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Viewing 15391 to 15420 of 16507
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700911
G. M. Mackay, A. W. Siegel, P. V. Hight
Abstract Data are presented from two field studies on the collision injuries which result from contact with tempered glass and 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) high penetration resistant (HPR) laminated glass windshields. Two sets of similar automobile collisions are analyzed. The first set consists of European and Japanese cars imported into the United States (in Southern California). The second set is drawn from a study of British cars involved in collisions in England, all of which had tempered windshields. The frequency and severity of injury from the windshield are given for each set of collisions. Comparisons are made on the basis of vehicle damage and equivalent impact speeds. Examples of the mechanisms of injury for the two types of glass are outlined. The data presented indicate that tempered windshields give rise to a higher incidence of injury and more severe injuries than the 0.030 in. HPR laminated windshields under similar impact conditions.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700908
Peter I. Maté, Leonard E. Popp
Abstract To meet today's demands for a higher degree of accuracy and repeatability in automotive crash testing, a new advanced anthropometric dummy is under development. This third-generation test dummy is designed to be in a 90 deg seated position and complies with all requirements of present SAE J963 specifications. The head is a completely new design. The skull, which is covered with a removable skin, is symmetrical for better test repeatability. The newly developed neck concept produces more human-like response. New materials used in the neck and the lower vertebrae eliminate ringing effects. The new shoulder assembly features better contour and muscle tone, and withstands the expected shoulder harness loads. The chest of the previous generation dummies is replaced with a plastic contoured rib cage of the required load deflection characteristics. To provide a better means of restraint system evaluation, the new pelvis is human-like in contour.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700907
D. H. Robbins, R. O. Bennett, A. W. Henke, N. N. Alem
Mathematical models of the human body subjected to an impact environment have been developed by many research groups in industry, government, private research organizations, and universities. In most cases, the models have not been verified by or compared with experimental results. The purpose of this paper is to show comparisons between the two- and three-dimensional crash victim simulators, which have been developed at the Highway Safety Research Institute of The University of Michigan, and front and side impact sled test results using anthropometric dummies.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700906
Thomas D. Clarke, James F. Sprouffske, Edwin M. Trout, Harold S. Klopfenstein, William H. Muzzy, C. D. Gragg, Charles D. Bendixen
Abstract The tolerance to abrupt linear deceleration (- Gx) and the subject response to a lap belt restraint system were investigated. Nineteen adult male baboons comprised the test pool. The effects of impacts of 8.6-40 g were studied, with nonsurvivability used as the index of tolerance. The results indicated that the tolerance to impact (LD50) approximated a 32 g sled deceleration. Lethality was presumed attributable to the secondary impact as the head contacted the floor of the sled. Predominant lethal injuries included avulsion of the atlanto-occipital articulation and dislocation fractures of the cervical vertebrae with resulting transection of the spinal cord. Excellent linear correlations were established between peak lap belt and seat pan forces versus maximum sled deceleration. Likewise, a linear relationship was found between peak head angular accelerations and maximum sled deceleration.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700220
J. D. Robb, M. M. Newman
The trend toward much greater use of general aviation aircraft under all weather conditions for instrument flight almost certainly suggests a greater amount of lightning damage and possible hazard from lightning discharges. Many years of experience in observing lightning problems on commercial transport aircraft (one lightning damage report per year per aircraft) indicates the areas of possibly serious problems. The techniques obtained from lightning protection development programs on nearly all commercial aircraft are often directly applicable to general aviation aircraft but require careful, intelligent application and, most important, an awareness, particularly by structure and fuel systems designers of the possible problems.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700247
Harry F. Barr
This paper broadly surveys the continuing research and development by automotive engineers in designing safer automobiles. Door latch redesign, seat belts, energy absorbing steering columns, laminated windshields, energy absorbing instrument panel and its knobs and levers, dual brake systems, seat back impact absorbing tops, head restraints, and bias-ply tires are among the improvements discussed. Passenger restraint remains the most important factor in saving lives, however, and the public has been careless in using such systems. Passive restraints, such as the air bag, are under development. The need for good driver training programs, the problem of alcohol, and the need for continuing improved highway design are also touched upon.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700262
Earl W. Keegan
This paper provides a review of the current airport fire-fighting equipment and requirements. Statistics are offered concerning the inadequacies of such equipment at many airports served by air carriers and suggestions are made for improving the situation. The latest available fire-fighting equipment and fire-fighting agents are detailed as well as that equipment programmed by manufacturers for future use. The author also offers ideas and concepts on fire-fighting tactics that could be employed today, and those to meet future airport needs.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700405
Nathaniel H. Pulling, Dennis F. Ray, Donald R. Vaillancourt, Allen L. Cudworth, John B. Creeden
A research crash simulator is described which is located at the Liberty Mutual Research Center in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. A seven-foot sled is accelerated by compressed air at speeds up to 60 mph, and then decelerated by a combination of aluminum honeycomb and a hydraulic energy absorber. Normally the sled carries an automotive seat, with some type of restraint system, and an anthropometric dummy. Information concerning collision events in the simulator is obtained from electronic transducers and high speed motion pictures. A number of car occupant protection systems have been tested on this simulator, and typical data are presented to illustrate its performance.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700407
Aaron Bloom, Robert W. Duer
Discussed is the desirability of developing simulated internal organs and vascular systems which will respond to impact dynamics similarly to humans. Materials currently available and the technical knowledge extant indicate that the fabrication of such body components is now feasible. The potential value of anthropomorphic dummies equipped with such devices as a research tool for the study of injury-producing impact dynamics is outlined.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700404
R. H. Macmillan
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700401
A. K. Ommaya, F. J. Fisch, R. M. Mahone, P. Corrao, F. Letcher
Experimental head impact and whiplash injury experiments have been conducted in 3 sub-human primate species in order to define tolerance thresholds for onset of cerebral concussion. Preliminary analysis of our data support a hypothesis that approximately 50% of the potential for brain injury during impact to the unprotected movable head is directly proportional to head rotation and inversely proportional to head translation by the impact; the remaining brain injury potential of the blow is directly proportional to the contact phenomena of the impact. A scaling method for injurious rotations is presented which predicts that levels of head rotational velocity exceeding 50 Rad/sec and acceleration exceeding 1800 Rad/sec2 are compatible with a 50% probability for onset of cerebral concussion in man.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700406
William I. Kipp
This paper shows that the shock motion experienced by the passenger compartment during inelastic impact of an automobile into a barrier may be simulated in the laboratory by elastic impact between a test carriage and a reaction mass. Mathematical derivations show that impact-with-rebound is equivalent to the “impulse” (test specimen accelerated backward from rest) and impact-without-rebound simulation methods. Velocity, displacement, and dimension formulae are derived for all three test methods and are compared in terms of system performance and configuration. It is shown that for the same performance, the rebounding simulator requires less impact velocity (and therefore less total energy), less shock pulse programmer displacement, and shorter track length than the other systems. One type of rebounding shock pulse programmer is discussed in detail. It is explained how the force-versus-deflection characteristic can be controlled by adjusting internal gas pressures.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700400
Alan M. Nahum, Charles W. Gadd, Dennis C. Schneider, Charles K. Kroell
For the purpose of increasing available knowledge of human dynamic response and tolerance to thoracic impact, and experimental investigation of both blunt and localized impacts to embalmed and unembalmed human cadavers is being carried out. This is a progress report to date. Force and deflection time histories resulting from midsternal A-P impacts over a six inch diameter area and from blows localized near the costo-chrondral junctions were measured and cross plotted to provide dynamic force-deflection characteristics. The extent of skeletal damage was assessed by both radiological examination and thoracic dissection and is presented in relation to the impact parameters. X-ray assessment of rib fracture damage was found to be inadequate, revealing on the average less than half of the fractures confirmed by dissection.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700403
Richard A. Wilson
Vehicle impact testing, having its start over 30 years ago, has matured into a highly sophisticated operation which involves many disciplines. The older routines of running cars into things and only looking at aftereffects are no longer adequate to answer today's vehicle safety questions. Full-scale testing has been supplemented with impact sleds, component impact machines, and computer simulations. Human simulators, or dummies, are used as instrument carriers or as instruments themselves to provide some estimate of the injury that might be produced in various impact situations. All types of impact tests today demand complete, accurate, and immediate measurements of the physical events involved. Instrumentation has evolved which utilizes electronic, photographic, and mechanical techniques to record and display impact events which, by their very nature, are over in tenths of seconds.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700402
R. D. Lister, J. G. Wall
The methods used at the British Road Research Laboratory to collect data relating to the injuries sustained by vehicle occupants in road accidents are described. Vehicles of differing interior structural design give rise to different patterns of injury to their occupants, the probable mechanisms producing these injuries have been deduced from the detailed examination of the damage to the car interior caused by the impact of the occupant during the accident. The damage observed in cars involved in accidents and associated with particular injuries was reproduced on undamaged cars of the same make and model, using a suitable dynamic impact method, to give an indirect assessment of the forces causing the injuries.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700416
D. F. Moore
The objective sought in this research is the optimization of vehicle deceleration to minimize serious injury and fatalities for harnessed occupants. The injury criterion is head acceleration, which from biomechanical considerations is not permitted to exceed 80 G. Head injuries account for 70% of accident fatalities, and the most reliable indicator of such injuries is recognized to be head acceleration. Further biomechanical limitations on head motion appear to be the rate of change of acceleration which cannot exceed 1000 G/sec. and the injury severity index which is limited to the value 1000. From these criteria, a tentative selection of optimum head acceleration profiles for different vehicle impact speeds has been made. These traces serve as the desired output from a four-degree-of-freedom model of a lap-and-shoulder-belted front-seat occupant. It is required to find the vehicle deceleration input which causes this optimized head response during a crashing situation.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700415
F. Cornacchia
Investigation into behaviour of cars subjected to head-on collisions at increasing speeds, and properties required of body structures to minimize occupants' injury in case of accident. Body structure must provide at all times for interior survival space. Description of a front-wheel-drive body structure and its behaviour when subjected to head-on and rear end impacts. Stiffness testing, fatigue testing, impact testing at low and high speed have provided all the data needed by engineers in order to produce a body structure which fully meets current safety standards. RESUME Recherche sur le comportement d'une voiture sujette à choc frontal à différentes vitesses et définition des caractéristiques requises de la structure de carrosserie pour réduire les dommages aux occupants en cas d'accident. La structu re de carrosserie doit toujours garantir un espace de survie.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700409
S. E. Staffeld
High-speed cinematography, commonly used for pictorial coverage of impact tests, can also be an important source of measurements of crash kinematics. An approach to film analysis is used in the Chrysler Engineering Office that makes it possible to obtain such measurements with no camera orientation requirements and few special preparations. By making extensive use of digital computer processing, it has been possible to minimize special-purpose mechanical equipment, simplify test procedures, and generally increase measurement capability.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700408
Roger J. Berton, Robert B. MacLean
The majority of vehicle crash tests have utilized the stationary barrier. This analysis shows the relationship between a stationary barrier crash and a movable barrier crash. The barrier-vehicle crash is simulated by a simple two mass non-returning spring system. The relationships between vehicle weight, barrier weight and vehicle crush are shown. The seat belt loads for various crash conditions are also included to give an indication of the relationships which control occupant deceleration in vehicle-movable barrier tests and vehicle-stationary barrier tests.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700412
Raymond R. McHenry, Patrick M. Miller
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700396
Charles R. Kelley
A review of the state-of-the-art in rear vision from passenger vehicles includes such problems as field of view, display location and display characteristics. Responses to a questionnaire by experts in the field are analyzed. Empirical data are reported on rear vision fixation location and time patterns. Comparisons were made between five different vehicle-mirror configurations driven over the same course under typical freeway and city street driving conditions. Large differences were found in the time required to obtain rear view information. It is concluded that drivers are forced to take their eyes from the road ahead for excessively long periods with standard vehicle-mirror configurations, and that this can be greatly improved by improved rear vision systems.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700398
Richard G. Snyder
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700399
A. Wisner, J. Leroy, J. Bandet
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700393
Akira Yamanaka, Minoru Kobayashi
This paper presents three experiments which were conducted under various road conditions to obtain the optimum forward visibility. The following vehicles were used: a high-speed bus having the front window extending to the floor with a curtain of variable length arranged on the inner surface; a heavy-duty normal control truck having variable visibility; a passenger car also having variable visibility. An oscillograph served to measure speed, acceleration, and deceleration, and a polygraph was used to measure psychogalvanic response which indicates driver excitability and psychophysiological reactions. A feeling test was also conducted. The test results were analyzed in terms of eye angular velocity, and it was found that the optimum lower visibility closely connected with 2 rad/sec of the eye angular velocity. This investigation recommends the optimum range of driving visibility for the vehicles.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700395
Lyman M. Forbes
An analysis is made of the driver's forward vision requirements. Various methods for relating vehicle geometry to these vision requirements are examined. Several of these methods were found to have some potential as design tools to assist automotive engineers in placing rear vision systems, determining the proper size and shape for vehicle daylight openings, and providing a means for evaluating windshield wiping and defrosting patterns. In this study, the relative importance of various vision zones is based on published vision performance and traffic information.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700394
Richard L. Barnoski, John R. Maurer, B. Andrew Kugler
This paper concerns the development and use of a simple model to assess the direct visibility afforded a binocular driver of an automotive passenger vehicle. The model is mathematic in nature and allows a representation of the field of view available for a driver or driver population as well as the “required” visual field for safe driving. The output of the model, a figure-of-merit (FOM), is designed to vary over the range 0 ≤ FOM ≤ 100 where “ideal” or “perfect” visibility is that when the FOM = 100. For 13 1969 vehicles tested, the FOM ranged from 39.42-68.94, with an average value of 56.74. Separate FOM results are provided for the front and rear 180 deg in azimuth. Such data provide relative measures of “good” visibility for the vehicles considered. Of greater importance is that the model, once refined and properly extended, can yield quantitative visibility standards for automobiles.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700382
Wolfgang Rosig
The present analysis is concerned with the inspection of motor vehicles for accident-causing defects. It is based upon surveys which were carried out by technical experts of the Deutscher Kraftfahrzeug-Überwachungs-Verein DEKRA e. V. during the years between 1966 and 1969 on assignment from police officials. Classification is made according to the type of vehicle, manufacturer, age of the vehicle, number and type of deficiencies identified as well as responsibility for the accident-causing defects. In most categories, the analysis is limited to passenger and combination vehicles, although - to the extent that any assertions can be supported - consideration is also given to other types of vehicles (trucks, trailers, buses, other types of vehicles). A comparison with the registration figures in the Federal Republic of Germany, including West Berlin, emphasizes the conclusions to be drawn from this examination.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700362
Ross A. McFarland, Roland C. Moore
The use of ergonomics in the design of vehicular equipment is presented. It is proposed that the wider use of the principles and methods of this discipline might aid in the more effective integration of the driver and his equipment. It has been shown that the effectiveness of any man-machine system depends upon the integration of the biological characteristics of the operator with the mechanical design of the equipment and working areas. The initial phase of a program in ergonomics should always consist of an advance analysis of the equipment, including a survey of the nature of the task, the work surroundings, the location of controls and instruments, and the way the operator performs his duties. In highway safety the application of human engineering principles has been shown to be of great importance in the design of windshields, rear view mirrors, and vehicle lighting, and other visual aids to the drivers.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700360
C. Tarriere, R. Rebiffe, J. Hamon, G. Mauron
The authors contemplate an improved utilisation of the frontal survival space between the front seat passenger and the occupant enclosure. They propose a belt design and a crash seat transversally pivoted at the base with rotational shock absorber to better apportion between the two the deceleration forces on the passenger.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700359
John W. Chaffee
Increased use of upper torso restraints directs attention toward the possible effects on driver reach capability in an automotive package. The results of a survey of male and female driver reach envelopes - “ergospheres” - in American and European basic package geometries are presented. Contour sections representing 5th-percentile shells of the ergospheres resulting from various degrees of torso restraint are presented in comparison with the ergosphere characteristic of lap-belt-only restraint. Differences in the effects on reach are pronounced and suggest that the inertia-reel type of upper torso restraint incurs the least reduction in size of the ergosphere.
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