects, have been evaluated on a test bench under changing boundary conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1191
Saher Al Shakhshir, Torsten Berning
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste heat. One critical technical problem of these fuel cells is still the water management: the proton exchange membrane in the center of these fuel cells has to be hydrated in order to stay proton-conductive while on the other hand excessive liquid water can lead to cell flooding and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0097
Felix Gow, Lifeng Guan, Jooil Park, Jaekwon Kim
TPMS has become a popular system due to regulation in many countries. TPMS consists of sensors that measure air pressure and temperature in the tires. Each sensor transmits sensor information to TPMS control unit for display purpose via RF. The commercial trailers having a long body (longer than 7 m) require a RF repeater to increase the data transmission range. Located near to rear wheels, RF repeater receives sensor signal in the rear wheels and transmits the signal to TPMS control unit. In this paper, we discuss RF repeater transmits at multiple frequencies in order to increase signal reception. On TPMS control unit, RF receiver is able to tune to receive frequencies used in sensor and RF repeater. Other method for improving reception is to transmit same payload multiple times at same frequency as that of sensor. In the paper, other important specifications are discussed as RF repeater design is concerned. A user’s case of RF repeater is implemented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0101
Carl Arft, Yin-Chen Lu, Jehangir Parvereshi
Oscillators are key components in automotive electronics systems. For example, a typical automotive camera module may have three or more oscillators, providing the clocks for microcontrollers, Ethernet controllers, and video chipsets. These oscillators have historically been built around a quartz crystal resonator connected to an analog sustaining circuit driving the crystal to vibrate at its resonant frequency. However, quartz-based devices suffer from poor performance and reliability in harsh automotive environments. SiTime has developed timing solutions based on silicon micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology that exhibit better electromagnetic noise rejection and better performance under shock and vibration. In this paper, we first discuss the design and manufacturing of the MEMS-based device, with emphasis on the specific design aspects that improve reliability and resilience in harsh automotive environments.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1073
Tobias Rosvall, Ola Stenlaas
The topic of this paper is improved estimation of crank angle, based on pulse signals from an induction sensor placed on the flywheel of a heavy duty DI engine. The motivation for the study was the many calculations and actuator actions in the crank angle domain conducted by engine management systems. Most of these calculations and actions benefit from an improved accuracy of the crank angle measurement. To estimate the crank angle degree the torque balance on the crankshaft was used. This torque balance was based on Newtons second law. The resulting acceleration was integrated to give engine speed and crank angle position. The described approach was studied for two crankshaft models: A rigid crankshaft approach and a lumped mass model, the latter having the benefit of being able to capture the torsional effects of the crankshaft twisting and bending due to torques acting on it.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1070
Gopichandra Surnilla, Richard Soltis, James Hilditch, Christopher House, Timothy Clark, Matthew Gerhart
Traditional EGR measurement systems using delta pressure over a fixed orifice such as a DPFE sensor (Delta Pressure Feedback for EGR), have limitations in the ability to measure EGR accurately. Also, the pressure drop that results from the orifice may not be acceptable in some applications. To measure the EGR accurately and without any pressure loss, a new measurement system was developed that uses an oxygen sensor in the intake air. In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. The paper details the EGR measurement principle with an oxygen sensor and the associated mathematical relations of translating the oxygen measurement to EGR measurement. Factors affecting the EGR measurement such as the air/fuel ratio of the EGR, intake air pressure, and diffusion effects of the EGR constituents are discussed in detail. Compensation mechanisms are explained and associated results shown.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1028
Qinqing Chen, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Qiwei WANG, Qi Chen, Si Liu
In this paper, the matching of turbocharger and engine was studied base on a domestic 1.5 L gasoline engine, and the numerical simulation of the waste-gate valve opening diameter was calculated. The main research contents and results are summarized as follows: (1)Different exhaust bypass valve actuators were compared and analyzed, the results show that the electric motor actuator can be better matched in all conditions of engine, so the electric motor actuator have more development prospects than the solenoid pneumatic actuator which is the mainstream now. (2)A 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine simulation model was established by GT-Power, and the performance of external characteristic combined with the actual test data values were calibrated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1114
Jinsung Kim
A dry clutch is vulnerable to judder phenomenon which is caused by variations in the vehicle load condition and frictional material properties. Such a problem may lead to the stick-slip limit cycle that results in undesired longitudinal vibrations of vehicles. The amplitude of vibrations is detected by the signal conditioning from the measurements with the transmission input shaft spend and the wheel speed sensors. Based upon this, a perturbation is applied additionally on the nominal launch controller to make the drive shaft oscillation vanish. It can be achieved by the control design without any extra hardware cost. Finally, experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1547
Jun Yin, Xinbo Chen, Lixin Wu, Jianqin Li
Traditional active suspension which is equipped with hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator features slow response and high power consumption. However, electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits quick response and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. To design a novel active and energy regenerative suspension utilized electromagnetic actuator, this paper analyze the benchmark cars available on the market, and concludes the target cars which are possible to be equipped with electromagnetic actuated active suspension in the future. And the suspension structure of the target cars are analyzed. Compared the linear type and rotary type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the rotary type is selected to construct the actuator of the active suspension. And the traditional mechanisms to transfer the linear motion of the suspension to the rotation motion of the rotary type PMSM are analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1553
Akihito Yamamoto, Wataru Tanaka, Takafumi Makino, Shunya Tanaka, Ken Tahara
In recent years, semi active suspension systems which are energy saving and low cost have already been adopted in various vehicles to improve ride comfort and vehicle controllability. At the same time, various reports have been published that examine the control laws for ride comfort using these systems. Controlling ride comfort with semi active suspension systems, it is necessary to estimate the suspension stroke velocity. There are researches of the observer using suspension stroke sensor and vertical acceleration sensor on sprung mass. However, there are researches of the observer using vertical acceleration sensor on un-sprung mass to develop the simple and low cost semi active suspension systems too. The study described in this paper aim to further enhance the estimation precision of the suspension stroke velocity using the vertical acceleration sensor on the un-sprung mass.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0572
Stephanie Stockar, Marcello Canova, Baitao Xiao, Wengang Dai, Julia Buckland
Engine downsizing and boosting, coupled with variable valve actuation, have become an industry standard for reducing CO2 emissions in current production vehicles. Because of the increasing complexity and number of degrees of freedom, the design of control algorithms for the air path system actuators has become a difficult and time consuming process, often involving extensive calibration on engine dynamometers. One possibility to cut the control development time and significantly reduce the time required to bring novel technologies into production is using Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) methods. In the case of the engine air path control problem, SIL simulation tools typically rely on mean-value models, which are not able to predict wave propagation effects in the engine intake and exhaust system. On the other hand, one-dimensional wave action models are characterized by significant complexity and high computation times, preventing their application to SIL and control system verification.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1072
Peter Schaal, Byron Mason, Sotiris Filippou, Ioannis souflas, Mark Cary
The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines an ultra-fast thermocouple with an input reconstruction technique in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature phenomena in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied for use on larger diameter thermocouples but have not been applied to ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouples to investigate cyclic intake temperature behaviour. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0473
Muthukumar Arunachalam, Arunkumar S, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum, Beverly Katz
Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for functioning of passive safety systems precisely and thus directly related to overall vehicle level performance. Most of these sensors and modules are needed to be mounted on vehicle body at locations like pillar or even directly on panels based on its safety functionality and packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior might directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence the sufficient inertance performance level at sensor mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules to meet the vibrational target requirement. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu vallabhaneni, Munenori shinada, Kazuto Sato
Active hood system helps in increasing the space between the hood inner and the engine compartment by pushing the hood upwards during a pedestrian impact. Such systems should detect all the pedestrian impacts ranging from 6YO-child to 95th%-male. To carry out rational sensor evaluation tests, a pedestrian detection impactor (PDI-2) was developed to represent the hard to detect pedestrian. To shorten the time of total experimental verification cycle and to increase the efficiency of the sensor simulation logic, a PDI-2 FE model was developed as accurately as possible to match the physical entities such as CG, weight and inertia properties. It is then evaluated with two standard pendulum tests; the results have good correlation with the physical tests. Vehicles with different sensor configurations were impacted with PDI-2 and pedestrian human models of different size & postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0100
Sushant Kishor Hingane
The high-end vehicles with latest technology and autonomous driving experience have to bear the cost of increasing number of sensors on-board. It would prove to be the most beneficial to reduce some of the sensors in vehicle and make use of other available resources, retaining the same functionality. This paper discusses a technique of estimating the weight of seat occupant from an already existing DC motor; without using additional pressure sensors. Passenger weight information is important for seat-belt reminder system as well as supplementary restrain system that will decide the air-bag deployment. A mathematical model for a series-type DC motor is developed and simulated using MATLAB. Further, results are shared of the lab experiment performed on a lower capacity motor and verified with the simulation results. Along with the comparison of the simulated data and sensor set-up results, a concluding linear relation is formulated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1113
Thorsten Arndt, Alex Tarasow, Christian Bohn, Guido Wachsmuth, Roland Serway
Higher demands on comfort and efficiency require a continuous improvement of the shift progress. During the launch and shift progress the clutch control is used to get a smooth and efficient behavior. In this short time of acting the shifting behavior can be rated. Many control concepts use a clutch characteristic to calculate the actuator signal based on the clutch torque. Therefore, a high quality of this characteristic is necessary. Because of the dynamic process during clutch engagement the clutch characteristic needs further information to reach a high accuracy for the control algorithm. In this paper an existing clutch torque characteristic is extended to a characteristic map where the clutch torque becomes a function of the current pressure in the clutch and the clutch slip. The extension of the torque characteristic describes the slip based dependencies, e.g. the friction coefficient.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1115
Thomas Huth, Stefan Pischinger
The demand for lower CO2 emissions requires more than an optimization of every single component but the complete system. Therefore not only the transmission has to be optimized but also the interaction of powertrain components. For the widely spread automatic transmission the main losses are caused by the actuation system, which can be reduced with an on-demand actuation system. In this paper a new on-demand electro-mechanical actuation with validation results on a clutch test bench is presented. The electro-mechanical actuator shows simulation an increase of the efficiency by 4.1 % compared to the conventional hydraulic actuation in the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle). This increase is based on the powerless end positions of the actuator (engaged and disengaged clutch). The thermal tension and wear are compensated with a disk spring. This allows a stable control over service life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1458
Ryuta Ono, Wataru Ike, Yuki Fukaya
We have developed for packaged safety system called Toyota Safety Sense P to deal with various type of accident based on accident analysis. Based on accident analysis, we developed five functions which are Pre-collision system (PCS) to deal with rear-end collision, pedestrian PCS to deal with pedestrian accident included under crossing, Lane Departure Alert(LDA) to assist deviating accident on a road, Automatic high beam(AHB) to assist ensuring the forward visibility, Adaptive Cruise Control(ACC) to reduce drivers operating load. “Toyota Safety Sense P” has been developed and formed as one package. These functions have been equipped optionally so far, however we aim TSS P to spread extensively by packaging five functions with a set. It is very important a technology to detect a danger of accident in this safety system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0096
Daniel Pachner, Jaroslav Beran, Jonathan Tigelaar
By 2019 Honeywell have predicted annual sales of 49 Million turbocharged vehicles, of which less than 5% will be equipped with a physical turbo speed sensor. As Turbo speed is correlated with engine power, OEMs are facing a tradeoff between limiting the maximum turbocharger speed and maximizing the engine power. To ensure safe operation in the field OEMs introduce significant engineering margins to the turbocharger maximum speed limit. The accurate estimation of turbocharger speed can help reduce these margins. To address this Honeywell and Jaquet studied the feasibility of a virtual turbo speed sensor which would provide on-ECU real-time speed estimation using measured data from sets of heterogeneous physical sensors. At first, sources of speed uncertainty are investigated based on a set of sensors. A combination of physical mean value engine modeling with linear optimization techniques are used to calculate the turbo speed estimates.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1453
I-Hsuan Lee, Bi-Cheng Luan
Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems is one of the functions of the Advanced Driver Assists System to avoid or mitigate vehicle frontal collisions. Most of the previous studies focus on two-car scenario where the host vehicle monitors the distances to the vehicles in front, and automatically applies emergency brake when a collision is imminent. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Advanced-AEB control system that mitigates collisions in a multi-car scenario by computing the Time-to-Collision (TTC) to the vehicles in front as well as those to the vehicles behind using the concept of impedance control. A simple gain-scheduling PI controller was designed for the host vehicle to track the reference inputs generated by the impedance control. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AEB is effective in mitigating the collisions in a 3-car following scenario.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0215
Amey Y. Karnik, Adrian Fuxman, Phillip Bonkoski, Mrdjan Jankovic, Jaroslav Pekar
The use of advanced cooling system actuators and control for improving vehicle fuel efficiency has been gaining significant attention. In addition to scheduling the actuators for fast powertrain warmup, the thermal management system can also contribute to improving fuel economy by operating the powertrain system at elevated coolant temperatures which reduces friction and improves thermal efficiency. Operating at elevated temperatures increases the risk of temperature constraint violation in presence for fast changing disturbances, such as changes in combustion heat load, vehicle speed or demanded cabin heat, can increase the risk of temperature constraint violation. An advanced cooling system with appropriate management strategy is required that uses active devices to allow greater flexibility in managing engine temperatures and operating near constraints.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0957
Patrick Schrangl, Roman Schmied, Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re, Bernhard Ramsebner, Christoph Reiter
Abatement and control of emissions from passenger car combustion engines have been in the focus for a long time. Nevertheless, advancements in emission legislation and engine control both enable and require further improvements and application of new techniques. To address upcoming real world emission targets, knowledge of current engine emissions is crucial. Still, adequate sensors for transient emissions are seldom available in production engines. One way to address this issue is applying virtual sensors which utilize already available sensor information in an ECU to provide estimates of not measured emissions. For real world application it is important that the virtual sensor works in varying environmental and operating conditions and here the choice of input variables can have a strong impact. In this work a method to set up virtual sensors by means of DOE and iterative identification of polynomial models is extended to address varying conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0943
Paul Ragaller, Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, Natarajan Gunasekaran, Jason Warkins, Ryan Wilhelm
Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors. The systems were tested on a range of light- and heavy-duty applications, which included on- and off-road engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0454
Hongyu Zheng, Shenao Ma
As a new braking system, EHB can significantly improve the braking performance and vehicle handling and stability. A number of factors impacts the EHB system characteristics, wheel cylinder pressure are regulated by in-solenoid and out-solenoid valve, the dynamic response of the control strategy will impact the accuracy of wheel cylinder pressure greatly. In this paper the structure of high-speed on-off valve and the valve core principle are discussed, the paper also analysis the response of the valve core under different modulation frequency and duty cycle and the change of wheel cylinder pressure. Setting a proper modulation frequency to make sure that electromagnetic valve can be worked in a greater linear range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0099
Deepak Venkatesh, Arockia Selvakumar
The concept of camless engines enables us to optimize the overall engine efficiency and performance, as it provides great flexibility in valve timing and valve displacement. This paper deals with design of camless engines with pneumatic actuator. The main objective of this research is to build a prototype and test its performance at different engine speeds. Also an extensive research on the sensors is done to detect the various sensors that could be used to identify the crankshaft position. In addition the overview of the proposed camless engine system is focused with the design principles and the components used. The developed pneumatic system is capable of actuating at 1500 rpm and demonstrates the ability of pneumatic actuators to be used in an internal combustion engine with low rpm needs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0102
Michael Ludwig, Martin Rieder, Marco Wolf
The intent to reduce CO2-emssions and the necessity to assess the emission levels of car engines have resulted in implementation of the new European drive cycle (NEDC). To underrun targeted threshold values in the NEDC, an electrification of cars is inevitable. Different concepts, e.g. mild- and micro-hybrid, as well as plug-in hybrid approaches, are capable to achieve the target of 90g/km. What all these technologies have in common is that they are based on an electric engine which has to be commutated. Design examples comprise Belt-Driven Starter Generators, Integrated Starter Generators, or stand-alone electric motors. Rotor-position sensors (RPS) are used within these machines to gain the angle information of the rotor, and therefore this angle-information is directly linked to robustness and performance of the electric powertrain. The intent of this paper is the generation of an overview of different sensor technologies suitable for rotor-position measurement.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0146
Yonghwan Jeong, Seonwook Kim, Kyongsu Yi, Sangyong Lee, ByeongRim Jo
This paper represents the parking lot occupancy detection algorithm and the parking control algorithm for autonomous valet parking system. With the assumption that the global parking map exists, the occupancy of the parking space is measured using a two-dimensional Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensor mounted at each side of front bumper. The Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) method is used to cluster the point information from LIDAR. The global parking map includes all parking lots and access road. The proposed parking control algorithm consists of a desired path generation, a path tracking controller, and a parking process controller. At first, route points of the desired path are determined under the consideration of the minimum turning radius and minimum safety margin with near parking spaces. The desired path is generated by connecting straight lines and arcs between pre-determined route points.
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