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Viewing 181 to 210 of 16223
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1479
Adria Ferrer, Eduard Infantes
Abstract The introduction of the new NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) oblique test configuration presents a new and critical load case that manufacturers are on the way to solving. Towards providing the best tools for passive safety development, this paper presents the work carried out to enable the analysis of the loads transmitted to the barrier in this kind of test. These data enable the identification of the elements of the vehicle that take part in the absorption of energy during the crash and are a valuable tool to improving the safety of vehicles by comparing the loads transmitted to the barrier in oblique tests. To record these data, a load cell wall system located between the deformable barrier and the trolley was installed. To assess the barrier design, one oblique test with the RMDB barrier was carried out. The deformable barrier for the oblique test is instrumented with 9 columns of 3 and 4 load cells with a total of 32 x-axial load cells.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Abstract Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1483
Anindya Deb, N Shivakumar, Clifford Chou
Abstract Rigid polyurethane (PU) foam finds wide applications as a lightweight material in impact safety design such as improving occupant safety in vehicle crashes. The two principal reacting compounds for formulating such foam are variants of polyol and isocyanate. In the present study, an alternative mechanical engineering-based approach for determining, with confidence, the desirable ratio of reacting compounds for formulation of a rigid/crushable PU foam for mechanical applications is demonstrated. According to the present approach, PU foam samples are prepared by varying the mixing ratio over a wide range. The desirable mixing ratio is shown to be the one that optimizes key mechanical properties under compression such as total absorbed energy, specific absorbed energy and energy absorption efficiency.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1481
Myles Wilson, David Aylor, David Zuby, Joseph Nolan
Abstract The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) evaluates autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems as part of its front crash prevention (FCP) ratings. To prepare the test vehicles' brakes, each vehicle must have 200 miles on the odometer and be subjected to the abbreviated brake burnish procedure of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 126. Other organizations conducting AEB testing follow the more extensive burnishing procedure described in FMVSS 135; Light Vehicle Brake Systems. This study compares the effects on AEB performance of the two burnishing procedures using seven 2014 model year vehicles. Six of the vehicles achieved maximum AEB speed reductions after 60 or fewer FMVSS 135 stops. After braking performance stabilized, the Mercedes ML350, BMW 328i, and Volvo S80 showed increased speed reductions compared with stops using brand new brake components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan, Josef Schmidauer
Abstract Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases and can reflect the dynamic behaviour, which current approaches are not able. An existing basic system is used, which includes pneumatic cylinders with a controlled hydraulic brake and was developed for non-structural deformable applications only (mainly occupant assessments). The system is extended with a force-distance control. The method contains the analysis of a whole vehicle FEM simulation to develop a methodology for controlled force transmission with the pneumatic cylinders for a structural component test bench.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1488
Adam G. M. Cook, Moustafa El-Gindy, David Critchley
Abstract This work investigates a multi-objective optimization approach for minimizing design parameters for Front Underride Protection Devices (FUPDs). FUPDs are a structural element for heavy vehicles to improve crashworthiness and prevent underride in head-on collision with another vehicle. The developed dsFUPD F9 design for a Volvo VNL was subjected to modified ECE R93 testing with results utilized in the optimization process. The optimization function utilized varying member thickness to minimize deformation and system mass. Enhancements to the function were investigated by introducing variable materials and objectifying material cost. Alternative approaches for optimization was also needed to be explored. Metamodel-based and Direct simulation optimization strategies were compared to observe there performance and optimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1485
Jiri Kral, Theresa Kondel, Mark Morra, Stephen Cassatta, Peter Bidolli, Patrick Stebbins, Vikas Joshi
Abstract A new apparatus for testing modern safety belt systems was developed. The apparatus design, dynamic behavior and test procedure are described. A number of tests have been conducted using this apparatus. These tests allowed identification of key performance parameters of pretensioners and load limiting retractors which are relevant to occupant protection in a crash environment. Good test repeatability was observed, which allowed comparison of different safety belt designs. The apparatus may be used for better specification and verification of safety belt properties on a subsystem level as well as for the validation of CAE models of safety belts used in simulations of occupant response to crash events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1486
Craig A. Markusic, Ram Songade
Abstract Simplified Side Impact Finite Element Model (SSM) merged the complex side crash model parameters used in LS-DYNA4; the same sophisticated software employed by finite element (FE)2 analysts, and the user-friendly custom graphical user interface (GUI)1 to allow users having little to no simulation software knowledge the ability to conduct a full vehicle representative crash simulation. Prior to SSM development a literature search was carried to try and identify similar CAE tools for side impact. We did not find any tool that would cater specifically to side impact. During the testing phase, SSM demonstrated that one model analysis run can be completed in fewer than thirty (30) minutes, a radical efficiency increase because previous procedures require several days of effort from a highly skilled FE2 analyst to set up, execute, and analyze.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0273
Helmut Martin, Martin Krammer, Bernhard Winkler, Christian Schwarzl
Abstract Although the ISO 26262 provides requirements and recommendations for an automotive functional safety lifecycle, practical guidance on how to handle these safety activities and safety artifacts is still lacking. This paper provides an overview of a semi-formal safety engineering approach based on SysML for specifying the relevant safety artifacts in the concept phase. Using specific diagram types, different views of the available data can be provided that reflects the specific needs of the stakeholders involved. One objective of this work is to improve the common understanding of the relevant safety aspects during the system design. The approach, which is demonstrated here from the perspective of a Tier1 supplier for an automotive battery system, covers different breakdown levels of a vehicle. The safety workflow presented here supports engineers' efforts to meet the safety standard ISO 26262 in a systematic way.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0275
Gokul Krithivasan, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
Abstract In ISO 26262, the top-level safety goals are derived using the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment. Functional safety requirements (FSRs) are then derived from these safety goals in the concept phase (ISO 26262-3:2011). The standard does not call out a specific method to develop these FSRs from safety goals. However, ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6, does establish requirements to ensure consistent management and correct specification of safety requirements with respect to their attributes and characteristics throughout the safety lifecycle. Hence, there are expectations on the part of system engineers to bridge this gap. The method proposed in this paper utilizes concepts from process modeling to ensure the completeness of these requirements, eliminate any external inconsistencies between them and improve verifiability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0369
Rupesh Sonu Kakade
Abstract In addition to the thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is an objective of the automotive climate control system. An integrated dew point and glass temperature sensor is widely used among several other technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the cabin side (or inner) surface of the windshield. The erroneous information from a sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to the delayed response of the climate control system. Also the high value, low cost vehicles may not have this sensor due to its high cost. A differential equation based model of the cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time specific humidity of the passenger compartment air. The specific humidity is used along with the windshield surface temperature to determine relative humidity of air and therefore, the risk of fog formation on the interior surface of a windshield.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0407
Timothy W. Skszek, Matthew Zaluzec, Jeff Conklin, David Wagner
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance, occupant safety and utility of the baseline production vehicle. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine, resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper includes details associated with the MMLV project approach, mass reduction and environmental impact.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0449
Libo Cao, Kai Zhang, Xin Lv, Lingbo Yan
Abstract The public Hybrid III family finite element models have been used in simulation of automotive safety research widely. The validity of an ATD finite element model is largely dependent on the accuracy of model structure and accurate material property parameters especially for the soft material. For Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy model, the femur load is a vital parameter for evaluating the injury risks of lower limbs, so the importance of accuracy of knee subcomponent model is obvious. The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of knee subcomponent model and improve the validity of it. Comparisons between knee physical model and knee finite element model were conducted for both structure and property of material. The inaccuracy of structure and the material model of the published model were observed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0740
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, John W. Melvin, Mike Rains
Abstract Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the development and implementation of head and neck restraints, minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper discusses nineteen sled tests used to analyze hypothesized improvements to restraint system mounting geometry. The testing matrix included three sled acceleration profiles, three impact orientations, two Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) sizes as well as the restraint system design variables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0575
SongAn Zhang, Qing Zhou, Yong Xia
Abstract Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle's total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. This paper presents a parametric analysis using finite element modeling. We first build LS-DYNA model of a two-seater SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg. The model has no complex components and can provide reasonable crash pulses under full frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0578
Wei Li, Yi-Pen Cheng, Lisa Furton
Abstract Finite element dummy models have been more and more widely applied in virtual development of occupant protection systems across the automotive industry due to their predictive capabilities. H350 dyna dummy model [1] is a finite element representation of the Hybrid III male dummy [2], which is designed to represent the average of the United States adult male population. Lower extremity injuries continue to occur in front crash accidents despite increasing improvement of vehicle crashworthiness and occupant restraint system. It is therefore desirable to predict lower tibia injury numbers in front occupant simulations. Though lower tibia loading/index predictions are not studied as much as the FMVSS 208 regulated injury numbers, the tibia indices are injury criteria that need to be assessed during IIHS and Euro NCAP frontal offset occupant simulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0564
Sung Wook Moon, Byunghyun Kang, Jaeyoung Lim, Byoung-Ho Choi
Abstract In a car accident which is involving pedestrians, head injuries occur very frequently as the head of the pedestrian hits the windshield. The head injury criterion (HIC) obtained through the windshield impact test is used to evaluate the pedestrian injury, and car manufacturers are trying to meet the criterion by changing the design and/or materials.. However, there are some difficulties in the windshield impact test, e.g. a large scatter of the test data or windshield shape-dependent property of the test. These problems make it very difficult to obtain the meaningful results from single test and thus, tests should be executed several times. In this study, a lab-scale windshield impact test was performed using a modified instrumented dart impact (IDI) tester. Tests were carried out by switching test conditions such as the impact speed, the size of the head form and the specimen thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0571
Andreas Teibinger, Christian Mayer, Ernö Dux, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Peter Luttenberger, Jac Wismans, Rémy Willinger
Abstract In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0612
Weiguo Zhang, Zeyu Ma, Ankang Jin, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Nowadays, studying the human body response in a seated position has attracted a lot of attention as environmental vibrations are transferred to the human body through floor and seat. This research has constructed a multi-body biodynamic human model with 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), including the backrest support and the interaction between feet and ground. Three types of human biodynamic models are taken into consideration: the first model doesn't include the interaction between the feet and floor, the second considers the feet and floor interaction by using a high stiffness spring, the third one includes the interaction by using a soft spring. Based on the whole vehicle model, the excitation to human body through feet and back can be obtained by ride simulation. The simulation results indicate that the interaction between feet and ground exerts non-negligible effect upon the performance of the whole body vibration by comparing the three cases.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Chih Feng Lee, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen
Abstract Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and predicting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices calculated either from lateral acceleration or lateral load transfer. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is not obvious how they can be compared or how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices in different critical maneuvers for a heavy 8×4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Abstract Injury distributions of belted drivers in 1998-2013 model-year light passenger cars/trucks in various types of real-world frontal crashes were studied. The basis of the analysis was field data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The studied variables were injury severity (n=2), occupant body region (n=8), and crash type (n=8). The two levels of injury were moderate-to-fatal (AIS2+) and serious-to-fatal (AIS3+). The eight body regions ranged from head/face to foot/ankle. The eight crash types were based on a previously-published Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The results of the study provided insights into the field data. For example, for the AIS2+ upper-body-injured drivers, (a) head and chest injury yield similar contributions, and (b) about 60% of all the upper-body injured drivers were from the combination of the Full-Engagement and Offset crashes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1489
Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
Abstract Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraints, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1492
Kazunobu Ogaki, Takayuki Kawabuchi, Satoshi Takizawa
Abstract The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has developed moving deformable barriers for vehicle crash test procedures to assess vehicle and occupant response in partial overlap vehicle crashes. For this paper, based on the NHTSA Oblique Test procedure, a mid-size sedan was tested. The intent of this research was to provide insight into possible design changes to enhance the oblique collision performance of vehicles. The test results predicted high injury risk for BrIC, chest deflection, and the lower extremities. In this particular study, reducing lower extremity injuries has been focused on. Traditionally, lower extremity injuries have been reduced by limiting the intrusion of the lower region of the cabin's toe-board. In this study, it is assumed that increasing the energy absorbed within the engine compartment is more efficient than reinforcing the passenger compartment as a method to reduce lower extremity injuries.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1491
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Dhanendra Nagwanshi, Matthew Marks
Abstract Automotive OEMs, insurance agencies and regulatory bodies are continuously looking at various accident statistics and proper ways of evaluating unaccounted (as per current regulations and safety ratings) accident scenarios to improve the safety standards of cars. Small overlap and oblique impacts during which a corner of a car hits a tree or the corner of another vehicle are two such situations. Most of the vehicles that are on road scored low when tested for these impact scenarios. This paper focuses on development of energy-absorbing members, using engineering thermoplastics materials, which can be mounted on the BIW of a vehicle, as countermeasures to small overlap impact. Various design and material configurations options, including metal plastic and composite plastic structural members mounted on the BIW are evaluated through CAE studies, against small overlap/oblique impact scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Abstract Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This method was established on the basis of the fuzzy description of risk factors from experts, after the risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was obtained. The risk priority of forklift system was processed to analyze the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0213
Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Anusha Baskaran, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract In the research field of automotive systems, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are gaining paramount importance. As the significance for such systems increase, the challenges associated with it also increases. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to natural elements (haze, fog, rain etc.). Among these, natural challenges, especially haze, pose a major setback for technologies depending on vision sensors. It is a known fact that the presence of haze in the atmosphere degrades the driver's visibility as well as the information available with the vision based ADAS. To ensure reliability of ADAS in different climatic conditions, it is vital to get back the information of the scene degraded by haze prior to analyzing the images. In this paper, the proposed work addresses this challenge with a novel and faster image preprocessing technique that can enhances the quality of haze affected images both in terms of visibility and visual perception.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0215
Reena Kumari Behera, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Abstract This paper presents a simple yet novel approach to remove redundant data from outdoor scenes, thus finding significant application in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A captured outdoor scene has two main parts, the ground region consisting of the road area along with other lane markings and the background region consisting of various structures, trees, sky etc. To extract the ground region, first the yellow and white road markings are segmented based on the HSI (Hue Saturation Intensity) color model and these regions are filled with the surrounding road color. Further the background region is segmented based on the Lab (Color-opponent) color model, which shows significant improvement as compared to other color spaces. To extract the background region such as the sky or ground region, it is assumed that the top and bottom most portions of the image does not consist of useful information.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya Deshpande, Krishnan Kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency region in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require number of sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time, which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and ignore the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in a scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The proposed method aims to model this behavior of human visual system in computer vision/image processing applications for eliminating non salient objects from an image. A region is said to be salient, if its appearance is unique. In our method, the saliency in still images is computed by local color contrast difference between the regions in Lab space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
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