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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2728
Paul C. Cain
OEM benefit: Vehicle manufacturers desire continuous feedback in monitoring key safety sub-assemblies. In this application, engineers are calculating the remaining brake pad life by monitoring the current thickness of the brake pad friction material. This information is used in scheduling preventative maintenance activities and avoiding safety incidents. Unplanned machine down time and field repair costs in earthmoving equipment is cost prohibitive. This technology allows OEM's to have high confidence, continuous feedback on this critical vehicle safety feature avoiding expensive, unplanned repairs and improving field "up time" performance. Application challenge: Developing a reliable linear position sensor that is suitable for continuous monitoring of brake pad material thickness in a high pressure, high temperature, high vibration and contaminated environments typical of large construction (earthmoving) vehicles.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2698
Guirong Zhuo, Subin Zhang
In this paper, a novel Electromechanical Brake actuator (EMB) is redesigned aimed at an electric vehicle driven by wheel hub motor. The two way ball screw is adopted in this mechanism. Clearance automatic adjustment and parking braking function is added in this mechanism. As a consequence, fast braking response is achieved and the wear difference of the inner and outer pads can be minimized and the initial braking force can also be improved. The electric vehicle is based on a traditional chassis. In this electric vehicle which driven by wheel hub motor, the brake disc and brake actuator will be correspondingly moved inside because wheel hub motor will take up inner space of wheel hub. As a result, the actuator might interfere with the suspension and steering systems and influence hard spot of chassis design. To solve this problem, conversely installed caliper program is used in this paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2702
Chihoon Jo, Jaeseung Cheon, Jongsung Kim, Yongsik Kwon
The EMB converts the electric set values into clamping forces at the brakes through an independent motor control at each wheel. EMB systems are now being developed by automobile part suppliers. In particular, as the market share of electrically powered vehicles, such as hybrid electric vehicles, elctric vehicle and fuelcell elctric vehicle, has expanded, the EMB makes it possible to recuperate the braking energy in the overall control loop of the braking unit, even in electrically powered vehicles. However, in order to commercialize, the EMB has many problems such as production competitiveness, reliability and regulations. A new concept, the Hybrid Electro-Mechanical Brake(hEMB) is characterized by a dual piston structure linked by hydraulics inside of the caliper. It is possible to reduce motor, actuator size and backup system in emergency through amplification of dual piston.[1] The hEMB is composed of caliper system, dual piston, screw, BLAC type motor and actuator.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0023
Shaikh Imran Munaf Pinjari
The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of three phase induction motor that feeds from LV side of distribution transformer and auto recloser operates on the HV side of the same transformer. Due operating cycle (0.2s-10s-13s) of recloser motor subjected to single phasing for a moment as it open the line & again closes the line the induction motor may be stalled or ride though as reported in recent literature. As per recent literature the 10 hp star connected loaded three phase induction motor connected to delta star distribution transformer is stalled during second closing sequence (0.2s-10s-13s). The symmetrical component theory is applied and performance of induction motor discuss in three condition 1) Operation of at steady state condition 2) During single phasing due to auto recloser operation.3) During stalled or Locked rotor condition.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0024
Amit Kumar Singh, Praveen Kumar, C Upendra Reddy, Kashyap Prabhakar
This paper presents the development of a cosimulation platform of induction motor direct torque control drive. This paper provides advanced modeling and simulation tool for induction motor drive. The proposed simulation platform allows a coupled analysis that links finite element analysis (FEA) with the simplorer for the more realistics simulation, analysis and validation. With the help of finite element analysis method (FEM), a three phase induction motor is simulated to obtain the flux-linkage vs. current curve. Thereafter, the constant magnetizing inductance is replaced by the new inductance which is a function of current. The obtained improved model is configured in MATALB/Simulink. In this paper, comparision between the Matlab/simulink and Ansys Maxwell simplorer cosimulation is done based on the direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0021
Amar Singh, Bhupesh Agrawal, Umesh Bisen, Jim Shoemaker, Grant Shane
As the significance of emission regulation and the need of energy efficiency are increasing the need of hybrid vehicles is going-up. The integral part of hybrid vehicle architecture is high power density IPM machines but thermal management is key design criteria of these motors. These motors can be either air or oil cooled based on the power rating and losses generated in machine at operating points. In oil cooled machines, achieving optimum oil flow rates in critical regions at different speeds of the rotor is a major challenge in designing an electric motor. As the rotor speeds reach high values to about 10,000rpm the oil flow prediction from different rotor shaft bores becomes increasingly difficult due to significant centrifugal effects at such speeds at these bores. This paper discusses in detail the analysis methodology to predict the oil flow behavior from two parallel circuits namely the rotor and the stator up to high speeds of rotor.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0022
Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Tanmoy Dey, Kaushik Mukherjee, Narayan Kar
Understanding the merits of six-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IP-MSMs) over their three-phase counterparts, this paper analyses the six-phase machine for optimal parameter and performance considerations. Initially, mathematical model of the six-phase IPMSM is developed employing the dq-axis theory and performance predicted by the model is verified under identical operating conditions with those using a machine designed and tested through finite element analysis (FEA). The developed and verified machine model is then employed to exclusively derive the relation between various machine parameters in order to obtain optimum flux weakening region in the six-phase IPMSM.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0027
Shashikiran HK, Bhupesh Agrawal, Jim Shoemaker
With high elevation in magnet prices in recent times, switched reluctance machine (SRM) are gaining importance, due to the simple and rugged construction, low cost, and ability to operate over a wide speed range at constant power. SR machine operates due to the variable reluctance in the air gap, hence displays a highly nonlinear inductance behavior. This makes it impossible to carry out predictions that are accurate with liner formulations. Consequently, it becomes necessary to use the finite element method (FEM), which can handle nonlinear magnetic properties in material and minute geometry and also transient currents. This paper will discuss the virtual modeling and verification procedure established for SR machine to confirm the dynamic drive characteristics including the losses in the machine, at different switch timing w.r.t. operating speed. Keywords: Switched reluctance machine (SRM), Dynamic drive characteristics
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0028
Amit Kumar Singh, C Upendra Reddy, Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, Praveen Kumar
Induction motors are presently used in many electric vehicle applications. As a result, their control methods have received a lot of attention. One of the efficient method of induction motor control is the direct torque control (DTC). In this paper, a design method for direct torque control of induction motor has been developed. A Verilog hardware description language is used to implement the developed DTC model on Nexys 2 FPGA kit. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) has many coherent advantages such as fast response, reliable, flexible,robust against load variations and programmable architecture. The same algorithm is designed and simulated using Matlab/simulink tool to make comparison with the designed model on FPGA which shows reduction in flux and torque ripples. Also, the simulated results are validated experimentally.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0025
Guang-Il Jeong, Zhenyao Xu, Donghee Lee, Jin-Woo Ahn
This paper presents a novel single-phase 4/4 poles hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor(SRM) intended for high speed operation used in hammer drill. This single-phase hybrid SRM with special non-uniform air-gap design is driven by the simplest converter, unipolar converter, which allows the motor to operate at high speed with low switching loss. Compare with the conventional single-phase SRM, it has an increased torque density and relatively low torque ripple by properly making use of the cogging torque generated by permanent magnets. The proposed hybrid SRM design has the self-start capability due to the parking function of permanent magnets. To verify the effectiveness of the design, finite element analysis software (ANSOFT) is employed to get the electrical characteristics of the proposed motor. Based on the analysis, a prototype motor is manufactured and operated to catch the experimental results.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0031
Kamalakannan Durairaju, Krishna Vasudevan, Varada Iyengar Narayanan, N S Ramanathan
The proposed concept in this paper is about how to achieve flux control at higher speeds in automotive alternators with PM rotors. The use of high energy magnet (NdFeB) in the rotor helps to achieve high power density and high efficiency in the alternator. The PM flux control at high speed is done by implementing a mechanical flux weakening arrangement which uses a simple worm wheel and DC motor to perform this phenomenon of flux control. The open circuit performance of standard claw pole alternator for different field currents at various speeds has been predicted. The components of the mechanical arrangement which has been used for achieving rotation have been discussed. Further, a suitable variable flux permanent magnet machine (VFPM) is designed with the same dimensions as that of the standard claw pole machine. The open circuit performance of VFPM is predicted and is compared with the conventional machine.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0026
Shailendra Kumar Gupta, Rakesh Srivastava, Som Nath Mahendra
The paper has been written focusing on stand-alone renewable energy based generation. Dual stator permanent magnet synchronous generator has been taken as an alternative to self-exited induction generator for stand-alone projects. The paper discusses the construction details, operating principle and feasibility studies of a dual stator permanent magnet synchronous generator in stand-alone renewable energy generation. In wind power, fresh water or sewage water stream based power generation, the turbine is driven at variable speed causing either over voltage or under voltage. The paper utilizes the principle of induction regulation for voltage control. Such controllers for dual stator permanent magnet synchronous generator has not been proposed yet. Use of Induction regulator could make the renewable generation free of any electronic component(converters) making the system affordable in remote areas though permanent magnets have been used.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0032
Bhupesh Agrawal, Jim Shoemaker, Shashikiran HK
Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) Synchronous Motors are considered as good candidate for hybrid electric vehicle traction drive application due to their unique merits like high power density, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. It is very critical for an IPM machine design to have less torque ripple, iron losses, high power density and high efficiency but these critical performance parameters are sensitive to design parameters. It is critical to understand the sensitivity of airgap, magnet angle and base speed on the performance of IPM Machine. A study was carried out by varying these parameters and variations in the critical performance parameters are reported in this paper. A design guideline is proposed to help designers in their approach to achieve the optimal design of IPM motors.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0029
Makarand M. Kane, Naga Chaithanya, Kishor Bodnapu
With the advent of NEMMP (National Electric Mobility Mission Plan), increase in both production and demand of hybrid and electric vehicles is expected in coming years. Mild hybrid vehicles (MHV) are sought as one of the most plausible options among alternative-fuel-vehicles. There are two prime goals behind development of MHV – a) increase in fuel efficiency b) maintaining overall low cost of vehicle. The present work has considered a vehicle in small car segment as pilot vehicle. In the pilot-vehicle, electric power is used for threefold applications – a) eliminating idling energy losses with regenerative braking b) engine cranking and c) assisting engine during peak power demand. Thus, this application poses special requirements of starting torque and peak power – the starting torque being as high as 4 times the rated torque and extended range of peak power region.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0030
Kamalakannan Durairaju, Krishna Vasudevan, Varada Iyengar Narayanan, N S Ramanathan
Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) are being used in numerous applications. Some of requirements need a single machine to operate, below and above the rated speeds. As there is no direct field control method in a permanent magnet (PM) rotor, injection of negative direct axis current is done to implement a flux weakening, which in turn, helps to achieve speeds beyond the rated speed. An alternative method for flux weakening is of great interest currently and different variable flux permanent magnet (VFPM) configurations have been studied. A new method of VFPM arrangement is proposed in this paper. Further, the design of components associated with VFPM assembly is also discussed. The performance comparison of conventional PMSM and VFPM is carried out. With the help of variable flux arrangement, operating speed of machine is extended to 2600 rpm from 1100 rpm. Further very good improvement in power factor and efficiency is observed in variable flux arrangement.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0035
Mukund Kulkarni, Saravanan Meenatchi Sundaram, Vinten Diwakar
There is currently a trend in the automotive industry to replace combustion engines with electric motors or a combination of an electric motor and a combustion engine, thereby substantially reducing the environmental impact of automobiles by reducing or completely eliminating car emissions. In this paper various strategies for positioning of smoke sensor within the battery pack assembly for smoke detection are deliberated. Proper placement of the smoke sensor results in two important design objectives: to detect smoke as soon as the fire ignition and to achieve full coverage by using a minimum number of sensors. The challenge lied in designing and development of a suitable smoke sensor which meets stringent vehicular dynamic applications such as varying ambient operating temperatures, humidity, vibrations, mechanical shock, dust, etc. As the active fire protection is getting more and more important for electric vehicles in general and more so in battery pack assembly.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0033
Arindam Das, Anirban Konwar, Ankit Dalal, Praveen Kumar
Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are increasingly being used for electrical vehicle application due to their high torque density. Performance of interior magnet PMSM motor depends on the magnet shape and the flux guides in the rotor. Rotor surface profiling affects the reluctance in the machines thus changes the direct (Ld) and quadrature (Lq) axes inductances of the motor. Effects of different magnet configuration, rotor surface profiling and variations in flux guides on important performance parameters like output torque, torque ripple and cogging torque have been investigated in this paper. PMSM motor used in Toyota Prius 2004 has been used as standard motor. Total magnet volume in the motor has been kept constant to ensure that the change in the performance of the motor is only due to the factors under investigation. Change in direct and quadrature axes inductances with the change in rotor configurations are also reported in the paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0034
Rakesh Roy, Ankit Dalal, Praveen Kumar
The main objective of this paper is to perform the steady state analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) to check their behaviour and to analyze its controllability and suitability for Electric Vehicle applications. Based on the rated power of the machine, battery ratings are chosen. According to that maximum current will be derived, which will give maximum torque. From the maximum torque, the base speed is determined. The minimum torque reference will come as a ratio of maximum torque. From the speed-torque characteristics that minimum torque will give the maximum speed of the motor. So, from the overall analysis, the usable area of speed-torque characteristics of PMSM is determined. This process is done for different PMSM of different geometry and the controllability and suitability for Electric Vehicle applications are compared for all models.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0148
C Upendra Reddy, Amit Kumar Singh, Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, Praveen Kumar
This paper presents an overview of different integration techniques for voltage model flux estimation in a direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor. The stator flux linkage is estimated by integrating the terminal voltage minus stator voltage drop. The dc offset at the input of integrator occurs due to use of feedback current sensors. Even a small dc offset at the input signal of integrator causes the output to ramp signal, due to which the estimation of flux and sector selection are incorrect. The basic integration technique used for estimation of flux is backward Euler integration method. The experimental verification of different integration techniques for voltage model flux estimation in a direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor using DSpace 1103 is presented in full paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0151
Riaz Ahamed, Suraj Gopalakrishnan, Koorma Rao Vavilapalli, Abhijit V.P.
This paper presents the design optimization & detailed analysis of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor (IPM) with different rotor topology of permanent magnets for low cost-high performance traction applications such as electric vehicles. The analysis & validation of motor design is done with Finite Element Analysis in addition to analytical methods employed at rudimentary stages of motor design. The design involves embedding of low cost multi-layer non- rare earth permanent magnets with/without a combination of a layer or two of rare earth magnet. The design affords better performance characteristics such as high torque density, higher efficiency and lower cogging torque attributed to multi layer permanent magnet orientation & V-shaped configuration of permanent magnets. The design also takes into consideration of harmonics & other losses in the motor. The manufacturing feasibility and constraints in prototyping & mass production of motor are focused in this paper.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0150
Naveen Kumar Byregowda
The Yield monitoring systems are the part of precision agriculture products. The yield monitoring system consist of Global positioning system (GPS) to measure the speed and the position of the vehicle. Along with GPS, Mass Flow sensors are used to get the information of the Harvested grain flow rate. By combining GPS and mass flow sensor makes yield monitoring system. A simple inductive type impact based mass flow sensor is constructed using simple steel plate and the PCB printed coil. The impact versus impedance and impact versus frequency response have been studied. The aim of the sensor development is to reduce the calibration parameters in the process of measuring Mass flow. The paper discuss about the results of the frequency and impedance changes with respect to the known impact range of the grain. Also the paper deals with the material material selection and the building of the sensor.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0164
Riaz Ahamed, Koorma Rao Vavilapalli, Abhijit V.P., Clement Jones, Suraj Gopalakrishnan
In design of electric traction motor, temperature rise in the motor plays a crucial role in determining the performance characteristics of the motor. The operating life of any motor is dependent on its primary and secondary insulation capability. The life of insulation depends on losses in a motor which contributes to the temperature rise. This paper presents the encapsulation (potting) process carried out on traction motor with different epoxy based potting materials and mass production feasibility are also focused. The encapsulation process affords better heat transfer from the coils to the frame enhancing winding rigidity, create total protection against moisture and prevent corrosion thereby improving the performance and life of the traction motors in applications such as electric vehicles. This process enables entire stator winding to be filled with encapsulation material without air bubbles to avoid thermal hotspots.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0168
Rahul Kumar Singh
Atmega16 is a 8-bit micro-controller which has many function like timer, interrupt, ADC, etc. Atmega16 has one 16-bit timer and two 8-bit timer. By hardware PWM, we can only control 4 servos by using 2 8-bit timers and splitting 16bit timer in 2 8-bit timers. A 8-bit timer gives an approximate resolution of 14 degrees per count which is not satisfactory for high precision robotic application. This project aims at extending the control of servos upto 30 for Atmega16 by bit-banging. The main advantage of this servo controller is that it uses 16-timer which gives it a resolution of about .045 degrees per count which is a good resolution. The Servo Controller uses a heavy call of interrupts. It receives data in form of ID of servo and Angle given to it ending with a end of transmission data.Data is sent to Servo Controller by the uses of UART protocol. Because of that instead of converting all 32 GPIO pins into producing PWM only 30 pin are only used for PWM generation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2470
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini, Alessandro Gardi
Cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) functions are key enablers for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2499
Perla Maiolino, Richard A. J. Woolley, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract The assembly and manufacture of aerospace structures, in particular legacy products, relies in many cases on the skill, or rather the craftsmanship, of a human operator. Compounded by low volume rates, the implementation of a fully automated production facility may not be cost effective. A more efficient solution may be a mixture of both manual and automated operations but herein lies an issue of human error when stepping through the build from a manual operation to an automated one. Hence the requirement for an advanced automated assembly system to contain functionality for inline structural quality checking. Machine vision, used most extensively in manufacturing, is an obvious choice, but existing solutions tend to be application specific with a closed software development architecture.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2455
Roshen Jay Jaswantlal, Piergiovanni Marzocca, Rafael Palacios
Abstract The implementation of Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provides a safe test-bed for analysis of improved performance, in the hope of certification of this technology on commercial aircraft in the future. The use of high resolution numerical methods (i.e. CFD) to capture the details of the effects of SJAs on flows and on the hosting lifting surface are computationally expensive and time-consuming, which renders them ineffective for use in real-time flow control implementations. Suitable alternatives include the use of Reduced Order Models (ROMs) to capture the lower resolution overall effects of the jets on the flow and the hosting structure. This research paper analyses the effects of SJAs on aircraft wings using a ROM for the purpose of determining the unsteady aerodynamic forces modified by the presence of the SJAs. The model developed is a 3D unsteady panel code where the jets are represented by source panels.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2395
Vikhyat Chaudhry, Ishan Mishra
This paper describes the ZENITH Nano-Satellite cum planetary atmospheric entry vehicle, called CanSat, the first Nano-Satellite project that has been developed by Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), India. The satellite will function for monitoring the concentrations of various gases in the atmosphere. For this, the satellite consists of arduino microcontroller interfaced with the various Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gas sensors for measuring the concentrations of various gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, etc. The data obtained from the CanSat will be transmitted to the ground station where all the data will be stored and also the locations will be stored using GPS sensor. The academic goal of this project is to recruit students to the field of space science and technology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2413
Anngwo Wang, Jonathan Davies, Seth Gitnes, Lotfi El-Bayoumy
The instantaneous efficiency of an epicyclic geared rotary actuator is an important factor in sizing flight control systems where compound epicyclic gear trains are typically used. The efficiency variation can be smooth or fluctuating depending on the combination and timing of the teeth of ring gears, planet gears and sun gears. In a previous paper [1], the instantaneous efficiency characteristics of actuators with symmetric planets were investigated. The actuator’s reacting forces on the planets are symmetric and the overall length of the planet gears will not affect the efficiency. In this paper, a cantilever actuator with asymmetric planet gears is studied. The length and location of the reaction forces on the planet gears are key factors in the efficiency calculation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2453
Danilo Andreoli, Mario Cassaro, Manuela Battipede, Goodarz Ahmadi, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract Flow control over aerodynamic shapes in order to achieve performance enhancements has been a lively research area for last two decades. Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) are devices able to interact actively with the flow around their hosting structure by providing ejection and suction of fluid from the enclosed cavity containing a piezo-electric oscillating membrane through dedicated orifices. The research presented in this paper concerns the implementation of zero-net-mass-flux SJAs airflow control system on a NACA0015, low aspect ratio wing section prototype. Two arrays with each 10 custom-made SJAs, installed at 10% and 65% of the chord length, make up the actuation system. The sensing system consists of eleven acoustic pressure transducers distributed in the wing upper surface and on the flap, an accelerometer placed in proximity of the wing c.g. and a six-axis force balance for integral load measurement.
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