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1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740311
Rudolf G. Mortimer, Judith M. Becker
A computer simulation of a nighttime meeting between two vehicles is described, including results showing the correspondence between predicted visibility distances and those obtained in field tests. The simulation is used to compare visibility distances and glare effects in meetings between vehicles equipped with the U.S. low beam, European low beam, and an experimental mid beam, in various conditions of aim. Results of this study suggest that differences between European and U.S. low beams are of little practical consequence. By comparison, the mid beam appears to offer a potentially improved meeting beam, pending resolution of problems of rearview mirror glare, beam switching, etc.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740313
Paul Oppenheimer
Important new braking regulations for motor vehicles and trailers have recently been introduced by Sweden, the Economic Commission for Europe (Geneva), and the European Economic Community (Brussels). This paper describes the relevant rulemaking procedures and the international organizations which provide for industry participation. The technical content of these regulations is summarized and specific examples of difficult, interesting, or unusual demands are highlighted. Some comparisons with the appropriate United States federal standards have been included and the European method of type approval is explained against the background of self-certification in the United States. Several new European proposals for tractor/trailer compatibility, brake apportioning, and antiskid systems are reviewed to illustrate the current status of legislative progress in Europe.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740208
Kenichi Mitsuhashi, Hideo Shimoe, Norimoto Aya, Makoto Tsutamoto
It is very difficult for small cars to protect occupants in high-speed collisions. The Nissan ESV is of lightweight monocoque construction, and its body possesses crashworthiness designed to match the occupant protection system. This vehicle has experimentally proved to be effective in occupant protection. This paper primarily deals with the most difficult problem of crashworthiness in frontal collisions, first referring to the basic analyses and test results acquired in the development process, and then setting forth the body construction and test results of the two types of Nissan ESV (E1 and E2).
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740174
W. E. Heitmann, R. R. Hilsen, P. L. Manganon, T. E. Moss
The purpose of this paper is to show the approach used by automotive and line pipe steel producers to develop a higher strength sheet steel with improved formability, toughness, and welding characteristics. Also covered are the appropriate stages of steelmaking and hot rolling leading to the development of a columbium-bearing steel with a minimum yield strength of 50 ksi. Typical mechanical properties and forming capabilities are presented, together with a discussion of the strengthening mechanisms and ductility factors utilized to achieve this formable 50 ksi product.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740418
John R. Link
The growth of hydraulics applied to construction equipment has been qualitatively and quantitatively dramatic in the past 25 years. The purpose of this paper is to review the past, view the present, and speculate on the future hydraulic systems with particular focus on the evolution of operator comfort and safety, air, and noise pollution control and energy conservation.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740004
Charles S. Davis
This paper, through example, illustrates the use of the finite element method in analyzing automotive components. NASTRAN, the large-scale, general-purpose digital computer program based on the concept of finite element was used for predicting structural behavior. Each example is discussed in sufficient detail to describe the general finite element analysis procedure.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740003
R. L. Davis
This paper points out the features of finite element methods that allow design cycle improvements. One of the most important of these features is that models can be constructed, tested, revised, and retested faster and at less cost in the computer than in the laboratories. This allows evaluation of more proposals and sensitivity studies than might not otherwise be feasible. Another feature is the level of confidence that can be put into the results. An illustration is presented of how finite element methods improve a typical design cycle in the automotive industry.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740150
John R. Treat, Kent B. Joscelyn
Despite inherent difficulties of assessment, accident investigation can provide useful estimates of the role of steering and suspension degradations and failures in causing accidents; studies conducted by the Indiana University Institute for Research in Public Safety indicate that such factors probably account for no more than about 5% of accidents, and other causation studies record similarly low involvement percentages. However, neither the influence of different original equipment capabilities nor the role of degradations as a source of driver fatigue has been adequately considered. Another group of studies has shown that degradations in steering and suspension components can adversely affect vehicle handling, and that such degradations are common in the vehicle-in-use population.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740156
B. P. Levin
A new concept for providing electrically heatable automotive safety glass for rapid, silent removal of ice and fog condensation has been developed, based upon continuous deposition of a transparent conductive coating on plastic substrates. This concept is embodied in an electrically heatable interlayer. The technical foundations and antecedents of this product are discussed. The major components of the interlayer are described, and the use of the interlayer in subsequent lamination is illustrated as well as special design features of the interlayer particular to its use in current production automobile windshields and backlites. Generalized system considerations, including connection to a typical production power source, are described, together with a discussion of the relationship among the electrical parameters which characterize the system. Optical characteristics of the conductive coating as they relate to occupant vision and comfort are described.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740098
Paul Tartaglia
The various methods available for proximity measuring are described and evaluated, resulting in the choice of radar as the best method available. Radar does have its drawbacks, however, and its major liability is the production of a possible health hazard in the form of microwave radiation. Limits imposed by the U.S. government are presented and compared to values obtained from a proposed system.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740096
J. Shefer, R. J. Klensch, H. C. Johnson, G. S. Kaplan
An experimental automobile radar has been demonstrated which is designed to avoid rear end collisions on highways. A completely passive reflector, mounted on the back of vehicles, returns the second harmonic of the frequency transmitted from the trailing vehicle. The radar is immune to clutter since its receiver is tuned to the second harmonic frequency only. It is also immune to blinding by cars traveling in the opposite direction, as well as to other interference problems inherent in a dense environment.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740033
Alan C. Preble
The need to eliminate underbody corrosion through the use of precoated sheet steel is recognized. New and modified hot dipped galvanized sheet steel products have been developed and tested for automotive applications. Development of practical to produce, one-side coated galvanized continues to be heavily researched and effective, economical galvanized alternates are now available. A new differentially coated grade has been developed and is the least costly to produce product available for solving the problem of one-side underbody corrosion.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740586
B. Samuel Holmes, George Sliter
The utility of scale model experiments for crashworthiness research is examined. In Part I, two examples illustrate the use of scale models in crashworthiness research. The accuracy of modeling is shown by direct comparison between a model experiment and the test of a complete automobile in high-speed impact. It is concluded that scale models can be used in place of full-scale experiments for many applications. The comparison of hydraulic and plastic deformation energy absorbers in scale model experiments demonstrates the ability of models to reproduce the response of a wide variety of vehicle elements. In Part II, the cost effectiveness of scale modeling is measured by comparing the costs of full-scale experiments with scaled experiments that meet the same objectives. The comparisons include both individual tests of various types and complete vehicle development programs.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740646
Torbjörn Knutsson, Bruce A. Hertig
This study was undertaken to determine the nature and extent of the formal and informal programs in ergonomics currently utilized in the industry. From these findings a theoretical schema is proposed to better apply the techniques of ergonomics in a systematic way. A more systematic approach to attention to the human factors in equipment design may provide, among other benefits, reduction in equipment-related accidents, product liability claims, and improvement in operator safety and efficiency. The schema may also suggest to the academic community areas where curricula might be modified to meet the changing educational needs of the agricultural industry.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740526
Thomas E. Ritter
Several techniques have been developed to measure the relative amount of splash and spray produced by vehicles when driven on wet roads at highway speeds under controlled conditions. This paper discusses considerations in the development of measurement techniques such as those utilizing photographs, a photometer, densitometer, spraymeter, and spray collector. The development of each technique is described. Some test data utilizing the photometer and densitometer techniques are presented in a comparison of two different trucks run on two different road surfaces with new and worn tires, fully loaded and unloaded, and under light and heavy road moisture conditions.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740570
Michael J. Pavlick
To reduce the cost of developing energy absorbing structures for passenger cars and trucks, scale model test methods have developed. The scaling relationships needed to relate scale models to full size structures have been formulated and a test program conducted to validate the relationships and develop scaling factors. A 30 ft. drop tower facility was constructed to conduct the test program. The tower allows impact velocities as high as 30 mph to be achieved and provides the necessary instrumentation to obtain the crushing loads and crushing mode of the scale model specimens. The scale model test techniques and the drop tower were used to develop an energy absorbing frame for a light van type vehicle. Scale models were fabricated representing a number of possible design configurations. The models were tested and the design which best satisfied the design goals was further developed and tested. A brief description of an upgraded drop tower facility is also presented.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740575
Sakio Ikeda, Kohei Nonaka, Masayoshi Fukushima
A new crash sensor, using the electro-magnetic effect of flowing electric-conductive liquid, has been developed. This sensor consists of mercury as electric-conductive liquid, permanent magnet, Y-shape liquid passage, electrodes detecting liquid velocity, multi-hollow fibres as a G'level setting method, non-return ball valve, electronic voltage amplifier, comparator, and thyrister switches. This sensor shows short-time crash discrimination and high reliability.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740574
Gerald F. Ross
This paper describes a novel and low-cost scheme for automotive precollision sensing called BARBI, an acronym for BAseband Radar Bag Initiator. An extension of this technique is also suggested for braking applications. The proposed technique involves the transmission and reception of a subnanosecond baseband or video impulse-like signal (i.e., no RF carrier) and requires virtually no microwave components. The very fast signal risetime permits leading edge resolution on approaching vehicles of much less than a foot; closing velocity is obtained by using range-rate techniques. By incorporating sequential range gating techniques, the false alarm rate can be reduced to less than one in ten years for all the cars in the U. S. today.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740562
Arthur O. Radke
This paper discusses the importance of seating in protecting tractor operators from shock and vibration. An overview of important seating criteria is presented and U.S. and European viewpoints are compared. The U.S. and Europe have pursued somewhat different paths in regard to seat evaluation and selection. In 1969, the Off-Highway Council established the Joint Seating Subcommittee reporting to the Tractor Technical Committee and the Construction & Industrial Machinery Technical Committee, to review information in these areas and to develop appropriate recommended practices. The activities of this Subcommittee are reported and suggestions for future work are outlined.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740449
Donald Hess
During the last decade, performance of earthmoving equipment has improved tremendously, but changes to increase operator comfort and ease of operation have not always kept pace with these improvements. The intent of this paper is to spotlight some of the problem areas that can affect operator comfort or performance and suggest possible improvements.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740677
Harold E. Hollnagel
The increasing popularity of snowmobiles and the need for snowmobiling safety will require more sophisticated snowmobile suspensions. A history of the suspension development, a definition of the engineering problems, and an understanding of the latest designs provide an excellent background for further research.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740998
Lorna Middendorf, Patrick W. Dineen, Stefan Habsburg
A search for methods of switching a proposed three beam headlight system led to the evaluation of 41 possible schemes. Human factors criteria reduced the original 41 to three systems which were tested in a laboratory with a broad range of subjects. Recordings of practice trials, learning trials, and the responses to visual cues projected on a screen were analyzed. The same test procedure was also used to compare three alternative ways of switching conventional two beam headlight systems. Summary data is presented for the six systems tested grouped by test subject age, sex, and driving experience. The most pronounced difference observed was in the subjective preference rating among two beam switching systems. All systems tested resulted in remarkably few learning and practice trials. Small differences were recorded among systems in operational response time.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740997
Gordon R. W. Simmonds
Drivers searched for known symbols on a simulation of a dimly lit (5 1x) instrument panel. The symbols, from 2 mm to 25 mm diameter, were in groups of nine. They were randomly selected from 24 used to identify controls and displays on European Ford vehicles. The probability of recognition was related to size for eight symbols. This gives a rational basis for the size used in vehicles. No reliable difference was found between the performance of black symbols on white backgrounds and white on black. Substantial differences exist between the effectiveness of different symbols. Recommendations for improvements were based on confusions between symbols.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740995
Reinhard Lendholt
Clear identification of motor vehicle controls is necessary for safe operation of a vehicle. Identification of some well-known symbols and some new symbols was investigated by inquiries. Differences in identification between trained and untrained subjects are shown (employees of a vehicle manufacturer versus factory visitors). Influences of sex, age, and professional education are evaluated. The learning effect of identification before and after a purposeful training was investigated by an additional inquiry of factory visitors. The result showed no significant influence of sex, age, professional experience, or ownership of a driver license on the identification after training. This improves the chance of eliminating symbols of insufficient identification.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740994
Michael Perel
Difficulties of measuring safety problems related to human factors aspects of vehicle controls and displays are discussed and illustrated with examples. A review of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)-sponsored control/display research dealing with some of these problems is presented. The review describes the objectives, methodology, key findings, and application of the results of the research. Finally, future research needs are outlined.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740851
William Q. Brookley
In October 1970, Military Airlift Command submitted a requirement for fuel tank nitrogen-inerting and fire-fighting capabilities for the C-5A aircraft. During 1971, the necessary studies were completed and a directive was issued to incorporate a fire protection system in the C-5A force. Parker-Hannifin Corp. was awarded a contract to design and produce the system. Component, simulator, flight verification, and flight service evaluation testing were all completed successfully. Production system installation is now in progress.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740095
William C. Troll
An automatic braking system for automotive vehicles is described. The system employs an onboard radar sensor to measure distance and relative closing velocity to obstacles in the vehicle path. This range and range-rate information is processed to generate a control signal which is a measure of the critical braking level existing in the dynamic environment. In response to selected control signal thresholds, the system provides the driver with advance warning of potential collision situations and can subsequently automatically apply vehicle braking if the driver response to the warning is judged inadequate. The critical threshold at which automatic braking is activated is selected to be well beyond that of a normal alert driver, thereby allowing him time to exercise his own options. Problem areas associated with practical implementation of the automatic braking system on the production automobile are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740061
Lamar L. Kerr
A stipulation of the 1974 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 215 is that no portion of the test vehicle is permitted to contact planes A or B of the test pendulum. Planes A and B are surfaces located, respectively, below and above the impact ridge of the federally designed pendulum. One situation in which the bumper could contact plane B, and therefore fail the test, occurs while the bumper and pendulum are separating after impact. The return stroke of the energy absorber can delay bumper-pendulum separation and influence test results. This report presents the technical procedure used to establish energy absorber rebound performance characteristics and the modifications made to the General Motors hydraulic-pneumatic design to obtain rebound control on certain 1974 car models. FMVSS 215 also necessitated the application of energy absorbers to the rear bumper systems of most 1974 vehicles.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740048
M. R. Appleby, L. J. Bintz
A study was conducted to discover if the long-term effect of the lap belt reminder system on 1972 cars would be to increase belt-use frequency. Automobile Club of Southern California employees driving fleet vehicles equipped with specially designed hardware were used to perform the study. Driver lap belt usage was measured with the buzzer and light reminder system disconnected (to determine use rates under normal conditions) and then with it operating (to determine use rates in response to the reminder system). Conclusions are: 1. Approximately one third of the individuals who did not use lap-belts will become users for the majority of vehicle trips when the reminder system is operative. The reminder system will also increase usage of lap belts by individuals who used them only on occasion. 2. This study could not establish a significant relationship between lap belt use (with and without reminder system) and miles per vehicle trip, trips per day, and test subject demographics. 3.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740064
Jack E. Martens
Designers have the capability to produce damage resistant bumpers-bumpers that can protect automobiles against low speed collision damage. If design changes are not made in the areas of truck underride, panic brake dip and dive, and the multi-purpose vehicle bumper interface, the automotive industry faces further increased federal regulation. Crash tests and real-world experience indicates that improved bumpers are cost-effective and can bring about better loss control. There is a gap that must be eliminated between current car designs and their future repair costs. The alternative could be even more stringent federal regulations. Professional societies and designers can provide the answer through self-policed future designs that recognize both the initial sales appeal of cars and the latent consumer cost of repair when operating automobiles.
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