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Viewing 181 to 210 of 16649
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1466
Bradley C. Reckamp, Charles Moody, Anthony Timpanaro, Orion Keifer
Abstract A common low speed motor vehicle collision scenario occurs in heavy traffic situations between two or more vehicles which were stopped in traffic prior to the collision. While information regarding the pre-collision spacing of the involved vehicles can be very useful to an accident reconstructionist, witness perceptions and statements regarding the distance between the stopped vehicles, prior to the collision, can be inaccurate. Physical evidence regarding precollision spacing is also unavailable in most cases. A study was conducted of several selected intersections in three major metropolitan areas in the United States of America. Publicly available aerial photography, rectified and scaled, was used to perform a statistical analysis of the distance between stopped passenger vehicles at busy traffic signalized intersections.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1527
Paul Podzikowski, Suk Jae Ham, John Cadwell, Aviral Shrivatri
Abstract The introduction of a revised New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) frontal crash test in the US has been challenging due to more stringent Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) rating metrics such as neck injury (Nij). These ATD responses in full vehicle tests may be under-predicted with conventional linear sleds because they are not capable of reproducing the pitching effect seen in some vehicle tests. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the effects of pitching sled on front passenger 5th %ile female ATD Nij response by comparing prototype vehicle test to pitching sled and linear sled tests. A second objective was to confirm that newly introduced pitching sled with enhanced pitching capability was able to reproduce similar vehicle kinematics when compared to a baseline vehicle test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1512
Jeya Padmanaban, Roger Burnett, Andrew Levitt
Abstract This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from seventeen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle model groupings (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the severe injury rate for belted drivers in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1497
William Bortles, Wayne Biever, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of original equipment event data recorders (EDR) installed in passenger vehicles, as well as a summary of results from the instrumented validation studies. The authors compiled 187 peer-reviewed studies, textbooks, legal opinions, governmental rulemaking policies, industry publications and presentations pertaining to event data recorders. Of the 187 total references, there were 64 that contained testing data. The authors conducted a validation analysis using data from 27 papers that presented both the EDR and corresponding independent instrumentation values for: Vehicle velocity change (ΔV) Pre-Crash vehicle speed The combined results from these studies highlight unique observations of EDR system testing and demonstrate the observed performance of original equipment event data recorders in passenger vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1494
Peter Xing, Felix Lee, Thomas Flynn, Craig Wilkinson, Gunter Siegmund
Abstract The accuracy of the speed change reported by Generation 1 Toyota Corolla Event Data Recorders (EDR) in low-speed front and rear-end collisions has previously been studied. It was found that the EDRs underestimated speed change in frontal collisions and overestimated speed change in rear-end collisions. The source of the uncertainty was modeled using a threshold acceleration and bias model. This study compares the response of Generation 1, 2 and 3 Toyota EDRs from Toyota Corolla, Camry and Prius models. 19 Toyota airbag control modules (ACMs) were mounted on a linear sled. The ACMs underwent a series of frontal and rear-end haversine crash pulses of varying severity, duration and peak acceleration. The accuracy and trigger thresholds of the different models and generations of EDRs were compared. There were different accuracy trends found between the early Generation 1 and the more modern Generation 2 and 3 EDRs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1522
Zhenwen Wang, Brock Watson
Abstract A three dimensional IR-TRACC (Infrared Telescope Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression) was designed for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) in recent years to measure chest deflections. Due to the design intricateness, the deflection calculation from the measurements is sophisticated. An algorithm was developed in this paper to calculate the three dimensional deflections of the chest. The algorithm calculates the compression and also converts the results to the local spine coordinate system so that it can correlate with the Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) measurements for injury calculation. The method was also verified by a finite element calculation for accuracy, comparing the calculation from the corresponding model output and the direct point to point measurements. In addition, the IR-TRACC calibration methods are discussed in this paper.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0050
Huafeng Yu, Chung-Wei Lin, BaekGyu Kim
Abstract Modern vehicles can have millions of lines of software, for vehicle control, infotainment, etc. The correctness and quality of the software play a key role in the safety of whole vehicles. In order to assure the safety, engineers give an effort to prove correctness of individual subsystems or their integration using testing or verification methods. One needs to eventually certify that the developed vehicle as a whole is indeed safe using the artifacts and evidences produced throughout the development cycle. Such a certification process helps to increase the safety confidence of the developed software and reduce OEM’s liability. However, software certification in automotive domain is not yet well established, compared to other safety-critical domains, such as avionics and medical devices. At the same time, safety-relevant standards and techniques, including ISO 26262 and assurance cases, have been well adopted.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0316
Dorin Drignei, Zissimos Mourelatos, Ervisa Kosova, Jingwen Hu, Matthew Reed, Jonathan Rupp, Rebekah Gruber, Risa Scherer
Abstract We have recently obtained experimental data and used them to develop computational models to quantify occupant impact responses and injury risks for military vehicles during frontal crashes. The number of experimental tests and model runs are however, relatively small due to their high cost. While this is true across the auto industry, it is particularly critical for the Army and other government agencies operating under tight budget constraints. In this study we investigate through statistical simulations how the injury risk varies if a large number of experimental tests were conducted. We show that the injury risk distribution is skewed to the right implying that, although most physical tests result in a small injury risk, there are occasional physical tests for which the injury risk is extremely large. We compute the probabilities of such events and use them to identify optimum design conditions to minimize such probabilities.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0056
Bjoern Steurich, Klaus Scheibert, Axel Freiwald, Martin Klimke
Abstract Vehicle manufacturers are challenged by rising costs for vehicle recalls. A major part of the costs are caused by software updates. This paper describes a feasibility study on how to implement software update over the air (SOTA) in light vehicles. The differences and special challenges in the automotive environment in comparison to the cellular industry will be explained. Three key requirements focus on the drivers’ acceptance and thus are crucial for the vehicle manufacturers: SOTA must be protected against malicious attacks. SOTA shall interfere as little as possible with the availability of a vehicle. Long update processes with long vehicle downtimes or even complete fails must be avoided. The functional safety of the vehicle during operation may not be limited in any way The study gives options how those objectives can be achieved.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1469
Craig Luker
High image quality video surveillance systems have proliferated making it more common to have collision-related video footage that is suitable for detailed analysis. This analysis begins by using variety of methods to reconstruct a series of positions for the vehicle. If the frame rate is known or can be estimated, then the average travel speed between each of those vehicle positions can be found. Unfortunately with video surveillance systems, the frame rates are typically low and the vehicle may be hidden from view for multiple frames. As a result there are often relatively large time steps between known vehicle positions and the average speed between known positions becomes less useful. The method outlined here determines the instantaneous speed and acceleration time history of the vehicle that was required for it to arrive at the known positions, at the known times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1480
Jakub Zebala, Wojciech Wach, Piotr Ciępka, Robert Janczur
Abstract This article presents the results of an analysis of the yaw marks left by a car with normal pressure in all tires and then normal pressure in three tires and zero in one rear tire. The analysis is a continuation of research on influence of reduced tire pressure on car lateral dynamics in a passing maneuver, discussed in the SAE paper No. 2014-01-0466. Preliminary analysis of yaw marks has shown, that a wheel with zero pressure deposits a yaw mark whose geometry differs from the yaw mark made by a wheel with normal pressure based on which we could calculate: critical speed, slip angle and longitudinal wheel slip. The aim of the presented research was to analyze the yaw marks left by car with zero pressure in one rear wheel in order to check the possibility of determining the vehicle critical speed, slip angle and longitudinal wheel slip. It was reached by performing bench and road tests during which the vehicle motion parameters were recorded using GPS Data Logging System.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1402
Jeffrey Hurlbut, Daniel Cashen, Emily Robb, Lora L. Spangler, Jim Eckhart
Abstract Head-up display (HUD) technology creates inherent driver safety advantages by displaying critical information directly in the driver’s line of sight, reducing eyes off road and accommodation time. This is accomplished using a system of relay optics and windshield reflection to generate a virtual image that appears to hover over the hood near the bumper. The windshield is an integral optical component of the HUD system, but unfortunately the windshield-air interface causes a double image ghost effect as a result of refractive index change, reducing HUD image clarity. Current technology uses a constant angle wedged PVB windshield interlayer to eliminate double image at a single driver height. However, the HUD double image persists for all other viewing locations. Eastman Chemical Company has developed a new interlayer technology which eliminates the double image at all driver locations by tuning the wedge angle as a function of driver occupant seated height.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1568
L. Daniel Metz
Abstract Roadway tractive capabilities are an important factor in accident reconstruction. In the absence of full-scale experiments, tire/road coefficient of friction values are sometimes quoted from reference textbooks. For the various types of road construction, the values are given only in the form of a wide range. One common roadway type is oil-and-chip construction. We examine stopping distances for newly-rocked oil-and-chip roads vs. similarly constructed roads that have been traffic-polished. The examination was conducted through full-scale braking experiments with instrumented vehicles. Results show that the differences between newly-rocked oil-and-chip roads when compared to roads that are traffic-polished are on the same order as vehicle, tire and ABS algorithm differences, and that full-scale testing is required for accurate μ-values.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1424
Yi G. Glaser, Robert E. Llaneras, Daniel S. Glaser, Charles A. Green
Abstract Partially automated driving involves the relinquishment of longitudinal and/or latitudinal control to the vehicle. Partially automated systems, however, are fallible and require driver oversight to avoid all road hazards. Researchers have expressed concern that automation promotes extended eyes-off-road (EOR) behavior that may lead to a loss of situational awareness (SA), degrading a driver’s ability to detect hazards and make necessary overrides. A potential countermeasure to visual inattention is the orientation of the driver’s glances towards potential hazards via cuing. This method is based on the assumption that drivers are able to rapidly identify hazards once their attention is drawn to the area of interest regardless of preceding EOR duration. This work examined this assumption in a simulated automated driving context by projecting hazardous and nonhazardous road scenes to a participant while sitting in a stationary vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1478
William T. Neale, David Hessel, Daniel Koch
Abstract This paper presents a methodology for determining the position and speed of objects such as vehicles, pedestrians, or cyclists that are visible in video footage captured with only one camera. Objects are tracked in the video footage based on the change in pixels that represent the object moving. Commercially available programs such as PFTracktm and Adobe After Effectstm contain automated pixel tracking features that record the position of the pixel, over time, two dimensionally using the video’s resolution as a Cartesian coordinate system. The coordinate data of the pixel over time can then be transformed to three dimensional data by ray tracing the pixel coordinates onto three dimensional geometry of the same scene that is visible in the video footage background.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0069
Dae-Kyoo Kim, Eunjee Song, Huafeng Yu
Abstract Cyber security concerns in the automotive industry have been constantly increasing as automobiles are more computerized and networked. AUTOSAR is the standard architecture for automotive software development, addressing various aspects including security. The current version of AUTOSAR is concerned with only cryptography-based security for secure authentication at the communication level. However, there has been an increasing need for authorization security to control access on software resources such as data and services in the automobile. In this paper, we introduce attribute-based access control (ABAC) to AUTOSAR to address authorization in automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1467
Neal Carter, Alireza Hashemian, Nathan A. Rose, William T.C. Neale
Abstract Improvements in computer image processing and identification capability have led to programs that can rapidly perform calculations and model the three-dimensional spatial characteristics of objects simply from photographs or video frames. This process, known as structure-from-motion or image based scanning, is a photogrammetric technique that analyzes features of photographs or video frames from multiple angles to create dense surface models or point clouds. Concurrently, unmanned aircraft systems have gained widespread popularity due to their reliability, low-cost, and relative ease of use. These aircraft systems allow for the capture of video or still photographic footage of subjects from unique perspectives. This paper explores the efficacy of using a point cloud created from unmanned aerial vehicle video footage with traditional single-image photogrammetry methods to recreate physical evidence at a crash scene.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1458
Ryuta Ono, Wataru Ike, Yuki Fukaya
Abstract Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1373
Emad Sadeghipour, Erich Josef Wehrle, Markus Lienkamp
Abstract Global emission targets and high fuel costs encourage manufacturers to produce ultralight vehicles. This and the low range of electric cars have resulted in new vehicle concepts and reuse of the quadricycles classification for microcars in Europe.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1449
Taylor Johnson, Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can detect an impending road departure and deliver an alert to allow the driver to steer back to the lane. LDW has great potential to reduce the number of road departure crashes, but the effectiveness is highly dependent upon driver acceptance. If the driver perceives there is little danger after receiving an alert, the driver may become annoyed and deactivate the system. Most current LDW systems rely heavily upon distance to lane boundary (DTLB) in the decision to deliver an alert. There is early evidence that in normal driving DTLB may be only one of a host of other cues which drivers use in lane keeping and in their perception of lane departure risk. A more effective threshold for LDW could potentially be delivered if there was a better understanding of this normal lane keeping behavior. The objective of this paper is to investigate the lane keeping behavior of drivers in normal driving.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1488
Derek Jones, James Gaewsky, Ashley Weaver, Joel Stitzel
Abstract Computational finite element (FE) modeling of real world motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is valuable for analyzing crash-induced injury patterns and mechanisms. Due to unavailability of detailed modern FE vehicle models, a simplified vehicle model (SVM) based on laser scans of fourteen modern vehicle interiors was used. A crash reconstruction algorithm was developed to semi-automatically tune the properties of the SVM to a particular vehicle make and model, and subsequently reconstruct a real world MVC using the tuned SVM. The required algorithm inputs are anthropomorphic test device position data, deceleration crash pulses from a specific New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test, and vehicle interior property ranges. A series of automated geometric transformations and five LSDyna positioning simulations were performed to match the FE Hybrid III’s (HIII) position within the SVM to reported data. Once positioned, a baseline simulation using the crash test pulse was created.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1507
Jisi Tang, Qing Zhou, Bingbing Nie, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Yuichi Kitagawa
Abstract Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1482
Paul Montalbano, Daniel Melcher, Rachel Keller, Thomas Rush, Jay Przybyla
Abstract A number of methods have been presented previously in the literature for determination of the impact speed of a motorcycle or scooter at its point of contact with another, typically larger and heavier, vehicle or object. However, all introduced methods to date have known limitations, especially as there are often significant challenges in gathering the needed data after a collision. Unlike passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles, most motorcycles and scooters carry no onboard electronic data recorders to provide insight into the impact phase of the collision. Recent research into automobile speedometers has shown that certain types of modern stepper motor based speedometers and tachometers can provide useful data for a collision reconstruction analysis if the instrument cluster loses electrical power during the impact, resulting in a “frozen” needle indication.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1495
Motomi Iyoda, Tom Trisdale, Rini Sherony, Daniel Mikat, William Rose
Abstract An event data recorder (EDR) records the vehicle status at the timing of an accident. Toyota Motor Corporation began the sequential introduction of EDRs onto its vehicles from August 2000. Currently, about 70% of all Toyota’s vehicles in North America are equipped with an EDR, which is more than the average rate of EDR installation in vehicles in North America (around 50%). The U.S. has introduced regulations for EDRs. Toyota regards these as minimum requirements and also records additional data for accident analysis, including the following: (1) pre-crash data, (2) side crash data, (3) rollover data, (4) pedestrian protection pop-up hood (PUH) data, and (5) vehicle control history (VCH) data from a non-crash triggered recording system. The regulations stipulate that EDR data retrieval must be possible using a commercially available tool. The developed system uses the Crash Data Retrieval (CDR) tool manufactured by Bosch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0066
Joe Hupcey, Bryan Ramirez
Abstract The number one priority in vehicle security is to harden the root-of-trust; from which everything else - the hardware, firmware, OS, and application layer’s security - is derived. If the root-of-trust can be compromised, then the whole system is vulnerable. In the near future the root-of-trust will effectively be an encryption key - a digital signature for each vehicle - that will be stored in a secure memory element inside all vehicles. In this paper we will show how a mathematical, formal analysis technique can be applied to ensure that this secure storage cannot (A) be read by an unauthorized party or accidentally “leak” to the outputs or (B) be altered, overwritten, or erased by unauthorized entities. We will include a real-world case study from a consumer electronics maker that has successfully used this technology to secure their products from attacks 24/7/365.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1473
Orion P. Keifer, Bradley Reckamp, Charles Moody, Anthony Timpanaro
Abstract Evaluation of the severity of low speed motor vehicle crashes has been the subject of significant research for more than 25 years. These crashes typically result in little if any damage to the vehicles involved and therefore the ability to determine the threshold of damage would be very useful in analysis of such cases. One such threshold, which has been used by accident reconstructionists, is the manufacturer’s published bumper rating in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for vehicle bumpers. The rationale is that if there is any damage to the bumper system of the vehicle in question, the impact must have had a severity greater than the rated bumper speed. This paper examines the FMVSS bumper standards upon which the published bumper ratings are reportedly in compliance, historical low speed testing damage results, and engineering considerations of bumper damage in low speed impacts.
2016-04-04
Standard
ARP1836C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the functional and design requirements for a b self-propelled belt conveyor for handling baggage and cargo at aircraft bulk cargo holds. Additional considerations and requirements may legally apply in other countries. As an example, for operation in Europe (E.U. and E.F.T.A.), the applicable EN standards shall be complied with.
2016-04-04
Standard
AIR6894
This document describes laser wire stripping technologies and recommendations to strip electrical single conductor and shielded cables intended for aerospace applications. These recommendations include: - Laser stripping safety guidelines - Laser stripping quality - Tool qualification - Tool inspection - User health and safety
2016-04-01
Magazine
Electronic Warfare Next Generation FPGAs for Electronic Warfare Systems Materials: Composites Managing the Impact of Nanomaterials in Aerospace Manufacturing Aerospace Materials/Manufacturing Turbine Flow Meters Alternative Power Sources Designing a Power Generation System for a More-Electric Aircraft
2016-03-30
WIP Standard
J2194
Any ROPS meeting the performance requirement of ISO 5700 (Static ROPS Test Standard) or ISO 3463 (Dynamic ROPS Test Standard) meets the performance requirements of this SAE Standard if the ROPS temperature/material and seat belt requirements of this document are also met. Fulfillment of the intended purpose requires testing as follows: A temperature-material requirement (6.9). This can be satisfied by using the appropriate materials or by performing any of the structural performance tests (Sections 7, 8, or 9) at -18 °C. A laboratory test, under repeatable and controlled loading, to permit analysis of the ROPS for compliance with the performance requirements of this document. Either the static test sequence (Section 7) or the impact test sequence (Section 8 ) shall be conducted. See Figure 1. A seat belt anchorage test (Section 10). The test procedures and performance requirements outlined in this document are based on currently available engineering data.
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