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Viewing 181 to 210 of 16698
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1503
Shotaro Odate, Yukinori Midorikawa, Yuki Yamazaki
Abstract Motorized seatbelt systems that retract seatbelts using motors are being mass-produced by many manufacturers. Scenarios for operation of these systems cover a wide range, including automatic braking for collision avoidance, brake assist and other such pre-crash situations, when the seatbelt is buckled, unbuckled and stored, during sport driving, or under normal conditions. These systems increase the retracting load of the motor using gears, and they can apply a high load in retracting the seatbelt. Previous systems, however, were designed primarily for pre-crash conditions. In previous systems, motor speed rose to higher levels in the normal operating state. The tendency to generate more noise and the application of higher loads on seatbelt retraction therefore became issues. For the present study, these issues were addressed using simulation to optimize the gear ratio.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1505
William W. Van Arsdell, Paul Weber, Charles Stankewich, Brian Larson, Ryan Hoover, Richard Watson
Abstract This paper investigates the role that load-limiters play with respect to the performance of occupant protection systems, with focus on performance in frontal crashes. Modern occupant protection systems consist of not just the seat belt, but also airbags, interior vehicle surfaces and vehicle structure. Modern seat belts very often incorporate load-limiters as well as pretensioners. Published research has established that load-limiters and pretensioners increase the effectiveness of occupant protection systems. Some have argued that load-limiters with higher deployment thresholds are always better than load-limiters with lower deployment thresholds. Through testing, modeling and analysis, we have investigated this hypothesis, and in this paper we present test and modeling data as well as a discussion to this data and engineering mechanics to explain why this hypothesis is incorrect.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1521
Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Takeki Tanoue, Ryosuke Chikazawa
Abstract This paper describes impact kinematics and injury values of Hybrid III AM50, THOR AM50 and THUMS AM50 in simulated oblique frontal impact conditions. A comparison was made among them in driver and passenger seat positions of a midsize sedan car finite element (FE) model. The simulation results indicated that the impact kinematics of THOR was close to that of THUMS compared to that of the Hybrid III. Both THOR and THUMS showed z-axis rotation of the rib cage, while Hybrid III did not. It was considered that the rib cage rotation was due primarily to the oblique impact but was allowed by flexibility of the lumbar spine in THOR and THUMS. Lateral head displacement observed in both THOR and THUMS was mostly induced by that rotation in both driver seat and passenger seat positions. The BrIC, thorax and abdominal injury values were close to each other between THOR and THUMS, while HIC15 and Acetabulum force values were different.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1522
Zhenwen Wang, Brock Watson
Abstract A three dimensional IR-TRACC (Infrared Telescope Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression) was designed for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) in recent years to measure chest deflections. Due to the design intricateness, the deflection calculation from the measurements is sophisticated. An algorithm was developed in this paper to calculate the three dimensional deflections of the chest. The algorithm calculates the compression and also converts the results to the local spine coordinate system so that it can correlate with the Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) measurements for injury calculation. The method was also verified by a finite element calculation for accuracy, comparing the calculation from the corresponding model output and the direct point to point measurements. In addition, the IR-TRACC calibration methods are discussed in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1527
Paul Podzikowski, Suk Jae Ham, John Cadwell, Aviral Shrivatri
Abstract The introduction of a revised New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) frontal crash test in the US has been challenging due to more stringent Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) rating metrics such as neck injury (Nij). These ATD responses in full vehicle tests may be under-predicted with conventional linear sleds because they are not capable of reproducing the pitching effect seen in some vehicle tests. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the effects of pitching sled on front passenger 5th %ile female ATD Nij response by comparing prototype vehicle test to pitching sled and linear sled tests. A second objective was to confirm that newly introduced pitching sled with enhanced pitching capability was able to reproduce similar vehicle kinematics when compared to a baseline vehicle test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1528
Peijun Ji, Qing Zhou
Abstract As the restraint technologies for front-seat occupant protection advance, such as seatbelt pre-tensioner, seatbelt load limiter and airbag, relative effectiveness of rear-seat occupant protection decreases, especially for the elderly. Some occupant protection systems for front-seat have been proved to be effective for rear-seat occupant protection as well, but they also have some drawbacks. Seatbelt could generate unwanted local penetrations to the chest and abdomen. And for rear-seat occupants, it might be difficult to install airbag and set deployment time. For crash protection, it is desirable that the restraint loads are spread to the sturdy parts of human body such as head, shoulders, rib cage, pelvis and femurs, as uniformly as possible. This paper explores a uniform restraint concept aiming at providing protection in wide range of impact severity for rear-seat occupants.
2016-04-05
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1499
Willy Klier, Thomas Lich, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Heiko Freienstein, Armin Koehler, Bastian Reckziegel, Zerong Yu
Abstract On the way to automated driving, the installation rate of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior to, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1417
Toshinao Fukui, Kazuhiko Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Satake
Abstract The use of a head-up display (HUD) system has become popular recently, as it can provide feedback information at a position easily seen by the driver. However, the outline of the HUD bezel often reflects on the windshield of a HUD equipped vehicle. This phenomenon occurs when the sun is at a high position and reflects off the top of the instrument panel and the front view is dark. For this reason, it can occur when driving on asphalt paved roads, causing annoyance to the driver. Under fixed environmental conditions, the vehicle based factors that influence the annoyance caused by reflected boundary lines are the position of the reflection, line thickness, and the contrast of the reflected boundary line. These can be represented by the conspicuity of a striped pattern (contrast sensitivity function). In previous research in 1991, M. S. Banks et al. studied a contrast sensitivity function that included the factors stated above.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1464
Jorge Martins, Ricardo Ribeiro, Pedro Neves, F. P. Brito
Abstract The main source for the estimation of stiffness coefficients to be used in accident reconstruction calculations is a very large database of crash-test related information from NHTSA. However, that database includes only car models sold in the USA. Unfortunately, there is no such information for European-only cars besides the raw video recordings of EuroNCAP crash tests. In the present work a methodology is proposed to estimate the stiffness coefficients of European-only models from video images of EuroNCAP crash tests. However, these images are intricate to assess, because the car front is crushed into a deformable barrier at 40% of the front width and usually the bonnet (hood) hides most of the crash damage. Therefore, the top images could not be used straightforward, so a procedure was envisaged to circumvent this difficulty and still allow to calculate stiffness coefficients for European-only cars.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1463
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Abstract It is extremely important to accurately depict photographs or video taken of a scene at night, when attempting to show how the subject scene appeared. It is widely understood that digital image sensors cannot capture the large dynamic range that can be seen by the human eye. Furthermore, todays commercially available printers, computer monitors, TV’s or other displays cannot reproduce the dynamic range that is captured by the digital cameras. Therefore, care must be taken when presenting a photograph or video while attempting to accurately depict a subject scene. However, there are many parameters that can be altered, while taking a photograph or video, to make a subject scene either too bright or too dark. Similarly, adjustments can be made to a printer or display to make the image appear either too bright or too dark. There have been several published papers and studies dealing with how to properly capture and calibrate photographs and video of a subject scene at night.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AS6453A

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS), identical to ISO 14186, specifies the minimum design and performance criteria and testing methods of fire containment covers (FCCs) used either:

    a. in those cargo compartments of civil transport aircraft where they constitute one means of complying with applicable airworthiness regulations, or
    b. on a voluntary basis, when deemed appropriate by operators to improve fire protection in aircraft cargo compartments where airworthiness regulations do not mandate their use.

2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AS6302A
This specification covers one type of fuel pressure transmitter designated MS28005-7.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1475
Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, Alireza Hashemian
Abstract Video and photo based photogrammetry software has many applications in the accident reconstruction community including documentation of vehicles and scene evidence. Photogrammetry software has developed in its ease of use, cost, and effectiveness in determining three dimensional data points from two dimensional photographs. Contemporary photogrammetry software packages offer an automated solution capable of generating dense point clouds with millions of 3D data points from multiple images. While alternative modern documentation methods exist, including LiDAR technologies such as 3D scanning, which provide the ability to collect millions of highly accurate points in just a few minutes, the appeal of automated photogrammetry software as a tool for collecting dimensional data is the minimal equipment, equipment costs and ease of use.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1497
William Bortles, Wayne Biever, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of original equipment event data recorders (EDR) installed in passenger vehicles, as well as a summary of results from the instrumented validation studies. The authors compiled 187 peer-reviewed studies, textbooks, legal opinions, governmental rulemaking policies, industry publications and presentations pertaining to event data recorders. Of the 187 total references, there were 64 that contained testing data. The authors conducted a validation analysis using data from 27 papers that presented both the EDR and corresponding independent instrumentation values for: Vehicle velocity change (ΔV) Pre-Crash vehicle speed The combined results from these studies highlight unique observations of EDR system testing and demonstrate the observed performance of original equipment event data recorders in passenger vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1469
Craig Luker
High image quality video surveillance systems have proliferated making it more common to have collision-related video footage that is suitable for detailed analysis. This analysis begins by using variety of methods to reconstruct a series of positions for the vehicle. If the frame rate is known or can be estimated, then the average travel speed between each of those vehicle positions can be found. Unfortunately with video surveillance systems, the frame rates are typically low and the vehicle may be hidden from view for multiple frames. As a result there are often relatively large time steps between known vehicle positions and the average speed between known positions becomes less useful. The method outlined here determines the instantaneous speed and acceleration time history of the vehicle that was required for it to arrive at the known positions, at the known times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1604
Anton Kabanovs, Max Varney, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1466
Bradley C. Reckamp, Charles Moody, Anthony Timpanaro, Orion Keifer
Abstract A common low speed motor vehicle collision scenario occurs in heavy traffic situations between two or more vehicles which were stopped in traffic prior to the collision. While information regarding the pre-collision spacing of the involved vehicles can be very useful to an accident reconstructionist, witness perceptions and statements regarding the distance between the stopped vehicles, prior to the collision, can be inaccurate. Physical evidence regarding precollision spacing is also unavailable in most cases. A study was conducted of several selected intersections in three major metropolitan areas in the United States of America. Publicly available aerial photography, rectified and scaled, was used to perform a statistical analysis of the distance between stopped passenger vehicles at busy traffic signalized intersections.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Abstract Based on equivalent static loads method (ESL), a nonlinear dynamic topology optimization is carried out to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative legislative crash loads, including frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and rear impact. To meet the crashworthiness performances, two evaluation indexes are defined to convert the practical engineering problems into mathematic optimization problems. The strain energy is treated as the stiffness evaluation index of the BIW and the relative displacement is employed as the compliance index of the components and parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1532
Kyoungtaek Kwak, Seungwoo Seo, Randi Potekin, Antoine Blanchard, Alexander Vakakis, Donald McFarland, Lawrence Bergman
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop a dynamic model that can accurately predict the motion of the door handle and counterweight during side impact crash tests. The door locking system, mainly composed of the door outside handle and door latch, is theoretically modeled, and it is assumed that the door outer panel can rotate and translate in all three directions during a side impact crash. Additionally, the numerical results are compared with real crash video footage, and satisfactory qualitative agreement is found. Finally, the simplified test rig that efficiently reflects the real crash test is introduced, and its operation is analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1473
Orion P. Keifer, Bradley Reckamp, Charles Moody, Anthony Timpanaro
Abstract Evaluation of the severity of low speed motor vehicle crashes has been the subject of significant research for more than 25 years. These crashes typically result in little if any damage to the vehicles involved and therefore the ability to determine the threshold of damage would be very useful in analysis of such cases. One such threshold, which has been used by accident reconstructionists, is the manufacturer’s published bumper rating in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for vehicle bumpers. The rationale is that if there is any damage to the bumper system of the vehicle in question, the impact must have had a severity greater than the rated bumper speed. This paper examines the FMVSS bumper standards upon which the published bumper ratings are reportedly in compliance, historical low speed testing damage results, and engineering considerations of bumper damage in low speed impacts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Abstract Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0040
Ming Meng, Wilson Khoo
The modern vehicle development is highly dependent on software. The software development plays an extremely important role in vehicle safety and security. In order to ensure software high quality and safety standards, we have investigated the secure software development process and analyzed the works in this area. Based on our analysis, we have identified the similarities and differences between the secure software development process and the existing vehicle development process. We then made suggestions on how to adopt the secure software development process in the overall vehicle development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
Abstract A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0066
Joe Hupcey, Bryan Ramirez
Abstract The number one priority in vehicle security is to harden the root-of-trust; from which everything else - the hardware, firmware, OS, and application layer’s security - is derived. If the root-of-trust can be compromised, then the whole system is vulnerable. In the near future the root-of-trust will effectively be an encryption key - a digital signature for each vehicle - that will be stored in a secure memory element inside all vehicles. In this paper we will show how a mathematical, formal analysis technique can be applied to ensure that this secure storage cannot (A) be read by an unauthorized party or accidentally “leak” to the outputs or (B) be altered, overwritten, or erased by unauthorized entities. We will include a real-world case study from a consumer electronics maker that has successfully used this technology to secure their products from attacks 24/7/365.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0068
Yoshihiro Ujiie, Takeshi Kishikawa, Tomoyuki Haga, Hideki Matsushima, Tohru Wakabayashi, Masato Tanabe, Yoshihiko Kitamura, Jun Anzai
Abstract Controller area network (CAN) technology is widely adopted in vehicles, but attention has been drawn recently to its lack of security mechanisms. Numerous countermeasures have been proposed, but none can be regarded as a generic solution, in part because all the proposed countermeasures require extensive modifications to existing in-vehicle systems. To arrive at a solution to this problem, we propose a new method of protecting CAN without the need to modify existing systems. In this paper, we explain the principle of our proposed method and the architecture of the electronic control unit (ECU) that implements it. We report the result of our experiments and show its efficacy against typical security threats faced by CAN.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0067
Ryan Wilson, Wayne Music, Brian Anderson
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to add new functions or to patch flaws to ensure safe and secure operation. Updates accomplished through a compromised cellular base station could lead to an update process that may be vulnerable to attack. We have been investigating techniques for determining whether an LTE base station (known as an eNodeB) appears to be suspicious, so that an update could be paused or terminated until a trusted eNodeB is available. We describe a detector we developed as part of our research that scans LTE signals for anomalies and provides an alert when an anomaly is found.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0063
Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck, Udo Dannebaum
Abstract/Short Version Introduction The introduction of Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet [2] as the main invehicle network infrastructure is the technical foundation for different new functionalities such as piloted driving, minimizing the CO2- footprint and others. The high data rate of such systems influences also the used microcontrollers due the fact that a big amount of data has to be transferred, encrypted, etc.Figure 1 Motivation - Vehicles will become connected to uncontrolled networks The usage of Ethernet as the in-vehicle-network enables the possibility that future road vehicles are going to be connected with other vehicles and information systems to improve system functionality. These previously closed automotive systems will be opened up for external access (see Figure 1). This can be Car2X connectivity or connection to personal devices.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0069
Dae-Kyoo Kim, Eunjee Song, Huafeng Yu
Abstract Cyber security concerns in the automotive industry have been constantly increasing as automobiles are more computerized and networked. AUTOSAR is the standard architecture for automotive software development, addressing various aspects including security. The current version of AUTOSAR is concerned with only cryptography-based security for secure authentication at the communication level. However, there has been an increasing need for authorization security to control access on software resources such as data and services in the automobile. In this paper, we introduce attribute-based access control (ABAC) to AUTOSAR to address authorization in automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Abstract In this work, we analyze the use of the Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus (and some of its potential variants) as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) from an ISO-26262 perspective and provide the reader with an analysis methodology to compare between a range of different LIN protocol configurations and benchmark them against Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) targets as defined in ISO-26262. A methodology for a quantitative residual failure probability analysis is shown before applying it to the standard LIN protocol. The residual failure rate in time (RF) of LIN (compliant with ISO26262) has been investigated with a range of reasonable application assumptions. This paper shows that a high bit error probability assumption of 3e-5 yields an RF of 3e-4/h which is too high to satisfy the assumed ASIL-B target (1e-7/h) or higher functional safety requirements in noisy application.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 16698

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