Display:

Results

Viewing 15391 to 15420 of 16179
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680780
J. E. Thompson
Abstract The objective of designing vehicle structure to minimize restrained occupant responses to multicar collisions requires a detailed study of all elements of the vehicle-occupant system. Two mathematical models, an 8 deg of freedom three-dimensional occupant and a 1500 deg of freedom vehicle structure, have been developed to allow such a detailed investigation. How these two models may be combined into a total system is described, along with initial validation efforts. The validations of the occupant model and the vehicle structure model will be supported by static load tests and two-car vehicle crash data for the particular case of side impact. Validation of the models merely establishes the feasibility of the approach, which is the principal conclusion to be derived from the analytical development to this point.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680781
D. J. Van Kirk, W. A. Lange
A program for investigating frontal force accidents has been underway for approximately 2 years at Wayne State University. It differs from most investigations in that each accident was analyzed in detail. Accidents in which the cause of injury could not be accurately ascertained were eliminated. Thus, a limited number of cases were investigated in detail rather than depending on statistics from a large number of accidents. It was necessary to establish a comprehensive scale for the detailed investigations because available rating scales did not provide fine enough injury increments. A degree of injury scale has been devised which can be modified as new data on injury are acquired. The scale ranges from very minor injuries to fatalities with the following six major categories of injury in increasing order of severity: minor, moderate, moderate-severe, severe,critical, fatal. Each category has several subdivisions with a detailed description of each.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680782
L. M. Thomas, Y. Sezgin, V. R. Hodgson, L. K. Cheng, E. S. Gurdjian
Abstract Three human male cadaver heads were statically loaded along anteroposterior, posterioanterior, side to side, and vertex to base lines of action, while simultaneously measuring skull deflections at four or five locations and intracranial volume changes. Volume changes due to loading along the long (A-P) axis were small and either increased or decreased, while loads transverse to the A-P axis decreased the volume. Transverse loads produced volume changes on the order of 10 times larger than those due to A-P forces. Two skulls loaded to fracture in the A-P direction, failed at 1150 and 2200 lb, respectively, into the right orbit. These magnitudes and linear fracture direction correspond to four fractures produced by impact to the frontal bone of intact cadavers in previous work.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680771
Arnold W. Siegel, Alan M. Nahum, Michael R. Appleby
Forty-six automobile collisions with 82 child occupants have been studied. Emphasis was placed on the mechanism of injury production and child collision kinematics. A number of case examples illustrate these injury patterns. Also included are example cases of the effects of collisions in pregnancy and cases of restrained children. Childhood growth characteristics as they affect injury patterns and restraint systems are discussed in detail. An analysis of current types of restraint systems is included and recommendations are made. Collision and comfort-convenience requirements of an “ideal” restraint system are listed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680773
John D. States, David J. States
Abstract Forty-eight lateral impact accidents were studied correlating vehicle damage and occupant injury. Side-swipe accidents produced serious injury only when the occupant's elbow was protruding through a window or when the occupant space of the vehicle was seriously compromised. Intersection impacts and drifting impacts, particularly when the impact was caused by a vehicle approaching from the opposite direction, caused the most serious injuries. Fractures of the acetabulum with intrapelvic protrusion of the hip and fractures of the pubic rami are characteristic of lateral impact accidents. The door was the most common injury-producing structure of the vehicle. Deep wrap-around seat designs and stronger doors, door frames, and chassis structures are necessary to reduce occupant space penetration and to absorb impact energy in lateral impact accidents.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680775
John L. Martinez
Abstract A nonlinear mathematical model is used to predict head motions during an automotive rear-end collision. The physical characteristics of the seat back are extremely important factors in the mechanics of the torso and head of the car occupant. This paper studies the velocity and displacement as well as acceleration patterns of the subject's head and torso on absolute and relative bases. Once these patterns are established, mathematical experiments are performed to study the variation in patterns produced. Specifically, the concept of the yielding seat back (damped and undamped) is studied as a design concept for attenuating the impact experienced by the subject in the rear-end collision.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680666
Joan B. Barriage, D. Michael Brandewie
The STOL and VTOL air transportation system depends on the timely coordinated development of the aircraft, the navigation, and the air traffic control facilities and the ground space facilities. This paper discusses the aircraft characteristics as a background to the manner in which STOL and VTOL aircraft will be operated in both intra- and intercity operation and considers the impact on the navigation and air traffic control.
1968-02-01
Standard
ARP465
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design of flanges on temperature sensors intended for use in gas turbine engines. Three figures detail the configuration of standard size flange mounts with bolt holes, slotted flanges, and miniaturized flanges for small probes.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680774
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Scientific methodology and engineering techniques were applied to a series of three automobile rear-end collision experiments to provide data relating to seat, seat backrest, and head-restraint design. Five seat back heights and four seat back strength values were studied in connection with their practicality and relative protective features, when subjected to a 55 mph rear-end collision exposure. These research data provide a basic reference system of high-speed collision performance for seat designs with respect to occupant size and proximity to injury producing structures. Additionally, methodology, instrumentation, and related equipment required for post-crash fire studies were included in experiment 106, providing what is believed to be the first published data on the precise time-related events associated with collision-induced passenger car fires. Design revisions suggested by these findings are discussed.
1968-02-01
Magazine
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680786
John M. Douglass, Alan M. Nahum, Sanford B. Roberts
The types and mechanisms of head injury are reviewed, and then the findings of a UCLA study on the electrophysiology of primate concussion is presented. It was found that g loadings, as measured by a triaxial accelerometer attached to the skull of an impacted monkey, correlated well with severity of concussion. Deep and superficial cerebral electrodes were implanted to monitor electroencephalographic and impedance changes after concussion. Resistance dropped and capacitance rose in the impedance electrodes in direct proportion to the severity of concussion. Deep electroencephalographic recordings showed a high amplitude low frequency charfge in the reticular formation areas after impact. Superficial electroencephalographic recordings did not correlate with clinical states. Applications of these data are presented as they relate to the prevention and treatment of head injury.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680785
Alan M. Nahum, James D. Gatts, Charles W. Gadd, John Danforth
Abstract Forces necessary for fracture under localized loading have been obtained experimentally for a number of regions of the head. Three of these, the frontal, temporoparietal, and zygomatic, have been studied in sufficient detail to establish that the tolerances are relatively independent of impulse duration, in contrast with the tolerance of the brain to closed-skull injury. Significantly lower average strength has been found for the female bone structure. Other regions reported upon more briefly are mandible, maxilla, and the laryngotracheal cartilages of the neck. Pressure distribution has been measured over the impact area, which has been 1 sq in. in these tests, and the relationship between applied force as measured and as predicted from a head accelerometer is examined.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680783
S. W. Greenberg, D. Gonzalez, E. S. Gurdjian, L. M. Thomas
Abstract A knowledge of the state of the physical properties of cadaver material is important if such material is utilized for impact studies. Experiments were designed to evaluate changes in elastic and strength properties of bone in the experimental animal in the course of its transition from live to recent death to embalmed conditions. Results indicate less than 5% change from the live to the fresh condition. In progressing to the embalmed wet condition variable degrees of stiffening are observed averaging around 8%. Drying of embalmed bone further increases stiffness about 24% and remoistening reconstitutes some of the initial flexibility.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680792
Channing L. Ewing, Daniel J. Thomas, George W. Beeler, Lawrence M. Patrick, David B. Gillis
Abstract An acceleration sled carrying living human subjects was used to measure the dynamic response of the head and neck to —G x impact acceleration. Seated volunteers with complete pelvic and upper torso restraint were subjected to increasing impact accelerations beginning at 2.7 g and increasing in 1 g increments. The volunteers were selected to encompass the 5th to 95th percentile distribution of sitting height according to a selected reference. Precision inertial transducers were used to determine the linear and angular acceleration of the head and the first thoracic vertebra. The inertial system consisted of a biaxial accelerometer and rate gyroscope on a bite-plate, a biaxial acceierometer over the bregma, and a biaxial acceierometer and rate gyroscope over the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra. The transducers on the bite-plate and over the bregma were rigidly connected to one another.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680772
John W. Garrett
Abstract The objective of this study is to determine whether gross passenger car characteristics are associated with the frequency of vehicle rollover. The characteristics examined are vehicle weight, track width, and vehicle height. Data used in the study are drawn from two states participating in the ACIR program and represent all accidents, property damage as well as injury, investigated by the state police for a period of one year. Data from each state are examined independently and results are then compared. The data indicate that there is a strong correlation between rollover frequency and vehicle dimensions: rollover increases as car size shifts from heavy, wide track, low vehicles to light, narrow track, high cars. Car weight and tread width appear to have the greatest influence on vehicle overturn.
1968-01-01
Standard
AIR797A
This document lists military and industry specifications and standards which are used in aerospace systems and for ground servicing equipment. The characteristic limitations of the hose, which are of major importance to designers, and the sizes in which the hoses are standard are shown. Revisions and amendments, which are current for these specifications and standards are not listed.
1968-01-01
Magazine
1967-12-01
Magazine
1967-11-01
Standard
AS1046
This standard is intended to apply to portable compressed gaseous oxygen equipment. When properly configured, this equipment is used either for the administration of supplemental oxygen, first aid oxygen or smoke protection to one or more occupants of either private or commercial transport aircraft.
1967-11-01
Standard
ARP998
This ARP is intended to make recommendations for flight crew and cabin attendant restraint systems in aircraft. A properly designed crew restraint system will avoid injury or debilitation during a survivable crash and enable post crash assistance to occupants and escape from the aircraft. Consideration is given to existing requirements of the FAA and to the recommendations of aircraft operators and those involved in the manufacture or use of restraining devices. Crew member safety is the primary objective, with appropriate provisions for crew comfort taken into consideration. The criteria established herein are designed to standardize restraining systems without hindering the development of new, improved systems.
1967-11-01
Magazine
1967-11-01
Standard
J321_196711
This SAE Standard establishes a criteria for a minimum zone of protection for the operator of the machine and establishes certain structural requirements for guards on pneumatic-tired earthmoving haulage machines capable of speeds in excess of 25 km/h. Earthmoving machines covered by this document are dumpers and tractor-scrapers as identified in SAE J/ISO 6165.
1967-10-31
Standard
ARP582A
This ARP covers the general requirements and test procedures for illuminating systems for integrally lighted aircraft instruments in order to provide (a) uniformity of illumination within each instrument, (b) legibility of instrument presentation under daylight or integral light, and (c) uniformity of illumination between instrument displays.
1967-10-31
Standard
ARP583B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design and location of flight attendant stations, including emergency equipment installations at or near such stations, so as to enable the flight attendant to function effectively in emergency situations, including emergency evacuations. Recommendations regarding design of flight attendant stations apply to all such stations; recommendations regarding location apply to those stations located near or adjacent to floor level exits.
1967-10-31
Standard
ARP767
This ARP provides design guidelines based on currently available information for the impact safety design of the cabin occupant environment.
1967-10-01
Standard
AS959
No scope available.
1967-10-01
Standard
AS960
No scope available.
1967-10-01
Standard
AS962
No scope available.
1967-10-01
Standard
AS961
No scope available.
Viewing 15391 to 15420 of 16179

Filter