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1968-04-29
Technical Paper
680290
R. O. Brick, R. A. Peterson, S. D. Schneider
The basic electromagnetic shielding of conventional riveted aluminum aircraft construction provides inherent protection to the aircraft systems and occupants against the hazards of lightning discharges. The increased use of adhesively bonded construction techniques on structures of future aircraft indicates a potential reduction in the basic electrical continuity of the airframe. The significance of the conductivity reduction on aircraft lightning protection will be evaluated for various proposed construction techniques, including: bonded honeycomb skin panels, bonded skin joints, bonded basic structure, and different types of monocoque construction. The discussion examines related problems that have been encountered in designing protection for aluminum aircraft.
1968-04-29
Technical Paper
680289
Frank C. White
The requirements for an airborne collision avoidance system (CAS) are discussed. They include accommodation for all types and large numbers of aircraft, compatibility with ground-based air traffic control, response time factor, and safe separation for aircraft. A system for meeting these requirements is proposed; it is a time-frequency system, using cooperative equipment in all participating aircraft. The mechanics of operation of the system are explained.
1968-04-09
Technical Paper
680268
Robert Brenner
The safety of motor vehicles is discussed in relation to: the development and application of new and used car safety standards; the improvement and standardization of motor vehicle inspection programs; and comprehensive engineering and economic studies to guide the application and development of standards themselves. Each of these aspects of auto safety is discussed in detail.
1968-04-03
Technical Paper
680214
Siegbert B. Poritzky
A lengthy effort to develop the minimum operational requirements of avionics systems needed for participation in the air traffic control system has not yet yielded standards or a means of administration acceptable to all segments of aviation. A new, more palatable approach by which users of the airspace can provide certain minimum operational characteristics in their airborne electronic systems shows promise. In order to make it work, FAA must clearly describe its electronic systems, how they work, and what their limitations are, so that willing participants may find out what they need to do in order to be right. Based on these system standards, minimum operational characteristics of airborne avionics can be developed and implemented. These may then meet with the approval of most of those affected, since the requirements will merely represent their own self-interest.
1968-04-01
Standard
ARP922
The recommendations set forth herein are the results of the combined efforts of engineers associated with manufacturing of lamps, instrumentation, aircraft, aerospace equipment and vehicles, Air Transport and interested Government Agencies. The information contained in this initial release of the ARP is general in nature and will suffice as an introduction to this type of lighting. However, it is recommended that it be developed, in further revisions, into a more specific document.
1968-04-01
Magazine
1968-03-01
Magazine
1968-03-01
Standard
AIR822
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a general overview of oxygen systems for general aviation use. Included are a brief review of the factors and effects of hypoxia, system descriptions and mission explanations for system or component selection, and techniques for safe handling of oxygen distribution systems.
1968-02-15
Standard
ARP498A
This document is intended to cover the design of plastic lighted panels, mounting plates, and their installation.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680053
Charles W. Gadd, Lawrence M. Patrick
It is pointed out that in attempting to evaluate devices or design alterations to minimize accident injury, there arise important questions of true injury hazard predicted by the test and of relative merit between designs, depending upon whether one employs a system test or a simplified laboratory impact procedure. These questions are illustrated first by describing some of the results of a series of accelerator tests of cadaver impact against a steering wheel and energy absorbing column assembly. A salient finding from this work is that, as a result of more favorable load distribution, the chest loading is in the range of one-half that which would be indicated by a simplified torso impact test. It is felt that in the future it will be particularly important to try to take into account in a simplified test the contribution of the shoulders to load distribution, as well as to alter the torso form to obtain more realistic dynamic deflection properties.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680044
Roger L. Saur, Slavko M. Dobrash
To promote improved automotive safety, present Federal specifications require the reduction of glare by sunlight reflection from a trim surface by restricting its intensity. The specifications imply that matte surfaces must be used. The alternative described herein reduces glare of reflected sunlight from reflective surfaces by decreasing the apparent size of the image. The necessary demagnification is obtained by utilization of surface curvature. The maximum radius of curvature is calculated by geometric optics.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680031
Aaron Bloom, William G. Cichowski, Verne L. Roberts
Initially, scientific investigators developed their own human simulators for use in adverse environment testing. This paper describes some of the history of the development of different types of human simulation techniques and their limitations. The increased necessity for more accurate simulations for automotive safety studies has created a need for additional sophistication. Sophisticated Sam, created by Sierra Engineering Co. under the sponsorship of the General Motors Corp., represents a significant advance in the state-of-the-art. The rationale behind the creation of a working simulator is presented along with proposed performance criteria.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680032
William G. Cichowski, Jeffrey N. Silver
Abstract Restraint systems for occupants are now being provided in all new automotive passenger vehicles. This paper describes research into the effectiveness and proper use of various types of restraint systems for adults and children. Tests were conducted, both simulated and full-scale, to explore the added level of protection that can be afforded when the occupants of a passenger car can anticipate an impact. Research indicates that a substantial reduction of accidental injuries and deaths can be achieved if the motoring public apply the conclusions of this study.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680033
R. M. Kemmerer, R. Chute, D. P. Hass
An inflatable cushion restraint system is being developed which automatically inflates in front of the automobile occupant in the time interval between vehicle impact and the “second collision.” The system draws upon the latest non-metallic material technology and controlled explosive power units to achieve the objectives of actuating the cushion in .040 seconds and attaining high reliability and sufficient storage life at a realistic cost-effectiveness ratio. This system has undergone extensive sled, barrier, and other development tests. These tests have indicated that in experimental situations significant reductions in lap belt loads, in head and chest deceleration, and in rebound rates may be achieved as compared with the present lap belt system. Tests with live primates, run on the Daisy Decelerator at Alamagordo, New Mexico, resulted in survivability at sled decelerations of 57 g’s vs. fatal injuries at 40 g’s for the best of all other systems tested.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680142
T. N. Nock, D. R. Dunlop, D. M. Finch
Mechanical tests performed in this laboratory to determine the ability of automotive lighting and safety devices to withstand environmental conditions are based largely on SAE specifications established many years ago. To ascertain whether these tests are still valid for present conditions, a field investigation was conducted of factory-installed (OEM) lamps and safety belt hardware on a total of 81 domestic-make vehicles in service. The devices were checked to determine the effects of dust, moisture, corrosion and heat resulting from exposure to natural environmental conditions. Evaluations for lighting devices were based on photometric measurements wherever possible; safety belt hardware was evaluated by visual examination. In general, results indicate that the rain and spray and plastic stability tests currently in use in this laboratory are adequate in predicting field serviceability of automotive devices.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680135
C. I. Carr
Skid resistance on wet slippery roads is the dominant factor in safety problems relating to skid and traction. Although many testing and design problems exist, the basic question is how to determine when a tire improvement has been made which is critical to the safe driving of the majority of drivers. Understanding circumstances under which skidding accidents occur and defining the nature of the road surface are essential for the development of improved tires.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680079
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Scientific methodology and engineering techniques were applied to a series of twelve automobile rear-end collision experiments to provide data relating to seat, seat backrest and head-restraint design. Five speeds of impact, six seatback heights and six seatback strength values were studied. The purpose was to evaluate the relative protective merits and the practicality of various seat designs with respect to the many variables common to rear-end collisions. This research data provides a basic reference system of collision performance for seat designs with respect to occupant size, posture and proximity to injury producing structures.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680080
R. J. Berton
The effect of seat back rotation, head restraint position, and collision speed on crash dummy head acceleration, extension and flexion was determined by tests using an acceleration sled and vehicle collisions. The sled tests were run with a rigid seat and an adjustable back at 10, 20, and 30 mph. Vehicle collisions were conducted with production seats with and without head restraint devices at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 50 mph impact speeds. Fifty percentile adult male Sierra dummies were used. The head was able to move freely when accelerated backward. In both sled and vehicle collisions, head restraint devices reduced the measured severity criteria on the crash dummies employed in the tests.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680001
Roger P. Daniel
The injury-reducing functions of crash padding are discussed as they relate to head impact. The bony structure of the cranial vault (above eyebrows) is strong under localized impact compared with the face. Padding used to protect the cranial vault from impact has the primary function of absorbing energy to reduce the possibility of brain damage. On the other hand, padding for facial protection has the primary function of providing uniform load distribution on the face. The pad understructure then supplies the needed energy absorbing capacity. Test procedures to measure both energy absorption and load distribution are described, and evaluation criteria are shown. Other factors that affect padding, such as temperature and cover stock material, are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680002
S. A. HEAP, E. P. GRENIER
Concept and engineering feasibility of a new child restraint system has been demonstrated by various dynamic tests. These tests indicate that the restraint system will retain a child-like dummy in rollovers, side impacts at 17 mph, and in frontal impacts as severe as a 30 mph barrier crash. This unique system that can be used in any passenger seat position having a lap belt consists of a partially encapsulating shield and an internal box-like 3-inch high seat.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680237
William Haddon
The author suggests that many automobile accidents and resultant injuries can be avoided. He discusses the problem in three phases: precrash, crash, and postcrash. Precrash conditions include driver disabilities such as drinking and senility, the road, and the vehicle. The crash phase deals with the vehicle’s interior and exterior design and the crash design of the highway; the postcrash phase discusses emergency response systems such as communication, ambulance attendants, first aid knowledge, and emergency hospital facilities.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680222
Harry A. Augenblick
Increasing air traffic has produced an increase in midair collisions. This paper describes the airborne collision avoidance system (CAS), which is intended for use by large aircraft. It also describes the Dinade CAS, intended to be installed in small aircraft. In addition, the combination of the Dinade interrogator with a weather radar to conserve capital investment, space, weight, and power consumption, is discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680210
W. C. McDonald
This paper discusses the work that the Engineering Div. of Goodyear Aerospace Corp. has been conducting in energy-absorption and how this has been applied to new concepts in fuel containment. The discussion includes various qualitative test methods and compares the test values of the material being investigated to standard fuel tank materials. Hopefully, these values will suggest new design approaches and test procedures for the improvement of fuel tanks, both in crash-resistance and puncture sealing ability.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680193
Harold C. MacDonald
This paper examines some of the new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, and discusses facets of the engineering required to meet them. The author’s reactions to these standards are also explained. The engineering involved in those standards concerning passenger car interior occupant protection, the relative rearward displacement of steering columns, and the 30 mph barrier crash, are discussed in some detail.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680305
Franklin T. Kurt
This discussion attempts to predict the pattern of expected accidents and the relative safety of verticraft in relation to airplanes and helicopters. Since crashes from the same cause may be more serious in one type than another and since exposure time to engine failure varies widely, the analysis is attempted by logic rather than statistics. Potential accidents are discussed first as to possible causes and then as to probable results. Loss of control and loss of power aspects are discussed in detail. It is hoped this philosophy will be helpful to verticraft designers, to FAA and to the military in preparing airworthiness regulations, and most of all, to those who are planning civil and military operations of verticraft. It is intended to define equivalent safety” and final conclusions are evaluated.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680542
John W. Garrett
Accident cases from the Cornell Automotive Crash Injury Research (ACIR) data pool involving 1968 cars are examined to determine whether injury differences exist between these cars and earlier models. Specific design features are reviewed and photographs and descriptions of illustrative case histories are provided. Improvements associated with several new design features are described and several injury hazards observed in the 1968 cars are pointed out. It is concluded that some progress has been made, but further improvement is possible through design change.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680543
L. C. Lundstrom
The search for improvements in occupant protection under vehicle impact is hampered by a real lack of reliable biomechanical data. To help fill this void, General Motors has initiated joint research with independent researchers such as the School of Medicine, U. C. L. A. – in this case to study localized head and facial trauma — and has developed such unique laboratory tools as “Tramasaf,” a human-simulating headform, and “MetNet,” a pressure-sensitive metal foam. Research applied directly to product design also has culminated in developments such as the Side-Guard Beam for side impact protection.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680557
Lawrence G. Harshfield
The safety engineering criteria, principles, and management techniques are applicable disciplines that are applied in concept studies, technical development plans, feasibility design, development and production of military materiel and are directly dependent upon the management emphasis received during the project phases. The system safety engineering program assures appropriate tests to obtain the reasonable assurances that the risk involved in the use of the new materiel is no greater than necessary.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680482
D. L. Veenstra
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680483
Alan M. Nahum, Arnold W. Siegel, Philip V. Hight, Samuel H. Brooks
A study was made of 290 collisions containing 464 front seat car occupants. Of the 405 injured occupants, 141 received their lower extremity injuries against the instrument panel. The occupant’s most serious injury was related to car model year, age of occupant, vehicle weight, and estimated impact speed. Statistically, a regression analysis shows a very strong correlation of these variables and collision injury. It is significant that the number of lower extremity injuries drops steeply for vehicles from 1957 through 1967. Rear seat occupant injuries were not considered in this paper.
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