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2016-06-07
WIP Standard
AIR6908
This document provides informational background, rationale, and data (both physical testing and computer simulations) used in defining the component test methods and acceptance criteria described in SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 6330. ARP 6330 defines multiple test methods uses to assess the effect of seat back mounted IFE monitor changes on head blunt trauma.
2016-05-13
Standard
ARP6316
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues, and occupant injury criteria to facilitate the design and certification of oblique facing passenger seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft. The applicability of the criteria listed in this current release is limited to seats with an occupant facing direction greater than 18 and no greater than 30 degrees relative to the aircraft longitudinal axis. Later revisions are intended to provide criteria for other facing directions. Performance criteria for side facing seats installed with the occupant facing direction at 90 degrees relative to the aircraft longitudinal axis are provided in AS8049/1. Seats installed at angles greater than 30 degrees relative to the aircraft longitudinal axis must have an energy absorbing rest or shoulder harness. However, this document does not provide the criteria for oblique facing seats incorporating such rests.
2016-05-05
Magazine
New dawn at Honda R&D President Yoshiyuki Matsumoto aims to invigorate Honda's technology and product-development organization with 'full soul.' Automated driving meets regulation: NHTSA and the next 50 years The challenges and opportunities on the road to 'zero deaths' demand a new level of federal automotive safety technical standards, and a new safety-defect reporting and recall system. NHTSA and the U.S. Congress must act boldly and quickly to make it happen. Autonomous driving meets regulation: Hands off, eyes off, brain off Euro NCAP'S president warns that without coherent policies, the growing availability of automated technologies may result in piecemeal technology development-and unintentional consequences. Designer yin meets engineer yang Efficient and effective vehicle development means even closer collaboration between the two former sparring partners.
2016-04-21
WIP Standard
AS8049/1B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines Minimum Performance Standards (MPS), qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for side-facing seats in civil rotorcraft, transport aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. The goal is to achieve comfort, durability, and occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when a side-facing seat/occupant/restraint system is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic test conditions set forth in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 23, 25, 27, or 29. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat supplier and the installation applicant. The seat supplier’s responsibility consists of meeting all the seat system performance requirements and obtaining and supplying to the installation applicant all the data prescribed by this document.
2016-04-07
WIP Standard
ARP6199A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides an approach for determining which parts on aircraft seats are non-traditional, large, non-metallic panels that need to meet the test requirements of 14CFR Part 25 Appendix F, Parts IV & V.
2016-04-06
WIP Standard
J1163
This SAE standard specifies a method and the device for use in determining the position of the Seat Index Point (SIP) for any kind of seat. This SAE document provides a uniform method for defining the location of the SIP in relation to some fixing point on the seat.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1313
Brian Pinkelman, Woo-Keun Song
Abstract Most methods of vibration analysis focus on measuring the level of vibration. Some methods like ISO-2631 weigh vibration level based on human sensitivity of location, direction, and frequency. Sound can be similarly measured by sound pressure level in dB. It may also be weighted to human frequency sensitivity such as dBA but sound and noise analysis has progressed to measure sound quality. The characteristic and the nature of the sound is studied; for example equal or near equal sound levels can provide different experiences to the listener. Such is the question for vibration; can vibration quality be assessed just as sound quality is assessed? Early on in our studies, vibration sensory experts found a difference in 4 seats yet no objective measurement of vibration level could reliably confirm the sensory experience. Still these particular experiences correlated to certain verbal descriptors including smoothness/roughness.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0100
Sushant Kishor Hingane
High-end vehicles with latest technology and autonomous driving experience have to bear the cost of increasing number of sensors on-board. It would be beneficial to reduce some of the sensors in the vehicle and make use of other available resources, retaining the same functionality. This paper discusses a novel technique of estimating the weight of seat occupant from an already existing DC motor without using additional pressure sensors. Passenger weight information is important for seat-belt reminder system as well as supplemental restraint system that will decide the air-bag deployment. The mathematical model for a series-type DC motor is analyzed and simulated using MATLAB. Further, results of the experiment performed on a lower capacity motor are shared and compared with the simulation results. Formulating a linear relation gives a possibility to develop a device for occupant weight measurement inside the high-end vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1512
Jeya Padmanaban, Roger Burnett, Andrew Levitt
Abstract This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from seventeen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle model groupings (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the severe injury rate for belted drivers in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1504
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Abstract Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1444
Shayne McConomy, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Yubin Xi, Patrick Rosopa, John DesJardins, Kevin Kopera, Kathy Lococo
Abstract The research objective was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Improper selection of driver’s seat position may impact safety during a crash event and affect one’s capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as steering wheel, accelerator, brake, clutch, and gear selector lever. Because of the stature changes associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of gender and age terms that would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers. Participants included 97 older drivers over the age of 60 and 20 younger drivers between the ages of 30 to 39.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1436
K. Han Kim, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Abstract Automotive seats are commonly described by one-dimensional measurements, including those documented in SAE J2732. However, 1-D measurements provide minimal information on seat shape. The goal of this work was to develop a statistical framework to analyze and model the surface shapes of seats by using techniques similar to those that have been used for modeling human body shapes. The 3-D contour of twelve driver seats of a pickup truck and sedans were scanned and aligned, and 408 landmarks were identified using a semi-automatic process. A template mesh of 18,306 vertices was morphed to match the scan at the landmark positions, and the remaining nodes were automatically adjusted to match the scanned surface. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on the resulting homologous meshes. Each seat was uniquely represented by a set of PC scores; 10 PC scores explained 95% of the total variance. This new shape description has many applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
Abstract The paper is focused on both the subjective and the objective ride comfort evaluation of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride comfort level was performed by considering five different drivers. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of a farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective driver feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1438
Alexander Siefert
Abstract The objective evaluation of occupant comfort is a complex task where numerous aspects such as posture, pressure distribution, internal tissue loads, handling of steering wheel or gear shift have to be taken into consideration. Currently the standard evaluation procedures are hardware tests with human subjects, who are sensitive to all these aspects. However, the reproducibility of subjective tests for the comparison of design variants is a questionable issue and the costs for each test cycle with new prototypes are very high. As an alternative, numerical approaches using human body models such as AnyBody [1], CASIMIR [2] or RAMSIS [3] are applied. Here the issue of reproducibility does not exist and only little effort is required to investigate new setups. However, the disadvantage is that each approach focuses only on one specific aspect of occupant comfort, while in reality the emotions of the occupant are always a combination of all impressions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1429
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
Abstract This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure SAE J2732 (2008) seat dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated dimension-extraction process consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, back and cushion angles, (2) calculate centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1430
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Hee Su Sin, Dong Hag Seo, Hyu Hyeong Nam, Jeong Cheol Lee
Abstract Seating comfort is associated with the various factors, and one of the principal components of a vehicle environment which can affect passenger’s comfort is vibration. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation. In recent years, automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This paper provides information about a new automotive seat concept that use double-wall 3D air-mat in cushion along with foam cushion in the seat cushion system. To test the developed seat on vibration isolation characteristics, seating comfort, and ride quality experiments have been performed. This research is divided into two parts. At first, the newly developed seat tested on the motion simulator. In study 2, road tests were performed on the national highway. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure acceleration at the foot and hip in two different seats (seat with and without double-wall 3D air-mat).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1431
Subramanian Premananth, Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed
Abstract Virtual assessment of an occupant postural ergonomics has become an essential part of vehicle development process. To design vehicle for different market is one of the primary reason for manufacturers using digital tools to address the specific needs of the target market including cultural background, road and traffic conditions. RAMSIS is a widely used software for creating digital human models (DHM) of different target population which allows manufacturers to assess design with unique customer requirements in product design. Defining these requirements with RAMSIS human module helped development team to accurately define occupant targets such as occupant space, visibility and reachability etc. Occupant behavior and usage scenario are factors which are unique to target market and they influence the occupant posture and usage pattern inside the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1432
Alexander Siefert
Abstract Predicting the vibration comfort is a difficult challenge in seat design. There is a broad range of requirements as the load cases strongly vary, representing different excitation levels, e.g. cobblestones or California roads. Another demand is the driver expectation, which is different for a pickup and a sports car. There are several approaches for assessing the vibrations of occupants while driving. One approach is the evaluation of comfort by integral quantities like the SEAT value, taking into account a weighting based on the human body sensitivity. Another approach is the dimension of perception developed by BMW, which is similar to psychoacoustics as the frequency range is separated with respect to occurring vibration phenomena. The seat transmissibility is in the focus of all activities. In the frequency range it defines the relation between the input at the seat slides and the output at the interface of human body and trim.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1433
Gregory Schaupp, Julia Seeanner, Casey Jenkins, Joseph Manganelli, Sarah Hennessy, Constance Truesdail, Lindsay Swift, Paul Venhovens, Johnell Brooks
Abstract The ability to independently transfer into and out of a vehicle is essential for many wheelchair users to achieve driving independence. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the transfer strategies of wheelchair users who drive from their driver’s seat and not from their wheelchair. The goal of this study was to identify typical ingress and egress motions as well as “touch points” of wheelchair users transferring into and out of the driver’s seat. While motion databases exist for the ingress and egress of able-bodied drivers, this study provides insight on drivers with physical disabilities. Twenty-five YouTube videos of wheelchair users who transferred into and out of their own sedans were analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1435
Amber Hall, Michael Kolich
Abstract Many studies have been conducted and supporting literature has been published to better understand thermal comfort for the automotive environment, particularly, for the HVAC system within the cabin. However, reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort for seating systems has lacked in development and understanding. Evaluation of seat system performance in terms of comfort has been difficult to quantify and thus most tests have been established such that the hardware components are tested to determine if the thermal feature does no harm to the customer. This paper evaluates the optimal seat surface temperature range to optimize human thermal comfort for an automotive seating system application for heated and ventilated seats.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0523
Lauren Abro
Abstract North American customer perception of Quality has changed over time and has shifted from Quality, Dependability, and Reliability (QDR) to Interior Sensory Quality (ISQ). ISQ is defined as the harmony of characteristics that combine to make an emotional connection to the vehicles’ interior. Vehicles need to correctly appeal to customers emotional side through providing class-leading ISQ. Hypotheses for specific interior areas were developed in order to identify key ISQ strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. These hypotheses were then tested at customer clinics held across the country. The key goals were to understand customer judgment of ISQ execution, understand customer ISQ priority, and understand customer preference of detailed component areas.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0521
Ronald S. Grossman
Abstract The lightweighting of auto components is a crucial strategy for OEMs to achieve increasingly challenging CAFÉ requirements. Research from MIT has found that every 10% reduction in passenger vehicle weight reduces fuel consumption by about 7%. Since fuel economy requirements have already increased by 18% from MY 2012 to 2017, the weight savings strategies that are easiest to implement have largely been exhausted. Seating is the largest interior component by weight, but the foam is often overlooked from lightweighting consideration due to the perception that higher weight, higher density seating is an important aspect of the vehicle’s comfort. It has become almost a truism that the physical properties associated with seating comfort -- load bearing, resilience, durability - are directly related to foam density. A new auxiliary blowing agent known chemically as HFO 1233zd(E) is commercially available as Solstice® LBA.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0309
Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Abstract This study evaluated the ISO 5353 Seat Index Point Tool (SIPT) as an alternative to the SAE J826 H-point manikin for measuring military seats. A tool was fabricated based on the ISO specification and a custom back-angle measurement probe was designed and fitted to the SIPT. Comparisons between the two tools in a wide range of seating conditions showed that the mean SIP location was 5 mm aft of the H-point, with a standard deviation of 7.8 mm. Vertical location was not significantly different between the two tools (mean - 0.7 mm, sd 4.0 mm). A high correlation (r=0.9) was observed between the back angle measurements from the two tools. The SIPT was slightly more repeatable across installations and installers than the J826 manikin, with most of the discrepancy arising from situations with flat seat cushion angles and either unusually upright or reclined back angles that caused the J826 manikin to be unstable.
2016-03-05
Standard
AS8049/1A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines Minimum Performance Standards (MPS), qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for side-facing seats in civil rotorcraft, transport aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. The goal is to achieve comfort, durability, and occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when a side-facing seat/occupant/restraint system is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic test conditions set forth in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 23, 25, 27, or 29. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat supplier and the installation applicant. The seat supplier’s responsibility consists of meeting all the seat system performance requirements and obtaining and supplying to the installation applicant all the data prescribed by this document.
2016-02-16
Magazine
Autonomous vehicles: impact on society Self-driving technology offers plenty of promise, but not everything about autonomous vehicles will be a panacea. Crankshaft reliability by integrated design, simulation, and testing This testing method is proven and beneficial for the design and development of the crankshaft and could be applied to other critical engine components, thereby extending to system reliability. New Engines 2016 Highlighting the design, engineering, and technologies inside some of the most competitive gasoline and light-duty diesel ICEs. Touch and go Avionics developments are changing life in the cockpit and at airborne work stations. Improving heavy-duty engine component efficiencies Cylinder deactivation can improve fuel economy by using a reduced number of cylinders that operate at higher loads and thermal efficiency, while other cylinders are turned off, when the engine operates at partial load conditions.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0068
Nishant Kataria, Kota Nageswara rao Puli, Pankaj Maheshwari, Sandeep Raina
Abstract In automotive seating, there are multiple applications wherein parts have relative motions. During the relative motion of parts, noise is generated due to friction which can be irritant to the end user. This paper focuses on, one such application where conventional noise reduction solutions like grease application are not very effective. Typically, Seats can have two types of Head Restraint, a) Adjustable, b) Non Adjustable. In Adjustable type of Head restraint, during adjustment by the end user, head restraint rod rubs against the metal plate inside the locking guide. This creates friction and that in turn results in noise. The paper focuses on understand the phenomenon of noise, identifying the root cause and studying about potential solutions to reduce the noise to acceptable level. In this paper, parameters affecting the noise are studied and evaluated.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0226
Rakesh Kumar, Aditya Malladi
Abstract For effective occupant protection, automotive vehicle structure needs to be developed for seat anchorage test to prevent the failure of seat anchorages during high speed impacts. Seat anchorages (SA) certification test is mandatory for M & N category vehicles in India. Conventional way of testing automotive vehicle structures for seat anchorage test is using deceleration sled with the help of bungee ropes. Deceleration pulse generated from the physical test is used as a loading input in the current CAE process. With the current CAE method, final deformation of the vehicle structure looks similar to physical test, however, the vehicle visual interactions differ significantly during the deformation event. In the current study, a modified loading methodology is proposed to match both the final deformation as well as vehicle visual interactions. Loading and boundary conditions of physical test were understood in detail with the help of simple free body diagrams.
2016-01-06
Standard
J3047_201601
This recommended practice will promote a temperature and duration guideline that mitigates the risk of thermal injuries to the heated seat user. In addition, recommendations are established to indicate to the user when the heater is operating, and warnings that should be included in the vehicle literature.
2015-12-04
Standard
ARP5765A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines a means of assessing the credibility of computer models of aircraft seating systems used to simulate dynamic impact conditions set forth in Federal Regulations §14 CFR Part 23.562, 25.562, 27.562, and 29.562. The ARP is applicable to lumped mass and detailed finite element seat models. This includes specifications and performance criteria for aviation specific virtual anthropomorphic test devices (v-ATDs). A methodology to evaluate the degree of correlation between a seat model and dynamic impact tests is recommended. This ARP also provides testing and modeling best practices specific to support the implementation of analytical models of aircraft seat systems. Supporting information within this document includes procedures for the quantitative comparison of test and simulation results, as well as test reports for data generated to support the development of v-ATDs and a sample v-ATD calibration report.
2015-11-10
Standard
J826_201511
The devices of this SAE Standard provide the means by which passenger compartment dimensions can be obtained using a deflected seat rather than a free seat contour as a reference for defining seating space. All definitions and dimensions used in conjunction with this document are described in SAE J1100. These devices are intended only to apply to the driver side or center occupant seating spaces and are not to be construed as instruments which measure or indicate occupant capabilities or comfort. This document covers only one H-point machine installed on a seat during each test. Certified H-point templates and machines can be purchased from: SAE International 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 Specific procedures are included in Appendix A for seat measurements in short- and long-coupled vehicles and in Appendix B for measurement of the driver seat cushion angle. Specifications and a calibration inspection procedure for the H-point machine are given in Appendix C.
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