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Viewing 15391 to 15420 of 17390
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770608
James A. Bennett, Kuang-Huei Lin, Mark F. Nelson
A method for automating the selection of front-end structural stiffnesses for barrier impact standards is presented. Presently the standard analysis tool is the impact simulation method in which static nonlinear force-deformation curves of components are used in a computer integration of the equations of motion. Current design methods involve manually modifying the force-deformation curves to produce an acceptable design. This process may be significantly improved by the use of optimization methods. An improved impact simulation model which calculates the steering column envelopment is introduced. To express the effect of passenger compartment deceleration on potential injury, a vehicle crash severity index is introduced and is shown to be positively correlated with potential injury based on the chest severity index.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770580
J. D. Smith
AIRCRAFT OPERATORS experience excessive operating costs and fuel consumption when moving airplanes from ramp of departure to ramp of arrival. Approximately 85-90% of such off-to-on delays are attributable to congestion in the terminal airspace/airport at the destination. Economic penalties and causal factors are described. Increased airport productivity is essential and recommendations for improving airport utilization are provided.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770518
Douglas S. Guy
The results of a test in which a tree was felled to impact the ROPS of a rubber tired skidder are described. The rationale used to select the tree is reviewed and estimates of the engineering characteristics of the tree are given. The results of a static deflection test to duplicate the residual deflection of the ROPS resulting from the falling tree test is also discussed.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770484
Robert Winter, Allan B. Pifko, Harry Armen
A mathematical model for crash simulation of aircraft structures--built up from beams, stringers, and skin panels--is being developed in the form of a finite element, large displacement elastic-plastic computer code called DYCAST. As a preliminary exercise, the code was applied to simulate a low-speed forward impact of a skin-covered framework carrying large concentrations of nonstructural mass at its rear. This paper describes the main features of the code and the results of the simple preliminary simulation.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770485
Richard W. Nelson
This paper briefly traces development of crashworthiness requirements promulgated in pertinent airworthiness standards for general aviation aircraft. Primary emphasis is focused on protection of aircraft occupants in the survivable crash environment. The evolution of government involvement in civil aviation and the FAA role in aviation safety are discussed, as well as the regulatory rulemaking process. A review of past and present crash protection requirements is presented. Pending regulatory action and future goals are mentioned.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770486
Jim Grandfield, Bruce Barrett
An airborne weather radar installation has been developed for light centerline thrust aircraft. A pod was developed and tested to attach to the underside of the wing and provide a location for a light weight antenna-receiver-transmitter unit. The offering of this installation to operators of these aircraft provides additional capability in the detection and avoidance of significant weather systems.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770269
M. L. Sharp, R. M. Peters, R. B. Weiss
The 1980 requirements for bumpers limit the damage that may be sustained in 8 km/h (5 mph) pendulum and barrier impacts. This paper covers four items of interest for design of one-piece aluminum bumpers: (1) properties of alloys, (2) dent resistance, (3) beam strength, (4) relative behavior of aluminum and steel. Static and dynamic tests are used to define the effects of yield strength and thickness on denting. Finite element calculations agree well with the results of dynamic bending tests of bumpers. Data presented also show that the strain rates during beam bending are low. Relative weights of aluminum and steel bumpers are defined.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770216
Charles F. Padden
The American Motors Corporation 1977 model Gremlin and Hornet passenger cars utilize SAE 980 XK high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel as the material from which is fabricated the body side rear sills. This is the first known application of 80 ksi (552 MPa) HSLA steel for a unitized auto body major structural component. The selection of 980 XK HSLA steel enabled AMC advanced chassis engineers to successfully modify an existing rear body structure to withstand the rear barrier impact test required for 1977 model passenger cars by FMVSS #301. This paper presents the welding, assembly, and quality control procedures developed by AMC manufacturing engineers to assure that production body structures meet all design specifications.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770213
R.C. VanKuren, J.E. Scott
The energy absorption of automotive sheet steels was determined at impact speeds to 40 mph by crushing tubular structures at 70 and -40 F. The test program was designed to provide an intermediate step between tensile and vehicle tests aimed at understanding material behavior at high impact speeds. Energy absorption increased with impact velocity, strength, thickness, and lower temperature. Energy absorbed was also influenced by tube geometry. These results show that the new HSLA steels provide excellent energy absorption and that designers can use these steels at relatively light gages to reduce vehicle weight without sacrificing crashworthiness, even at low temperature.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770239
R. Wade Allen, Duane T. McRuer
The driver's ability to control the lateral position of an automobile is dependent on his perception of the command path (roadway) to be followed. This perception is affected by both the configuration of road markings and other features, and the visibility of these elements. As visibility decreases, the driver's preview of the commanded path is reduced. Theory indicates that driver performance should degrade with reduced preview and configurational parameters which characterize the intermittent nature of delineation (e.g., dashed lines). This paper describes a simulation experiment in which driver behavior and driver/vehicle system performance were measured over a range of visibility and configuration parameter variations. Driver dynamic response and noise (remnant) were reliably affected by variations in visibility and configuration. These effects were also reflected in system performance measures such as lane deviations.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770238
Vivek D. Bhise, Eugene I. Farber, Carol S. Saunby, George M. Troell, James B. Walunas, Arthur Bernstein
A Headlight Evaluation Model has been developed which provides a broader and more comprehensive method for characterizing the performance of headlamps than is possible in traditional headlight seeing distance field tests. The Headlamp Evaluation Model accepts as input the candlepower patterns of the headlamp system being evaluated and provides a measure of driver visual performance based on a large number of simulated seeing distance tests and glare discomfort checks on a standardized test route. The output of the Model, termed the Figure of Merit, is the percentage of the distance traveled by the simulated driver on the standardized test route in which the seeing distance to pedestrians and pavement lines, and the discomfort glare levels experienced by opposing drivers, simultaneously meet certain acceptance criteria.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770237
R. G. Mortimer, P. L. Olson
The major objective of the study was to provide another indication of the validity of a computer simulation model for predicting visibility with headlight beams. A comparison was made of simulation results with those obtained in a field test of five beams for targets positioned at the right and left side of the lane. The agreement obtained was generally good throughout the meeting. The discrepancy between simulation and field test results was greatest for the visibility of targets at the right side of the lane when the vehicles were close to the meeting point. This error was explained as due to the differences in the field test visibility distances used as the comparison data compared to the results of the field studies that were done to provide initial validation of the model. The maximum extent of this error was about 20%. The results show that the model predicts within the error of the field test procedures.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770246
Otto Jandeleit, Roger Orain
The four-layer laminated Securiflex windshield has been tested in simulated collisions at the Wayne State University up to 40 mph Barrier Equivalent Velocities, to demonstrate that it causes no laceration. has been exposed to usual and extreme environmental conditions to demonstrate its serviceability in field use. The new windshield consists of a conventional laminated construction (glass/high penetration resistant interlayer/glass) combined with a 0.5 mm innerlayer of plastic. Glass is used on the outer surface of the windshield to withstand the abrasion and scratching of sand, windshield wipers and cleaning. The laminated construction prevents penetration and provides a pocket or cushion action to decelerate the head without injury. The innerlayer is made of a special plastic film which protects the face of the occupants against laceration and eye injury during head impact.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770436
Nathaniel H. Pulling
This paper explains the various types of skids and how to control them in cars and tractor-trailer trucks. Specific instructions are provided for classroom presentation, and for conducting hands-on-the-wheel practice sessions on a skid training area, using both cars and tractor-trailer trucks. Detailed directions are included for constructing a skid pan and modifying vehicles for skid control training. Essentially this paper is a condensed manual for setting up driver training instruction for skid control.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770103
H.H. Hurt, CJ. DuPont
Special research is being conducted at the University of Southern California under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States Department of Transportation. The research consists of the on-scene, in-depth multidisciplinary investigation of 900 motorcycle accidents to determine cause factors and identify countermeasures. With the acquisition of data from the first 300 accidents, certain critical human elements have been identified as common to a great part of the accidents investigated. The problems of motorcycle conspicuity, rider skill, training and licensing, and protective equipment appear to predominate in accident causation and injury association.
HISTORICAL
1977-02-01
Standard
J272A_197702
This recommended practice describes general characteristics of VIN systems. It includes certain specific requirements, supporting definitions, basic content, and examples. The VIN should be considered in the context of a world manufacturer identifier to establish a unique vehicle identity. Supplemental reports to this recommended practice establish specific VIN requirements for different types of motor vehicles. This SAE Recomended Practice provides direction for uniform content and structure of vehicle identification numbers assigned to each type of motor vehicle.
HISTORICAL
1977-02-01
Standard
J273A_197702
This SAE Recommended Practice provides direction for the design of a passenger car Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). This practice supplements SAE J272c. It applies to characteristics of passenger car descriptive and identifying information which are to be set forth in a uniform manner in the vehicle identification number.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770619
Leo C. Peters
Design procedures and criteria have changed in the current design-legal climate as a result of increased products liability litigation, standards development and governmental regulations. These considerations now have to be included in current engineering design practices and should also be included in the engineeering design educational process.
HISTORICAL
1977-02-01
Standard
J1044A_197702
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes procedure for the issuance and assignment of a World Manufacturer Identifier (WMI) on a uniform basis to vehicle manufacturers who may desire to incorporate it in their Vehicle Identification Numbers (VIN). This recommended practice is intended to be used in conjunction with the recommendations for VIN systems described in SAE J853a, J187, J272b, J273a, J1108, and other SAE reports for VIN systems. These procedures were developed to assist in identifying the vehicle as to its point of origin. It was felt that issuance of the WMI by a single organization would avoid duplication of manufacturer identifiers and assist in the identification of vehicles by agencies such as those concerned with motor vehicle titling and registration, law enforcement, and theft recovery.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770116
Thomas L. McDole
A recently completed HSRI study, “Effects of Commercial Vehicle Systematic Preventive Maintenance on Specific Causes of Accidents”, concluded that an identifiable relationship exists between good commercial vehicle inspection and maintenance practices and a reduction in defect-related accidents. The better maintenance practices were usually associated with larger firms, and poorer maintenance practices more often were associated with smaller firms or individual owner operators. Also documented was the need for improved or modified inspection and maintenance requirements as stated in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.
HISTORICAL
1977-02-01
Standard
AS139
Scope unavailable.
HISTORICAL
1977-02-01
Standard
AS141
Scope unavailable.
HISTORICAL
1977-02-01
Standard
AS140
Scope unavailable.
HISTORICAL
1977-02-01
Standard
AS137
Scope unavailable.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770922
Alan M. Nahum, Randall Smith, Carley C. Ward
Abstract Two series of cadaver head impact experiments are presented. Series I consists of individual experiments and Series II multiple sequential impacts on a single specimen. Measured intracranial pressures were correlated with other impact parameters. The use of a linear finite element model is also presented.
HISTORICAL
1977-01-01
Standard
J587F_197701
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for vehicular license plate illumination devices.
HISTORICAL
1977-01-01
Standard
AS8005
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) applies to all temperature instruments used in aircraft applications and environments. The word ""instruments"" as used in the Standard encompasses only the display device and does not include the temperature sensors. Examples of the types of instruments covered are as follows: 1.1 temperature instruments using a resistance temperature detector for temperature sensing; 1.2 temperature instruments using a thermocouple for temperature sensing; 1.3 temperature instruments using an averaging thermocouple harness for temperature sensing; 1.4 temperature instruments receiving an input from a signal conditioning unit; 1.5 temperature instruments receiving an input from another temperature instrument; and 1.6 temperature instruments receiving an input from other temperature sensing devices.
HISTORICAL
1976-12-01
Standard
J1140_197612
This SAE Recommended Practice was developed primarily for gasoline-powered passenger car and truck applications but may be used in marine, industrial, and similar applications where refueling vapor recovery is required.
HISTORICAL
1976-10-01
Standard
J1163_197610
This SAE standard specifies a method and the device for use in determining the position of the Seat Index Point (SIP) for any kind of seat. This SAE document provides a uniform method for defining the location of the SIP in relation to some fixing point on the seat.
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