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2016-11-18
WIP Standard
J100
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes boundaries for shade bands on glazed surfaces in class "A" vehicles. These boundaries are located so that the shade band can provide occupant comfort and driver vision protection from glare, with respect to solar radiation, under some lighting and driving conditions. Since shade bands transmit less visible light than adjacent glazed surfaces, the shade band boundaries establish boundaries for the driver's field of view.
2016-11-16
Magazine
Focus on advanced safety systems and human-factor interventions The impact of REACH on the aviation sector Considered the most comprehensive chemical-regulation legislation to date, REACH presents serious ramifications for the aircraft industry. Lightweighting: What's Next? Experts weigh in on the challenges and future enablers in the battle to reduce vehicle mass. The best of COMVEC 2016 Autonomous vehicles and improved fuel efficiency via advanced powertrain solutions are pressing topics detailed in this select group of technical papers from the SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress. Optimizing waste heat recovery for long-haul trucks Autonomous solutions in agriculture Downsizing a HD diesel engine for off-highway applications Zero-emissions electric aircraft: Theory vs. reality
2016-11-15
Article
Connectivity spawns need for security designed-in from the beginning, a complex issue that spans many disciplines.
CURRENT
2016-11-15
Standard
J100_201611
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes boundaries for shade bands on glazed surfaces in class "A" vehicles. These boundaries are located so that the shade band can provide occupant comfort and driver vision protection from glare, with respect to solar radiation, under some lighting and driving conditions. Since shade bands transmit less visible light than adjacent glazed surfaces, the shade band boundaries establish boundaries for the driver's field of view.
2016-11-13
Article
Focused on the near-term safety-improvement potential underlying autonomous-driving technology, Toyota - counter to much of the auto industry - sees real promise in developing SAE Level 2-3 systems.
2016-11-11
WIP Standard
AS5385D
This Standard aims at identifying the design criteria and testing methods adequate to guarantee the ultimate load and operational dependability of cargo restraint strap assemblies with a typical 22,250 N (5,000 lbf) rated ultimate tension load capability, as used by the airline industry in order to restrain on board civil transport aircraft during flight: a. cargo loaded and tied down onto airworthiness certified air cargo pallets, themselves restrained into aircraft lower deck or main/upper deck cargo systems and meeting the requirements of NAS 3610 or AS36100, or b. non-unitized individual pieces of cargo, or pieces of, cargo placed onto an unrestrained ( "floating ") pallet into either lower deck or main deck containerized cargo compartments of an aircraft.
CURRENT
2016-11-10
Standard
AMS3827C
This specification covers a style 7781 glass cloth impregnated with a heat-curable polyester resin system, the resin being processed to a "B" stage condition, and furnished in the form of continuous rolls.
2016-11-09
Article
Computer chips literally run our world. These tiny electronic circuits can contain millions of transistors for processing and memory.
2016-11-09
Book
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2016 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Head/brain biomechanics • Thorax, spine, and pelvis biomechanics • Foot-Ankle Biomechanics • Injury and effect of directional impacts • Pedestrian and cyclist injury factors and testing • Commercial truck and pedestrian accidents factors and testing
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0057
Yuji Arai, Makoto Hasegawa, Takeshi Harigae
Abstract ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Level) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0058
Makoto Hasegawa, Takanobu Kaneko
Abstract ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. In order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle, proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level (MSIL). Exposure is a factor to indicate the probability of the state of an operational situation that can be hazardous with the E/E system malfunction. And it is not easy to estimate the motorcycle Exposure due to less availability of back ground data in actual operational situation compared to motor vehicle. Therefore real traffic situation should be investigated in order to provide rationales for MSIL determination.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0059
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract For applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, controllability classification (C class evaluation) by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests while observing safety restrictions (such as avoiding the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and can stably evaluate motorcycle performance even if the test conditions are close to the limits of vehicle performance. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class evaluation method based on an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. On the premise that expert riders can rate the C class, we improved a test procedure that used a subjective evaluation sheet as the concrete C class evaluation method for an actual hazardous event.
2016-11-07
WIP Standard
AIR7483
This AIR provides information about polymeric materials (Super Absorbent Polymers - SAP) used in Filter Monitors for free water removal, the possibility of migration of such material in to aircraft fuel systems and the potential impact on fuel system operation along with light incidents traceable to the migration of SAP in to the aircraft fuel system are enumerated. The measures taken to minimize SAP migration are also discussed.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0006
John R. Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Richard L. DeWeese, David M. Moorcroft, Amanda M. Taylor, Brian Peterson
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0007
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Kazuhiro Sorimachi, Akira Imanishi, Takeshi Fujimura
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0001
Harold J. Mertz, Priya Prasad, Dainius J. Dalmotas, Annette L. Irwin
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0002
Sven A. Holcombe, Stewart C. Wang, James B. Grotberg
This study investigates the isolated effect of rib shape on the mechanical characteristics of ribs subjected to multiple forms of loading. It aims to measure the variation in stiffness due to shape that is seen throughout the population and, in particular, provide a tool for researchers to better understand the influence of shape on resulting stiffness. A previously published six-parameter shape model of the central axis of human ribs was used. It has been shown to accurately model the overall rib path using intrinsic geometric properties such as size, aspect ratio, and skewness, through shapes based on logarithmic spirals with high curvature continuity. In this study the model was fitted to 19,500 ribs from 989 adult female and male CT scans having demographic distributions matching the US adult population. Mechanical loading was simulated through a simplified finite element model aimed at isolating rib shape from other factors influencing mechanical response.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0003
Anicet Le Ruyet, Fabien Berthet, Frédéric Rongiéras, Philippe Beillas
A protocol based on ultrafast ultrasound imaging was applied to study the in situ motion of the liver while the abdomen was subjected to compressive loading at 3 m/s by a hemispherical impactor or a seatbelt. The loading was applied to various locations between the lower abdomen and the mid thorax while feature points inside the liver were followed on the ultrasound movie (2000 frames per second). Based on tests performed on five post mortem human surrogates (including four tested in the current study), trends were found between the loading location and feature point trajectory parameters such as the initial angle of motion or the peak displacement in the direction of impact. The impactor tests were then simulated using the GHBMC M50 human body model that was globally scaled to the dimensions of each surrogate. Some of the experimental trends observed could be reproduced in the simulations (e.g. initial angle) while others differed more widely (e.g. final caudal motion).
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0004
Rakshit Ramachandra, Yun-Seok Kang, John H. Bolte, Alena Hagedorn, Rodney Herriott, Jason A. Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0005
Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier, Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Takumi Fujii, Richard Douard
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0008
Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose, Shigeru Aomura, Yasuhiro Matsui
The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of traffic accidents involving cyclists. The focus is on the characteristics of cyclist accidents and scenarios, because the number of traffic accidents involving cyclists in Tokyo is the highest in Japan. First, dangerous situations in traffic incidents were investigated by collecting data from 304 cyclists in one city in Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. The survey indicated that cyclists used their bicycles generally while commuting to work or school in the morning. Second, the study investigated the characteristics of 250 accident situations involving cyclists that happened in the city using real-world bicycle accident data. The results revealed that the traffic accidents occurred at intersections of local streets, where cyclists collided most often with vehicles during commute time in the morning. Third, cyclists’ behavior was observed at a local street intersection in the morning in the city using video pictures.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0009
Hollie A. Pietsch, Kelly E. Bosch, David R. Weyland, E. Meade Spratley, Kyvory A. Henderson, Robert S. Salzar, Terrance A. Smith, Brandon M. Sagara, Constantine K. Demetropoulos, Christopher J. Dooley, Andrew C. Merkle
Three laboratory simulated sub-injurious under-body blast (UBB) test conditions were conducted with whole-body Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) and the Warrior Assessment Injury Manikin (WIAMan) Technology Demonstrator (TD) to establish and assess UBB biofidelity of the WIAMan TD. Test conditions included a rigid floor and rigid seat with independently varied pulses. On the floor, peak velocities of 4 m/s and 6 m/s were applied with a 5 ms time to peak (TTP). The seat peak velocity was 4 m/s with varied TTP of 5 and 10 ms. Tests were conducted with and without personal protective equipment (PPE). PMHS response data was compiled into preliminary biofidelity response corridors (BRCs), which served as evaluation metrics for the WIAMan TD. Each WIAMan TD response was evaluated against the PMHS preliminary BRC for the loading and unloading phase of the signal time history using Correlation Analysis (CORA) software to assign a numerical score between 0 and 1.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0011
David Gorman, Ebram Handy, Sikui Wang, Annette L. Irwin
Previous studies of frontal crash databases reported that ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity fractures. While not generally life threatening, these injuries can be debilitating. Laboratory research into the mechanisms of ankle fractures has linked dorsiflexion with an increased risk of tibia and fibula malleolus fractures. However, talus fractures were not produced in the laboratory tests and appear to be caused by more complex loading of the joint. In this study, an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2004-2013 was conducted to investigate foot-ankle injury rates in front seat occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. A logistic regression model was developed indicating occupant weight, impact delta velocity and gender to be significant predictors of talus fracture (p<0.05).
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0010
Frank A. Pintar, Michael B. Schlick, Narayan Yoganandan, Liming Voo, Andrew C. Merkle, Michael Kleinberger
A new anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is being developed by the US Army to be responsive to vertical loading during a vehicle underbody blast event. To obtain design parameters for the new ATD, a series of non-injurious tests were conducted to derive biofidelity response corridors for the foot-ankle complex under vertical loading. Isolated post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) lower leg specimens were tested with and without military boot and in different initial foot-ankle positions. Instrumentation included a six-axis load cell at the proximal end, three-axis accelerometers at proximal and distal tibia, and calcaneus, and strain gages. Average proximal tibia axial forces for a neutral-positioned foot were about 2 kN for a 4 m/s test, 4 kN for 6 m/s test and 6 kN for an 8 m/s test. The force time-to-peak values were from 3 to 5 msec and calcaneus acceleration rise times were 2 to 8 msec.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0013
Chiara Giordano, Svein Kleiven
This study describes a method to identify laboratory test procedures and impact response requirements suitable for assessing the biofidelity of finite element head models used in prediction of traumatic brain injury. The selection of the experimental data and the response requirements were result of a critical evaluation based on the accuracy, reproducibility and relevance of the available experimental data. A weighted averaging procedure was chosen in order to consider different contributions from the various test conditions and target measurements based on experimental error. According to the quality criteria, 40 experimental cases were selected to be a representative dataset for validation. Based on the evaluation of response curves from four head finite element models, CORA was chosen as a quantitative method to compare the predicted time history response to the measured data.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0012
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kevin Pline, Guosong Li, Michael Frankstein, Para Weerappuli
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently published a Request for Comments regarding a potential upgrade to the US New Car Assessment Program (US NCAP) - a star-rating program pertaining to vehicle crashworthiness. Therein, NHTSA (a) cited two metrics for assessing head risk: Head Injury Criterion (HIC15) and Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC), and (b) proposed to conduct risk assessment via its risk curves for those metrics, but did not prescribe a specific method for applying them. Recent studies, however, have indicated that the NHTSA risk curves for BrIC significantly overstate field-based head injury rates. Therefore, in the present three-part study, a new set of BrIC-based risk curves was derived, an overarching head risk equation involving risk curves for both BrIC and HIC15 was assessed, and some additional candidate-predictor-variable assessments were conducted. Part 1 pertained to the derivation.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0015
Matthew L. Davis, Bharath Koya, Jeremy M. Schap, F. Scott Gayzik
To mitigate the societal impact of vehicle crash, researchers are using a variety of tools, including finite element models (FEMs). As part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) project, comprehensive medical image and anthropometrical data of the 5th percentile female (F05) were acquired for the explicit purpose of FEM development. The F05-O (occupant) FEM model consists of 981 parts, 2.6 million elements, 1.4 million nodes, and has a mass of 51.1 kg. The model was compared to experimental data in 10 validation cases ranging from localized rigid hub impacts to full body sled cases. In order to make direct comparisons to experimental data, which represent the mass of an average male, the model was compared to experimental corridors using two methods: 1) post-hoc scaling the outputs from the baseline F05-O model and 2) geometrically morphing the model to the body habitus of the average male to allow direct comparisons.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0014
Eunjoo Hwang, Jingwen Hu, Cong Chen, Katelyn F. Klein, Carl S. Miller, Matthew P. Reed, Jonathan D. Rupp, Jason J. Hallman
Occupant stature and body shape may have significant effects on injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the current finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) only represent occupants with a few sizes and shapes. Our recent studies have demonstrated that, by using a mesh morphing method, parametric FE HBMs can be rapidly developed for representing a diverse population. However, the biofidelity of those models across a wide range of human attributes has not been established. Therefore, the objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the accuracy of HBMs considering subject-specific geometry information, and 2) to apply the parametric HBMs in a sensitivity analysis for identifying the specific parameters affecting body responses in side impact conditions. Four side-impact tests with two male post-mortem human subjects (PMHSs) were selected to evaluate the accuracy of the geometry and impact responses of the morphed HBMs.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0017
Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Michael Carlson, Yun-Seok Kang
When the Hybrid III 10-year old (HIII-10C) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was adopted into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 572 as the best available tool for evaluating large belt-positioning booster seats in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, NHTSA stated that research activities would continue to improve the performance of the HIII-10C to address biofidelity concerns. A significant part of this effort has been NHTSA’s in-house development of the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD. This prototype ATD is comprised of (1) a head with pediatric mass properties, (2) a neck that produces head lag with Z-axis rotation at the atlanto-occipital joint, (3) a flexible thoracic spine, (4) multi-point thoracic deflection measurement capability, (5) skeletal anthropometry representative of a seated child, and (6) an abdomen that can directly measure belt loading.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0016
Annette L. Irwin, Greg Crawford, David Gorman, Sikui Wang, Harold J. Mertz
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
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