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1971-05-01
Standard
J247_197105
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide guidelines for selection of transducers, data acquisition systems, and other instrumentation as well as analysis methods to help ensure proper measurement and evaluation of acoustic impulses in automobiles. While this Recommended Practice focuses on automotive inflatable devices, such as, frontal airbag systems, pretensioners, inflatable curtains, side airbags, etc, it can be used for measurement of other impulsive sounds in a vehicle if needed. The objective is to achieve uniformity in instrumentation practice and reporting of test measurements. Use of this recommended practice should provide a basis for meaningful comparisons of test results from different sources. This recommended practice specifies procedures for static measurement of acoustic impulses, but due to the much more complicated nature of crash testing, does not specify procedures for measuring impulses in vehicles during crash tests.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710695
Clifford W. Farmer
California established the Division of Industrial Safety to develop and enforce safety standards for the workmen in places of employment. Many safety standards have been developed which included roll-over protective structures for heavy earthmoving equipment. When it is determined that a need exists for a new safety order such as Construction Safety Order 1596, which requires roll-over protective structures for heavy earthmoving equipment, the Division thoroughly analyzes the engineering, education, and enforcement procedures and techniques as they develop the state safety standard. At the present time, the Division is investigating the need for safety standards pertaining to environmental control for the operators of equipment used in construction.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710693
J. E. Staab
Performance standards for roll-over protective structures (ROPS) have been developed for four classes of equipment-TTT, loaders, motor graders, and wheel scraper prime movers. The criteria were developed by studying the behavior of roll-proven structures in a laboratory and converting these observations into numerical relationships. The criteria establish five major requirements: 1. Resist horizontal force-related to machine weight. 2. Absorb energy-must deflect without catastrophic failure. 3. Withstand vertical load after deflection equal to machine weight. 4. Meet above requirements without entering critical zone. 5. Must perform at 0 F or material must exhibit Charpy “V” notch impact strength of 8 ft-lb at -20 F.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710694
Robert W. Weed, Hartwell C. Davis
This paper describes the static test of construction equipment Roll-Over Protective Structures (ROPS) as performed in accordance with the applicable SAE Recommended Practices. Details of the test facility are presented, including test fixturing concepts and pertinent design calculations. The heavy equipment tie-down methods and restraint systems are shown. Data acquisition accuracy and methods are described. Data from several tests are compared with data from SAE committee files.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710707
James F. Arndt
Operators of machines used in agriculture, construction, and forestry industries can be involved in accidents due to inappropriate actions while servicing or operating the machines. It, therefore, becomes desirable to warn them of certain types of personal hazards when they are on or around machines. This can be accomplished with the use of a safety sign. For safety signs to do their job effectively, it is desirable that they be similar in format and design. Furthermore, they should be carefully written, appropriately placed, and be distinctive on the equipment.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710040
Wei-Ming Lee
The dependence of the compressive stress-strain behavior of plastic foams on the loading geometry and its significance in relation to the cushioning design study for automobile safety is explored. Experimental load-deflection responses obtained under dynamic (impact) and static conditions using loading objects of various different geometry are analyzed. A strong interaction between the loading geometry and the material response existed. It was found that the stress-strain behavior of plastic foams varied, whether under static or dynamic conditions, with the loading geometry. The linear load-deflection response observed in the case of hemi-spherical loading differed from that of the convoluted faceform loading, while the response for the flat plate compression deviated from both.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710020
K. R. Trosien, L. M. Patrick
Though the steering wheel has been maligned as a primary cause of injuries in automobile collisions, studies show it is the first passive restraint system in the automobile. Adding an airbag to the steering wheel distributes the energy load better than the wheel alone, and the airbag takes advantage of the space between occupant and steering wheel to protect the driver further. Specifically, the airbag utilizes space to decelerate the occupant, prevents concentrated loads on the torso, stops the face from hitting the steering wheel rim, and helps distribute impact load over a larger area. The airbag has three major components-the sensor, inflator, and airbag. The functioning of these components, as well as experimental investigations conducted to determine operational capabilities of the system, are discussed.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710021
J. A. Pflug
Crash testing has revealed dynamic problems with present designs for air bag passive restraints which must be resolved. Out-of-position occupants can restrict deployment of the air bag or affect its restraint action. In rollover and side impact accidents, today's air bag offers only minimal restraint. Accordingly, it appears essential to use the lap belt, in combination with air bags, to achieve an improved restraint system over current systems when usage rates and effectiveness are considered. The noise level created by air bag actuation may exceed tolerance levels in some humans. Inadvertent deployment of air bags could compromise the driver's control of the vehicle. These and other technical problems must be resolved before such systems are furnished in automobiles to be sold to the public.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710017
J. T. Johnson, R. E. McComb, T. F. McDonnell, D. R. Trowbridge
Engineering design features of three types of energy sources for the Inflatable Occupant Restraint System (IORS) are reviewed. These systems use: 1. Compressed gas 2. Propellant 3. A combination of compressed gas and propellant as a power source for the inflation of the restraint cushion. An analysis is presented of each system with advantages and disadvantages related to specific design parameters. The analysis is restricted to present state-of-the-art systems. It is also based on strictly engineering design features with recognition that product cost, patent position, and other intangibles are factors in final energy source selection. The analysis indicates several important advantages of the combined propellant-air (hybrid) system over one or both of the other two. These are: 1. Ability to obtain nontoxic gases with currently developed propellants. 2. More flexibility in control of gas thermodynamics. 3. The small propellant weight requirements.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710016
Trevor O. Jones, Oliver T. McCarter
A general overview of crash sensor approaches and development is presented including: Passive Inflatable Occupant Restraint System (PIORS) components, time-history of an impact, crash detector requirements and characteristics, and reliability considerations.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710015
F. J. Irish, R. A. Potter, R. D. McKenzie
This paper discusses the design of an automobile air cushion restraint system which will provide adequate occupant protection. The extensive process employed in the design of such a system is presented; systems analysis, engineering, testing, and evaluation are the major points of the process. The program is intended to provide low-cost safety methods, and to provide a basis for future development of more improved safety systems.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710540
F. F. Timpner
This paper shows how to evaluate the impact between two different size vehicles with different energy-absorbing bumper systems. A pendulum will correlate with a barrier for head-on impacts, but not for corner impacts.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710503
Kenneth F. Vander Leest
How safe are the products we use? Today, people are constantly being alerted to the many dangers which exist in our everyday products, whether it be machinery or toy. Who is to blame and how can the public be protected. Governments, both federal and state, are responding to the public's demand for safer products; however, there is yet much progress to be made by technology to give us products which are safe for our everyday use.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710508
James F. Arndt
Over the past 50 years, an estimated 30,000 tractor operators have been accidentally crushed under their overturned vehicles. During that time, stability, preventive devices, and education have been tried to reduce the number of such accidents. Within the past 15 years, worldwide activity has been concentrated on developing adequate roll-over protective structures (ROPS) for operator protection. In order to measure the adequacy of the structures, various worldwide performance standards have been created. The latest include those of the SAE, which recognizes the need for a ROPS to absorb energy in order to minimize injury to the operator.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710509
William P. Macarus
Plastic analysis type of analytical calculations are included in this paper as a guide for designers to size Rollover Protective Structures to meet SAE J-395. Basic design considerations are given including material selection, brittle failures, local buckling, and allowable deflections.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710297
Josef R. Smith
The anatomy of the human respiratory system is detailed. The function of the entire system is shown from inspiration to expiration. Equations are given to illustrate flow-pressure relationships in the airways. Specifics of gas transfer are shown. All these details of physiology and function are necessary for an understanding of the effects of air pollution upon the human respiratory system.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710277
R. A. DePaul
Gears fail or are damaged on occasion by impact fatigue loading. This study involves an evaluation of the resistance of commonly used gear steels to impact fatigue failure. A specially designed impact fatigue specimen and testing device were used to evaluate nine carburizing steels (SAE 4118, 4620, 4626, 4718, 4817, 8620, 8822, EX-1, and the European 16MnCr5) and three nitriding steels (Nitralloy G, Nitralloy N, and 5Ni-2Al). The relative impact fatigue resistances of the steels are discussed as well as the influences of such heat treatment variables as high carbon potential, high temperature carburizing, and refrigeration. In general, impact fatigue resistance was independent of core strength but improved with increasing nickel content in the nitrided steels as well as the carburized steels. Lowering retained austenite by refrigeration was found to be detrimental to impact fatigue resistance.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710078
R. W. McLay, F. J. Blackstone, P. K. Das
An energy-absorbing restraint system that limits the accelerations of a passenger in a forward auto crash to 20 g's is presented. The device absorbs energy through the continuous bending of a steel wire. Results of an elastic-plastic analysis of the device indicate that it closely approximates a constant force energy absorber; the force is only a weak function of velocity. Preliminary results from drop tests and high-speed impact tests to 100 mph indicate that the absorber can limit acceleration to a specified value. The results of two tests in which the device was used to restrain a volunteer during a head-on crash are presented. In each crash a vehicle driven at 50 mph impacted a parked vehicle. The results show that the restraint system protects a man in a forward crash by limiting his accelerations to a level below the threshold of injury for the vital organs.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710079
L. M. Patrick, K. R. Trosien
The paper gives an evaluation of the performance of lap and shoulder belt restraint systems currently being used in American-built automobiles. Comparisons are made of the response characteristics of a volunteer, an anthropometric dummy, and a cadaver when subjected to identical collision environments while wearing a three or four point torso restraint system as occupants of the right front seat. Simulated frontal force barrier collisions in a modified automobile provided the realistic environment for the restraint system performance study. Human tolerances, interior vehicle geometry, and the interaction of the restrained occupant with the vehicle during the collision are reported in detail.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710076
Donald F. Huelke, Harold W. Sherman
Ejection of car occupants through door openings has been markedly reduced in the new model cars. However, cases have now been found where car occupants are being ejected through the side door glass opening or directly through the side glass. Twenty-one cases of ejection through the side glass are described.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710077
W. D. Nelson
Lap-shoulder belts, although infrequently used by vehicle occupants, are demonstrating a remarkably high reduction of injury in collisions where they were used. A search was made for all collisions in the GM files where at least one occupant was wearing the lap-shoulder belt combination restraint. Of the 160 cases found for this study, 60% of the vehicles had heavy damage of the type often associated with occupant injury: however, 99% of the lap-shoulder belt users either had no-injury or only minor injury. The only two fatalities found in the study involved accidents occurring under unusual circumstances. This paper describes 18 of the most severe damage and/or injury cases by means of photographs and collision descriptions. Some grouping of body injuries is also listed. These data illustrate that the use of different occupant restraint configurations (unrestrained, lap belt, and lap-shoulder belt) affect the severity of injuries to various body areas.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710182
W.C. House, W.J. Eggington, C.A. Lysdale
The characteristics of the supporting air cushion system are key to the cross-country mobility and overwater performance of Air Cushion Vehicles and Surface Effect Ships. The direction of developments in this technology are discussed, and the primary cushion design variables are identified. The historical sequence of air cushion development is reviewed, and it is concluded that current and future advancement will be based on “3rd generation” systems, in which the cushion system design is tailored to the specific application.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710487
Alan E. Diehl
A simple mathematical model was developed to estimate benefit-to-cost ratios of alternative safety devices. The “Benefit” is the expected decrease in accident losses, while “Cost” includes the expense of the device plus maintenance and useful load penalty. This model permits the manufacturers and operators to select the most effective items. Realizing that the majority of accidents involve pilot error, the strong and weak points of contemporary cockpit design are described. Several human engineering improvements are proposed.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710455
E. E. Glanz
Aircraft equipped with computerized Area Navigation Systems have created the need for an entirely new air traffic control environment. This paper will highlight problems encountered as the ATC system begins its evolution toward area navigation, and will suggest operational techniques favorable to a total area navigation ATC environment. Conventional interfaces are no longer useful. Independent systems (computer, controller, pilot, route structure, and aircraft) meet in the cockpit, but satisfactory communications have not been established. Pilot reaction indicates that the information is not now properly presented in the cockpit. Attempts to solve these interface problems have indicated that the solution lies in comprehensive software programs and clear situation displays for the pilot.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710456
A. B. Winick, D. M. Brandewie
The need to improve the efficiency and capacity of the Air Traffic Control and Navigation System has placed greater emphasis on the functional integration of subsystems which have been treated independently in the past. This paper presents results of limited test programs designed to explore the relationship of terminal area navigation and the air traffic control system, and to show the benefits of an optimum combination of both functions. The need for further analysis is indicated with respect to carrying out the third generation system design postulated by the DOT Air Traffic Control Advisory Committee. It is concluded that functional integration of ATC and navigation in the terminal area presents the greatest challenge. In other areas, such as enroute, the availability of new, integrated avionics systems provides an expanded operational capability.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710632
T. D. Sherard
The “real world” of highway truck operation sometimes differs from the technical world of simulation models, laboratory and proving ground tests and mathematical equations. At this time this is a matter of real concern. Federal standards now being proposed and effected appear to be based on the maximum performance-or greater-that can be built into a vehicle fresh off the production line. Generally speaking, when the truck or trailer comes off the production line it is, or should be, at the peak of its lifetime performance. Therefore, it is disturbing to see a trend, at state and federal levels, to impose new truck standards or standards even more severe on vehicles in actual operation, especially combinations of vehicles whose individual units, even though adequate when tested alone, cannot, when combined, attain such individual unit standards-that is, without exorbitant costs which will eliminate them entirely from the highways.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710644
W. E. F. Rupprecht, M. E. Winquist
The human factor will always be a deterrent to achievement of 100% safety in automobiles, but new design and materials have considerably narrowed the margin of risk in highway accidents. This article considers the contributions made by the chemical industry in providing materials suitable for this purpose. Improvements in crash padding, hydraulic fluids, and gas tanks have greatly reduced injuries attributable to impact, fire, and brake failure. The close cooperation of the automotive and chemical industries is duly credited for these safety efforts. Emphasis is placed on the need for integration of inspection, driver education, highway design, and traffic laws with enforcing agencies in order to perfect overall in-use protection.
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