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Viewing 241 to 270 of 15805
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Todd MacDonald, Moustafa EL-Gindy, Srikanth Ghantae, Sarathy Ramachandra, David Critchley
Abstract A performance investigation of Front Underride Protection Devices (FUPDs) with varying collision interface is presented by monitoring occupant compartment intrusion of Toyota Yaris and Ford Taurus FEA models in LS-DYNA. A newly proposed simplified dual-spring system is developed and validated for this investigation, offering improvements over previously employed fixed-rigid simplified test rigs. The results of three tested collision interface profiles were used to guide the development of two new underride protection devices. In addition, these devices were set to comply with Volvo VNL packaging limitations. Topology optimization is used to aid engineering intuition in establishing appropriate load support paths, while multi-objective optimization subject to simultaneous quasi-static loading ensures minimal mass and deformation of the FUPDs. While a new FUPD is developed and tested which highlights benefits of deflecting the passenger vehicle in small overlap cases, a dual stage FUPD is proposed revealing potential benefits in utilizing the radiator to absorb some collision energy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sanjeev Kumar, Pinak Deb
Abstract The side impact accident is one of the very severe crash modes for the struck side occupants. According to NHTSA fatality reports, side impact accounts for over 25% of the fatalities in the US. Similar fatality estimates have been reported in the EU region. Side crash compliance of a compact car is more severe because of the less space available between the occupant and the vehicle structure, stringent fuel economy, weight and cost targets. The current work focuses on the development of Side body structure of a compact car through Computer Aided Tools (CAE), for meeting the Side crash requirements as per ECE R95 Regulation. A modified design philosophy has been adopted for controlling the intrusion of upper and lower portion of B-pillar in order to mitigate the injury to Euro SIDII dummy. At first, initial CAE evaluation of baseline vehicle was conducted. Further design iterations were carried out to optimize the stiffness of B-pillar for meeting the performance targets of B-pillar intrusion and velocity.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ali Seyed Yaghoubi, Paul Begeman, Golam Newaz, Derek Board, Yijung Chen, Omar Faruque
Abstract The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples. A linear potentiometer was installed next to each crush-can to directly measure crush length of the can.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kumar B. Kulkarni, Jaisankar Ramalingam, Ravi Thyagarajan
It is of considerable interest to developers of military vehicles, in early phases of the concept design process as well as in Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) phase, to quickly predict occupant injury risk due to under-body blast loading. The most common occupant injuries in these extremely short duration events arise out of the very high vertical acceleration of vehicle due to its close proximity to hot high pressure gases from the blast. In a prior study [16], an extensive parametric study was conducted in a systematic manner so as to create look-up tables or automated software tools that decision-makers can use to quickly estimate the different injury responses for both stroking and non-stroking seat systems in terms of a suitable blast load parameter. The primary objective of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of using such a tool in lieu of building a detailed model for simulation and occupant injury assessment.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fei Han, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Bei Ren, Ying Wang, Jie Bai
This paper presents a novel approach of developing a vision-based forward collision warning system (FCW) under a virtual and real-time driving environment. The proposed environment mainly includes a 3D high-fidelity virtual driving environment developed with computer graphics technologies, a virtual camera model and a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system with a driver simulator. Some preliminary simulation has been conducted to verify that the proposed virtual environment along with the image generated by a virtual camera model is valid with sufficient fidelity, and the real-time HIL development system with driver in the loop is effective in the early design, test and verification of the FCW and other similar ADAS systems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Monica Majcher, Hongyi Xu, Yan Fu, Ching-Hung Chuang, Ren-Jye Yang
Vehicle restraint system design is a difficult optimization problem to solve because (1) the nature of the problem is highly nonlinear, non-convex, noisy, and discontinuous; (2) there are large numbers of discrete and continuous design variables; (3) a design has to meet safety performance requirements for multiple crash modes simultaneously, hence there are a large number of design constraints. Based on the above knowledge of the problem, it is understandable why design of experiment (DOE) does not produce a high-percentage of feasible solutions, and it is difficult for response surface methods (RSM) to capture the true landscape of the problem. Furthermore, in order to keep the restraint system more robust, the complexity of restraint system content needs to be minimized in addition to minimizing the relative risk score to achieve New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) 5-star rating. These call for identifying the most appropriate multi-objective optimization algorithm to solve this type of vehicle restraint system design problem.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bethany L. Suderman, Irving S. Scher, Randal P. Ching
Abstract Previous studies have shown that occupant kinematics in lateral impacts are different for near- and far-side occupants. Additionally, injuries to far-side occupants in high-speed lateral impacts have been better documented in the scientific literature; few studies have looked at low-speed far-side occupants. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of lumbar spine injury for restrained and unrestrained far-side occupants in low- to moderate- speed lateral impacts. The NASS/CDS database was queried for far-side occupants in lateral impacts for different levels of impact severity (categorized by Delta-V): 0 to 8 km/h, 8 to 16 km/h, 16 to 24 km/h and 24 to 32 km/h. To further understand the lumbar spine injuries sustained by occupants in real-world impacts, far-side lateral impact tests with ATDs from the NHTSA Biomechanics Test Database were used to estimate lumbar loads in generic far-side sled tests. From the NASS-CDS data, the risk of an AIS2+ lumbar spine injury was less than 0.2% for lateral impacts with Delta-V's less than 32 km/h.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Stanley Chien, Qiang Yi, David Good, Ali Gholamjafari, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony
Abstract While the number of traffic fatalities as a whole continues to decline steadily over time, the number of pedestrian fatalities continues to rise (up 8% since 2009) and comprises a larger fraction of these fatalities. In 2011 there were 4,432 pedestrians killed and an estimated 69,000 pedestrian injuries [1]. A new generation of Pedestrian Pre-Collision Systems (PCS) is being introduced by car manufactures to mitigate pedestrian injuries and fatalities. In order to evaluate the performance of pedestrian PCS, The Transportation Active Safety Institute (TASI) at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis is developing a set of test scenarios and procedures for evaluating the performance of pedestrian PCS with the support of the Collaborative Safety Research Center of Toyota. Pedestrian crashes are complex in that there are many aspects about location, driver behavior, and pedestrian behaviors that may have implications for the performance of the PCS. This complexity will generate far more scenarios than can be reasonably tested.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ryan Fix, David King, Travis Fricker
Abstract CRASH3 techniques are often used to reconstruct aligned offset vehicle impacts. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CRASH3 technique using a series of aligned staged collision with varying degrees of overlap. Five front-to-rear vehicle impacts using the same vehicle model were staged using 25, 33, 50, 75 and 100% overlap. Impact kinematics were measured using overhead high speed video. The CRASH3 coefficients and methods developed previously (SAE 2010-01-0069) were used to reconstruct the impact speed and speed changes of both vehicles based on the residual crush. Overall, the CRASH3 analysis yielded good results for the 33 to 100% overlap collisions: predicted speed changes were within 29% of the measured speed change and predicted impact speeds were within 16% of the measured impact speed. The CRASH3 analysis yielded poor results for the 25% overlap collision: the predicted speed changes were up to 59% different from the actual speed changes and the predicted impacts speeds were up to 54% different from the actual impact speeds.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Masayuki Takemura, Masato Imai, Masahiro Kiyohara, Kota Irie, Masao Sakata, Shoji Muramatsu
Abstract Driver safety continues to be improved by advances in active safety technologies. One important example is Lane Departure Warning (LDW). European regulators soon will require LDW in big cars to reduce traffic accidents and New Car Assessment Programs in various countries will include LDW in a few years. Our focus is on rear cameras as sensing devices to recognize lane markers. Rear cameras are the most prevalent cameras for outside monitoring, and new Kids and Cars legislation will make them obligatory in the United States from 2014. As an affordable sensing system, we envision a rear camera which will function both as a rear-view monitoring device for drivers and as an LDW sensing device. However, there is a great difficulty involved in using the rear camera: water-droplets and dirt are directly attached to the lens surface, creating bad lens condition. The purpose of this study is to improve the durability of lane recognition systems when water-droplets and dirt are deposited on the lens surface.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ellen L. Lee, Patrick J. Lee, Mark S. Erickson, Wilson C. Hayes
Abstract When vehicle-specific stiffness coefficients cannot be acquired, stiffness coefficient values that are representative of the desired vehicle type, class, wheelbase or weight are routinely used for accident reconstructions. Since the original compilation of representative vehicle stiffness data almost 20 years ago, changes in crash testing standards and other safety and technological improvements in vehicular design have affected vehicle stiffness. While generic frontal stiffness data have been recently updated to reflect these vehicular changes, rear and side stiffness data have not. Structural, geometric and inertial data for over 300 passenger cars and light trucks were collected. Among the vehicles targeted were the top-selling cars, SUVs, vans and pickups for model years 1990 to 2012. Results indicated that all vehicle types demonstrated increases in mean stiffness over the time period considered. SUVs were, on average, the stiffest vehicle type in the front, rear and side.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
David Renfroe, Alex Roberts, Raphael Grzebieta, George Rechnitzer, J. Keith Simmons
Abstract This paper examines the directional handling characteristics of several vehicles in their original condition, then examines modifications to a few of these vehicles to determine if the handling characteristics can be made more forgiving of normal operators without sacrificing utility and without substantial increases in cost. These analyses of vehicles are made in the context of what normal operators are capable of performing with regards to steering response.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Changfu Zong, Jian Wu
Abstract This paper first presents an algorithm to detect tire blowout based on wheel speed sensor signals, which either reduces the cost for a TPMS or provides a backup in case it fails, and a tire blowout model considering different tire pressure is also built based on the UniTire model. The vehicle dynamic model uses commercial software CarSim. After detecting tire blowout, the active braking control, based on a 2DOF reference model, determines an optimal correcting yaw moment and the braking forces that slow down and stop the vehicle, based on a linear quadratic regulator. Then the braking force commands are further translated into target pressure command for each wheel cylinder to ensure the target braking forces are generated. Some simulations are conducted to verify the active control strategy. From the simulation results, it is shown that this active brake control strategy can not only ensure the flat tire vehicle stability, but also slow down the vehicle with a safe speed and for a shorter distance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Patrick Galipeau-Belair, Srikanth Ghantae, David Critchley, Sarathy Ramachandra, Moustafa EL-Gindy
Abstract This work describes the design and testing of side underride protection devices (SUPD) for tractor-trailers and straight trucks. Its goal is to reduce the incompatibility between small passenger cars and these large vehicles during side collisions. The purpose of these crash attenuating guards is to minimize occupant injury and passenger compartment intrusion. The methods presented utilize a regulation previously created and published for testing the effectiveness of these devices based on the principles of a force application device already implemented in the Canadian rear underride guard regulation. Topology and multi-objective optimization design processes are outlined using a proposed design road map to create the most feasible SUPD. The test vehicle in question is a 2010 Toyota Yaris which represents the 1100C class of vehicle from the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). Since the tractor-trailers and straight trucks utilize different structural components, separate concepts must be generated to accommodate each individual application.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Matthew Wood, Vivek Shekhawat, Tate Kubose, Rajeev Kelkar
Abstract Vehicle stiffness data are often used in crush energy analyses, in conjunction with conservation of momentum calculations, to compute vehicle speeds at impact for accident reconstruction purposes. The vehicle stiffness data are typically obtained from standardized impact tests, such as from the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) or from Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) tests. Ideally, these data are most applicable when obtained from a sister or clone subjected to an impact similar to the accident. However, when vehicle-specific data are not available, a common alternative is to use crush stiffness values for a generic vehicle population from the published literature. These publications are limited in number and, depending on the user's requirements, may have some inherent limitations. For example, use of the generic values may not readily apply to a recently manufactured subject vehicle involved in a side or rear-end impact. Of the currently published studies providing generic class stiffness data, one publication covers vehicles manufactured in the 1980's and 1990's, while another covers frontal impacts over 3 decades.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
William N. Newberry, Stacy Imler, Michael Carhart, Alan Dibb, Karen Balavich, Jeffrey Croteau, Eddie Cooper
Abstract It is well known from field accident studies and crash testing that seatbelts provide considerable benefit to occupants in rollover crashes; however, a small fraction of belted occupants still sustain serious and severe neck injuries. The mechanism of these neck injuries is generated by torso augmentation (diving), where the head becomes constrained while the torso continues to move toward the constrained head causing injurious compressive neck loading. This type of neck loading can occur in belted occupants when the head is in contact with, or in close proximity to, the roof interior when the inverted vehicle impacts the ground. Consequently, understanding the nature and extent of head excursion has long been an objective of researchers studying the behavior of occupants in rollovers. In evaluating rollover occupant protection system performance, various studies have recognized and demonstrated the upward and outward excursion of belted occupants that occurs during the airborne phase of a rollover, as well as excursion from vehicle-to-ground impacts.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Rush, Jay Przybyla, Daniel Melcher, Christian Sax
Abstract Numerous mathematical models for reconstructing vehicle-pedestrian collisions have been developed over the years utilizing common sources of physical evidence. As sources of video data recording proliferate, new sources of physical evidence are now available in some cases. This paper presents an expanded methodology for analyzing video footage of actual pedestrian collisions, including both static and dynamic camera positions. Each video was analyzed using digitizing motion analysis software to quantify the pre-impact and post-impact trajectories and speeds of the vehicle, the pedestrian, and the camera position for each collision. The relationship between vehicle speed and pedestrian throw distance has frequently been used in collision reconstruction to answer questions regarding vehicle/pedestrian impacts. Several approaches to reconstructing vehicle/pedestrian collisions have been developed and published in the literature using equations derived from empirical models, principles of mechanics, or hybrid approaches.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mark William Arndt, John Wiechel
Abstract Assuming rigid body motion, recorded acceleration and recorded roll rates at the center of gravity, equations are used to calculate the local three-dimensional accelerations at hypothetical seating positions' Emergency Locking [seat belt] Retractors (ELR) during a steer induced rollover crash. For a threshold of 0.7 g, results demonstrated that intervals in the vehicle's response that may cause the ELR's inertial sensor to move into a neutral zone were limited to localized high magnitude negative vertical acceleration events during the rollover segment with a median duration of 4 ms, average duration of 4.8 ms and a maximum calculated duration of 31.7 ms. Changing the threshold to 0.35 g reduced the interval count by 70 percent and maximum duration by approximately 50 percent. Since a retractor in an interval when an inertial sensor may move into a neutral position will unlock only after belt retraction and at an acceleration ratio below its threshold, the duration that a retractor may be unlocked was probably less than the duration of an interval when a vehicle's response would allow an inertial sensor to move into a neutral zone.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Enrique Bonugli, Jeffrey Wirth, James Funk, Joseph Cormier, Herbert Guzman, Lisa Gwin, Mark Freund
This is the complete manuscript and replacement for SAE paper 2014-01-0482, which has been retracted due to incomplete content. This paper reports on 76 quasi-static tests conducted to investigate the behavior of road vehicle bumper systems. The tests are a quasi-static replication of real world low speed collisions. The tests represented front to rear impacts between various vehicles. Force and deflection were captured in order to quantify the stiffness characteristics of the bumper-to-bumper system. A specialized test apparatus was constructed to position and load bumper systems into each other. The purpose was to replicate or exceed damage that occurred in actual collisions. The fixture is capable of positioning the bumpers in various orientations and generates forces up to 50 kips. Various bumper-to-bumper alignments were tested including full overlap, lateral offset, and override/underride configurations. Force and displacement were recorded and the data was analyzed to develop system stiffness and crush parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard R. Ruth, Ada Tsoi
Abstract Kia and Hyundai released publicly available tools in the spring of 2013 to read model year (MY) 2013 vehicle event data recorders (EDRs). By empirical testing, this study determined the tools also read data from some 2010-2012 models as EDRs were phased in by the manufacturer. Fifty-four (54) MY 2010-2012 airbag control module EDRs from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash tests were downloaded direct-to-module. The vehicles analyzed were exposed to frontal, side moving deformable barrier (MDB), and side pole tests. The EDR data was compared to the reference instrumentation for speed and Delta V data. Other data elements were also tabulated but are not evaluated for accuracy because they were not fully exercised during the crash tests, the reference instrumentation was not available, or they were outside the scope of this paper.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ada Tsoi, Nicholas Johnson, H. Gabler
This study evaluated the accuracy of 75 Event Data Recorders (EDRs) extracted from model year 2010-2012 Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mazda, and Toyota vehicles subjected to side-impact moving deformable barrier crash tests. The test report and vehicle-mounted accelerometers provided reference values to assess the EDR reported change in lateral velocity (delta-v), seatbelt buckle status, and airbag deployment status. Our results show that EDRs underreported the reference lateral delta-v in the vast majority of cases, mimicking the errors and conclusions found in some longitudinal EDR accuracy studies. For maximum lateral delta-v, the average arithmetic error was −3.59 kph (−13.8%) and the average absolute error was 4.05 kph (15.9%). All EDR reports that recorded a seatbelt buckle status data element correctly recorded the buckle status at both the driver and right front passenger locations. For equipped vehicles that reported side torso, side curtain, and frontal airbag deployment information, all vehicles recorded the correct status.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Roger Bortolin, Matthew Arbour, James Hrycay
Abstract Whether large or small, a truck fleet operator has to know the locations of its vehicles in order to best manage its business. On a day to day basis loads need to be delivered or picked up from customers, and other activities such as vehicle maintenance or repairs have to be routinely accommodated. Some fleets use aftermarket electronic systems for keeping track of vehicle locations, driver hours of service and for wirelessly text messaging drivers via cellular or satellite networks. Such aftermarket systems include GPS (Global Positioning System) technology, which in part uses a network of satellites in orbit. This makes it possible for the fleet manager to remotely view the location of a vehicle and view a map of its past route. These systems can obtain data directly from vehicle sensors or from the vehicle network, and therefore report other information such as fuel economy. The fleet manager can receive alerts when high-level brake applications occur, which could be an indication of tailgating or aggressive driving behavior.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Qiang Chen, Yong Chen, Ola Bostrom, Yehong Ma, Eryong Liu
Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the difference between car-to-e-bikes and car-to-pedestrian accidents. The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2013 for pedestrians and e-bikes struck by car, van and SUV fronts, which resulted in 104 pedestrian and 85 e-bike cases where information was sufficient for in-depth analysis. Reconstruction by PC-Crash was performed for all of the sampled cases. Pre-crash parameters were calculated by a MATLAB code. Focus was on prototypical accident scenarios and causes; speed as well as possible prevention countermeasures. It has been shown that traffic light violations, road priority violations, and unsure safety (these situations included misjudgments, unpreparedness, proximity to other road users, inappropriate speeds, etc.…) are the main causes in both the VRU groups. Distinctions were found for aspects of car collision speed, accident scenario, distribution of head contact points and so on. Pre-impact braking/warning systems could help drivers take pre-crash measures and mitigate crash severity, but a larger field of view (FOV) for sensors is of greater necessity for e-bikers than for pedestrians.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tao Zhang, Helder Antunes, Siddhartha Aggarwal
Abstract As vehicles become increasingly connected with the external world, they face a growing range of security vulnerabilities. Researchers, hobbyists, and hackers have compromised security keys used by vehicles' electronic control units (ECUs), modified ECU software, and hacked wireless transmissions from vehicle key fobs and tire monitoring sensors. Malware can infect vehicles through Internet connectivity, onboard diagnostic interfaces, devices tethered wirelessly or physically to the vehicle, malware-infected aftermarket devices or spare parts, and onboard Wi-Fi hotspot. Once vehicles are interconnected, compromised vehicles can also be used to attack the connected transportation system and other vehicles. Securing connected vehicles impose a range of unique new challenges. This paper describes some of these unique challenges and presents an end-to-end cloud-assisted connected vehicle security framework that can address these challenges.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Satoshi Otsuka, Tasuku Ishigooka, Yukihiko Oishi, Kazuyoshi Sasazawa
Abstract In-vehicle networks are generally used for computerized control and connecting information technology devices in cars. However, increasing connectivity also increases security risks. “Spoofing attacks”, in which an adversary infiltrates the controller area network (CAN) with malicious data and makes the car behave abnormally, have been reported. Therefore, countermeasures against this type of attack are needed. Modifying legacy electronic control units (ECUs) will affect development costs and reliability because in-vehicle networks have already been developed for most vehicles. Current countermeasures, such as authentication, require modification of legacy ECUs. On the other hand, anomaly detection methods may result in misdetection due to the difficulty in setting an appropriate threshold. Evaluating a reception cycle of data can be used to simply detect spoofing attacks. However, this may result in false detection due to fluctuation in the data reception cycle in the CAN. We propose the “delayed-decision cycle detection” method for improving a conventional cycle detection method, which does not require modification of legacy ECUs, detects intrusions with a low misdetection rate, and prevents intrusions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Se Jin Park, Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Heeran Lee, Dong Gyun Kim, Cheol Pyo Hong
Abstract Vibration is both a source of discomfort and a possible risk to human health. There have been numerous studies and knowledge exists regarding the vibrational behavior of vehicle seats on adult human occupants. Children are more and more becoming regular passengers in the vehicle. However, very little knowledge available regarding the vibrational behavior of child safety seats for children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the vibrations in three different baby car seats and to compare these to the vibrations at the interface between the driver and the automobile seat. The test was performed on the National road at the average speed of 70 km/h and acceleration levels were recorded for about 350 Sec (5.83 min). One male driver considered as an adult occupant and a dummy having a mass of 9 kg was representing one year old baby. Four accelerometers were used to measure the vibration. All measured accelerations were relative to the vertical direction. Vibration Analysis Toolset (VATS) was used for time domain analysis.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Payman Khani, Mehrdad S. Sharbaf
Abstract Vehicular Network is an emerging and developing technology to improve traffic management and safety issues, and enable a wide range of value-added services such as collision warning/avoidance. Many applications have been designed to provide safety and comfort for passengers. This technology is a prolific area for attackers who will attempt to challenge the network with their malicious or rational attacks. In this paper we elaborate what a vehicular network is, different kinds of communication in this field, main mechanism and related parts and how vehicular networks work then we introduce some of its applications. After primary familiarity with this system we investigate to different type of attacker, more important security issues, How to secure vehicular networks (security requirements and some tools and methods to achieve secure vehicular networks), difficulties and providing viable security solutions, and at the end briefly explanation of related standards.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection covers papers with an emphasis on, but not limited to, innovative ideas to enhance automotive safety with improved material constitutive modeling, analysis method developments, simulation and pre/post processing tools, optimization techniques, crash code developments, finite element model updating, model validation and verification techniques, dummies and occupants, restraint systems, passive safety as well as lightweight material applications and designs.
Collection
2014-04-01
Active Safety & Advanced Driver Assistance Systems help prevent accidents or mitigate accident severity. Some of these safety systems provide alerts to the driver in critical situations, while others respond to threats by automatically braking and steering the vehicle to avoid crashes. This technical paper collection covers the latest technologies in active safety and driver assistance systems.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focuses on cybersecurity for cyber-physical vehicle systems. Topics include: design, development and implementation of security-critical cyber-physical vehicle systems, cybersecurity design, development, and implementation strategies, analysis methodologies, process and life-cycle management, comparisons of system safety and cybersecurity, etc. Application areas include: security-critical automotive systems as well as other security-critical ground vehicle and aviation systems.
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