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2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0006
Ramsundar K Ganesan, Dilip Krishna Natesan, Arjun Raj, Nambiraj Sekar, Nardhini Shanmuga Sundaram
Abstract This paper presents an image processing approach to detect obstacles on road using a monocular IR camera. Since potholes and speed bumps are the two major obstacles on roads, the proposed method focuses mainly on detecting them. Shadows are the major challenge in image processing because their presence in the image frame may lead to false results. A simple method to compensate shadows has also been proposed. Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV), developed by Intel is used for implementation of the algorithm. The major target application area could be the powered two wheeler segment in emerging markets, where potholes and speed bumps might be a potential cause for accidents. Another application can be to upload the pothole information on to a cloud to provide intelligent navigation information via Global Positioning System (GPS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0077
Deepak Sharma, Abhishek Atal, Abhay Shah
Abstract In this paper, design methodology of antiroll bar bush is discussed. Typical antiroll bar bushes have slide or slip mechanism, to facilitate the relative motion between ARB and bush. Inherently, this relative motion causes wear and noise of bush. To eliminate stated failure modes, the next generation bushes have been developed, which are using torsion properties instead of slip function. These bushes are already being used in various vehicles. This paper focuses on developing the simple mathematical model, design approach and optimization of ARB bushes. Also, comparison study is presented exploring, the differences and design criteria's between conventional and new generation anti-roll bar bushes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0151
Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati
Abstract Recent trends in vehicle occupant protection have led to renewed interest in the perception of Roominess such as headroom, shoulder room and foot room etc. Occupants head room in vehicles is currently measured using tools, procedures and definitions described in SAE J1052 and J1100. “Head Position Contours” defined in SAE J1052 are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space [1]. With respect to the Indian Anthropometry database, the head position contour as per SAE J1052 will not be appropriate with Indian population. With this objective in mind a head movement envelope is generated using the software - RAMSIS Digital manikin. RAMSIS is widely used by Automobile Manufacturers for Digital Human Modeling. The head movement envelope is a collation of different movements of head during driving condition.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0241
Maria de Odriozola, Ignacio Lázaro, Adria Ferrer
Abstract For many years, all Side Impact Crash Test studies have been put into practice considering the results achieved from the EuroSID II dummy. The introduction of the WorldSID to the crash test world has become a milestone not only for vehicle manufacturers but also for crash test laboratories. Because of this, it is necessary to study the differences between the EuroSID II and the new dummy to be used from now on in Euro NCAP Side Impact Tests, the WorldSID. To do this, an in-depth analysis of the structure of both dummies was carried out so as to obtain a clearer view of what can be expected of the values achieved from testing them. Furthermore, a series of impact tests were defined, based on side impact virtual tests, making a special effort to obtain crash test results from both dummies in very similar configurations.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0157
Kedar Madhukar Hendre, Yogesh Purohit
Abstract Curtain airbag design offers protection in side crash and it plays a critical role in safety of the vehicle. Curtain airbag provides protection to the occupant in many impact events like frontal offset, side barrier, and side pole and rollover condition. For a vehicle to be safe for any side impact condition, the curtain airbag should deploy and take its final shape before any injury happens to the occupant. During deployment, it is important that the airbag chooses a path of minimum resistance and does not get entangled in interior trims. In reality, the trims always do obstruct the path of airbag deployment in some way. Hence, special care has to be taken care for designing areas surrounding curtain like providing hinges, deflector components etc. to avoid being caught. There are about ten different factors on this deployment is dependent upon. This paper discusses these factors and the effect of the factors on the trims and airbag development.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0156
Anil Kumar Jaswal, MV Rajasekhar, J Perumal, Samir Rawte
Abstract This paper details the methodology used to prevent Thermal events in a vehicle at design and development stages which can lead to vehicle fire or Thermal events. Vehicle Safety is always been in prime focus for designers while introducing newer products in markets for the customers. It is now common to see vehicles catching on fire in roads and in parking places leading to destruction of the surroundings as well as hazard to the passengers. Thermal events can take place due to the heat dissipated by the heat emitters such as Engine, Turbo, Alternator, Exhaust System etc. So the most critical area where Thermal event can take place are under hood which includes the complete engine compartment and under body. The extent of fire depends on the fire source, characteristics of the materials used in constructing and furnishing the vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0152
Alok Anand, Pratap Daphal, Pratyush Khare
Abstract The vehicle crash signature (here on referred as crash pulse) significantly affects occupant restraints system performance in frontal crash events. Restraints system optimization is usually undertaken in later phase of product development. This leads to sub-optimal configurations and performance, as no opportunity exists to tune vehicle structure and occupant package layouts. In concept phase of development, crash pulse characterization helps to map occupant package environment with available structure crush space and stiffness. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals, can be tuned considering library of restraints parameters. This would help to derive an optimal occupant kinematics and occupant-restraints interaction in crash event. A case study has been explained in this paper to highlight the methodology.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0158
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst for increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In most designs though, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration. Safety of the occupants of the berths in the event of panic braking or collision of the vehicle, has not been given adequate consideration. In this work, design of such berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, has been simulated and resulting critical injury levels have been estimated. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0155
Amit Kamalakar Pathak, Mayur Rajke, Anupama Madiyan
Abstract Globally, road traffic crashes kill about 1.24 million people each year. Pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, and in some countries this is as high as 60%. The capacity to respond to pedestrian safety is an important component of efforts to prevent road traffic injuries. Pedestrian collisions, like other road traffic crashes, should not be accepted as inevitable because they are, in fact, both predictable and preventable. Examination of pedestrian injury distribution reveals that given an impact speed, the probability of fatal injuries is substantially greater when the striking vehicle is a pick-up rather than a passenger car. Given their utility areas, pickup vehicles require negotiating rough terrains and are therefore engineered with higher ground clearance and larger approach angle. The challenge is to optimize these design parameters and also style the vehicle for pedestrian safety while maintaining a low design cost at the same time.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0154
Anand Ramalingam, Saravanakumar Thangamani
Abstract This paper discusses about the Flange design study carried out in Fuel Delivery Module (FDM) for meeting out contradictory requirements of robustness and crash worthiness. FDM is assembled in the fuel tank with flange covering the tank opening, and swirl pot assembly comprising fuel pump attached to flange through two steel struts. During crash, FDM undergoes sudden deceleration. Due to inertia, swirl pot assembly creates bending moment in the flange-strut interface. At such adverse condition, flange should not exhibit crack on the sealing side, as it might expose fuel in the fuel tank to the atmosphere. To ensure safety, flange-strut interface in the bottom side of flange is designed with higher stress concentration factor. So, the struts along with swirl pot assembly will break away from flange during crash without creating crack in the flange sealing faces.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0173
Eloi Boix, Adria Ferrer, Xavier Sellart, Sandra Fernandez
Abstract The increasing variety of test configurations and requirements has leaded to carry out activities of greater complexity. These advanced crash tests usually involve vehicle trajectories which are not straight and cannot be performed with the usual testing system. In order to increase the testing capabilities, a new guiding system was developed. An in-loop processing of the images filmed by a camera enables the vehicle to follow a path marked on the floor. An algorithm for image processing through colour filters was developed to identify the position of the line marked on the floor. Based on this input the steering wheel is rotated by an electric motor which receives the input of the electronic software. After a first phase of development, the system was able to identify the marked line on the floor and control the angle of the steering wheel to maintain the desired trajectory. However, the robustness should be increased.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0172
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Moennich Joerg
Abstract In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0168
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Manish Chaturvedi
Abstract With a significant increase in awareness of safety and sustainability among the automobile original equipment manufacturers and end users, every car manufacturer is looking for lightweight, safe and cost-effective solutions for every unit present in their vehicle. The latter gets much more focus in developing countries, where the automobile market is extremely cost sensitive. Further, with implementation of the proposed global technical regulations on pedestrian safety in the near future and low-speed vehicle damageability requirements, demand for a low-cost, lighter and safer bumper system is ever increasing. This paper focuses on development of a unique thermoplastic energy-absorbing device for vehicle bumpers. Conventionally, major energy absorbing members of these bumper systems consist of three separate pieces: energy absorber, bumper beam and crash cans. A hybrid approach based on logical reasoning and topology optimization is used to conceive the design.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0169
Simhachalam Bade, Lakshmanarao C
Abstract There is a growing need for improved conceptual vehicle designs along with alternative materials to reduce the damage to the passengers and structures in aerospace and automotive industries. The energy absorption characteristics of materials play a major role in designing a safe vehicle for transport. In this paper, compression behavior and energy absorption of aluminum alloy AA6061 and AA7005 tubes in T4 and T6 conditions are investigated by experimental and numerical methods. The AA7005 and AA6061 tubes are solution heat treated and then aged to achieve the final strength in T6 condition. Experimental compression test results have shown improved energy absorption of tubes in T6 condition compared to tubes in T4 condition. There is less variation of energy among the tested samples. The mean load is compared with the results obtained from analytical formulae. Tensile properties have been obtained from tensile tests using UTM for both AA6061 and AA7005 tubes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0170
Chaitanya Pendurthi, Sourabh Tiwari, Sujit Chalipat, Ganesh Bhagwant Gadekar
Abstract Tire plays an important role in frontal impacts as it acts as a load path to transfer loads from barrier to side sill or rocker panels of passenger vehicles. In order to achieve better correlation and more reliable predictions of vehicle crash performance in CAE simulations, modeling techniques are continuously getting refined with detailed representation of vehicle components in full vehicle crash simulations. In this study, detailed tire modeling process is explored to represent tire dynamic stiffness more accurately in frontal impact crash simulations. Detailed representation of tire internal components such as steel belts, body plies, steel beads along with rubber tread and sidewall portion have been done. Passenger car tubeless radial tire was chosen for this study. Initially, quasi-static tensile coupon tests were carried out in both longitudinal and lateral direction of tread portion of tire.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0171
Niraj Singh, Ruhi Thakur, Mathew Cyriac
Abstract With the change in the perspective of the Customers towards safer vehicles, most of the Vehicle manufacturers in India are making their vehicles Crash compliant. According to the accidental data collection, Side crashes are second leading cause of death after Frontal crash. Currently sub system level tests are done for evaluating the side impact safety performance of the vehicle. One of such sub system level test is Quasi-static side door intrusion Test. The primary purpose of this testing is to measure the Force-deflection characteristics by intrusion of the impactor into the vehicle. These characteristics are controlled by various door components like door beam, latch & striker, hinge etc. This article studies the relation between Side door intrusion and Side collision, effect of above mentioned components on this relation. A theoretical study is done to study this relationship and it is substantiated with experimental data.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0164
Eduard Infantes, Marie-Estelle Caspar, Simon Kramer, Swen Schaub, Tobias Langner, André Eggers, Thomas Unselt, Paul Lemmen
Abstract The ASSESS project is a European Commission co-funded project that aimed to develop harmonized and standardized assessment procedures for collision mitigation and avoidance systems. ASSESS was one of the first European projects which dealt in depth with the concept of integrated safety, defining methodologies to analyse vehicle safety from a global point of view. As such, the developed procedures included driver behaviour evaluation, pre-crash and crash system performance evaluation and socio-economic assessment. The activities performed for the crash evaluation focussed on the influence of braking manoeuvres in occupant positioning through dynamic braking manoeuvres with real occupants and Madymo and LS-Dyna simulations. The assessment of the passive safety protection level according to the results of the influence of the active systems is based on sled testing and full vehicle testing.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0165
Sivaprasad Koralla, Ganesh Bhagwant Gadekar, V Ramana Pavan Nadella, Susanta Dey
Abstract Spot welding is the primary joining method used in automobiles. Spot-weld plays a major role to maintain vehicle structural integrity during impact tests. Robust spot weld failure definitions is critical for accurate predictions of structural performance in safety simulations. Spot welds have a complex metallurgical structure, mainly consisting of fusion and heat affected zones. For accurate material property definitions in simulation models, huge number of inputs from test data is required. Multiple tests, using different spot weld joinery configurations, have to be conducted. In order to accurately represent the spot-weld behavior in CAE, detailed modeling is required using fine mesh. The current challenge in spot-weld failure assessment is developing a methodology having a better trade-off between prediction accuracy, testing efforts and computation time. In view of the above, cohesive zone models have been found to be very effective and accurate.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0166
Rakesh Kumar, Aditya Malladi, Sridhar lingan Sr
Abstract For the purpose of effective occupant restraint, seat belt anchorage test is devised to prevent any failure at the anchorage locations during vehicle crash. In India Seat Belt Anchorages (SBA) certification test is mandatory for M and N types of category vehicles with regards to forward and rearward facing seats in the vehicle. During the development phase failure at seat anchorage location was observed in physical test, which resulted in vehicle not meeting the regulatory requirement. This phenomenon of anchorage failure was captured through Finite Element (FE) simulations and correlation was done to understand the root cause of failure for future development. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) based design proposals were developed by considering various parameters which influence the load path and force distribution at seat belt and seat anchorage locations.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0160
Adria Ferrer, Stefanie de Hair, Oliver Zander, Rikard Fredriksson, Swen Schaub, Frederic Nuss, Marie Caspar
Abstract Pedestrians and cyclists are the most unprotected road users and their injury risk in case of accidents is significantly higher than for other road users. The understanding of the influence and sensitivity between important variables describing a pedestrian crash is key for the development of more efficient and reliable safety systems. This paper reflects the related work carried out within the AsPeCSS project. The results summarized out of virtual and physical tests provide valuable information for further development. 1168 virtual and 120 physical tests were carried out with adult and child pedestrian headform as well as upper and lower legform impactors representatives of 4 different vehicle front geometries in a wide range of impact speeds, angles and locations. This test matrix was based on previous work carried out within the AsPeCSS project.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0167
Thomas Lich, Girikumar Kumaresh, Joerg Moennich
Abstract Motorized two wheelers, also known as powered two wheelers (PTW) are the most common mode of transportation in India. Around one in four deaths that occurred on the roads in India in 2012 involved a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. This constitutes the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver travelling the same route [2]. An investigation conducted by Bosch looked at the accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). This investigation revealed interesting facts about the Indian motorcycle accident situation, such as root causes of powered two wheeler collisions and riders behaviour including their braking patterns during the pre-crash phase of the accident.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0162
Hasan M. Naqvi, Geetam Tiwari
Abstract Road accidents and persons killed in India have been reported to the tune of 4,90,383 and 1,38,258 respectively during 2012. On National Highways (NHs), major share of accidents (about 29%) and number of persons killed (35.3%) are observed out of total accidents. National Highways in India constitute about 2% of total road network (92,851 km) in India, but carries about 40% of traffic. 46% (42,829 km) of NHs in India comprises of two-lane and about 19% (17239 km) of NHs are single or intermediate-lane. Road accidents being multi-disciplinary in nature involves attention of multiple departments such as Highways Authority, Police, Motor Vehicles, Automobile Manufacturers, NGOs, etc. Owing to spurt in growth of motor vehicle population in India, road accidents are not reduced significantly despite improvement in NHs (widening of carriageway and riding quality).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0161
Chandrashekhar Thorbole, Saurabh Deshpande
Abstract Occupant motion in a vehicle rollover accident is a function of many factors. Some important ones are vehicle kinematics, position of the occupant in the vehicle, occupant size, ground topology and restraint usage. The far side belted occupants are more vulnerable than the near side occupants in a rollover accident as they have more energy as a result of their trailing and higher side of the vehicle. This outcome is attributable to the inadequate safety performance of the conventional single loop; B-pillar mounted D-ring restraints. Roof crush tends to displace the vehicle's B-pillar, resulting in D-Ring displacement which causes slack in the lap portion of the restraint. This slack enables centrifugal loads to move the far side occupant further away from the vehicle's instantaneous point of rotation. In this scenario, the presence of any ejection portal can result in an occupant becoming partially or fully ejected.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0163
Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, S Prasanth, Sudhir Darekar, Jagadeesan Chellan, K Ashok Kumar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar
Abstract A cabin on an agricultural tractor is meant to protect the operator from harsh environment, dust and provide an air conditioned space. As it is an enclosed space, cabin structure should be a crashworthiness structure and should not cause serious injury to operator in case of tractor roll over. There are International standard like OECD Code 4, SAE J2194 which regulates the crashworthiness of this protective structure. The roll-over protective structure (ROPS) is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the operator in case of tractor overturn. None of the cabin parts should enter into the clearance zone for operator safety. In addition to meeting ROPS test criteria, the cabin structural strength should be optimized for the required tractor life. In this paper, simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor cabin structure and its mountings to meet the above requirements.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0191
Pablo Cruz, Jose Antonio Muñoz, Jordi Viñas
Abstract Robust and reliable FE-model spotweld characterization has been a challenge since spotweld technology was incorporated extensively into the automotive industry. The innovation required leads to constant enhancement of product performance; reduced time-tomarket, cost and weight. The need for quality requires robust development tools, consistency of design decisions, andrepeatability of the development process. Proper spotweld characterization has a clear impact on the above-mentioned needs and carmakers invest in efforts to increase the efficiency of the development process. Furthermore, the continuoususage of new steel grades increases the complexity of the topic. This paper presents an in-depth spotweld study that involves three different spotweld specimens: KSII; lap shear and peeling, for automotive steel grades and usual part thicknesses for each steel grade.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0186
Mohitkumar R. Chauhan, Girish Kotwal, Abhijeet Majge
Abstract The major concern in design of wheel is their potentiality to bear impact loads. Therefore, wheel impact test is required to fulfill the safety requirement. In this study, there are two objectives; first, the simulation of impact test for wheel is developed according to SAE wheel impact test. Often when vehicle interacts with guardrails, bridge rails and curbs the interaction between roadside hardware and wheel causes wheel damage. The test setup consists of vertically acting striker of mass 480 kg and having prescribed velocity. Energy based approach and total plastic work concept of ductile fracture mechanics is used to predict wheel impact failure. Explicit finite element method is used to investigate stress and displacement distribution and to obtain strain energy density of wheel at impact. Design modification is applied to the wheel to improve its impact performance. Simulation results are compared with experimental results.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0183
Aditya Malladi, Sridhar lingan Sr, Hari Sudhan
Abstract Crush box in an automotive passenger car has become an integral part of structural design performing various functions like optimizing energy absorption in high speed impacts, replaceable part during low speed impacts etc. Design of crush box for high speed impacts is very important as it is the first major energy absorbing component in the load path and its deformation significantly affects the overall vehicle crash behavior. The present paper explains development of a hydro-formed crush box in the front end of a sports utility vehicle. Hydro-formed components have residual plastic strains and non - uniform thickness variation throughout their length which is difficult to measure from a physical test coupon. It is critical to add hydro-forming effects onto crash FE models as it significantly affects the deformation under high speed impact. But detailed forming simulations need mature design and material data which is not available during early phases of product development.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0209
Ludek Hyncik, Jan Spicka, Jaroslav Manas, Jan Vychytil
Abstract The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety technology by the virtual approach using biomechanical virtual human body models. The goal of the paper is to exploit the previously developed scaling algorithm to create several virtual human models of a given age and body proportions and to assess the impact analysis using the sensitivity approach. Based on a validated reference model, the previously developed scaling algorithm develops virtual human body models for given height, mass, age and gender. Particular body segments are scaled based on the anthropometrical database concerning the body dimensions taking also percentiles into account. The body stiffness is driven by age dependent flexindex. Several virtual models of human bodies representing particular cadavers were generated via the automatic scaling algorithm. The frontal sled test response of three models was successfully compared to the available experimental data previously.
2015-01-08
WIP Standard
AIR1558B
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses damage to aircraft caused by ground equipment contact and suggests methods of protecting against that damage. The protective device hereinafter called a 'fender,' is intended to serve its purpose during normal aircraft servicing and prevent damage during docking contact rather than aggressive impact.
2015-01-08
WIP Standard
J2856
User's Manual for the 50th Percentile Male Hybrid III Test Dummy
Viewing 181 to 210 of 16055

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