Display:

Results

Viewing 211 to 240 of 16177
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0493
Ying Wang, Ye Wang, You Qu, Sumin Zhang, Weiwen Deng
Abstract Vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has achieved rapid growth in recent years. Since vehicle field testing under various driving scenarios can be costly, tedious, unrepeatable, and often dangerous, simulation has thus become an effective means that reduces or partially replaces the conventional field testing in the early development stage. However, most of the commercial tools are lack of elaborate lens/sensor models for the vehicle mounted cameras. This paper presents the system-based camera modeling method integrated virtual environment for vision-based ADAS design, development and testing. We present how to simulate two types of cameras with virtual 3D models and graphic render: Pinhole camera and Fisheye camera. We also give out an application named Envelope based on pinhole camera model which refers to the coverage of Field-of-Views (FOVs) of one or more cameras projected to a specific plane.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
Abstract In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver's limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0612
Weiguo Zhang, Zeyu Ma, Ankang Jin, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Nowadays, studying the human body response in a seated position has attracted a lot of attention as environmental vibrations are transferred to the human body through floor and seat. This research has constructed a multi-body biodynamic human model with 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), including the backrest support and the interaction between feet and ground. Three types of human biodynamic models are taken into consideration: the first model doesn't include the interaction between the feet and floor, the second considers the feet and floor interaction by using a high stiffness spring, the third one includes the interaction by using a soft spring. Based on the whole vehicle model, the excitation to human body through feet and back can be obtained by ride simulation. The simulation results indicate that the interaction between feet and ground exerts non-negligible effect upon the performance of the whole body vibration by comparing the three cases.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Chih Feng Lee, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen
Abstract Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and predicting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices calculated either from lateral acceleration or lateral load transfer. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is not obvious how they can be compared or how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices in different critical maneuvers for a heavy 8×4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0219
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Abstract Starting January 2015 the government of the United Kingdom will allow driverless cars on public roads. From a first glance this can and should be seen as a great step towards the adoption of autonomous vehicles. Yet as any new technology driverless vehicles carry with them many new risks and disadvantages that need to be understood and protected against in order for the introduction of said systems into the market place to be a long lasting and fruitful one. The present work will look at the possible safety and security risks posed by the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems on the open road, motivated by the fact that many projected autonomous vehicle concept systems rely on them for object detection and avoidance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) in combination with other active safety features like air bags etc. is gaining popularity. Vision based ADAS systems perform well under ideal lighting, illumination and environmental conditions. However, with change in illumination and other lighting related factors, the effectiveness of vision based ADAS systems tend to deteriorate. Under conditions of low light, it is therefore important to develop techniques that would offset the effects of low illumination and generate an image that appears as if it were taken under ideal lighting conditions. To accomplish this, we have developed a method, that uses local color statistics from the host image with low illumination, and enhance the same using an adaptive color transfer mechanism.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1414
Jitendra Shah, Mohamed Benmimoun
Abstract The focus of this paper is the threat assessment of perceived threat by drivers in collision avoidance situations. The understanding of the decision making process with regards to the initiation of a driver intervention is a crucial step to gain insight into driver's steering and braking behavior in case of an imminent threat (rear-end collision). Hence a study with various test subjects and a test vehicle has been conducted. The study has helped to understand how drivers behave in potential rear-end collision situations arising from the traffic situation (e.g. start of a traffic jam). This information is of major importance for designing autonomous collision avoidance systems and an important step towards autonomous driving. Autonomous driving in vehicles require system interventions to be initiated as early and safely as possible in order to avoid the collision and to avoid unstable vehicle dynamics situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1418
Shane Richardson, Nikola Josevski, Andreas Sandvik, Tandy Pok, Tia Lange Orton, Blake Winter, Xu Wang
Abstract Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances, the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However, based on investigated pedestrian collisions, the location where the pedestrian has engaged with the vehicle can and does significantly influence the throw distance (and projection) and subsequent impact speed analysis. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at varying speeds and vehicle impact locations, creating pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots. This paper presents the pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of nine vehicle types.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing with a single full-size sport utility vehicle (SUV) was conducted under controlled real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed, inherent to rollovers, are: pre-trip, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques have been designed which improve the ability to capture and document the unpredictable dynamic events surrounding vehicle rollovers. One such device is an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which utilizes GPS technology along with integrated sensors to report and record measured dynamic parameters real-time. The data obtained from a RT-4003 IMU device are presented and compared along with previous test data and methodology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1406
Mikael Ljung Aust, Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Erik Coelingh
Abstract This paper first discusses the advancement and challenges in the areas of developing Collision Avoidance Systems, or CAS. CAS have been on the market for a decade, and their development has been rapid. Starting with forward collision warning with brake support, targeting vehicles moving in the same direction in front of the car, CAS now cover pedestrians and cyclists in front of the car as well as vehicles standing still and even some situations of approaching vehicles in crossings. This development up to date is described and discussed according to the challenge areas of detection, decision strategy and intervention strategy. Next, the paper discusses assessment of system effects on driving safety. Numerous studies have tried to predict the effect of various CAS, and the real world effect of these systems has been shown to be significant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
Abstract This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1410
Shotaro Odate, Kazuhiro Daido, Yosuke Mizutani
Abstract According to the North American National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), approximately one-half of all accidents during driving are of the secondary collision pattern in which the collision event involves the occurrence of secondary collision. Accidents involving impact to a stopped vehicle (chain-reaction collisions) have increased to approximately 3% of all accidents in North America, and although the rate of serious injury is low, cases have been reported of accidents in which cervical sprain occurs as an after-effect[1]. In order to mitigate these circumstances, research has been conducted on systems of automatic braking for collisions. These systems apply brakes automatically when a first collision has been detected in order to avoid or lessen a second collision. Research on automatic collision braking systems, however, has not examined the multiple collisions parked [1, 2].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1411
Caroline Crump, David Cades, Robert Rauschenberger, Emily Hildebrand, Jeremy Schwark, Brandon Barakat, Douglas Young
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS) technologies have been introduced as the automotive industry moves towards autonomous driving. One ADAS technology with the potential for substantial safety benefits is forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM), which is designed to warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, potentiate driver braking responses, and apply the vehicle's brakes autonomously. Although the proliferation of FCWM technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how these systems affect a driver's overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear. Exponent conducted a closed-course evaluation of drivers' reactions to an imminent forward collision event while driving an FCWM-equipped vehicle, either with or without a secondary task administered through a hands-free cell phone.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, Sarah Sharpe, William Newberry, Alan Dibb, John Zolock, Jeffrey Croteau, Michael Carhart, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer maneuver-induced furrow tripped rollovers to gain further understanding of vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle's pre-trip motion. The current study consisted of two rollover tests utilizing instrumented test vehicles and instrumented ATDs to investigate occupant kinematics and injury response throughout the entire rollover sequences, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the position of rest. The two steer maneuver-induced furrow tripped rollover tests utilized a mid-sized 4-door sedan and a full-sized crew-cab pickup truck. The pickup truck was equipped with seatbelt pretensioners and rollover-activated side curtain airbags (RSCAs).
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection focuses on the latest research related to methods and techniques for reconstructing vehicular crashes involving wheeled and tracked vehicles, pedestrians, and roadside features. Emphasis is placed on experimental data and theoretical methods that will enable reconstructionists to identify, interpret and analyze physical evidence from vehicular crashes
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0267
Ryoichi Inada, Teppei Hirotsu, Yasushi Morita, Takahiro Hata
Abstract The ISO 26262 is a functional safety standard for road vehicles. The standard requires manufacturers to conduct quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of products. The DC is defined as the percentage of failure probability covered by safety mechanisms. However, DC evaluation methods for drift faults, in which the change in element values is not constant, have not been discussed. In this paper, we propose a DC evaluation method for analog circuits with drift faults. With this method, we first parameterize the effect of drift faults onto a bounded region then split the region into safe fault, hazardous detectable fault, and hazardous undetectable fault regions. We evaluate the classification rate distribution by the area ratios of these regions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1448
Lee Carr, Robert Rucoba, Dan Barnes, Steven Kent, Aaron Osterhout
Abstract With commercial availability of the Bosch Crash Data Retrieval Tool (CDR), the information stored in vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs) has increasingly been used to supplement traditional traffic crash data collection and reconstruction methods, allowing enhanced confidence levels in transportation safety research. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of EDR data images obtained with the Bosch CDR tool by comparing them to a known crash impulse. Multiple EDRs and necessary sensor arrays were mounted on a HYGE™ acceleration-type crash simulation sled system at various orientations representing different principal direction of force (PDOF) angles and subjected to controlled “crash” impulses, simulating a “deployment event” (DE) and triggering data to be saved in the EDRs. The data included in each EDR's CDR report was compared to the known conditions of the impulse.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1459
Lotta Jakobsson, Magnus Björklund, Anders Axelson
Abstract Vertical loading can cause thoracic and lumbar spine injuries to a car occupant. Crashes potentially causing occupant vertical loads include; rollover events or free flying events when the car lands on its wheels, and run off road events when the car goes into the ditch and collides with an embankment. To date, there is no standardized test method evaluating this occupant loading mechanism. The aim of this study was to develop test methods addressing vertical occupant loading for car occupants and to evaluate countermeasures for reduction of such loads. Based on real world run off road crashes, representative test track methods were developed. These complete vehicle test track methods were used to provide input to a simplified and repeatable rig test method. The rig test method comprises a dummy positioned in a seat attached to a frame and exposed to a vertical acceleration. Vertical pelvis acceleration is monitored, as an indication of potential loads through the spine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Abstract Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0407
Timothy W. Skszek, Matthew Zaluzec, Jeff Conklin, David Wagner
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance, occupant safety and utility of the baseline production vehicle. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine, resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper includes details associated with the MMLV project approach, mass reduction and environmental impact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1432
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Abstract Accident reconstruction experts are often asked to evaluate the visibility and conspicuity of objects in the roadway. It is common for objects placed in or along the roadway, vehicles, and required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 for certain vehicles and trailers, to have red and white DOT-C2 retroreflective tape installed on several locations. Retroreflective tape is designed to reflect light back towards the light source at the same entrance angle. The authors' literature review revealed that there have been no publications quantifying the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape with real world vehicles. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape would perform beyond the minimum federal requirements. In the current research, the performance of white and red DOT-C2 retroreflective tape is quantified.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1417
Jeffrey Muttart
Abstract Controlled studies identified several factors that influence drivers' swerving when responding to in an emergency situation. Specifically, driver age, time-to-contact, amplitude of the steering action (steer within lane or swerving into the next lane), distraction, fatigue, natural lighting and available buffer space were identified as factors that influence steering behaviors. The goal of the current research was to identify the extent to which each factor changed swerving performances of drivers who were faced with a crash or near crash. Results from crashes and near crashes were obtained from the InSight (SHRP-2) naturalistic driving study. The results from the controlled studies and the results from the naturalistic driving research were consistent in many ways. Drivers engaged in a visual-manual secondary task were much younger than were the drivers who had no distracting secondary task.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1429
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Abstract Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 has minimum performance requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance and observation angles. In the author's preliminary research, all DOT-C2 retroreflective tape on the market is advertised as meeting and exceeding FMVSS No. 108 requirements. The authors' literature review revealed that there have been no publications quantifying the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape across a wide range of entrance and observation angles. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape may perform, beyond the minimum federal requirements. In an attempt to solve this issue, the authors have quantified the performance of different types of retroreflective tape with a retroreflectometer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1428
Shane Richardson, Andreas Moser, Tia Lange Orton, Roger Zou
Abstract Current techniques that can be used to evaluate and analyse lateral impact speeds of vehicle crashes with poles/trees are based on measuring the deformation crush and using lateral crash stiffness data to estimate the impact speed. However, in some cases the stiffness data is based on broad object side impacts rather than pole impacts. Some have argued that broad object side impact tests can be used for analysing narrow object impacts; however previous authors have identified the fallacy of this premise. Publicly available side pole crash test data is evaluated in terms of crush depth impact speed and impact energy for six general vehicle types. A range of simulated pole impact tests at various speeds and impact angles were conducted using LS-Dyna and PC-Crash. Publicly available Finite Element Vehicle models of a 1996 Ford Taurus, a 1994 Chevrolet C2500 and a 1997 Geo Metro (Suzuki Swift) were used, providing relationships among impact speeds, crush depths and impact angles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1381
Jason P. Huczek, R. Rhoads Stephenson
Abstract The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1383
Andrew Blum, Richard Thomas Long
Abstract Fires involving cars, trucks, and other highway vehicles are a common concern for emergency responders. In 2013 alone, there were approximately 188,000 highway vehicle fires. Fire Service personnel are accustomed to responding to conventional vehicle (i.e., internal combustion engine [ICE]) fires, and generally receive training on the hazards associated with those vehicles and their subsystems. However, in light of the recent proliferation of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), a key question for emergency responders is, “what is different with EDVs and what tactical adjustments are required when responding to EDV fires?” The overall goal of this research program was to develop the technical basis for best practices for emergency response procedures for EDV battery incidents, with consideration for suppression methods and agents, personal protective equipment (PPE), and clean-up/overhaul operations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1379
Hideki Matsumura, Shinichiro Itoh, Kenichi Ando
Abstract Lithium-ion cells are being used in an increasing number of electric and hybrid vehicles. Both of these vehicle types contain many cells. Despite various safety measures, however, there are still reports of accidents involving abnormal heat, smoke, and fire caused by thermal runaway in the cells. If thermal runaway in one cell triggers that of another and thus causes thermal runaway propagation, this can lead to rupture of the battery pack, car fire, or other serious accidents. This study is aimed to ensure the safety of vehicles with lithium-ion cells by clarifying such accident risks, and so we investigated the process of thermal runaway propagation. In the experiment, we created a battery module made of seven laminate-type cells tightly stacked one on another. Then, we induced thermal runaway in one of the cells, measured the surface temperatures of the cells, and collected video data as the process developed. As a result, all of the seven cells underwent thermal runaway.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1386
Devin SJ Caplow-Munro, Helen Loeb, Venk Kandadai, Flaura Winston
Abstract Inadequate situation awareness and response are increasingly recognized as prevalent critical errors that lead to young driver crashes. To identify and assess key indicators of young driver performance (including situation awareness), we previously developed and validated a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) in which drivers are safely and reproducibly exposed to a set of common and potentially serious crash scenarios. Many of the standardized safety measures can be calculated in near real-time from simulator variables. Assessment of situation awareness, however, largely relies on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a near real-time automated method for analyzing general direction and location of driver's gaze in order to assess situation awareness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1424
Jeffrey Croteau, Charles L. Crosby, Micky Marine, Andrew Kwasniak
Abstract Bollard systems are often used to separate errant vehicular travel from pedestrian and bicycle traffic. Various bollard systems are available for this function, including different installations, functional design, and protection levels. The security-type bollards are used primarily at high-security locations (e.g., military bases and other government installations) around the world. While a protocol exists for testing and rating security bollards, no such protocol or recommended practice or standard currently exists for non-security-type bollards. Non-security, concrete-filled bollards are commonly used by cities/states, local government organizations, and the private sector as “perceived impediments to access” to protect against slow-moving vehicles. There is a general lack of publically available test data to evaluate these non-security bollards and conventional installation procedures.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 16177

Filter