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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1429
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure the SAE J2732 (2008) seat-dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated seat-dimension extraction process in the system consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, seatback and cushion angles, (2) identify centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1444
Shayne McConomy, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Yubin Xi, Patrick Rosopa, John DesJardins, Kevin Kopera, Kathy Lococo
The objective of this research was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Drivers with improper seat position selection may affect their capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as the steering wheel, accelerator pedal, brake pedal, clutch pedal, and gear selector lever as well as impact one’s safety during a crash event. Because of the stature changes that are associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of a gender and age terms. The hypothesized terms would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1433
Gregory Schaupp, Julia Seeanner, Casey Jenkins, Joseph Manganelli, Sarah Hennessy, Constance Truesdail, Lindsay Swift, Paul Venhovens, Johnell Brooks
The ability to independently transfer into and out of a vehicle is essential for many wheelchair users to achieve driving independence. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the transfer strategies of wheelchair users who drive from their driver’s seat and not from their wheelchair. The goal of this study was to identify typical ingress and egress motions as well as “touch points” of wheelchair users transferring into and out of the driver’s seat. While motion databases exist for the ingress and egress of able-bodied drivers, this study provides insight on drivers with physical disabilities. Twenty-five YouTube videos of wheelchair users who transferred into and out of their own sedans were analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
The paper is focused on both the the subjective and the objective ride comfort of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride confort was performed. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective drivers' feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1430
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Hee Su sin, Dong Hag Seo, Hyu Hyeong Nam, Jeong Cheol Lee
Seating comfort is associated with the various factors and one of the principal components of a vehicle environment which can affect passenger’s comfort is vibration. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation as it is directly in contact with human body. Vibration isolation properties of a seat depend upon its dynamic parameters such as cushion, spring stiffness, and damping of seat suspension. In recent years, automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This paper provides information about a new automotive seat concept which use double-wall 3D air mat in cushion along with foam cushion. The air-mats base fabrics are interlinked with numerous spacer threads to make a 3D structure. An optimization-based method is used to determine the optimal seat dynamic parameter for cushion (particularly for double-wall 3D air mat) based on minimizing occupant’s body discomfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1432
Alexander Siefert
A particular challenge in the development of passenger cars is within prognosis of the vibration comfort. The range of requirements is broad as the excitation varies between cobblestones up to California roads. A further demand is the driver expectation which is different for a pickup or for a sports car. There exist several approaches for assessing the vibrations of occupants while driving. On the one side the comfort is evaluated by integral quantities as the SEAT value taking into account a weighting based on the human body sensitivity. Another approach is the dimension of perception, developed by BMW, which is similar to psychoacoustics as the frequency range is separated with respect to appearing vibration phenomena. In the centre of all activities is the seat transmissibility in the frequency range, describing the relation between the input at the seat slides and the output at the interface of human body and trim.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1438
Alexander Siefert
You plan on buying a new car? You have searched the internet, set a financial limit and are now heading towards your preferred dealer - and take a seat in the car of your choice! This first impression of seating comfort and package design is a decision making criteria when selecting a new car. All OEMs are aware of this and quite a lot of companies use the „passenger comfort“ issue to stand out from their competitors. But how can we objectively evaluate passenger comfort? This complex criterion is dominated by a mixture of several aspects as posture, pressure distribution, internal tissue loads or handling of steering wheel or gear shift. A method to evaluate are hardware tests with human subjects, who are sensitive to all of these aspects. But the reproducibility of subjective tests for comparing design variants is a questionable issue and the costs for each test cycle using new prototypes are very high.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1436
K. Han Kim, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Automotive seats are commonly described by one-dimensional measurements, including those documented in SAE J2732. However, 1-D measurements provide minimal information on seat shape. A 3-D scanner may provide high-resolution details, but due to inconsistent vertex and polygon compositions, indexing and comparing geometries across different seats are extremely difficult. The goal of this work was to develop a statistical framework to analyze and model the surface shapes of seats by using similar techniques that have been used for modeling human body shapes. The 3-D contour of twelve driver seats of sedans and pickup trucks were scanned and aligned, and 332 landmarks were identified using a semi-automatic process. A template mesh of 18,306 vertices was morphed to match the scan at the landmark positions, and the remaining nodes were automatically adjusted to match the scanned surface. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on the resulting homologous meshes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1313
Brian Pinkelman, Woo-Keun Song
Most methods of vibration analysis focus on measuring the level of vibration. Some methods like ISO-2631 weigh vibration level based on human sensitivity of location, direction, and frequency. Sound can be similarly measured by sound pressure level in dB. It may also be weighted to human frequency sensitivity such as dBA but sound and noise analysis has expanded to measure sound quality. The characteristic and the nature of the sound are studied. As an example equal or near equal sound levels can provide different experiences to the listener. Such was the question for vibration, “can vibration quality be assessed just as sound quality is assessed?” Early on in our studies vibration sensory experts found a difference in 4 seats yet we could find no objective measurement of vibration level that could reliable confirm the sensory experience. Yet these particular experiences correlated to certain verbal descriptors including smoothness or roughness.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1512
Jeya Padmanaban, Roger Burnett, Andrew Levitt
This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and belted rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from fifteen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle models (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the injury rate for belted drivers and belted rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1431
Premananth S, Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed
Ergonomics Evaluation of In-car Occupant Posture with Indian Specific Usage Pattern Virtual assessment of an occupant posture ergonomics has become an essential part of vehicle development process. To design vehicle for different market is one of the primary reason for manufacturers using digital tools to address the specific needs of the target market such as cultural background, road and traffic conditions. Ergonomics software like RAMSIS allows manufacturers to asses design with unique customer requirements in product design. Defining these requirements with RAMSIS human module helped development team to accurately define occupant targets such as occupant space, visibility and reach-ability etc. This paper defines the methodology to develop, create and adopt Indian behavior and usage patterns in vehicle development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0100
Sushant Kishor Hingane
The high-end vehicles with latest technology and autonomous driving experience have to bear the cost of increasing number of sensors on-board. It would prove to be the most beneficial to reduce some of the sensors in vehicle and make use of other available resources, retaining the same functionality. This paper discusses a technique of estimating the weight of seat occupant from an already existing DC motor; without using additional pressure sensors. Passenger weight information is important for seat-belt reminder system as well as supplementary restrain system that will decide the air-bag deployment. A mathematical model for a series-type DC motor is developed and simulated using MATLAB. Further, results are shared of the lab experiment performed on a lower capacity motor and verified with the simulation results. Along with the comparison of the simulated data and sensor set-up results, a concluding linear relation is formulated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1435
Amber Hall, Michael Kolich
Many studies have been conducted and supporting literature has been published to better understand thermal comfort for the automotive environment, particularly, for the HVAC system within the cabin. However, reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort for seating systems has lacked in development and understanding. Evaluation of seat system performance in terms of comfort has been difficult to quantify and thus most tests have been established such that the hardware components are tested to determine if the thermal feature does no harm to the customer. This paper evaluates the optimal seat surface temperature to optimize human thermal comfort for an automotive seating system applications. The physiological responses and comfort obtained from human subjects are compared to seat surface temperatures & quality data verbatim responses of the seats.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0523
Lauren Abro
This study is to document how NA customer’s perception of Quality has changed over time and has shifted from Quality/Dependability/Reliability (QDR) to Interior Sensory Quality (ISQ) . The idea of perception of quality has changed from basic QDR to the harmony of emotions that excite a customer. Interior Sensory Quality is defined as the harmony of characteristics that combine to make an emotional connection to the vehicles’ interior. Decisions that were previously based on QDR have shifted to more emotional purchase decisions. Now, Toyota wants to correctly appeal to customers’ emotional side through providing class-leading Interior Sensory Quality. To identify key ISQ strengths, weaknesses, and preferences, multiple customer clinics were held across the country. The key goals were to understand customer judgment of ISQ Execution, understand Customer ISQ Priority (by segment), and to understand Customer preference of detailed component areas.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0521
Ronald S. Grossman
The lightweighting of auto components is a crucial strategy for OEMs to achieve increasingly challenging CAFÉ requirements. Research from MIT has found that every 10% reduction in passenger vehicle weight reduces fuel consumption by about 7%. Since fuel economy requirements have already increased by 18% from MY 2012 to 2017, the weight savings strategies that are easiest to implement have largely been exhausted. Seating is the largest interior component by weight, but the foam is often overlooked from lightweighting consideration due to the perception that higher weight, higher density seating is an important aspect of the vehicle’s comfort. It has become a truism that the physical properties associated with seating comfort -- load bearing, resilience, durability - are directly related to foam density.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0524
Venkat Pisipati, Srikanth Krishnaraj, Amy McGuckin Webb, Pavankumar Reddy Kandukuri
The Automotive industry’s use of digital tools such as Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to perform virtual validation has progressed to effectively replace a large percentage of physical validation. This is primarily due to cost and time efficiencies virtual validation offers versus conventional physical prototyping and testing. With product development cycles becoming more compressed, CAE has assumed a more significant role in advanced design and structural evaluation. One of the major challenges to upfront effective and efficient CAE analyses is the availability of Computer Aided Design (CAD) data. Many OEMs and their suppliers are looking to leverage existing CAE models by mapping or adapting previous models using morphing tools to develop CAE models for quick analysis feedback. For Tier 1 suppliers, such as Inteva Products, this agility is becoming paramount.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1504
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0068
Nishant Kataria, Kota Nageswara rao Puli, Pankaj Maheshwari, Sandeep Raina
Abstract In automotive seating, there are multiple applications wherein parts have relative motions. During the relative motion of parts, noise is generated due to friction which can be irritant to the end user. This paper focuses on, one such application where conventional noise reduction solutions like grease application are not very effective. Typically, Seats can have two types of Head Restraint, a) Adjustable, b) Non Adjustable. In Adjustable type of Head restraint, during adjustment by the end user, head restraint rod rubs against the metal plate inside the locking guide. This creates friction and that in turn results in noise. The paper focuses on understand the phenomenon of noise, identifying the root cause and studying about potential solutions to reduce the noise to acceptable level. In this paper, parameters affecting the noise are studied and evaluated.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0226
Rakesh Kumar, Aditya Malladi
Abstract For effective occupant protection, automotive vehicle structure needs to be developed for seat anchorage test to prevent the failure of seat anchorages during high speed impacts. Seat anchorages (SA) certification test is mandatory for M & N category vehicles in India. Conventional way of testing automotive vehicle structures for seat anchorage test is using deceleration sled with the help of bungee ropes. Deceleration pulse generated from the physical test is used as a loading input in the current CAE process. With the current CAE method, final deformation of the vehicle structure looks similar to physical test, however, the vehicle visual interactions differ significantly during the deformation event. In the current study, a modified loading methodology is proposed to match both the final deformation as well as vehicle visual interactions. Loading and boundary conditions of physical test were understood in detail with the help of simple free body diagrams.
2016-01-06
Standard
J3047_201601
This recommended practice will promote a temperature and duration guideline that mitigates the risk of thermal injuries to the heated seat user. In addition, recommendations are established to indicate to the user when the heater is operating, and warnings that should be included in the vehicle literature.
2015-12-04
Standard
ARP5765A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines a means of assessing the credibility of computer models of aircraft seating systems used to simulate dynamic impact conditions set forth in Federal Regulations §14 CFR Part 23.562, 25.562, 27.562, and 29.562. The ARP is applicable to lumped mass and detailed finite element seat models. This includes specifications and performance criteria for aviation specific virtual anthropomorphic test devices (v-ATDs). A methodology to evaluate the degree of correlation between a seat model and dynamic impact tests is recommended. This ARP also provides testing and modeling best practices specific to support the implementation of analytical models of aircraft seat systems. Supporting information within this document includes procedures for the quantitative comparison of test and simulation results, as well as test reports for data generated to support the development of v-ATDs and a sample v-ATD calibration report.
2015-11-10
Standard
J826_201511
The devices of this SAE Standard provide the means by which passenger compartment dimensions can be obtained using a deflected seat rather than a free seat contour as a reference for defining seating space. All definitions and dimensions used in conjunction with this document are described in SAE J1100. These devices are intended only to apply to the driver side or center occupant seating spaces and are not to be construed as instruments which measure or indicate occupant capabilities or comfort. This document covers only one H-point machine installed on a seat during each test. Certified H-point templates and machines can be purchased from: SAE International 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 Specific procedures are included in Appendix A for seat measurements in short- and long-coupled vehicles and in Appendix B for measurement of the driver seat cushion angle. Specifications and a calibration inspection procedure for the H-point machine are given in Appendix C.
2015-11-03
Magazine
Active in aero Several automakers-notably Mercedes-Benz and Audi - used the Frankfurt Motor Show stage to reveal sleek vehicles that aggressively employ active aerodynamic elements and other advances to reduce drag. Composites permeate inside and out Composite materials are gaining popularity for both unseen structural components and for exterior eye candy. Powertrain testing: coping with complexity With increasing use of electrical components to extend the performance of conventional combustion engines, powertrain development has never been more complicated. The good news is that test and development engineers are harnessing advanced simulation techniques and computer processing to develop the most efficient and fun powertrains ever. Can ads help in vehicle-to-vehicle rollout? Porsche unveils new downsized, boosted 3.0-L boxer six. Johnson Controls, Faurecia envision interiors for autonomous driving. Jaguar enters performance crossover SUV segment.
2015-10-21
Standard
J3047_201510
This recommended practice will promote a temperature and duration guideline that mitigates the risk of thermal injuries to the heated seat user. In addition, recommendations are established to indicate to the user when the heater is operating, and warnings that should be included in the vehicle literature.
2015-10-06
Magazine
2016 Malibu sheds 300 lb, adds new hybrid system More wheelbase, style, fuel economy, and comfort aim to move GM's volume midsize sedan from the sidelines to the fast lane. Lighter, more powerful 2016 Honda Pilot The third-generation SUV gets a sleek new look and plenty of slick technology for enhanced performance and safety. 2016 Mazda MX-5 stays true to its roots Mazda engineers give the industry a lesson in getting more from less. 2016 Land Rover Discovery Sport spearheads more efficient Land Rovers JLR's space-efficient, flexible SUV moves to JLR's new Ingenium modular engines. Audi chooses high technology, cautious design evolution for new A4 In addition to lighter weight and significant improvements in efficiency, the new car employs plenty of technology and driver support.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2869
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Umashanker Gupta, Ravi Joshi, Shailesh Pawar
Abstract Buses are always one of the main and favorite sources of public transit. Thousands of people die or injure every year in bus accidents. Bus seat can also cause severe injury to the occupants in case of frontal impact. Seat structure of the bus should absorb sufficient energy to minimize the passenger injury. Most of the occupants seated in the second row or further back were injured by hitting the seat back in the row in front of them. In India, AIS023 (Automotive Industry Standards) is one of the several mandatory standards from CMVR (Central Motor Vehicles Rules) to ensure the seat strength and occupant safety during accidents. This standard specifies minimum and maximum deformations range for the seat back to minimize the passenger injury with adequate seat strength. Present study includes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and correlation of bus seat as per AIS023 test setup with LS-Dyna explicit tool. Reasonable correlation was found between test and simulation results.
2015-09-18
WIP Standard
ARP5526E
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues and design criteria to facilitate certification of seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft. This ARP provides general guidance for seats to be installed in Part 23 aircraft and Parts 27 and 29 rotorcraft and does not specify specific designs or design methods for such certification.
2015-08-14
Standard
AS8049C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards, qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for passenger and crew seats in civil rotorcraft, transport aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. The goal is to achieve comfort, durability, and occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when a seat/occupant/restraint system is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic impact test conditions set forth in the applicable Federal Regulations 14 CFR 23, 25, 27, or 29. Guidance for test procedures, measurements, equipment, and interpretation of results is also presented to promote uniform techniques and to achieve acceptable data. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat supplier and the installation applicant.
2015-07-17
Standard
ARP5526D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues and design criteria to facilitate certification of seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft. This ARP provides general guidance for seats to be installed in Part 23 aircraft and Parts 27 and 29 rotorcraft and does not specify specific designs or design methods for such certification.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2271
Yong Du Jun, Bong Hyun Park, Kang Seok Seo, Tae Hyun Kim, Myoung Jae Chae
Abstract Modern automotive seats require improvements in their design, safety, comfort including sitting and riding comfort. Among those, seat comfort is known to be difficult to evaluate because the comfort is a human feeling. As an approach to evaluate the human comfort in an objective manner, an objective measure is proposed for seat riding comfort evaluation under low frequency vibratory conditions which represents typical roll and pitch motions of driving motor vehicles. The related feeling due to this low frequency vehicle motion is termed ‘hold feeling’ because the seated body may tend to deviate from the defined seating position under such vehicle motion input. Dynamic pressure measurements have been conducted in the frequency range up to 1.0 Hz to monitor the interface pressure change behavior of the seat-subject body.
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