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1971-10-20
Technical Paper
1971-12-0014
C. H. Pulley
The seat belt-shoulder harness restraint system is recognized as the most efficient, economical, available means of saving lives and reducing injuries in automobile accidents. A recent survey indicates that in accidents involving speeds up to 60 mph not a single motorist who was wearing seat belt-shoulder harnesses were killed. A recent report issued by a major auto-maker states that the seat belts-shoulder system is more effective from both a cost and life-saving point of view than the air bag or other presently proposed passive restraint systems. Despite the over-whelming evidenence and a concentrated public education program only about one-third of the American motoring public avails themselves of the protection of lap belts and less than 5% use shoulder harnesses.
1971-10-01
Standard
ARP1192
This aerospace recommended practice describes procedures for establishing a calibration curve for use with an automatic liquidborne particle counter (APC) and verifying the sizing and counting accuracy of the instrument.
1971-10-01
Standard
J994A_197110
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
1971-09-01
Standard
J260_197109
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide a uniform basis for evaluating the effectiveness of rear underride devices employed to reduce the likelihood of penetration of the passenger compartment of an impacting vehicle. The procedures described in this report provide means for determining the characteristics of rear underride guard, taking into consideration the nature and direction of forces involved.
1971-09-01
Standard
AS1224
This standard defines the minimum requirement for the design, construction and performance of continuous flow oxygen masks for crew and passengers of general aviation civil aircraft. This standard includes the following types of continuous flow oxygen masks. A. Open port dilution rebreathing masks. B. Valved or restrictive phase dilution rebreathing masks. C. Valved or restrictive phase dilution reservoir masks. D. Open port or restrictive dilution mask without rebreathing or reservoir bag.
1971-07-30
Standard
AS1225
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum standards of design, construction, and performance for two types of permanently installed, high pressure 12,800 kPa (1850 psig) and 13,800 kPa (2000 psig) oxygen system cylinder fill valves used in commercial aircraft. Refer to Purchaser's Specification for requirements which are beyond the scope or level of detail provided in this document. One valve has an adjustable pressure sensitive closing valve to automatically control the final pressure for a correct amount of oxygen in the system. The second valve incorporates an automatic shutoff feature designed to limit system overpressurization in the event maihntenance personnel do not stop system filling at the correc pressure. The intent of the fill valves is to control the rate of fill to limit the rise in temperature caused by compression heating to acceptable values, prevent oxygen back flow and prevent the ingestion of foreign matter that could cause contamination of the system.
1971-07-01
Standard
ARP1150
The pilot's seat is the basic link that supports and ties the pilot to the aircraft structure. It is essential that this function be accomplished in a manner that will provide the maximum safety and security during all normal and emergency flight conditions. The recommendations listed in Section 3 shall apply to all regularly assigned flight crew member's seats located on the flight deck.
1971-07-01
Standard
ARP1107
This document provides recommended practices for the design, installation, qualification, and operational requirements of the tail bumper for piloted aircraft. This recommended practice covers the fixed structure, or independent energy absorbing system affixed to the airframe to afford protection to the control surfaces, engine and other portions during ground handling, take-off and landing.
1971-07-01
Standard
ARP1178
Because of the necessity of advising all crew members instantly and simultaneously of an existing or impending cabin evacuation, this recommended practice has been prepared. The development of large aircraft with remote flight compartments, cabin attendant stations, and galleys have made the necessity of such a warning system more evident. This recommended practice establishes criteria for the development and installation of an aircraft emergency signal system to permit any crew member to inform all other crew members that an emergency evacuation situation exists and that an evacuation has been or should be immediately started. NOTE: It is not the purpose of this ARP to specify the design method, mechanism or equipment to be used in the accomplishment of the objectives set forth herein.
1971-07-01
Standard
AS1214
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers all types of manually operated high pressure Oxygen line shut off valves utilizing either metallic or nonmetallic valve seats for use in general and commercial type aircraft.
1971-06-01
Standard
AS942
The instrument system specified shall accept an input of static pressure and in some equipment other inputs that contribute altitude information to provide a visual indication of pressure altitude. If equipped with an automatic correction mechansim, it shall indicate by a positive means when the automatic correction mechanism is not in use. If the static source pressure error compensating mechanism is operational it shall be functional throughout the required operating envelope of the particular aircraft. Each aircraft type has its own static source error data which shall be obtained from the airframe manufacturer's certified data. when a central air data computer is used in the altimeter system, the CADC shall be certified to its own governing document and the altimeter system (CADC and display) shall comply with the requirements of this document.
1971-05-01
Standard
J247_197105
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide guidelines for selection of transducers, data acquisition systems, and other instrumentation as well as analysis methods to help ensure proper measurement and evaluation of acoustic impulses in automobiles. While this Recommended Practice focuses on automotive inflatable devices, such as, frontal airbag systems, pretensioners, inflatable curtains, side airbags, etc, it can be used for measurement of other impulsive sounds in a vehicle if needed. The objective is to achieve uniformity in instrumentation practice and reporting of test measurements. Use of this recommended practice should provide a basis for meaningful comparisons of test results from different sources. This recommended practice specifies procedures for static measurement of acoustic impulses, but due to the much more complicated nature of crash testing, does not specify procedures for measuring impulses in vehicles during crash tests.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710695
Clifford W. Farmer
California established the Division of Industrial Safety to develop and enforce safety standards for the workmen in places of employment. Many safety standards have been developed which included roll-over protective structures for heavy earthmoving equipment. When it is determined that a need exists for a new safety order such as Construction Safety Order 1596, which requires roll-over protective structures for heavy earthmoving equipment, the Division thoroughly analyzes the engineering, education, and enforcement procedures and techniques as they develop the state safety standard. At the present time, the Division is investigating the need for safety standards pertaining to environmental control for the operators of equipment used in construction.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710693
J. E. Staab
Performance standards for roll-over protective structures (ROPS) have been developed for four classes of equipment-TTT, loaders, motor graders, and wheel scraper prime movers. The criteria were developed by studying the behavior of roll-proven structures in a laboratory and converting these observations into numerical relationships. The criteria establish five major requirements: 1. Resist horizontal force-related to machine weight. 2. Absorb energy-must deflect without catastrophic failure. 3. Withstand vertical load after deflection equal to machine weight. 4. Meet above requirements without entering critical zone. 5. Must perform at 0 F or material must exhibit Charpy ā€œVā€ notch impact strength of 8 ft-lb at -20 F.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710694
Robert W. Weed, Hartwell C. Davis
This paper describes the static test of construction equipment Roll-Over Protective Structures (ROPS) as performed in accordance with the applicable SAE Recommended Practices. Details of the test facility are presented, including test fixturing concepts and pertinent design calculations. The heavy equipment tie-down methods and restraint systems are shown. Data acquisition accuracy and methods are described. Data from several tests are compared with data from SAE committee files.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710707
James F. Arndt
Operators of machines used in agriculture, construction, and forestry industries can be involved in accidents due to inappropriate actions while servicing or operating the machines. It, therefore, becomes desirable to warn them of certain types of personal hazards when they are on or around machines. This can be accomplished with the use of a safety sign. For safety signs to do their job effectively, it is desirable that they be similar in format and design. Furthermore, they should be carefully written, appropriately placed, and be distinctive on the equipment.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710040
Wei-Ming Lee
The dependence of the compressive stress-strain behavior of plastic foams on the loading geometry and its significance in relation to the cushioning design study for automobile safety is explored. Experimental load-deflection responses obtained under dynamic (impact) and static conditions using loading objects of various different geometry are analyzed. A strong interaction between the loading geometry and the material response existed. It was found that the stress-strain behavior of plastic foams varied, whether under static or dynamic conditions, with the loading geometry. The linear load-deflection response observed in the case of hemi-spherical loading differed from that of the convoluted faceform loading, while the response for the flat plate compression deviated from both.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710020
K. R. Trosien, L. M. Patrick
Though the steering wheel has been maligned as a primary cause of injuries in automobile collisions, studies show it is the first passive restraint system in the automobile. Adding an airbag to the steering wheel distributes the energy load better than the wheel alone, and the airbag takes advantage of the space between occupant and steering wheel to protect the driver further. Specifically, the airbag utilizes space to decelerate the occupant, prevents concentrated loads on the torso, stops the face from hitting the steering wheel rim, and helps distribute impact load over a larger area. The airbag has three major components-the sensor, inflator, and airbag. The functioning of these components, as well as experimental investigations conducted to determine operational capabilities of the system, are discussed.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710021
J. A. Pflug
Crash testing has revealed dynamic problems with present designs for air bag passive restraints which must be resolved. Out-of-position occupants can restrict deployment of the air bag or affect its restraint action. In rollover and side impact accidents, today's air bag offers only minimal restraint. Accordingly, it appears essential to use the lap belt, in combination with air bags, to achieve an improved restraint system over current systems when usage rates and effectiveness are considered. The noise level created by air bag actuation may exceed tolerance levels in some humans. Inadvertent deployment of air bags could compromise the driver's control of the vehicle. These and other technical problems must be resolved before such systems are furnished in automobiles to be sold to the public.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710017
J. T. Johnson, R. E. McComb, T. F. McDonnell, D. R. Trowbridge
Engineering design features of three types of energy sources for the Inflatable Occupant Restraint System (IORS) are reviewed. These systems use: 1. Compressed gas 2. Propellant 3. A combination of compressed gas and propellant as a power source for the inflation of the restraint cushion. An analysis is presented of each system with advantages and disadvantages related to specific design parameters. The analysis is restricted to present state-of-the-art systems. It is also based on strictly engineering design features with recognition that product cost, patent position, and other intangibles are factors in final energy source selection. The analysis indicates several important advantages of the combined propellant-air (hybrid) system over one or both of the other two. These are: 1. Ability to obtain nontoxic gases with currently developed propellants. 2. More flexibility in control of gas thermodynamics. 3. The small propellant weight requirements.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710016
Trevor O. Jones, Oliver T. McCarter
A general overview of crash sensor approaches and development is presented including: Passive Inflatable Occupant Restraint System (PIORS) components, time-history of an impact, crash detector requirements and characteristics, and reliability considerations.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710015
F. J. Irish, R. A. Potter, R. D. McKenzie
This paper discusses the design of an automobile air cushion restraint system which will provide adequate occupant protection. The extensive process employed in the design of such a system is presented; systems analysis, engineering, testing, and evaluation are the major points of the process. The program is intended to provide low-cost safety methods, and to provide a basis for future development of more improved safety systems.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710540
F. F. Timpner
This paper shows how to evaluate the impact between two different size vehicles with different energy-absorbing bumper systems. A pendulum will correlate with a barrier for head-on impacts, but not for corner impacts.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710503
Kenneth F. Vander Leest
How safe are the products we use? Today, people are constantly being alerted to the many dangers which exist in our everyday products, whether it be machinery or toy. Who is to blame and how can the public be protected. Governments, both federal and state, are responding to the public's demand for safer products; however, there is yet much progress to be made by technology to give us products which are safe for our everyday use.
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