Display:

Results

Viewing 151 to 180 of 16088
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera
Over the past two decades, extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the performance of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions, as well the potential for injury though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Traditionally, the rollover tests utilized a test fixture to initiate the rollover event. Examples of various test methodologies include dolly rollovers, inverted drop tests, ramp-induced rollovers, curb-tripped rollover, and CRIS Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used in pickup trucks and SUVs to initiate steering induced rollovers, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. This study presents a series of rollover tests utilizing a crew-cab pickup and a mid-sized sedan which resulted in a steering-induced soil-tripped rollover.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan
Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. This is due to the earlier availability and lower cost of hardware components in comparison to the whole vehicle. Current approaches mainly use originally moving deformable barriers and therefore a full vehicle test facility is needed. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases. The test bench is designed with simulations and includes a control for the force impact. This test bench is able to reproduce the same intrusion speeds as in whole vehicle tests and doesn’t block a full vehicle test facility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1459
Lotta Jakobsson, Magnus Björklund, Anders Axelson
Vertical accelerations can cause thoracic and lumbar spine injuries to a car occupant. Representative crashes potentially causing occupant vertical accelerations include; rollover events or free flying events when the car lands on its wheels, and run off road events when the car goes into the ditch and collides with an embankment from a crossing road. The spinal tolerances are dependent on occupant posture at time of impact which is an important factor with respect to limit of tolerances. Up to date, there is no standardized test method evaluating this occupant loading mechanism. The aim of this study was to develop test methods addressing vertical acceleration for car occupants and to evaluate countermeasures reducing the vertical loadings. Based on real world run off road crash investigations, representative test track methods were developed; including free flight before landing on the wheels and traveling in ditch impacting an embankment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1472
Roberto Arienti, Giorgio Previati, Carlo Cantoni, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
The lightweight seat of a high performance car is designed taking into account a rear impact. The basic parameters of the seat structure are derived resorting to the simulation of a crash test. A dummy is positioned on the seat and subject to a rear impulse. The simulations provide the dynamic loads acting on the seat structure, in particular the ones applied at the joint between the seat cushion and the seat backrest. Such a joint is simulated as a plastic hinge and dissipates some of the crash energy. By means of the simulations the proper parameters of the plastic hinge can be derived to design a safe seat. The simulations are validated by means of indoor tests with satisfactory results. By using the validated model, the influence of seat cushion and backrest parameters on seat passenger's injury are studied. An efficient tool has been developed for the preliminary design of lightweight seats for high performance cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1438
Maria de Odriozola
Nowadays, the development of high performance passive safety systems is becoming more and more demanding in order to enhance the performance of the new vehicles that are being introduced in the automotive market. With this aim, a series of new generation dummies are being developed so as to dispose of anthropomorphic test devices that count with higher biofidelity levels than the dummies that have been used until now. For frontal impact, the NHTSA is currently developing the THOR Dummy with the objective to achieve a dummy with a high level of performance to enable the investigation and creation of improved restraint systems. By using the THOR dummy it is possible to study the movement of the 3D surface of the occupants’ chest and, in this way, to acquire much more information for the adequate design of restraint systems for frontal impact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen, Chih Feng Lee
Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and forecasting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices, which can be calculated either from lateral acceleration, lateral load transfer, or roll energy. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is unclear how they can be compared and how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices, in different critical maneuvers, for a heavy 8x4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves, acceleration and braking performances following the SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the gear ratios and the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The paper also includes a comparison between two methods for the data acquisition for a low cost implementation when there is no access to a chassis dynamometer, being the main difference between the two the data acquisition time interval.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1447
Hirotoshi Ishikawa PhD, Kunihiro Mashiko MD, Tetsuyuki Matsuda, Koichi Fujita, Asuka Sugano, Toru Kiuchi, Hirotsugu Tajima, Masaaki Yoshida, Isao Endou
Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) is spreading in many countries.ACN provides notification in the event of a traffic accident automatically when an automobile's air bags are deployed or when the occupant restraint system is activated. ACN also serves as a diagnostic tool to determine the potential extent of injuries to those involved in motor vehicle incidents. Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel can utilize this information to determine how quickly their services are needed and it can minimize the number of victims who might be transferred to medical facilities mistakenly by the initial triage group. Various Electronic Control Units (ECUs) are equipped in vehicles. Air bag ECUs control the deployment of the air bag system and record various information on an event data recorder (EDR) during collisions. Data on the occupants, vehicles, and collisions recorded in EDR could be used as a parameter for estimating the occupant injury severity in an accident.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1457
Aditya Belwadi, Richard Hanna, Audrey Eagle, Daniel Martinez, Julie Kleinert, Eric Dahle
Automotive interior design optimization must balance the design of the vehicle seat and occupant space for safety, comfort and aesthetics with the accommodation of add-on restraint products such as child restraint systems (CRS). It is important to understand the breadth of CRS dimensions so that this balance can be successfully negotiated. Previously this was addressed with the advent of advanced air bag systems, when emphasis was placed on the design and development of surrogate child restraints, which were used, in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. CRS design is constantly changing. In particular, the introduction of side impact protection for CRS as well as emphasis on ease of CRS installation has likely changed key design points of any child restraints. This ever-changing target puts pressure on the vehicle manufacturers to keep their vehicle seats and occupant space compatible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10.5 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma and finite element analysis is used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1449
Ada H. Tsoi, John Hinch, Michael Winterhalter, H. Gabler
As specified in 49 CFR 563 (Part 563), event data recorder (EDR) data are required to survive crash tests as specified by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and FMVSS 214. EDR data have been shown to survive these crash tests, which represent most U.S. highway crashes. However, some have argued the need for greater survivability, including supporters of the not enacted U.S. Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 2010. Similar devices, such as flight data recorders (FDRs), have considerably more demanding data survivability requirements. Minimum standards for FDR survivability include 30 days of sea water immersion, 5 hours exposure to a 260°C fire, and 5 minutes of 1,000lb static crush. In some cases EDRs are exposed to more severe crashes, fire, and immersion; however, little is known about whether current EDR data are capable of surviving these events and whether such improvements are cost-effective.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0322
Jieyun Ding, Keqiang Li, Karl Hedrick
To provide a feasible transitional solution from all-by-human driving style to fully autonomous driving style, this paper proposed a lane-keeping ‘co-pilot’ system. For the following considerations, fully autonomous driving is not ready for commercial applications right now: (1)difficulty in decision making under complex traffic situations; (2)lack of acceptance and trust from human drivers; (3)legal regulations about liability haven’t been completed and are still disputable. Therefore, this transitional solution is proposed to improve the autonomous degree when driver is still in loop with the driving task. The lane-keeping ‘co-pilot’ is a driving assist system which helps driver to keep vehicle stay in the expected lateral driving zone and requires no on/off switch or decision making step as it is designed to be turned normally on.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0354
Ji Wan Kim, Tae Hee Lee
An odor emitting from the evaporator in an air-conditioning system were analyzed that it was caused by microbial VOCs(Volatile Organic Compounds). This study about an automotive air-conditioning causing an odor is to analyze microbial diversity and community. The next-generation sequencing method was used for this analysis, which does This next-generation sequencing method, not cultivating through molecular microbiological techniques, has been developed most recently and in wide use. Moreover, this method can also analyze microorganism which has not been cultured, and produces a result which is closer to actual one in a short amount of time and a larger number of sequences. According to the analysis result about a total of 24 samples of bacterial communities, it was found that Eva core was exposed to a small number of bacteria due to its limited specificity in material and environment. The cluster analysis showed that a specific group of bacteria formed a biofilm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop C P
Glare is subjective and can cause either disability or discomfort to eyes. A recent report from NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) shows that 22,487 deaths occurred in the year 2012. FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) shows that 10,480 deaths occur at night time. This accounts to 48% fatalities during night time. Thus glare during driving, especially at night time is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper consists of two promising technologies that can help in reducing glare. The system level design comprises of vision based identification of glare source. And a device placed between the driver and source is controlled for its transmittance. By changing the transparency locally the glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0269
Andreas Kiep, Marco Puerschel, Chris Spielman
This paper will describe different types of short circuit conditions, how they affect power semiconductor devices, and how to detect and safely mitigate the event. The Safe Operating Area SOA diagram defines a transistor´s boundaries in terms of maximum allowable voltage and maximum allowable current. In normal operation, either the voltage is small, e.g. 1.5 V, (transistor turned ON) or the current is very small, e.g. 1µA (transistor is turned off). Hence, the product of voltage and current, power loss, is relatively small. Unlike during short circuit - one of the severest failure of a power transistor. A short circuit is an electric circuit which allows the electric current to flow through an unintended path. Normally, the resistance of that path is very small, which results in very large short circuit current through the power transistor. In addition, as the resistance is low, a major part of the supply voltage, e.g. battery voltage, may be across the power transistor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1453
Jingwen Hu, Kurt Fischer, Paul Lange, Angelo Adler
Recent field data analyses have shown that front seats may provide better occupant protection than rear seats in newer vehicle models. The design of vehicle rear-seat compartment for protecting occupants is more challenging than front-seat because of the wide range of occupant ages and sizes that must be accommodated and protected. Furthermore, the increased demand for vehicle fuel economy will result in smaller rear-seat compartment and higher crash pulses, both of which will need further efforts to better protect rear-seat occupants. Therefore, the objective of this study is to use sled tests to quantify the effects of crash pulse, impact angle, occupant size, and front seat location on rear seat occupant protection. In this study, a sled buck representing a current compact vehicle was developed based on a HYGE system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1418
Shane Richardson, Nikola Josevski, Andreas Sandvik, Tandy Pok, Tia Lange Orton, Blake Winter, Xu Wang
Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However based on investigated pedestrian collisions there is a depending on where and how the vehicle and pedestrian engaged with one another, the definition of the engagement can and does significantly influence the throw distance. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at multiple speeds and pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots were created. The pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of vehicle types and pedestrian sizes are presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1451
Venkat Anand Sai GUDLUR, Theresa Atkinson
ABSTRACT The current study examined field data in order to document injury rates, injured body regions, and injury sources for persons seated in the second row of passenger vehicles. It was also intended to identify whether these varied with respect to age and restraint use in vehicles manufactured in recent years.Data from the 2007-2012 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS/CDS) was used to describe occupants seated in the second row of vehicles in frontal crashes. Injury plots, comparison of means and logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with increased risk of injury. Restraint use reduced the risk of AIS ≥ 2 injury from approximately 1.8% to 5.8% overall. Seventy nine percent of the occupants in the weighted data set used either a lap and shoulder belt or child restraint system. The most frequently indicated injury source for persons with a MAIS ≥ 2 was “seat, back support”, across restraint conditions and for all but the youngest occupants.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1407
Toshiya Hirose, Dai Kitabayashi, Hidenobu Kubota
1. Purpose of this study The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) have proposed roadmaps for the development of autonomous systems. These roadmaps define levels of autonomy in the development of a completely autonomous system of a vehicle. Although current autonomous systems control a vehicle in an ordinary situation, the driver needs to control the vehicle in the case of an emergency when the system reaches its functional limitation. Therefore, the driver must monitor the driving of the autonomous system. These systems are at level 3 in the NHTSA and SAE roadmaps. However, for such systems, if the driver is in a state of low alertness such as when drowsy, then he/she cannot control the vehicle with an appropriate action when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1411
Caroline Crump, David Cades, Robert Rauschenberger, Emily Hildebrand, Jeremy Schwark, Brandon Barakat
Advanced Driver Assistive System technologies are currently available in many passenger vehicles that provide safety benefits and will ultimately lead to autonomous, “self-driving” vehicles. One technology that has the potential for having substantial safety benefits is the forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM) system, which is designed to (1) warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, (2) potentiate driver braking responses, and (3) have the ability to apply the vehicle’s brake autonomously to slow, or, in some cases, stop the vehicle prior to a forward collision. Although the proliferation of such technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how this system affects a driver’s overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0291
Radovan Miucic, Sue Bai
Many Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies have been developed to improve the safety and efficiency of cars, trucks, public transport and infrastructure. However, very few ITS have been developed specifically for motorcycle user protection. In this paper an overview of vehicle-to-motorcycle wireless communication systems research status in US, EU and Japan is provided. The system enables vehicles and motorcycles to exchange safety information such as speed, heading, location, brake status through 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol. The vehicles and motorcycles can then assess the potential threat level based on the incoming messages from the nearby traffic. Several high-impact motorcycle-to-vehicle collision scenarios are analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1464
Qiang Chen, Miao Lin, Bing Dai, Jiguang Chen
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. The accident analysis aims to develop test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. Beyond that, this study was also with the goal of estimating the effectiveness of potential reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians by AEB systems.Based on statistics, more than 25% of traffic fatalities were pedestrians in China. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems are already penetrating the vehicle market and are designed to offer protection against the occurrence and severity of collisions. However there is a need to evaluate the systems and their effectiveness. Test methods for such active safety systems are being developed and will be implemented in NCAP tests in the near future, e.g. 2016 in Euro-NCAP, and most probably in 2018 C-NCAP tests (still in consulting phase).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1402
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Sangolla Narahari, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Satheesh Narayanan
The Guidelines for the Field Triage of Injured Patients includes the criterion “vehicle telemetry consistent with high risk of injury” to facilitate the use of advanced automatic collision notification (AACN) data in the standardized assessment and treatment of crash occupants. The Guidelines were developed utilizing a 20% risk of ISS15+ injury as the threshold for “high risk of injury.” In 2010, Kononen et.al., (Onstar-ver1) and In 2012 Bahouth et.al., (Urgency) published the Injury Severity Prediction (ISP) algorithms, the first algorithm to follow the CDC Expert Panel’s specifications. The safety performance of vehicles has improved substantially over the past several decades and this may affect the field performance of algorithms such as ISP based on NASS-CDS as the database contains primarily older vehicles. The ISP was based on the NASS-CDS data available at that time. In this analysis data from NASS-CDS for 2002-2012 was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1434
Gary A. Davis
Martinez and Schlueter (1996) described a method for reconstructing tripped rollover crashes, where the vehicle’s path is divided into pre-trip, trip, and post-trip phases. Brach and Brach (2011) also describe this method and noted that the trajectory segmentation method for the pre-trip phase needs further validation. When the rolling vehicle leaves a measurable yaw mark at the start of its pre-trip phase it might be possible to partially validate the roll model by comparing its initial speed estimates to those obtained from the critical speed method. This paper describes a Bayesian reconstruction of two such cases. For the first, the 95 percent confidence interval via the critical rate method was (64 mph, 73 mph) while the 95 percent confidence interval via the rollover model was (65 mph, 80 mph). For the second case the confidence intervals were (78 mph, 85 mh) and (79 mph, 92 mph), respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0159
Zhihui Tan, Zhenfu Chen, Xiaofei Pei, Jie Zhang, Xuexun Guo
Analogous to a vacuum boosted system, Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB) supplies a braking force proportional to driver input, and is especially fit for electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). As a key component of EHB, this paper introduces a new integrated master cylinder which is developed from the traditional one. However, the master cylinder is driven by the pump rather than the vacuum booster. Even if the pump fails, the cylinder can also build proper pressure. Meanwhile, in the EHB system, the connection between master cylinder and pedal is structurally decoupled. So the cylinder and pedal can be independently designed and controlled. Furthermore, the pressure surge in the master cylinder will not affect pedal feeling. In this paper, the EHB system is designed including two parts: master cylinder and pedal stroke simulator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0574
Donald E. Malen, Jason Hughes
Understanding the lightweighting potential of materials is important in making strategic decisions for material selection for a new vehicle program. Frequently benchmarking is done to support these decisions by selecting a reference vehicle which is believed to be mass efficient, then using the teardown mass data to set targets for the vehicle under design. In this work, rather then considering a single benchmark vehicle or a small set of vehicles, we looked at a large sample of vehicles over a range of sizes and segments (approximately 200 vehicles). Statistical methods were used to identify mass drivers for each subsystem. Mass drivers are the attributes of the vehicle and subsystem which determine subsystem mass. Understanding mass-drivers allows comparisons across vehicle size, segments, and materials. Next, we identified those vehicles which had subsystems which were much lighter than the average after adjusting for mass drivers. This set was defined as mass-efficient designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, William Newberry
Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer-induced rollovers to gain a deeper understand into vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle’s pre-trip motion (Asay et al., 2009; Asay et al., 2010). The current test series utilized ATDs in steer-induced rollovers to investigate occupant kinematics throughout the entire rollover sequence, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the final rest position. Two test vehicles (a sedan and a pickup truck) were fully instrumented, and each contained two restrained 50th percentile male ATDs in the front outboard seating positions. The pickup truck was equipped with rollover-activated side-curtain airbags that deployed prior to the first ground contact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1417
Jeffrey Muttart
An analysis was performed utilizing the results from seven emergency steering studies and four routine lane change studies. Closed course and naturalistic research were included. These studies showed that in a routine lane change, Drivers reached peak lateral acceleration approximately one-second after steering after which lateral acceleration decreases linearly. These results were consistent with those from forward and backing acceleration research published elsewhere. Though, when drivers steered in response to an emergency situation, again, peak lateral acceleration occurred near one-second after steering onset, but average lateral acceleration decreased non-linearly. This non-linear decrease between onset of steering and completion of the maneuver was indicative of counter-steering, or reduced subsequent steering (straightening). The results show that the average lateral acceleration could be modeled with a power function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0215
Reena Kumari Behera, Smita Nair
Redundancy plays a key role in increasing the computation time in case of most vision based systems. In vision based applications, the images captured from the camera are processed pixel by pixel in order to get the desired information. There is plenty of redundant data in most of the images. Removal of this unwanted data would help in increasing the processing time considerably. This paper presents a simple yet novel approach to remove unwanted data from a given image. The proposed work focuses on clutter removal from outdoor scenes. More specifically, this approach would be more applicable to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). An outdoor scene captured consists of two main parts a) ground region consisting of the road area and other lane markings especially white or yellow in color. b) The background region consisting of various structures, trees, sky etc. The definition of unwanted regions depends on the application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0213
Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Anusha Baskaran, Krishnan kutty
In the research field of automotive systems, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are gaining of paramount importance. As significance for such systems increase, the challenges associated with it also increases. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to nature (haze, fog etc.) In terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS, haze formation in the atmosphere poses the challenging problem. In this paper, the proposed method addresses a novel technique of enhancing the quality in terms of visibility and visual perception of the haze affected images. Using HSV color space and the haze model, the haze affected images are recuperated. The proposed procedure involves retaining of hue (H) and scaling of saturation (S) value of each pixel between the haze input and de-hazed output images. In addition, a simple method for manipulating the ‘V’ space to de-haze the input image is also proposed.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 16088

Filter