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2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1844
Jonathan Millitzer, Dirk Mayer, Roman Kraus, Matthias Schmidt
Abstract Current developments in the automotive industry such as downsizing, the use of cylinder deactivation and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise and vibration in vehicles. In the past few years, different configurations of actuators and sensors for the realization of an active control system have been investigated and evaluated experimentally. Active engine mounts, inertial mass actuators and structural integrated actuators can be used to reduce either structural vibrations or the interior noise level. As a result, a variety of different topology concepts for the realization of an active control system arises. These can be divided into an active vibration control scenario, the direct influence of the sound field with loudspeakers or the application of structural actuators for the reduction of the interior sound pressure.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1836
Sylvestre Lecuru, Pascal Bouvet, Jean-Louis Jouvray, Shanjin Wang
Abstract The recent use of electric motors for vehicle propulsion has stimulated the development of numerical methodologies to predict their noise and vibration behavior. These simulations generally use models based on an ideal electric motor. But sometimes acceleration and noise measurements on electric motors show unexpected harmonics that can generate acoustic issues. These harmonics are mainly due to the deviation of the manufactured parts from the nominal dimensions of the ideal machine. The rotor eccentricities are one of these deviations with an impact on acoustics of electric motors. Thus, the measurement of the rotor eccentricity becomes relevant to understand the phenomenon, quantify the deviation and then to use this data as an input in the numerical models. An innovative measurement method of rotor eccentricities using fiber optic displacement sensors is proposed.
2016-04-22
WIP Standard
ARP6904
In order to realize the benefits of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) within the aerospace and defense industry there is a need to address five critical elements of data interoperability within and across the aircraft maintenance ecosystem, namely • Approach • Trust • Context • Value • Security In Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) data interoperability is the ability of different authorized components, systems, IT, software, applications and organizations to securely communicate, exchange data, interpret data, use the information and derive consistent insight from the data that has been exchanged to derive value.
2016-04-19
WIP Standard
J1843
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a common electrical and mechanical interface specification that can be used to design electronic accelerator pedal position sensors and electronic control systems for use in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1566
Liangyao Yu, Xiaoxue Liu, Kefeng Yang, Xiaohui Liu, Shuhao Huo
This paper focuses on reviewing the existing studies of in-tire energy harvesting systems. Energy harvesting systems are widely applied in different areas. But studies in the application of energy harvesters embedded in tires for vehicle control are still rare, most of which focus on solving the problem of power supply of tire pressure sensors. Traditionally the sensors are powered by an embedded battery, which must be changed periodically due to the limited energy storage. Furthermore, the number of in-tire sensors will increase as safety of vehicles has drawn more attention, requiring more in tire electricity supply. So a substitution of the battery, the in-tire energy harvesting system, is worth studying. Currently introduced methods of in-tire energy harvesting principles include piezoelectric, electromagnetic and electrostatic. The source of the energy can be in tire vibration, deformation, rotation and so on.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1191
Saher Al Shakhshir, Torsten Berning
Abstract Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom backup units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste heat. One critical technical problem of these fuel cells is still the water management: the proton exchange membrane in the center of these fuel cells has to be hydrated in order to stay proton-conductive while on the other hand excessive liquid water can lead to cell flooding and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1070
Gopichandra Surnilla, Richard Soltis, James Hilditch, Christopher House, Timothy Clark, Matthew Gerhart
Abstract Traditional EGR measurement systems using delta pressure over a fixed orifice such as a DPFE sensor (Delta Pressure Feedback for EGR), have limitations in the ability to measure EGR accurately. Also, the pressure drop that results from the orifice may not be acceptable in some applications. To measure the EGR accurately and without any pressure loss, a new measurement system was developed that uses an oxygen sensor in the intake air. In this paper, the technology of using an oxygen sensor to measure the EGR concentration is discussed. The paper details the EGR measurement principle with an oxygen sensor and the associated mathematical relations of translating the oxygen measurement to EGR measurement. Factors affecting the EGR measurement such as the air/fuel ratio of the EGR, intake air pressure, and diffusion effects of the EGR constituents are discussed in detail. Compensation mechanisms are explained and associated results shown.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1072
Peter Schaal, Byron Mason, Sotiris Filippou, Ioannis Souflas, Mark Cary
Abstract The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines a fine-wire thermocouple with input reconstruction in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied to thermocouples but have not been specifically used in combination with an ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouple to investigate cyclic intake temperature behavior. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1073
Tobias Rosvall, Ola Stenlaas
Abstract In engine management systems many calculations and actuator actions are performed in the crank angle domain. Most of these actions and calculations benefit from an improved accuracy of the crank angle measurement. Improved estimation of crank angle, based on pulse signals from an induction sensor placed on the flywheel of a heavy duty CI engine is thus of great importance. To estimate the crank angle the torque balance on the crankshaft is used. This torque balance is based on Newton’s second law. The net torque gives the flywheel acceleration which in turn gives engine speed and crank angle position. The described approach was studied for two crankshaft models: A rigid crankshaft approach and a lumped mass approach, the latter having the benefit of being able to capture the torsional effects of the crankshaft twisting and bending due to torques acting on it.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1065
Jens Gaechter, Mario Hirz
Abstract Vehicles driven by electric or hybrid technologies have the advantage that a high torque potential can be used from the start, hence the initial vehicle acceleration is higher compared to conventional propulsion concepts [1]. The speed-torque characteristic of electric machines is nearly ideal for the use in automotive applications and electrical machines can be controlled with a high efficiency. The aim of the present work is the examination of different sensor technologies, which are used in such automotive applications to measure the rotor position of electric motors. The project includes the assessment and evaluation of different sensor technologies, e.g. resolver, eddy current sensors and sensors based on magneto-resistive effects. The quality of the sensor angular measurement depends on different parameters, for example misalignment in planar direction, longitudinal direction, tilt angle, temperature, rotational speed and supply voltage.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1115
Thomas Huth, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract The demand for lower CO2 emissions requires not just the optimization of every single component but the complete system. For a transmission system, it is important to optimize the transmission hardware as we well as the interaction of powertrain components. For automatic transmission with wide ratio spreads, the main losses are caused by the actuation system, which can be reduced with use of ondemand actuation systems. In this paper, a new on-demand electromechanical actuation system with validation results on a clutch test bench is presented. The electro-mechanical actuator shows an increase in the efficiency of 4.1 % compared to the conventional hydraulic actuation in a simulated NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) cycle. This increase is based on the powerless end positions of the actuator (engaged and disengaged clutch). The thermal tension and wear are compensated with a disk spring. This allows a stable control over service life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1114
Jinsung Kim
Abstract A dry clutch induces judder phenomenon which is caused by variations in the vehicle load condition and frictional material properties. Such a problem may lead to the stick-slip limit cycle that results in undesired longitudinal vibrations of vehicles. To solve this problem, a vibration suppression control is proposed. The amplitude of vibrations is detected by the signal conditioning from the measurements with the transmission input shaft speed and the wheel speed sensors. Based upon this, a perturbation torque is applied additionally on the nominal launch controller to make the drive shaft oscillation vanish. It can be achieved by the control design without any extra hardware cost. Finally, experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1113
Thorsten Arndt, Alex Tarasow, Christian Bohn, Guido Wachsmuth, Roland Serway
Abstract Higher demands on comfort and efficiency require a continuous improvement of the shift process. During the launch and shift process the clutch control is used to get a smooth and efficient behavior. In this short time of acting the shifting behavior can be rated. Many control concepts use a clutch characteristic to calculate the actuator signal based on the clutch torque. Therefore, a high quality of this characteristic is necessary. Because of the dynamic process during clutch engagement the clutch characteristic needs further information to reach a high accuracy for the control algorithm. In this paper an existing clutch torque characteristic is extended to a characteristic map where the clutch torque becomes a function of the current actuator signal of the clutch and the clutch slip. The extension of the torque characteristic describes the slip based dependencies, e.g. the friction coefficient.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu Vallabhaneni, Munenori Shinada, Kazuto Sato
Abstract Many active safety systems are being developed with the intent of protecting pedestrians namely; pedestrian airbags, active hood, active emergency braking (AEB), etc. Effectiveness of such protection system relies on the efficiency of the sensing systems. The pop-uphood system was developed to help reduce pedestrian head injuries. A pop-up system is expected to make full deployment of the hood before the pedestrian’s head could hit the hood. The system should have the capability to detect most road users ranging from a six year old (6YO) child to a large male. To test the sensing system, an impactor model (PDI-2) was developed. Sensor response varies for vehicles with different front end profile dimensions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1547
Jun Yin, Xinbo Chen, Lixin Wu, Jianqin Li
Abstract Traditional active suspension which is equipped with hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator features slow response and high power consumption. However, electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits quick response and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. To design a novel active and energy regenerative suspension (AERS) utilizing electromagnetic actuator, this paper investigates the benchmark cars available on the market and summaries the suspension features. Basing on the investigation, a design reference for AERS design is proposed. To determine the parameters of the actuator, a principle is proposed and the parameters of the actuator are designed accordingly. Compared the linear type and rotary type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the rotary type is selected to construct the actuator of the AERS. Basing on the suspension structure of the design reference model and utilizing rotary type PMSM, a novel AERS structure is proposed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1553
Akihito Yamamoto, Wataru Tanaka, Takafumi Makino, Shunya Tanaka, Ken Tahara
Abstract This paper reports that estimation accuracy of suspension stroke velocity is increased by considering the damping force delay characteristics to an observer. Thereby ride comfort is improved, using the simple and low-cost semi active suspension systems that use only three vertical acceleration sensors.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0957
Patrick Schrangl, Roman Schmied, Stephan Stadlbauer, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re, Bernhard Ramsebner, Christoph Reiter
Abstract Abatement and control of emissions from passenger car combustion engines have been in the focus for a long time. Nevertheless, to address upcoming real-world driving emission targets, knowledge of current engine emissions is crucial. Still, adequate sensors for transient emissions are seldom available in production engines. One way to target this issue is by applying virtual sensors which utilize available sensor information in an engine control unit (ECU) and provide estimates of the not measured emissions. For real-world application it is important that the virtual sensor has low complexity and works under varying conditions. Naturally, the choice of suitable inputs from all available candidates will have a strong impact on these factors. In this work a method to set up virtual sensors by means of design of experiments (DOE) and iterative identification of polynomial models is augmented with a novel input candidate selection strategy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0943
Paul Ragaller, Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, Natarajan Gunasekaran, Jason Warkins, Ryan Wilhelm
Abstract Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0918
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg, Vitaly Prikhodko, John Storey, James Parks
Abstract Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1028
Qinqing Chen, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Qiwei Wang, Qi Chen, Si Liu
Abstract Boosting and downsizing is the trend of future gasoline engine technology. For the turbocharged engines, the actuation of intake boosting pressure is very important to the performance output. In this paper, a GT-Power simulation model is built based on a 1.5 L turbocharged gasoline engine as the research object. The accuracy of model has been verified through the bench test data. Then it is conducted with numerical simulation to analyze the effect of wastegate diameter on the engine performance, including power output and fuel economy. Mainly the wastegate diameter is optimized under full engine operating conditions. Finally an optimal MAP of wastegate diameter is drawn out through interpolation method. By the transmission relationship between wastegate and actuator, a wastegate control MAP for electric actuated wastegate can be obtained.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0215
Amey Y. Karnik, Adrian Fuxman, Phillip Bonkoski, Mrdjan Jankovic, Jaroslav Pekar
Abstract An advanced powertrain cooling system with appropriate control strategy and active actuators allows greater flexibility in managing engine temperatures and operating near constraints. An organized controls development process is necessary to allow comparison of multiple configurations to select the best way forward. In this work, we formulate, calibrate and validate a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for temperature regulation and constraint handling in an advanced cooling system. A model-based development process was followed; where the system model was used to develop and calibrate a gain scheduled linear MPC. The implementation of MPC for continuous systems and the modification related to implementing switching systems has been described. Multiple hardware configurations were compared with their corresponding control system in simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0246
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract Vehicle occupants, unlike building occupants, are exposed to continuously varying, non-uniform solar heat load. Automotive manufacturers use photovoltaic cells based solar sensor to measure intensity and direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Use of the time of the day and the position - latitude and longitude - of a vehicle is also common to calculate direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Two angles - azimuth and elevation - are used to completely define the direction of solar radiation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system. Although the use of solar sensor is common in today’s vehicles, the solar heat load on the occupants, because of their exposure to the direct-beam solar radiation remains the area of in-car subjective evaluation and tuning. Since the solar rays travel in parallel paths, application of the ray tracing method to determine solar insolation of the vehicle occupants is possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0626
Benedikt Raidt
Abstract Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0633
Yichao Guo
Abstract Per California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations, On-board diagnostic (OBD) of vehicle powertrain systems are required to continuously monitor key powertrain components, such as the circuit discontinuity of actuators, various circuit faults of sensors, and out-of-range faults of sensors. The maturing and clearing of these continuous monitoring faults are critical to simplification of algorithm design, save of engineering cost (i.e., calibration), and reduction of warranty issues. Due to the nature of sensors (to sense different physical quantities) and actuators (to output energy in desired ways), most of OEM and supplies tend to choose different fault maturing and clearing strategy for sensors and actuators with different physics nature, such as timer-based, counter-based, and other physical-quantity-based strategies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0146
Yonghwan Jeong, Seonwook Kim, Kyongsu Yi, Sangyong Lee, ByeongRim Jo
Abstract This paper represents a parking lot occupancy detection and parking control algorithm for the autonomous valet parking system. The parking lot occupancy detection algorithm determine the occupancy of the parking space, using LiDAR sensors mounted at each side of front bumper. Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) method is used to cluster that information. After that, a global parking map, which includes all parking lots and access road, is constructed offline to figure out which cluster is located in a parking space. By doing this, searching for available parking lots has been finished. The proposed parking control algorithm consists of a reference path generation, a path tracking controller, and a parking process controller. At first, route points of the reference path are determined under the consideration of the minimum turning radius and minimum safety margin with near parking.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
Abstract This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0561
Seungha Lee, Youngbok Lee, Kyoungchan Han, Kyoung Min Lee, Jun Yu, Junyong Lee, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1461
William T. Neale, David Danaher, Sean McDonough, Tomas Owens
Abstract There are numerous publically available smart phone applications designed to track the speed and position of the user. By accessing the phones built in GPS receivers, these applications record the position over time of the phone and report the record on the phone itself, and typically on the application’s website. These applications range in cost from free to a few dollars, with some, that advertise greater functionality, costing significantly higher. This paper examines the reliability of the data reported through these applications, and the potential for these applications to be useful in certain conditions where monitoring and recording vehicle or pedestrian movement is needed. To analyze the reliability of the applications, three of the more popular and widely used tracking programs were downloaded to three different smart phones to represent a good spectrum of operating platforms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1458
Ryuta Ono, Wataru Ike, Yuki Fukaya
Abstract Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1465
John Zolock, Carmine Senatore, Ryan Yee, Robert Larson, Brian Curry
Abstract As a result of the development of Event Data Recorders (EDR) and the recent FMVSS regulation 49 CFR 563, today’s automobiles provide a limited subset of electronic data measurements of a vehicle’s state before and during a crash. Prior to this data, the only information available about the vehicle movements before or during a collision had come from physical evidence (e.g. tire marks), witnesses, aftermarket camera systems on vehicles, and ground-based cameras that were monitoring vehicle traffic or used for security surveillance. Today’s vehicles equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have vehicle-based sensors that measure information about the environment around a vehicle including other vehicles, pedestrians, and fixed wayside objects.
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