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Viewing 15391 to 15420 of 17428
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770941
G. Stürtz
Abstract A presupposition for the engagement of effective measures for motor cars with the aim of reducing the trauma of traffic participants are findings of the Traffic Accident Research about the influence of vehicle-, traffic participant- as well as accident- parameter on trauma. Contrary to dummy tests, the correlation dummy - human body, vital - postmortem tissue is eliminated in the analysis of real accidents. It is however, supplemented by the age parameter. Besides assessing the trauma of single body regions, it is also possible to evaluate the overall trauma of the body. From the traffic accident development of the FRG it is evident that the relative danger for child passenger car-occupants as well as for pedestrians, compared with other groups of traffic participants is increasing.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770939
William E. Hering, Lawrence M. Patrick
Knees of 13 unembalmed human cadavers and a Part 572 dummy were impacted with a pendulum having either 203 mm square aluminum honeycomb or Styrofoam DB striking surface. Impacts were made along the femoral axis of rigidly mounted legs with a 52.3 kg pendulum at velocities of 1.8 and 3.6 m/s. Forces transmitted through the femur and tibia (at the ankle) were measured to determine the force response distribution. Pendulum acceleration parallel to the femoral axis was measured for all tests. Knee penetrations into the striking surface material were obtained by double integration of the pendulum acceleration-time traces, were verified by analysis of high speed movies, and were compared with the projected contact areas as penetration increased. Impact responses are presented as crossplots of force versus depth of knee penetration into the interface material.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770917
F. Hartemann, C. Thomas, C. Henry, J-Y. Foret-Bruno, G. Faverjon, C. Tarrière, C. Got, A. Patel
This study aims at determining, with the maximum precision, the performance of the 3 point safety belt in different accident configurations, and more particularly in frontal collisions. For this purpose, two matched samples were taken from a file of 3000 accidents, analysed by a multidisciplinary study group.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770918
J. Maximilian Danner
Abstract In recent years recognition has been made of the important problem of car side collisions and some basic works concerning accident and injury characteristics have been published. In spite of this the relation between car damage and resulting injuries is not yet known to complete satisfaction. The injury criteria of belted occupants in particular, have until now only been known side collisions from individual cases. In this report the importance of side impacts is shown. The methodology of HUK-accident characteristics is presented. The accident characteristics as to impact area and intension type are analysed and related to the resultant occupant injuries on the basis of side collisions involving of 1.811 passenger cars with 3.064 unbelted occupants.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770915
David R. Foust, Bruce M. Bowman, Richard G. Snyder
A study of free-fall accidents and resulting injuries was conducted to determine how useful these types of data could be in establishing human injury tolerance limits. “Tolerance” was examined primarily for children at two levels - reversible injury and threat to survival. The specific objectives were to investigate specific free-falls in sufficient depth to permit biomedical or mathematical reconstruction of the fall, simulate selected free-falls to estimate impact response, and compare predicted responses with observed injuries as a means of estimating human tolerance levels. From more than 2100 reported free-falls, 110 were investigated on-site. Seven head-first and three feet-first falls were then simulated using the MVMA 2-D Crash Victim Simulator. Newspaper reports of free-falls showed that males fell six times as often as females and most often while at work. Children fell from windows and balconies more often than from any other hazard.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770916
P. Niederer, F. Walz, U. Zollinger
Abstract Results of a one year field study initiated by the Swiss Federal Police Department in connection with a mandatory seat belt law effective January 1, 1976 are presented. 304 accidents with 153 killed and 257 severely injured (OAIS ≧ 2) belted occupants were analysed during this program. As belt effectiveness has previously been demonstrated in field investigations the following specific problems are discussed: Frequency and statistical significance of cases in which, with a high degree of probability, the belt had an adverse effect Relevant injury patterns Frequency and causes of belt failures including releasing difficulties after a crash Possible improvements. Furthermore, the applicability of Calspan's SMAC method is demonstrated and discussed. In case of car to car collisions the mass ratio is shown to be of importance. A correlation analysis between the velocity change during the collision phase (Δv) and the injury severity is performed.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770919
P. Bourret, S. Corbelli, C. Cavallero
Abstract The present report results from the study of 278 computer selected among 350 in-the-field frontal crashes investigated by a bidisciplinary team. The study has 2 aspects: I . Computer analysis, to determine the main injury-causing agents . Injury-causing factors, to determine the influence of various inner parts of the vehicle (i.e. instrument panel, windscreen, steering assembly, restraint system) II . Case-by-case analysis of injury-causing mechanisms stressing towards the precise determination of the injury-causing mechanisms induced by the injury/impact relationship. Our purpose is to lead to a better understanding of the injury-causing agents and mechanisms going with traffic accidents.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770920
Klaus Langwieder
Abstract In recent years, the number of accidents involving motorized two-wheelers has steadily increased. Nevertheless, so far few studies exist describing the collision characteristics and injuries to the drivers of motorized two-wheelers. On the basis of 1,206 accidents, the collision characteristics and the injury risks to motor-cyclists and moped drivers have been examined. Epidemiologic features of vehicle registration and accident involvement related to motor-cycle categories are indicated. The risk exposure of motor-cycles and mopeds compared with cars is discussed. The overall injury severity and injuries to the different body areas are indicated for both motor-cyclists and moped drivers. The risk to driver and passenger is compared. A new system has been developed to describe the collision characteristics from the kinematic aspects.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770934
David J. Romeo, Richard M. Morgan
Development of an aspirator air bag has been completed at Calspan Corporation. The aspirator air bag has been developed through computer simulations and sled tests, and has been evaluated in a 41.6 MPH crash of a standard Volvo into a flat barrier. This evaluation included both out-of-position and normally seated occupants. This paper describes the aspirator system and presents results of the sled tests and the car crash. This research was conducted under U. S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Contract No. DOT-HS-5-01254.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770932
Mothiram K. Patil, M. S. Palanichamy, Dhanjoo N. Ghista
High amplitude vibrations, in the 0.5 - 11 Hz frequency range, are found to be harmful to tractor drivers. This paper deals with the analysis of vertical and pitch vibrations of the tractor - human occupant system. Our specific purpose is to determine the parameters and effectiveness of standard type suspension systems (provided to (i) both seat and front axle, (ii) seat only) so that the response of the human body parts to vibration are minimized. It is found that the standard type suspension provided to the seat alone is better than the other type and effective in reducing vertical and pitch vibration levels by 60% and 85% respectively, thus improving ride comfort to a considerable extent.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770933
Heinrich Hontschik, Egbert Müller, Gert Rüter
Abstract In the first phase of a research program covering more than 100 catapult-simulated frontal collisions at an impact speed of 50 km/h, the necessary improvements on safety belts were systematically ascertained: The belt geometry must be adaptable to different body sizes and seating positions by adequate positioning of the seat belt anchorage points. The efficiency of the safety belt has to be improved by reducing the response time, i.e. the belt slack, on the one hand, and by adjusting its energy absorption to the survival space, the kinetic energy of the occupant and his threshold level on the other.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770931
E. Gögler, A. Best, H.-H. Braess, H.-E. Burst, G. Laschet
Abstract In order to improve the active safety and the aerodynamic drag a special rear end configuration was developed for the Porsche 911 (4)+. Typical sequences of movements were determined during impact tests in the course of which dummies were hit by various rear end variants. It was stated that some pedestrians and cyclists incurred direct abdominal impacts. To find out whether under real traffic situations and in a speed range of 16 through 24 km/h this type of collision results in intraabdominal injuries, 12 corresponding test series with Göttingen minipigs were carried through in the course of which the test animals were projected against various rear end variants. Measurements were made to determine the forces and accelerations acting on the respective rear end. The acceleration to which the animal was subjected was measured by means of an acceleration sensor sutured to the test subject's back. In addition the point of impact on the animal's body was determined.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770938
J. King Foster, James O. Kortge, Michael J. Wolanin
This paper describes a new generation anthropomorphic dummy with component dynamic responses which approximate available biomechanics data. This experimental test dummy, Hybrid III, is based on the ATD 502 dummy which was developed in 1973 by General Motors under contract with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Like the ATD 502, Hybrid III features a biomechanically-based head design, human-like automotive seating posture, constant torque primary joints, and detailed documentation for fabrication. Hybrid III uniquely features a biomechanically-based neck, thorax, and knee covering. Transducers for measurement of neck loads and chest deflection are integral parts of the design. While Hybrid III appears to provide a measurable improvement over the present “standard” dummy (Part 572) in terms of component responses in frontal impacts, it is still far from the “ultimate” test dummy.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770937
Robert P. Hubbard, Donald G. McLeod
The geometric, inertial, and joint characteristics of two Part 572 crash test dummies were measured to provide input to the MVMA 2-D occupant model. Segments of the dummies were defined which correspond to the links of the model and coordinate axes were defined for each segment. The center of gravity of each segment was located and its coordinates were measured along with the locations of joint centers, instrument mounts, and other significant geometric features. The mass moment of inertia for each segment about a lateral axis through its center of gravity was measured. The geometric and inertial measurements are presented on summary sheets for each segment with the hardware definition, coordinate system, and special notes for that particular segment. These summary sheets present the data in a format that is readily usable for defining computer model input.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770936
Dieter Adomeit
From a biomechanical point of view, test criteria in current safety standards for passenger protection do not insure a sufficient over-all protection of quality. First, the deficiencies of data and criteria, responsible for biomechanical problems, are being analysed. Secondly, additional criteria are being defined, which we think are significant for a better over-all evaluation of restraint devices considering biomechanical facts. As a result of a dummy-crash-series, an analysis is presented, demonstrating correlations between the new defined and former criteria. The final aim is to develop a complete system of criteria. By the use of simple evaluation methods it would guarantee clear results concerning biomechanical properties of passenger protection systems. With this technique one can have correct biomechanical evaluations of restraint systems, gained from dynamic tests even with anthropometric dummies.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770926
E. Becker
Abstract A stereoradiographic technique is described in which two simultaneous x-ray exposures of an instrumented subject are prepared and analysed, yielding a complete six-parameter statement of the position and orientation of the instrument package relative to a coordinate system fixed in the subjects bony anatomy. A description of the radiologic equipment is included as well as details of those devices developed especially for stereoradiographic exposure and system calibration. The analytical aspects of the technique are discussed in qualitative terms in the body of the paper leaving more rigorous treatments to appendices. A statement of the inherent errors of this technique is also included.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770925
David C. Viano
A femur fracture injury criterion is presented that assesses the dependence of the permissible human knee load on the duration of the primary force exposure. Currently a constant allowable femur load limit of 7.6 kN (1700 lb) is specified in FMVSS 208, but recently the Federal Government proposed elevating the allowable limit to 10.0 kN (2250 lb), which is in excess of the limited experimental average static femur fracture force of 8.90 kN (2000 lb). A general analysis of all of the available biomechanics data and mathematical models on femoral impact response and fracture indicates a significant load time dependence for primary pulse durations below 20 ms that can elevate the permissible femur load above the Federally proposed allowable limit of 10.0 kN (2250 lb).
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770924
Stephen L. Gordon, Philip N. Orticke, James Prince, Robert R. McMeekin
Abstract In a typical car crash the occupant's feet are braced and the body inertia forces the torso toward the feet. In the current study the test apparatus utilized a fixed torso, but the toeboard moved rapidly toward the test subject to simulate leg flexure. A detailed two-dimensional force measuring system permitted computation of forces and torques at the leg joints. Static and dynamic values of force and torque are presented as a function of the joint angle. The results are generally uniform with many of the curves assuming a parabolic shape. Peak dynamic values were twice the level of the static counterparts.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770923
Anthony N. Mucciardi, John D. Sanders, Rolf H. Eppinger
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1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770930
David C. Viano, Charles K. Kroell, Charles Y. Warner
Thoracic impact response and injuries of living and postmortem porcine siblings were investigated to quantify comparative differences. Thirteen male animals, averaging 61.4 kg, from five different porcine litters comprised the two animal samples. Porcine brothers were subjected to similar impact exposures for which at least one brother was tested live, anesthetized and another dead, post rigor with vascular repressurization. Statistically significant differences in biomechanical responses and injuries were observed between live and postmortem siblings. On the average the anesthetized live animals demonstrated a greater thoracic compliance, as measured by increased normalized total deflections (21% Hi), and reduced overall injuries (AIS 14% Lo and rib fractures 26% Lo) at lower peak force levels (13% Lo) than did the postmortem subjects. However, individual comparisons of “match-tested” siblings demonstrated very similar responses in some cases.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770929
Anthony S. Hu, Stewart P. Bean, Roger M. Zimmerman
Abstract Sled impact tests were conducted to simulate the motion of a standard size car at rest impacted from the rear by a second car of equal weight traveling at 32 mph. The test subjects were anthropomorphic dummies and unembalmed cadavers. They were seated in a bench seat (headrest in its lowest position) and were three-point belted. In one test mode the seatback was held rigid and in a second test mode the seatback rotated rearward in response to the test subject's impact loading. The major kinematic difference, in either test mode, between the dummies and cadavers was that the dummy head oscillated while the cadaver's head did not. Autopsies indicated that all three cadavers tested with a deflecting seatback suffered neck injuries reaching AIS 3 scale while two of three cadavers suffered similar injuries with a rigid seatback. The third cadaver tested with a rigid seatback had no injury.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770928
C. L. Ewing, D. J. Thomas, L. Lustik, W. H. Muzzy, G. C. Willems, P. Majewski
Abstract A series of human volunteer experiments has been conducted to measure the inertial response of the head and the first thoracic vertebra (T1) to +Gy whole body impact acceleration; that is, acceleration applied to the subject from right to left. The 12-inch HYGE ® accelerator, instrumentation system and procedures were identical to those used for measuring the response to -Gx impact acceleration, previously reported. Three categories of sled acceleration profile were used: high onset, long duration from 2G to 7.5G with end stroke sled velocity limit of 6.5 meters/sec; low onset, long duration with the same peak acceleration and velocity limits; and high onset, short duration from 5G to 11G. Comparison time profiles of angular acceleration, angular velocity and linear resultant acceleration at the head anatomical origin and horizontal linear acceleration at the T1 origin are presented at selected peak sled acceleration levels for 5 subjects of various anthropometric dimensions.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770927
C. L. Ewing, D. J. Thomas, P. L. Majewski, R. Black, L. Lustick
The systematic measurement of the inertial response of human subjects to impact acceleration has been underway for several years. The response of the head and first thoracic vertebra (T1) has been reported for a variety of sled acceleration profiles. In order to better describe the inertial response of man, it is necessary to measure the pelvic response in addition to the response of the head and T1. A pelvic anatomical mount has been constructed and used on one volunteer undergoing successively higher levels of -Gx impact acceleration. The description of the use of the mount is given. The data for four runs in a maximum rate of onset and maximum duration configuration from 2 - 7 G peak acceleration, using the 12-in HyGe® accelerator are reported. Data from this subject for -Gx impact acceleration experiments have been previously reported and are compared to data from the experiments with the pelvic mount.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770868
S. A. Lippmann, K. L. Oblizajek
Disturbances transmitted to the occupants of vehicles often involve tires in their formation or transmission. Tire engineers attempting to reduce disturbances in specific vehicles have two courses of action; alter the tire design according to insight or whim until subjective testing indicates improvements; or analyze the chain of relationships from sensory impression through the tire-vehicle system to internal tire design. This paper describes a “chain-of-relationships” procedure using sensory comparison techniques for identifying pertinent physical stimuli, and an approach to system modeling that best identifies structural tire properties.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770852
J. E. Bernard, L. Segel, R. E. Wild
A historical overview of theory and experiment pertaining to tire shear force generation during combined slip is presented followed by a review of more recent empirical findings. The requirements for modeling the tire in combined maneuvers are summarized prior to presenting, in detail, a semi-empirical model of the tire developed to fulfill these requirements. The ability of the developed model to fit the shear force characteristics exhibited by belted, radial-ply tires and bias-ply tires is examined and demonstrated.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770728
Roy W. Muth
The Snowmobile Safety and Certification Committee, Inc. (SSCC) is a self-regulated mechanism used as a safety arm by the snowmobile industry. Membership to this organization is open to individuals and groups, private and public. By analyzing accident and injury statistics, the committee has discovered great potential for their operator safety programs. Major goals of the SSCC include increasing the number of marked and maintained public trails and continued co-operation between snowmobilers, the snowmobile industry, and the government. All is in the interest of snowmobiler training and safety.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770676
James A. Westphal
This paper describes an integrated, self-contained heating system for use on fire fighting vehicles to provide full vehicular and fire fighting operational capability in cold environments to -40°F. (-40°C). The system discussed was designed in accordance with specifications developed by the USAF and, has been tested in controlled environment chambers.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770583
William D. Wood, Ian G. McWilliams
Increased separations of aircraft following heavy jets, which have been mandated because of the threat posed by aircraft trailing wake vortices, have aggravated the problem of air traffic delays at some of the busier airports. An extensive vortex measurement program at three major airports has provided the data base for the design of a Vortex Advisory System which will permit reduction of the vortex imposed separations under certain measurable wind conditions. This system which promises to effect an appreciable reduction in traffic delay is currently undergoing testing at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770592
Ture Akerstrom, Tomaz Wierzbicki
The regular deformation patters of axially compressed box section beams is analysed. Assuming a simple collaps mechanism, the theory is then extended to cover the influence of strain rate sensitive material. The dynamic strength of a beam-column is significantly higher than the static strength. Correlation of the present theoretical results with the available experimental data is discussed.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770591
I. K. McIvor, W. J. Anderson
The present paper describes two crash tests designed to validate a computer simulation developed for predicting the large dynamic plastic response of vehicle structures under crash conditions. The test structures were idealized quarter scale models consisting of frame and rigid body elements. Both direct and oblique pole impacts are reported. Impact speed was 30 MPH. Predicted and experimental results are compared for the crush displacements, impact force at the pole barrier, and acceleration histories at two points on the “passenger compartment” mass. Good agreement is obtained for the symmetric test. Results for the oblique test are not as uniformly good, but quantitative agreement is still satisfactory. Comparison of dynamic variables are sensitive to both the filtering of the raw test data and the numerical integration procedure employed in the simulation.
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