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1966-03-01
Magazine
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660317
Robert B. Meyersburg
Realistic assessment of the role of V/STOL air transportation in the 1970’s is important to government transportation policies being formulated. Studies of a system, including the vehicle, airport, air traffic, and navigation facilities, were conducted in a specific market -- the California Corridor. Four VTOL aircraft representing various concepts were designed to a common set of requirements. These aircraft, one STOL, a conventional jet aircraft, and a conventional helicopter, were operated in a simulated airline network. Costs and revenues were compared to those of conventional jet aircraft operating on the same airline network. Ground transportation systems were assessed, including the automobile which is a formidable opponent on shorter routes. However, the STOL/VTOL systems by virtue of their convenience and overall speed, capture some traffic from other transportation means and generate new customer markets.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660319
George Litchford, John E. Gallagher
The inauguration of true city center schedules coupled with the tremendous response from the traveling public and the continuing increase in passenger seat mile revenues for over a decade of VTOL scheduled air carrier service is evidence of the public need and confirmation of a continuing expansion of operations. Future research and development will be directed at reducing operating costs and improving schedule regularity on trip lengths that vary from the very short inter-airport to city distances to upwards of a hundred miles. The airframe manufacturers are already building helicopters large enough to carry 45 to 65 passengers and if adequate progress can be made in reducing direct operating costs (and thereby lowering seat mile costs), helicopters will become a common mode of air transportation in the very short-haul market. One significant advantage of VTOL air transportation is the flexibility of service patterns that can be provided.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660310
W. E. Helfrich
One of the problems associated with long part life in aircraft jet engines is wear in nonlubricated mating parts resulting from vibration, fretting, impact, or sliding during engine operation. A significant improvement in the life of engine parts subject to this type of wear can be achieved by coating mating surfaces with protective, wear resistant materials. Numerous plasma sprayed and detonation flame plated coatings have been developed for this purpose. Successful use of the plasma sprayed coatings in these applications is dependent on development of the necessary coating properties and strict control of the coating process. Engine experience with both types of protective coatings has been most successful when coatings are tailored to the environment and type of wear encountered.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660658
L. Yates
Considerations governing the selection of superalloys and refractory alloys for the fabrication of high-performance reentry vehicles are discussed. Oxidation resistant coatings were evaluated to determine their capacity to protect faying surfaces. The performance of the R-512A coating under simulated reentry conditions is reported.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660653
C. P. Boebel, S. J. Babjak
Newer concepts of thermal control coatings involving tailored optical properties are compared with the paints and coatings presently used on spacecraft. Emphasis is also given to evaluation and measurement techniques specifically dealing with the combined spatial environmental effects facility. Into a facility of the type both exposure and intermittant “in situ” optical measurements can be performed under an ultra high vacuum. A brief discussion of damage mechanisms is included along with a description of a computerized data retrieval system based on optical properties. Researchers in this aerospace field have high hopes for significant advances in the next several years through advanced materials and composites, “in situ” evaluation and measurement techniques, and computerized optical data retrieval for thermal control designers.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660660
S. Priceman, L. Sama
A recently developed high temperature oxidation protective coating system for columbium and tantalum alloys is described and characterized. Oxidation test data and mechanical property data are given which indicate the suitability of these coatings as thermal protective materials for use in multicycle earth re-entry vehicles. The inherent capability of this coating to be uniformly applied to practically any size or shape part, or even to intricate sheet metal assemblies, is demonstrated. Several types of coated components are illustrated as examples of the adaptability of the process to complex full scale aerospace hardware.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660583
Merlin Hansen
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660582
E. W. TANQUARY
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660539
Louis C. Lundstrom
The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, now under development by Congress, provides for the establishment of motor vehicle safety standards. In anticipation of the development of new standards, engineers in the SAE and in industry are planning ahead, collecting additional safety test information and analyzing designs and data. Computers are playing an increasingly important role in this work. The results of such work will assist the safety engineer in determining the true value of proposed safety standards and whether the proposed changes in vehicle design will actually result in an improvement in safety for the passenger.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660536
J. L. Fulton
This paper compares the performance of seat belts and shoulder Harnesses in high-performance vehicles used in hazardous traffic assignments by the Los Angeles Police Department. Results are positive in favor of the harness, and support the predictions of effectiveness reported in the many research and test projects concerned with restraining devices. Also discussed are the steps taken in the design and field testing of vehicle occupant “packaging.” A basic question is raised: Can or will the harness replace the seat belt in the near future?
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660425
Donald I. Reed
The development of BIA small boat recommended engineering standards closely follows problem areas, the objective being to find a solution that will most economically and easily modify existing practice to maintain an acceptable level of safety. A few of the specific problems for which some new recommended BIA practices offer solutions are described in such areas as electrical systems, fuel systems, compartment ventilation, steering systems, and boat capacity. The overall goal of BIA recommended practices is to enable manufacturers to build better performing and safer products for the public through pooled industry judgment.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660424
Kent M. Savage
The activities of the National Fire Protection Association to foster pleasure craft fire safety are described. NFPA 302, “Fire Protection Standards for Motor Craft,” has been and continues to be a competent public standard in the field of marine fire prevention. The development and use of the standards contained therein are discussed, with special emphasis on the NFPA's continuing review to keep them as up-to-date as possible in the light of new experience and technological advances.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660427
Elmer P. Jasper
The SAE Marine Technical Committee was established late in 1961 to serve as a forum for the exchange of ideas and dissemination of sound and practical engineering knowledge in the area of marine application relating to the engine, its accessories, reverse gears, transmissions, driveline, and propeller shafts. The overall objective of the Committee is to assist in the establishment of standards and recommended practices that will ultimately result in improved boating safety. The current work and past accomplishments of its various subcommittees are described.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660426
Harper H. Hull
The American Boat and Yacht Council was formed to supply the boat manufacturing industry with safety standards for pleasure craft. Tentative standards first developed by the Technical Members of the Council are widely disseminated throughout the industry for comment. Only after all comments and suggestions are resolved is the standard finally adopted. Adopted standards thus represent the best thinking of the majority of the boating industry. Standards are keyed to the safety of life at sea and the safety and durability of the vessels themselves.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660429
E. S. Terwilliger
The Yacht Safety Bureau is an independent, nonprofit, public service organization engaged only in testing for public safety in the boating field. The testing services are for end products only. Its object is to make certain that marine equipment measured for safe operation performs as intended. In order to accomplish this, the Bureau's safety evaluation program provides a reference base to which the measurement of a product can be related (safety testing standards), the means for accomplishing the measurement (safety testing), and the means for informing the public that the measurement has been met (product listing and labeling).
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660428
James E. Cunningham
Recommended standards for boat trailers are published annually by the Boating Industry Association. A brief description is given of current standards which relate to load capacity, trailer boat support, trailer couplings, safety chains, winch assembly, tire load capacities, trailer wheels and bearings, trailer brakes, trailer lighting, and trailer electrical systems.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660430
Robert Flagg
The need for and details of a program covering environmental testing of marine products under the most severe water and climatic conditions are described. As indicated in this paper, if a marine product survives the rigorous tests carried out by one testing company in the southern Florida waters, the chances of future problems involving breakdowns and costly warranty repairs by the manufacturer will be greatly reduced.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660422
Gordon H. Dickman
Recruiting, training, and motivating marine law enforcement officers to effectively perform their mission is vital if results are to be achieved in boating safety. Since boating laws cover an extremely diverse field and by necessity are set forth in very broad language, the marine law enforcement officer must use considerable judgment and discretion in applying laws and regulations and in dealing with offenders. But above all, his work must be recognized by both the courts and the public as being an important adjunct to boating safety.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660421
James A. Hadley
The Federal Boating Act of 1958 provides for coordinated Federal-state recreational boating safety programs. Today 46 states have passed legislation dealing with recreational boating. However, many of the operating and equipment requirements vary distinctly from both the Federal requirements and those of neighboring states. Of the various solutions which have been proposed to alleviate this confusing situation, it would appear that the most sensible is the development of uniformity in boating laws, rules, and regulations. The necessary steps in order to accomplish such uniformity are outlined.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660420
Warren Bonn
In order to keep up-to-date with the latest developments in the small boat field and to insure that reasonable safety standards are being reflected in its recommended load and horsepower ratings, the Canadian Department of Transport (D.O.T.) and the Canadian boating industry jointly conduct performance and evaluation tests each year. The development of the D.O.T. system encompassing three horsepower curves for determining the horsepower of any boat is described.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660419
David Oliver
The Coast Guard approach to Federal safe boating legislation is both cautious and comprehensive. Its part in promoting safe boating, both through legislation and enforcement, is discussed, with emphasis on the continuing need for close liaison with state administrators, industry representatives, industry associations, marine trade groups, and of course the boating public.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660418
Joseph V. Day
ABSTRACT
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660417
Kenneth B. Champ
The avowed purpose of the U. S. Power Squadrons is to educate small boat users in safe boating practices and to inform participants in water activities on how to properly enjoy water sports and at the same time respect the rights of others. Over 350 local Squadrons situated across the country offer various courses at no charge to the public covering such diverse subjects as small boat handling, charts, piloting, rules of the road, and even celestial navigation. It is unfortunate that not enough persons are aware of this program, and of those who do register for classes, many do not complete the courses in which they enrolled.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660416
W. J. Webb
It is the responsibility of the boating industry to make certain that its marine products are designed and manufactured to operate safely and under almost all conceivable conditions. It is also the industry's responsibility to educate boat operators and the general public in common sense boating practices. However, in attempting to improve boating's safety record, it must be remembered that in the final analysis if the boat operator does not use good judgment or comply with the law, then all the engineering improvements, educational programs, and efficient law enforcement will not prevent boating accidents.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660681
R. C. Goran, T. P. Brooks
The problem of achieving safety in orbital and space vehicle structures is essentially the problem of obtaining a structural reliability of “one” in the engineering sense, not necessarily mathematical. This problem is not unique to space vehicle structures; manned aircraft also have this objective, and the “basic elements” that determine the structural safety of such vehicles are well established. A number of specific structures on the Mercury and Gemini spacecraft are reviewed to illustrate the considerations given to structural safety (including “fail safe” and “fracture tolerant” design) by the utilization and extension of these “basic elements.”
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660677
R. J. Heymans, E. D. Thompson, L D. Berman
Four considerations in the design of storable propellant structures are: stress caused by load and pressure requirements, sealing surfaces and bolted tank closures, corrosion and stress corrosion, and material compatibility. This paper discusses the developmental background of these considerations in connection with the Titan family. Specific items discussed are design and fabrication of the basic tankage, especially sealing problems, and the compatibility of materials with amine fuels and nitrogen tetroxide.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660752
Paul J. Erickson, John Lehoczky,, John T. O'Hagen
The Super Pumper System is the world's most powerful land based fire fighting apparatus. It was developed and constructed by Mack Trucks, Inc. from an original concept and preliminary designs prepared by Gibbs & Cox, Inc. It consists of five vehicles. The main vehicle is the Super Pumper which carries a high volume, high pressure pump driven by a lightweight diesel engine. Water from remote sources can be supplied to the other four vehicles, (a super tender and three satellite tenders) providing great flexibility of operation. The system has been in use by the New York City Fire Department for one year. This paper describes the original concept of the system, its development by Mack, and its use by the New York City Fire Department.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660785
Paul C. Skeels
This paper describes the development of the new energy absorbing steering column which is standard equipment on all 1967 General Motors and several competitive cars. The paper includes a description of the initial concept, the development stages of the final design, performance goals, and testing procedures. It details problems presented by the different design characteristics of the various car models.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660787
Richard W. Armstrong
Abstract In line with the need for a suitable dynamic test procedure to determine the reaction of seat belt hardware and overall effectiveness of the seat belt or harness in constraining the vehicle occupant at various crash angles, a dynamic seat belt tester has been developed by the National Bureau of Standards. This tester was designed to provide a motion as stipulated by the proposed SAE dynamic specifications, and to reduce the cost, size, and power required in previously designed testers based on the sled principle. A progress report on the performance of this test device to date is given, including a description of its major components and general operation.
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