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1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720325
Hector Daiutolo
A series of 22 dynamic tests was conducted on general aviation occupant restraint systems. These tests utilized lap belt, and lap belt/shoulder harness restraint systems. With the exception of general aviation aircraft type certificated after September 1969, the Federal Aviation Regulations require only lap belt restraint systems for emergency landing conditions. Based on the longitudinal deceleration/time response of anthropomorphic dummy occupants, it was demonstrated that the lap belt/shoulder harness restraint systems offered occupants successful restraint at occupant inertia force levels substantially above the current regulatory level.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720331
Thomas S. Donnelly
An improved stall warning system has been developed for general aviation aircraft. Existing stall warning systems are susceptible to false warning signals caused by rough or gusting air. These extraneous warning signals have been eliminated by adding a signal discriminator to the basic stall warning system. The design requires a low-cost, highly repeatable, time-delay module, capable of “zero timing” at each independent actuation of the stall sensor switch. The development of this device is described, and the service test results are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720322
B. Underhill, B. McCullough
Aircraft seats that merely hold the occupants rigidly in place have been satisfactory when considering horizontal or lateral decelerations; but they have not proved sufficient when accidents occur resulting in large vertical deceleration. This deficiency led to the concept of an energy-absorbing seat, which would utilize the space between the seat bottom and the floor to absorb impact energy and reduce accelerations, thereby increasing occupant survival potential. To establish the seat design strength requirements, a maximum tolerable “g” load was chosen, and the maximum vertical velocity was calculated based on the available arresting distance. The effect of varying passenger weight was investigated, and a weight was chosen for design purposes. This then defined the load-deflection requirements of the seat. Other requirements established that weight and cost be kept to a minimum and that conventional materials and fabrication processes be used.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720323
A. W. Bloedel
The first steps to crashworthiness testing is to design and fabricate instrumentation, design and construct a crash test site for barrier crash testing, and design and fabricate impact sleds for product improvement. Associated with the design phase are many hours of report and paper research pertaining to aircraft crash testing and automobile crash testing. Four basic design concepts apply to crashworthiness of aircraft: production of a structure that will stay intact during a crash; restraint of the occupant during the crash; protection of flailing limbs from injury; and restraint of loose equipment in the cabin. Destruction type tests on full-scale vehicles assure structural integrity of the capsule and provide acceleration pulse shapes of primary structure as collapse occurs in the forward section of the fuselage.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720324
Samuel V. Zinn
A fire hazard evaluation of jet fuels was performed by controlled laboratory test procedures, and the relative ignition characteristics of the fuels were analyzed under simulated survivable aircraft accidents where data previously were in adequate or did not exist. The tests included fuel release modes, ignition sources, and environmental conditions which normally occur during a crash. This report presents the details of the work performed, the data obtained, and the conclusions established.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720284
Richard I. Emori, Jack D. Baird
The effectiveness of safety design must be justified in terms of real automobile accidents with human occupants. Since it is far too dangerous to use human subjects in full-scale collision experiments, substitutes are usually studied, that is, experiments performed with dummies and mathematical models. Then we still have to extrapolate the results from the substitutes to the reality. Full-scale collision experiments with human occupants could be performed by reconstructing real automobile accidents accurately. To retrieve the most needed data for further improvements in safety design and to translate actual accidents as controlled experiments, an engineered method was developed to reconstruct accidents. It synthesizes previously validated analytical and experimental knowledges pertinent to automobile collision mechanics. The method was applied to an actual accident, indicating that the methodology is sound and accurate.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720310
Robert T. Weaver
This paper covers inspection programs which will become a part of small airplane certification and operation as a result of Amendment 7 to FAR 23. Amendment 7 adds fatigue evaluation to wings and associated structure, reference paragraph 23.572. Paragraph 23.572 allows two basic methods of providing the required fatigue evaluation fatigue strength investigation or fail-safe strength investigation. The fail-safe strength investigation allows compliance with the regulations without running long and expensive fatigue analyses and/or tests but must be supplemented with proper inspections for complete FAR 23 compliance. Designing for inspectability and inspection methods will be covered.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720308
Robert Allen, William Roberts
A review of 1547 accidents in general aviation was completed to determine whether structural safety is responsible for a significant portion of these accidents. IFR and turbulent weather conditions existed in more than half these accidents. In fleets with the greatest structural strength, this same result occurred. We concluded that the inability to negotiate severe weather suggests aerodynamic improvement may deserve special emphasis. Certain general aviation models were relatively free of one or the other of the two major in-flight failure modes.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720312
Paul M. Rich, Warren G. Crook, Richard L. Sulzer, Peter R. Hill
The FAA conducted a series of six experiments having application to the development of pilot warning instruments (PWI). The experiments were concerned with the effect of warning rates on pilot performance, pilot response to imminent collision threats, the evaluation of scanning patterns, the value of warning-only, the effect of relative motion on pilot performance, and the effect of PWI display sector size. The results of these experiments offer a variety of useful data in the area of visual collision avoidance.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720033
J. W. Melvin, J. H. McElhaney
This paper discusses the problem of occupant protection in severe rear-end collisions from the standpoint of high performance seat structures and head restraints. Consideration is given to both fixed head restraints and to deployable head restraints. Two-dimensional computer simulations of occupant kinematics in a variety of rear-end collisions are utilized to provide initial performance criteria for head restraint design configurations. The resulting prototype system underwent a test and development program on an impact sled. The results of the various prototype performances and general criteria for high performance head restraint systems are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720412
Robert J. Hayosh, A. L. Gutherie
One of the sub-systems of air bag passive restraint systems presently under examination for automotive application is the energy source sub-system. The function of the energy source is to provide, release, and control a volume of gas at a rapid rate to inflate the air bag. Three basic types of energy sources will be described, these being stored gas, generated gas, and hybrid sources. Both liquid cooled and gas cooled hybrid sources are mentioned. The automotive requirements for application of energy sources are discussed in terms of performance objectives for passive restraints, particularly for front seat passenger air bags. The requirements include minimum package size and weight, ability to perform in hot and cold as well as normal environments, freedom from degradation during the service life, high reliability, controlled toxicity and heat, and ability for safe disposal during vehicle recycling. Two new types of inflation systems which are to improve versatility are mentioned.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720503
Alexander R. Peters
Many factors are directly related to the occurrence of window fogging and flash fogging. The pertinent variables affecting the problem are identified and discussed. In simple terms, fogging is dependent upon the difference between the dew point temperature of the interior environment and the glass surface temperature. Several dew point and glass temperature curves have been computed which typify various operating conditions. Alternatives that will help to eliminate fogging are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720956
V. R. Hodgson, L M. Thomas
Abstract Impacts have been analyzed in terms of degree of injury, head injury criterion (HIC), and average acceleration as a function of time for frontal impacts against the following surfaces: 1. Rigid flat surface-fractured cadaver skull. 2. Astroturf-head drop of football-helmeted cadaver. 3. Windshield penetrating impact of a dummy. 4. Airbag-dynamic test by human volunteers. It is concluded that the linear acceleration/time concussion tolerance curve may not exist and that only impacts against relatively stiff surfaces producing impulses with short rise times can be critical. The authors hypothesize that if a head impact does not contain a critical HIC interval of less than 0.015 s, it should be considered safe as far as cerebral concussion is concerned.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720224
Hartmut Rau
The purpose of this investigation on vehicle side-impact stiffness and the comparison of the static and dynamic tests was to contribute guidelines for a final test procedure with two advantages: to be, on the one hand, simply practicable and reproducible and, on the other hand, to provide results corresponding as close as possible to real accidents. Additionally, the investigation emphasized testing of side parts significant to the objectives of the test: door only, door and sill, or door, sill and roof. New cars as well as heavily rusted vehicles were used for the test. Therefore this paper also treats the question of what degree a test of only new cars will be useful, without considering the state of corrosion of older vehicles.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720967
John D. States, John C. Balcerak, James S. Williams, Alexander T. Morris, William Babcock, Robert Polvino, Paul Riger, Raymond E. Dawley
Abstract All of the rear-end impact accidents occurring in the city of Rochester, New York, in a three-month period were surveyed by tabulation of the police accident reports. Special police information forms, telephone interviews, and mail questionnaires were used for further data acquisition. Vehicle photographs and medical examinations were conducted for approximately every 20th vehicle. During the data collection period, 691 rear-end impacts occurred. Although a computer program revealed 1371 accidents, defects in the program accounted for the large difference. Whiplash injury frequency based on telephone interview and mail questionnaire data obtained one to seven days after the accident revealed a whiplash injury frequency of 38%, which was approximately twice that determined by on-scene police investigators. Head restraints reduced whiplash frequency by 14% and fixed head restraints appeared to be more effective.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720231
James L. Sauter, Robert B. Kerchaert
For the instrument panel designer, good visibility means providing clear, legible, and easy-to-understand instruments and controls free from obstructions, shadows, and inadequate lighting. Unfortunately, most of these provisions are subjective in nature and it is ultimately the designer or group of designers who must decide what is “good visibility.” In order to remove some of this subjectivity, a study was undertaken by Chrysler Corp. to find a more objective approach to measuring visibility. In particular, this study dealt with measuring in a quantitative manner the readability of letter patterns used on instruments, controls, and indicators. This report, which covers the main results of the study, deals with the effects of such diverse factors as driver age, illumination, and letter size on a driver's perception time-the time it takes for a driver to take his eyes off the road and read a target on his instrument panel.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720232
Robert B. Kerchaert, James L. Sauter
A procedure has been developed for measuring the relative visibility of automotive instrument panel graphics and components. Through use of a Luckiesh-Moss Visibility Meter, discreet values of visibility can be assigned to visual targets and related to driver reaction time. Also, eyes off the road lapsed time boundaries may be established which will define visibility requirements necessary to serve the total driver population. These requirements can be translated into meaningful guidelines or standards for visibility attributes such as size, shape, color, contrast, and position of graphics, controls, and indicators. How visibility measurements are made and interpreted and the visibility measuring facility are discussed in this paper.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720970
T. A. Gennarelli, L. E. Thibault, A. K. Ommaya
Abstract Acceleration-time data in 25 squirrel monkeys subjected to controlled sagittal plane head motions are presented. In 12 of the 25 animals subjected to pure translation of the head at peak positive g levels ranging between 665-1230 g (6-8 ms duration), cerebral concussion was not obtainable. In contrast, 13 of the animals subjected to head rotations at peak positive tangential (at c.g.) g levels ranging between 348-1025 g (5.5-8 ms duration) were all concussed. Visible brain lesions were noted in both translated and rotated groups but with a greater frequency and severity after rotation. An analysis of the lesions produced in both groups is presented, along with our preliminary data on the use of the evoked somatosensory response as an objective, quantifiable index for the onset and severity of brain damage in head injury.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720960
H. J. Clemens, K. Burow
This paper discusses the results of simulated head-on and rear-front vehicle crashes employing 53 human torsos. Measurements of deceleration of the head were taken, and the resulting injuries were noted. The most common and serious injury was to the cervical spine at the sixth vertebra. It is suggested that vehicle restraint systems be developed to avoid such injury, such as safety belts that would limit anteflexion of the head, airbags for head-on crash protection, and seat backs with integrated headrests to support the head at the c.g.
1972-02-01
Standard
J224A_197202
The purpose and scope of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a basis for classification of the extent of vehicle deformation caused by vehicle accidents on the highway. It is necessary to classify collision contact deformation (as opposed to induced deformation) so that the accident deformation may be segregated into rather narrow limits. Studies of collision deformation can then be performed on one or many data banks with assurance that the data under study are of essentially the same type. The seven-character code is also an expression useful to persons engaged in automobile safety, to describe appropriately a field-damaged vehicle with conciseness in their oral and written communications. Although this classification system was established primarily for use by professional teams investigating accidents in depth, other groups may also find it useful.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720411
E. H. KLOVE, ROBERT N. OGLESBY
Presented in this paper is a discussion of the details of the General Motors air cushion restraint system and of specific technical problems of system development and of implementing a production build program. The details of the General Motors system include a description of the components of the driver's and front passenger's systems, crash sensing, and “variable inflation.” The discussion of specific technical problems includes performance considerations; such as: Occupant rebound, child-size occupants, out-of-position occupants, non-barrier type crashes, and the function of the appearance cover. Also included is a discussion of the toxicity potential, noise risk, sensor development, reliability considerations, and field service requirements.
1972-01-01
Technical Paper
726046
Albert J. Slechter
This paper reports on the progress of the United States Experimental Safety Vehicle Program. This includes test results to date, some preliminary conclusions based on the work and an outline of future plans leading to the completion of the major ESV program objectives. AMF and Fairchild prototype vehicles are examined. Crash test and dummy performance results are outlined. Passenger compartment integrity and passive occupant protection are analyzed.
1972-01-01
Technical Paper
726043
HIDEO SUGIURA
1972-01-01
Technical Paper
726041
Tatsuo Hasegawa
Toyota Motor Company has been endeavoring to make technological progress in the field of vehicle safety, and we have made up our minds to build a Toyota ESV prototype in cooperation with the ESV project of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Japanese Government. Crashworthiness is the major purpose in the Toyota ESV design. Toyota will work to attain current ESV specification and contribute to accident avoidance specifications.
1972-01-01
Technical Paper
726039
Yoshio Serizawa
Nissan's Experimental Safety Vehicle is a small-sized passenger car. "Small-sized" means small in overall dimensions and light weight. Differences between the Japanese 2,500 pound ESV and the 4,000 pound ESV specifications are outlined. This paper discusses small car safety and ESV specifications
1972-01-01
Standard
J397A_197201
This SAE Standard applies to operator protective structures which may commonly be a part of construction, forestry, mining, and industrial machines. To establish limits on deflection permissible during laboratory evaluations of certain operator protective structures, such as ROPS, FOPS, OPS, and FOG as defined in other SAE standards.
1972-01-01
Standard
AIR818B
This Aerospace Information Report, (AIR) is intended to provide the sponsors of Aerospace Standards, (AS), with standard wording, formatting, and minimum environment and design requirements for use in the preparation of their document. The individual shall use only those parts of this AIR which apply to their particular document. The individual sponsor may expand the standard wording, especially under Sections 4, 5, and 6 as required. The paragraphs of this AIR shall be used verbatim wherever possible. Unless otherwise directed by SAE, cross referenced documents shall be called out by specific revision letter, e.g. "shall be in accordance with AS XXXXB." In addition, all non-SAE documents called out shall include the document title when initially identified. However, every effort shall be made to keep cross-referencing to an absolute minimum.
1971-11-01
Standard
AIR1223
Liquid supply systems for breathing oxygen for the crew and/or passengers of transport aircraft require design and installation considerations, which are detailed herein. AIR 825, Oxygen Equipment for Aircraft, contains general information on determination of breathing oxygen requirements and equipments for the crew and passengers of transport category aircraft. This document covers the more specific requirements for either a 70 or 300 psig liquid oxygen system. The standard 70 psig nominal pressure is recommended for use except in cases of excessive pressure drop, flow requirements, and some continuous flow regulators which may require the 300 psig nominal pressure system. AS 861, Minimum General Standards for Oxygen Systems and AIR 822, Oxygen Systems for General Aviation Aircraft, also contain general applicable information.
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