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Viewing 211 to 240 of 16230
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Abstract Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This method was established on the basis of the fuzzy description of risk factors from experts, after the risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was obtained. The risk priority of forklift system was processed to analyze the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0213
Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Anusha Baskaran, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract In the research field of automotive systems, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are gaining paramount importance. As the significance for such systems increase, the challenges associated with it also increases. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to natural elements (haze, fog, rain etc.). Among these, natural challenges, especially haze, pose a major setback for technologies depending on vision sensors. It is a known fact that the presence of haze in the atmosphere degrades the driver's visibility as well as the information available with the vision based ADAS. To ensure reliability of ADAS in different climatic conditions, it is vital to get back the information of the scene degraded by haze prior to analyzing the images. In this paper, the proposed work addresses this challenge with a novel and faster image preprocessing technique that can enhances the quality of haze affected images both in terms of visibility and visual perception.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0215
Reena Kumari Behera, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Abstract This paper presents a simple yet novel approach to remove redundant data from outdoor scenes, thus finding significant application in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A captured outdoor scene has two main parts, the ground region consisting of the road area along with other lane markings and the background region consisting of various structures, trees, sky etc. To extract the ground region, first the yellow and white road markings are segmented based on the HSI (Hue Saturation Intensity) color model and these regions are filled with the surrounding road color. Further the background region is segmented based on the Lab (Color-opponent) color model, which shows significant improvement as compared to other color spaces. To extract the background region such as the sky or ground region, it is assumed that the top and bottom most portions of the image does not consist of useful information.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya Deshpande, Krishnan Kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency region in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require number of sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time, which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and ignore the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in a scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The proposed method aims to model this behavior of human visual system in computer vision/image processing applications for eliminating non salient objects from an image. A region is said to be salient, if its appearance is unique. In our method, the saliency in still images is computed by local color contrast difference between the regions in Lab space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0219
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Abstract Starting January 2015 the government of the United Kingdom will allow driverless cars on public roads. From a first glance this can and should be seen as a great step towards the adoption of autonomous vehicles. Yet as any new technology driverless vehicles carry with them many new risks and disadvantages that need to be understood and protected against in order for the introduction of said systems into the market place to be a long lasting and fruitful one. The present work will look at the possible safety and security risks posed by the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems on the open road, motivated by the fact that many projected autonomous vehicle concept systems rely on them for object detection and avoidance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Abstract Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE software. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0502
Zhicheng Xu, Gangfeng Tan, Xingzhi Sun, Yongqiang Ge, Min Hua, Haobo Xu
Abstract For the thin ice on the road in winter, the traditional road deicing vehicle relies on mechanical and chemical methods for melting ice, which is inclined to damage the pavement and has insidious influence on environment. The thermal deicing vehicle has been adopted in recent years. Although the deicing method is available, the deicing efficiency is unacceptable while the energy consumption is huge. The study adopts the new idea of “bottom-to-top” for melting the intersection area between the road surface and the bottom ice layer by the microwave heating firstly and then cleaning them out using high pres. vapor cutting so as to save the cost of energy and enhance the traffic safety. First of all, the mathematical model of the melting process of the intersection of the pavement and the ice layer was established according to the microwave heating characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) in combination with other active safety features like air bags etc. is gaining popularity. Vision based ADAS systems perform well under ideal lighting, illumination and environmental conditions. However, with change in illumination and other lighting related factors, the effectiveness of vision based ADAS systems tend to deteriorate. Under conditions of low light, it is therefore important to develop techniques that would offset the effects of low illumination and generate an image that appears as if it were taken under ideal lighting conditions. To accomplish this, we have developed a method, that uses local color statistics from the host image with low illumination, and enhance the same using an adaptive color transfer mechanism.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0307
Hongfeng Wang, Lei He, Qianfei Liu, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays active collision avoidance has become a major focus of research, and a variety of detection and tracking methods of obstacles in front of host vehicle have been applied to it. In this paper, laser radars are chosen as sensors to obtain relevant information, after which an algorithm used to detect and track vehicles in front is provided. The algorithm determines radar's ROI (Region of Interest), then uses a laser radar to scan the 2D space so as to obtain the information of the position and the distance of the targets which could be determined as obstacles. The information obtained will be filtered and then be transformed into cartesian coordinates, after that the coordinate point will be clustered so that the profile of the targets can be determined. A threshold will be set to judge whether the targets are obstacles or not. Last Kalman filter will be used for target tracking. To verify the presented algorithm, related experiments have been designed and carried out.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
R Danymol, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes and used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filter is used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process of image acquisition. However, RGB and NIR images are captured entirely in two different spectra/wavelengths; thus they retain different information. Since NIR and RGB images compromise complimentary information, we believe that this can be exploited for extracting better features, localization of objects of interest and in multi-modal fusion. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate the NIR image from a given optical image. Using a normal optical camera and based on the compressed sensing framework, the NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0318
Sonu Thomas, Krishnan Kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
Abstract Dense depth estimation is a critical application in the field of robotics and machine vision where the depth perception is essential. Unlike traditional approaches which use expensive sensors such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) devices or stereo camera setup, the proposed approach for depth estimation uses a single camera mounted on a rotating platform. This proposed setup is an effective replacement to usage of multiple cameras, which provide around view information required for some operations in the domain of autonomous vehicles and robots. Dense depth estimation of local scene is performed using the proposed setup. This is a novel, however challenging task because baseline distance between camera positions inversely affect common regions between images. The proposed work involves dense two view reconstruction and depth map merging to obtain a reliable large dense depth map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0717
Anindya Deb, G S Venkatesh, Ashok Mache
Abstract The usage of lightweight materials such as plastics and their derivatives continues to increase in automobiles driven by the urgency for weight reduction. For structural performance, body components such as A-pillar or B-pillar trim, instrument panel, etc. have to meet various requirements including resistance to penetration and energy absorption capability under impact indentation. A range of plain and reinforced thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics has been considered in the present study in the form of plates which are subject to low velocity perforation in a drop-weight impact testing set-up with a rigid cylindrical indenter fitted to a tup. The tested plates are made of polypropylene (PP), nanoclay-reinforced PP of various percentages of nanoclay content, wood-PP composites of different volume fractions of wood fiber, a jute-polyester composite, and a hybrid jute-polyester reinforced with steel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
Abstract In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver's limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1380
Kumar Kumar
Abstract According to the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA), from the most recent available data, it was estimated that there were 164,000 highway vehicle fires in 2013 causing roughly 300 civilian fire deaths, 925 civilian fire injuries and $1.1 billion in property damages [1]. In a modern automobile, the plastics content is dramatically higher than it was in 1972, when Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 302 was implemented [2]. FMVSS 302 applies only to materials in the passenger compartment and was put in place to address accidental fires started from sources such as cigarettes, matches, etc. There has never been any regulation for the plastic materials used outside the vehicle interior, including those used in under-the-hood (UTH) applications, and this is true even for today's automobiles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1415
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
Abstract Fatal injuries suffered by cyclists in vehicle-versus-cyclist accidents are investigated to provide information for the introduction of safety countermeasures. We analyzed characteristics of cyclist injuries in real fatal accidents and compared them with severity levels of head injury in impact tests against a road surface. In the accident analyses, we investigated the main body regions whose injuries led to fatalities using a macro vehicle-cyclist accident database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we investigated the frequency of cyclist fatalities by gender, age group, vehicle speed, and the source of fatal head injury (impact with the vehicle or road surface). Results indicated that head injuries are the most common cause of cyclist fatalities in car-cyclist accidents.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Abstract This paper investigates the effects on response time of a forward collision event in a repeated-measures design. Repeated-measures designs are often used in forward collision warning (FCW) testing despite concerns that the first exposure creates expectancy effects that may dilute or bias future outcomes. For this evaluation, 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= No Warning; B=FCW alert). They drove in a high-fidelity simulator with a visual distraction task. After driving 15 min in a nighttime rural highway environment, a forward collision threat arose during the distraction task (Period 1). A second drive was then run and the forward collision threat was repeated again after ∼10 min (Period 2). The response times from these consecutive events were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1411
Caroline Crump, David Cades, Robert Rauschenberger, Emily Hildebrand, Jeremy Schwark, Brandon Barakat, Douglas Young
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS) technologies have been introduced as the automotive industry moves towards autonomous driving. One ADAS technology with the potential for substantial safety benefits is forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM), which is designed to warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, potentiate driver braking responses, and apply the vehicle's brakes autonomously. Although the proliferation of FCWM technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how these systems affect a driver's overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear. Exponent conducted a closed-course evaluation of drivers' reactions to an imminent forward collision event while driving an FCWM-equipped vehicle, either with or without a secondary task administered through a hands-free cell phone.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1410
Shotaro Odate, Kazuhiro Daido, Yosuke Mizutani
Abstract According to the North American National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), approximately one-half of all accidents during driving are of the secondary collision pattern in which the collision event involves the occurrence of secondary collision. Accidents involving impact to a stopped vehicle (chain-reaction collisions) have increased to approximately 3% of all accidents in North America, and although the rate of serious injury is low, cases have been reported of accidents in which cervical sprain occurs as an after-effect[1]. In order to mitigate these circumstances, research has been conducted on systems of automatic braking for collisions. These systems apply brakes automatically when a first collision has been detected in order to avoid or lessen a second collision. Research on automatic collision braking systems, however, has not examined the multiple collisions parked [1, 2].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1405
Guanjun Zhang, Feng Yu, Zhigao OuYang, Huiqin Chen, Zhonghao Bai, Libo Cao
Abstract The combination of passive and active vehicle safety technologies can effectively improve vehicle safety. Most of them predict vehicle crashes using radar or video, but they can't be applied extensively currently due to the high cost. Another collision forecasting method is more economic which is based on the driver behavior and vehicle status, such as the acceleration, angular velocity of the brake pedal and so on. However, the acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal will change with the driver and the vehicle type. In order to study the effect of different drivers and vehicle types on the braking acceleration and angular velocity of the brake pedal, six volunteers were asked to drive five vehicles for simulating the working conditions of emergency braking, normal braking, inching braking and passing barricades under different velocities. All the tests were conducted on asphalt road, and comprehensive experimental design was used to arrange tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
Abstract A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1330
Yoshiyuki Tosa, Hiroyuki Mae
Abstract The objective of this study is to accurately predict the dynamic strain on the windshield caused by the deployment of the airbag in a short term without vehicle tests. The following assumption is made as to the dynamic pressure distribution on the windshield: The deployment of the airbag is fast enough to ignore spatial difference in the patterns of the pressure time histories. Given this assumption, significant parameters of the dynamic pressure distribution are as follows: 1) the distribution of the maximum pressure during contact between the airbag and the windshield, and 2) the characteristic of the force time histories applied to the windshield by the deploying airbag. In this study, the prediction method consists of a simplified airbag deployment test and an FE simulation. The simple deployment test was conducted to measure the peak pressure distribution between the airbag and a flat panel simulating the windshield.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1427
Jay Przybyla, Jason Jupe, Thomas Rush, Rachel Keller
Abstract Vehicles involved in rollover crashes can leave debris trails which can include glass from broken windows. The glass patterns can be useful to identify the vehicles path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle-to-ground impacts. The location of glass, which is often window specific, can be used to identify where the window fractured during the rollover sequence. The longevity of the glass debris fields, subject to various real-world conditions and disturbances (i.e. slope, weather, mowing, soil type, etc.), was tested over a period of two years. The glass debris fields were placed and mapped in multiple locations across the United States. Periodically during each year, the glass debris fields were examined and the new field extents were mapped. The comparison between the original debris field and the subsequent debris fields are presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1435
Jeffrey Wirth, Enrique Bonugli, Mark Freund
Abstract Google Earth is a map and geographical information application created and maintained by Google Corporation. The program displays maps of the Earth using images obtained from available satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information systems (GIS) 3D globe. Google Earth has become a tool often used by accident reconstructionists to create site drawings and obtain dimensional information. In some cases, a reconstructionist will not be able to inspect the site of the crash due to various circumstances. For example, a reconstruction may commence after the roadway on which the accident occurred has been modified. In other cases, the time and expense required to physically inspect the incident site is not justifiable. In these instances, a reconstructionist may have to rely on Google Earth imagery for dimensional information about the site. The accuracy of Google Earth is not officially documented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1437
Tony R. Laituri, Raed E. El-Jawahri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Abstract In the present study, various risk curves for moderate-to-fatal head injury (AIS2+) were theoretically assessed by comparing model-based injury rates with field-based injury rates. This was accomplished by applying the risk curves in corresponding field models. The resulting injury rates were considered from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph events) and point-estimate (higher-speed, barrier-like events). Four risk curves were studied: a HIC15-based curve from Mertz et al. (1997), a BRIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2011), a BrIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2013) and a Concussion-Correlate-based curve from Rowson et al. (2013). The field modeling pertained to adult drivers in 11-1 o'clock, towaway, full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, calendar years = 1993-2012), and the model-year range of the passenger vehicles was 1985-2010.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1442
Wolfgang Sinz, Jörg Moser, Christoph Klein, Robert Greimel, Karsten Raguse, Class Middendorff, Christina Steiner
Abstract Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1448
Lee Carr, Robert Rucoba, Dan Barnes, Steven Kent, Aaron Osterhout
Abstract With commercial availability of the Bosch Crash Data Retrieval Tool (CDR), the information stored in vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs) has increasingly been used to supplement traditional traffic crash data collection and reconstruction methods, allowing enhanced confidence levels in transportation safety research. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of EDR data images obtained with the Bosch CDR tool by comparing them to a known crash impulse. Multiple EDRs and necessary sensor arrays were mounted on a HYGE™ acceleration-type crash simulation sled system at various orientations representing different principal direction of force (PDOF) angles and subjected to controlled “crash” impulses, simulating a “deployment event” (DE) and triggering data to be saved in the EDRs. The data included in each EDR's CDR report was compared to the known conditions of the impulse.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1451
Anand Sai Gudlur, Theresa Atkinson
Abstract The current study examined field data in order to document injury rates, injured body regions, and injury sources for persons seated in the second row of passenger vehicles. It was also intended to identify whether these varied with respect to age and restraint use in vehicles manufactured in recent years. Data from the 2007-2012 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS/CDS) was used to describe occupants seated in the second row of vehicles in frontal crashes. Injury plots, comparison of means and logistic regression analysis were used to seek factors associated with increased risk of injury. Restraint use reduced the risk of AIS ≥ 2 injury from approximately 1.8% to 5.8% overall. Seventy nine percent of the occupants in the weighted data set used either a lap and shoulder belt or child restraint system. The most frequently indicated injury source for persons with a MAIS ≥ 2 was “seat, back support”, across restraint conditions and for all but the youngest occupants.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1452
Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Kyle Boyle, Laura Malik, Miriam Manary, Jingwen Hu
This study documented the position and orientation of child restraint systems (CRS) installed in the second rows of vehicles, creating a database of 486 installations. Thirty-one different CRS were evaluated, selected to provide a range of manufacturers, sizes, types, and weight limits. Eleven CRS were rear-facing only, fourteen were convertibles, five were combination restraints, and one was a booster. Ten top-selling vehicles were selected to provide a range of manufacturers and body styles: four sedans, four SUVS, one minivan, and one wagon. CRS were marked with three reference points on each moving component. The contours and landmarks of each CRS were first measured in the laboratory. Vehicle interior contours, belt anchors, and LATCH anchors were measured using a similar process. Then each CRS was installed in a vehicle using LATCH according to manufacturers' directions, and the reference points of each CRS component were measured to document the installed orientation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu, Latha Subbiah, Mohammed Syed
Abstract Automotive knee bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A three-piece cellular structural knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 0.7 Kg), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be restrained (from 50 Kg/152 cm 5th percentile female to 100 Kg/188cm 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
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