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Viewing 151 to 180 of 16506
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1511
Jan Vychytil, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
In this work we present the VIRTHUMAN model as a tool for injury risk assessment in pedestrian crash scenarios. It is a virtual human body model formed of a multibody structure and deformable segments to account for the mechanical response of soft tissues. Extensive validation has been performed to ensure its biofidelity. Due to the scaling algorithm implemented, variations in the human population in terms of height, weight, gender and age can be considered. Assessment of the injury risk is done via automatic evaluation software developed. Injury criteria for individual body parts are evaluated using accelerations, forces and displacements of certain points. Injury risk is indicated by the colour of particular body parts in accordance with NCAP rating. A real accident is investigated in this work. A 60-year-old female was hit laterally by a passenger vehicle with the impact velocity of 40 km/h. The accident is reconstructed using VIRTHUMAN as pedestrian representative.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1514
Varun Bollapragada, Taewung Kim, Mark Clauser, Jeff Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
In controlled dynamic tests, kinematic parameters describing a rollover crash at touchdown (speed, drop speed, roll rate, pitch angle, etc.) are programed as inputs. The complexity of vehicle, environmental, and crash characteristics makes prediction of realistic touchdown conditions for rollover crashes, and moreover, identification of parameter sensitivities to these characteristics, impossible without simulation tools. The goal of this study was to study the sensitivity of driver input to touchdown parameters and the risk of rollover in case of steering-induced soil-tripped rollover crashes which are the most prevalent type of rollover crashes. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using two multibody models (sedan and pickup) by varying the driving inputs (speed, steer angle, steer rate) for typical driving maneuvers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1517
Cole R. Young, David J. King, James V. Bertoch
The purpose of this study was to characterize the kinematics of four Chevrolet Tracker rollover tests and to determine their average and intermediate deceleration rates while traveling on concrete and dirt. Single vehicle rollover tests were performed using four 2001 Chevrolet Trackers fitted with six degree of freedom kinematic sensors. Tests were conducted using a rollover test device (RTD) in accordance with SAE J2114. The test dolly was modified (resting height of the vehicle wheels was raised) between tests 1, 2, and 3. The RTD was accelerated to 15.6 m/s (35 mph) and then decelerated rapidly by an energy absorbing crash cushion (EA) to cause the vehicle to launch and roll. The vehicles initially rolled on a smooth concrete surface and continued into loose dirt. This paper adds to the body of work identifying phases of constant deceleration during staged RTD tests and compares these phases to the overall deceleration rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1523
Libo Cao, Changhai Yao, Hequan Wu
The traditional deterministic optimal design mostly is based on meeting regulatory requirements specified in impact standards ,without taking the randomness of the impact velocity and impact angle at the real world situation into consideration. This often leads to the optimization results that converge to the boundary constraints, thus cannot meet the reliability requirements of the product design. This paper deals with optimization of B-pillar inner panel, outer panel, and the reinforcing plate which plays a major role in the safety performance in side impact crashes by considering their dimensions and materials as the design variables, and the impact velocity and impact angle from real-world traffic accident conditions as the random variable inputs . Using combined design of experiment, response surface models, reliability theory and the reliability of design optimization method, a B-pillar was constructed based on the product quality engineering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1528
Peijun Ji, Qing Zhou
For crash protection, it is desirable that the restraint loads are spread to the sturdy parts of human body such as head, shoulders, rib cage, pelvis and femurs, as uniformly as possible. However, seatbelts and airbags may have some deficiency in this regard even though they have been proved to be effective restraint devices for occupant impact protection. Seatbelt could generate unwanted local penetrations to the chest and abdomen and airbag could pose disproportional risks to small stature and out-of-position occupants. The problem is more prominent in severe crash. Some study has also shown that restraint in the vehicles on the market today could not efficiently protect occupants in high-speed crash, however they are optimized. This paper explores a uniform restraint concept aiming at providing protection at higher impact velocity. In this study, we use THUMS 50th percentile occupant model to simulate sled test frontal impact loading.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1532
Kyoungtaek Kwak, Seungwoo Seo, Randi Potekin, Antoine Blanchard, Alexander Vakakis, Donald McFarland, Lawrence Bergman
In order to secure the safety of the passengers, the door should be kept closed during side impact crash and many car makers conduct a various research on this area. Typically, there are two major factors that affect the opening of door during side impact crash tests. One is a physical failure such as the damage of linkage of door locking system, which can be intuitively analyzed and resolved. The other is the inertia effect due to the instantaneous impact and deformation between a barrier and door outer panel. In case that the door opening is, however, resulted from the inertia effect, it is difficult to be intuitively resolved because it takes extremely short time less than 30ms for a whole phenomenon to come out. Also, because the randomly deformed outer panel due to the crash generates not only translational but also angular accelerations that more complicatedly affect dynamic behavior of door handle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the "ultimate mobile device", connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a suggested architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1640
An integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system(I-EHB) for automotive is presented to fulfill the requirements of active safety. Based on the analysis of current electro-hydraulic brake systems, regulation requirements and the requirements for automotive brake system, the operating mode requirements of I-EHB are formed. Furthermore, system topological structure and a conceptual design are proposed. After the selection of key components, the parameter design is accomplished by modeling the system. According to the above-mentioned design method, an I-EHB prototype and test rig is made. Through the test rig, characteristics of the system are tested. Results show that this I-EHB system responded rapidly. Upon the experimental results, increasing pressure response time of I-EHB is 53% shorter than that of conventional brake system and reducing pressure response time of I-EHB is 70% shorter than that of conventional brake system. The tracking performance of I-EHB is good.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1639
An investigation into two new control strategies for the vehicle Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) are made for a possible replacement of current non-optimal slip control method. In an emergency braking situation, there is a maximum braking force that can be applied at the wheel in which the vehicle does not slide and lose steering control. This maximum braking force is dictated by a number of uncertain conditions and parameters e.g. road type, tire condition, tire temperature, etc. Current ABS in use today attempt to provide the maximum braking force by providing an increase in brake pressure until the wheel slides, then lets off the pressure and repeats. This algorithm is not ideal and non-optimal as it simply reacts to wheel sliding in order to provide the maximum braking force. Furthermore, for most drivers, the subjective brake pedal feedback from this strategy is poor. This paper/work applies two techniques in order to maximize the braking force without any tire sliding.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1738
Natt Winitthumkul, Peerapat Phondeenana, Nuksit Noomwongs
According to a recent WHO report, Thailand has the 2nd most dangerous road in the world. Based on many researches and studies, the driver is the main influencers of the traffic fatalities. Since the more dangerous the driver drives, the more chance of accident become. Therefore, besides active safety technology, driver’s monitoring system become one of the solutions that acceptable and reliable, especially for fleet management and public transportation. This paper’s goal is to find an algorithm that can distinguish driving behaviour based on cars’ acceleration and velocity which determined from Satellite data, calling it as Risk Driving Score (RDS). The algorithm was tested by test drivers on highways in Bangkok with observers, who was told to rank the driver in terms of driving risk score from the 1 to 5 point. Meanwhile, the drivers were asked to drive randomly in 3 different styles as normally, safety and hurry.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1739
Piyapong Premvaranon
With low power consumption, higher light efficacy, and longer lifetime, high power LEDs have been increasingly introduced to many street locations in Thailand over the last few years. To comply with Provincial Electricity Authority of Thailand (PEA) requirements, an LED street light must be designed to meet an average illuminance level and overall illuminance uniformity, while offering lower energy consumption than conventional light sources. Hence, this paper focuses on the LED illumination design and improvement for street light applications by using Ray Tracing method. An illuminance distribution of various power LED array patterns have been explored and compared in order to evaluate their beam quality according to the PEA requirements. The DIALux program was employed to calculate the intensity distribution and illuminance of each LED pattern on the specific road area.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1737
Thitsadee Ngernsukphaiboon, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Nuksit Noomwongs, Angkee Sripakagorn, Solaphat Hemrungrojn MD
The world is aging rapidly. Many countries can already be categorized as aging or aged societies while a few are becoming super-aged societies. In Thailand as well as in other countries, traffic accidents caused by elderly drivers will continue to rise as a significant percentage of elderly people still prefer to drive. Accidents may be prevented with driving tests and screening methods for elderly drivers. However, it is also necessary to understand the effect of aging on driving ability. With this understanding, driver training, driver assistant systems, and improvements on infrastructure may be designed accordingly. Among various physical changes, cognitive ability of the brain is one of the most significant factors affecting driving ability. In this paper, correlation between various cognitive functions of the brain and car following skill of drivers are considered.
2016-02-10
WIP Standard
ARP4927A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance to achieve the optimum integration of new aircraft systems which have an impact on the cockpit layout or crew operating procedures. This process may also be used for modification of existing cockpits.
2016-02-09
WIP Standard
ARP6379
This Aerospace Recommended Practice describes an application-specific qualification process for electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts and sub-assemblies in aerospace, defense, and high performance (ADHP) systems.
2016-02-09
WIP Standard
J1698
This recommended practice describes common definitions and operational elements of Event Data Recorders. The SAE J1698 series of documents consists of the following: • SAE J1698-1 - Event Data Recorder - Output Data Definition; Provides common data output formats and definitions for a variety of data elements that may be useful for analyzing vehicle crash and crash-like events that meet specified trigger criteria. • SAE J1698-2 - Event Data Recorder - Retrieval Tool Protocol; Utilizes existing industry standards to identify a common physical interface and define the protocols necessary to retrieve records stored by light duty vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs). • SAE J1698-3 - Event Data Recorder - Compliance Assessment; Defines procedures that may be used to validate that relevant EDR output records conform with the reporting requirements specified in Part 563, Table 1 during the course of FMVSS-208, FMVSS-214 and other applicable vehicle level crash testing.
2016-02-08
WIP Standard
AIR6384
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to provide guidance for installing GFI/AFCB in the fuel pumps power circuits for protection of fuel vapors ignition inside the tank in case of a failure that causing arcing inside the pump. Besides, this AIR is also intended to provide minimum specification and testing for ground fault interrupter (GFI) and arc fault circuit breaker (AFCB), addressing the issues associated with the verification requirements based on current regulatory guidance per AC25.981-1C.
2016-02-04
WIP Standard
ARP6378
This document is intended to give guidance to users, regulators and persons in the aviation field who may be affected by the potential hazard of lasers aimed at aircraft by the general public. The potential hazards include startle (distraction, disruption, disorientation, and incapacitation), glare, flashblindness and eye injury. (Some information may also be useful for non-aviation users, such as persons driving vehicles. Additional information can be found in ANSI Z136.6, “Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors”.)
2016-02-03
Article
Britain has established a real-world test highway for connected and autonomous vehicle technologies. JLR is one of the companies investing in the 66-km-long R&D route.
2016-02-03
WIP Standard
ARP6377
Develop and propagate recommended practices for the design, development, testing and implementation of head worn displays in piloted airborne platforms
2016-02-03
WIP Standard
AS36102B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides requirements on how to test air cargo Unit Load Devices (ULD).
2016-02-03
Magazine
Baking in protection With vehicles joining the Internet of Things, connectivity is making cybersecurity a must-have obligation for automotive engineers, from initial designs through end-of-life. New Engines 2016 Highlighting the design, engineering, and technologies inside some of the most competitive new gasoline and light-duty diesel ICEs. Citizen of the world Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about auto-mobility and aero-mobility 2050. CES rollouts extend connectivity, app integration Ford looks to spread Corning's new lightweight Gorilla Glass beyond the 2017 GT New 40%-scale wind tunnel increases GM's aero-development capacity Surface Generation speeds composites throughput with one-shot stamp-forming process 2017 Cadillac XT5 debuts GM's new lightweight crossover architecture Porsche and Bentley plan electric future
2016-02-02
WIP Standard
AS6376
NEW PART STANDARDS TO BE ADDED TO THE PART FAMILY LISTS PER THE REQUIREMENTS OF AS4459
2016-02-01
WIP Standard
AIR6374
The scope of this document is to provide a guidance of the common contamination types and their concentrations in order to size FTIS components and characterize its performance on generic commercial aircraft.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0050
Deepak Agrawal, Sharad Rawat, A. K. Upadhyay
Abstract Corrugated tubes are one among the different types of energy absorbers being used for the protection of passengers during impact /crash events of vehicles. Present work is primarily focused to analyze the effect of the variations of wavelength and amplitude of corrugation along the length of the tube on the crashworthiness of the tube. The circumferential corrugations in the tubes are graded by varying two parameters - wavelength and amplitude individually as well as simultaneously using different sinusoidal corrugation functions. The dynamic impact analysis has been carried out using LS-DYNA FEM code using shell elements for meshing and Magnesium alloy AZ31 as material. Energy absorbed, initial peak force, mean force and stroke length are the parameters used in this comparative study. It is observed that the initial reaction forces as well as the ratio of the mean reaction force to peak load changes with the grading of corrugation.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0080
Jesu Rajendran Gnanaswamy, Kumaraswami Dhas
Abstract A safe vehicle is able to save lives even during worst collision scenario. Today’s vehicles have many safety systems both active and passive to save occupants. Improving the safety of pedestrian is now concentrated upon by the design engineers. Front bumper is the first member coming in contact during a frontal collision with a pedestrian. A safe bumper design helps in reducing pedestrian fatality. The requirements for pedestrian safety are not compatible with no component damage at 5 KMPH rule by the insurance agencies. This paper aims to reduce the gap in incompatibility of front bumper to meet the various requirements by changing the role of crash bars. From the point of view of pedestrians a bull bar/ crash bar is not a safety device, but it can be made into an independent component designed specifically to protect the pedestrians.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0174
Pankaj Kumar Singh, Naman Taneja, Alok Nath Sharma, Adarsh Gaurav
Abstract In today’s fast moving vehicle scenario, road safety is of utmost importance. Many people have lost their lives while travelling, due to a road accident. So we should mitigate such accidents if we wish to travel safely. To cater this cause, we propose an adaptive steering controlled headlight setup. The system can be adopted in any type of four wheel vehicles/trucks or trailers etc. without being an economic burden on the end user. The notion of steering controlled headlight is not new, but its adaptability according to the steering turning angle is its novel part. A lot of companies have developed technologies that incorporate turn able headlight to better illuminate the path, but these technologies are quite expensive and continue to be distant from the majority of car owners. So we felt the need of developing a mechanism that incorporates few simple components like gears, linkages etc. and can be readily fitted onto any steering column without much of a design variations.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 16506

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