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1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680053
Charles W. Gadd, Lawrence M. Patrick
It is pointed out that in attempting to evaluate devices or design alterations to minimize accident injury, there arise important questions of true injury hazard predicted by the test and of relative merit between designs, depending upon whether one employs a system test or a simplified laboratory impact procedure. These questions are illustrated first by describing some of the results of a series of accelerator tests of cadaver impact against a steering wheel and energy absorbing column assembly. A salient finding from this work is that, as a result of more favorable load distribution, the chest loading is in the range of one-half that which would be indicated by a simplified torso impact test. It is felt that in the future it will be particularly important to try to take into account in a simplified test the contribution of the shoulders to load distribution, as well as to alter the torso form to obtain more realistic dynamic deflection properties.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680052
Irving I. Lasky, Arnold W. Siegel, Alan M. Nahum
Cardio-thoracic injuries comprise a significant segment of the injuries sustained in automobile collisions. Because of the urgent need for additional information which can lead to prevention of these injuries, The Vehicle Trauma Research group at the UCLA School of Medicine has instituted a medical-engineering study of these injuries. The study has attempted to correlate pathophysiologic aspects of the injuries with the kinematics and biomechanics of the collision. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of restraining devices and the relationship of injuries of various wheel-column configurations including “energy absorbing” designs. Sixty-seven cases have been completely analyzed to date and are presented as a preliminary pilot study illustrating the value of this type of approach to auto collision injuries.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680044
Roger L. Saur, Slavko M. Dobrash
To promote improved automotive safety, present Federal specifications require the reduction of glare by sunlight reflection from a trim surface by restricting its intensity. The specifications imply that matte surfaces must be used. The alternative described herein reduces glare of reflected sunlight from reflective surfaces by decreasing the apparent size of the image. The necessary demagnification is obtained by utilization of surface curvature. The maximum radius of curvature is calculated by geometric optics.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680031
Aaron Bloom, William G. Cichowski, Verne L. Roberts
Initially, scientific investigators developed their own human simulators for use in adverse environment testing. This paper describes some of the history of the development of different types of human simulation techniques and their limitations. The increased necessity for more accurate simulations for automotive safety studies has created a need for additional sophistication. Sophisticated Sam, created by Sierra Engineering Co. under the sponsorship of the General Motors Corp., represents a significant advance in the state-of-the-art. The rationale behind the creation of a working simulator is presented along with proposed performance criteria.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680032
William G. Cichowski, Jeffrey N. Silver
Abstract Restraint systems for occupants are now being provided in all new automotive passenger vehicles. This paper describes research into the effectiveness and proper use of various types of restraint systems for adults and children. Tests were conducted, both simulated and full-scale, to explore the added level of protection that can be afforded when the occupants of a passenger car can anticipate an impact. Research indicates that a substantial reduction of accidental injuries and deaths can be achieved if the motoring public apply the conclusions of this study.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680033
R. M. Kemmerer, R. Chute, D. P. Hass
An inflatable cushion restraint system is being developed which automatically inflates in front of the automobile occupant in the time interval between vehicle impact and the “second collision.” The system draws upon the latest non-metallic material technology and controlled explosive power units to achieve the objectives of actuating the cushion in .040 seconds and attaining high reliability and sufficient storage life at a realistic cost-effectiveness ratio. This system has undergone extensive sled, barrier, and other development tests. These tests have indicated that in experimental situations significant reductions in lap belt loads, in head and chest deceleration, and in rebound rates may be achieved as compared with the present lap belt system. Tests with live primates, run on the Daisy Decelerator at Alamagordo, New Mexico, resulted in survivability at sled decelerations of 57 g’s vs. fatal injuries at 40 g’s for the best of all other systems tested.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680142
T. N. Nock, D. R. Dunlop, D. M. Finch
Mechanical tests performed in this laboratory to determine the ability of automotive lighting and safety devices to withstand environmental conditions are based largely on SAE specifications established many years ago. To ascertain whether these tests are still valid for present conditions, a field investigation was conducted of factory-installed (OEM) lamps and safety belt hardware on a total of 81 domestic-make vehicles in service. The devices were checked to determine the effects of dust, moisture, corrosion and heat resulting from exposure to natural environmental conditions. Evaluations for lighting devices were based on photometric measurements wherever possible; safety belt hardware was evaluated by visual examination. In general, results indicate that the rain and spray and plastic stability tests currently in use in this laboratory are adequate in predicting field serviceability of automotive devices.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680135
C. I. Carr
Skid resistance on wet slippery roads is the dominant factor in safety problems relating to skid and traction. Although many testing and design problems exist, the basic question is how to determine when a tire improvement has been made which is critical to the safe driving of the majority of drivers. Understanding circumstances under which skidding accidents occur and defining the nature of the road surface are essential for the development of improved tires.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680079
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Scientific methodology and engineering techniques were applied to a series of twelve automobile rear-end collision experiments to provide data relating to seat, seat backrest and head-restraint design. Five speeds of impact, six seatback heights and six seatback strength values were studied. The purpose was to evaluate the relative protective merits and the practicality of various seat designs with respect to the many variables common to rear-end collisions. This research data provides a basic reference system of collision performance for seat designs with respect to occupant size, posture and proximity to injury producing structures.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680080
R. J. Berton
The effect of seat back rotation, head restraint position, and collision speed on crash dummy head acceleration, extension and flexion was determined by tests using an acceleration sled and vehicle collisions. The sled tests were run with a rigid seat and an adjustable back at 10, 20, and 30 mph. Vehicle collisions were conducted with production seats with and without head restraint devices at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 50 mph impact speeds. Fifty percentile adult male Sierra dummies were used. The head was able to move freely when accelerated backward. In both sled and vehicle collisions, head restraint devices reduced the measured severity criteria on the crash dummies employed in the tests.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680001
Roger P. Daniel
The injury-reducing functions of crash padding are discussed as they relate to head impact. The bony structure of the cranial vault (above eyebrows) is strong under localized impact compared with the face. Padding used to protect the cranial vault from impact has the primary function of absorbing energy to reduce the possibility of brain damage. On the other hand, padding for facial protection has the primary function of providing uniform load distribution on the face. The pad understructure then supplies the needed energy absorbing capacity. Test procedures to measure both energy absorption and load distribution are described, and evaluation criteria are shown. Other factors that affect padding, such as temperature and cover stock material, are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680002
S. A. HEAP, E. P. GRENIER
Concept and engineering feasibility of a new child restraint system has been demonstrated by various dynamic tests. These tests indicate that the restraint system will retain a child-like dummy in rollovers, side impacts at 17 mph, and in frontal impacts as severe as a 30 mph barrier crash. This unique system that can be used in any passenger seat position having a lap belt consists of a partially encapsulating shield and an internal box-like 3-inch high seat.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680237
William Haddon
The author suggests that many automobile accidents and resultant injuries can be avoided. He discusses the problem in three phases: precrash, crash, and postcrash. Precrash conditions include driver disabilities such as drinking and senility, the road, and the vehicle. The crash phase deals with the vehicle’s interior and exterior design and the crash design of the highway; the postcrash phase discusses emergency response systems such as communication, ambulance attendants, first aid knowledge, and emergency hospital facilities.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680222
Harry A. Augenblick
Increasing air traffic has produced an increase in midair collisions. This paper describes the airborne collision avoidance system (CAS), which is intended for use by large aircraft. It also describes the Dinade CAS, intended to be installed in small aircraft. In addition, the combination of the Dinade interrogator with a weather radar to conserve capital investment, space, weight, and power consumption, is discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680210
W. C. McDonald
This paper discusses the work that the Engineering Div. of Goodyear Aerospace Corp. has been conducting in energy-absorption and how this has been applied to new concepts in fuel containment. The discussion includes various qualitative test methods and compares the test values of the material being investigated to standard fuel tank materials. Hopefully, these values will suggest new design approaches and test procedures for the improvement of fuel tanks, both in crash-resistance and puncture sealing ability.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680193
Harold C. MacDonald
This paper examines some of the new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, and discusses facets of the engineering required to meet them. The author’s reactions to these standards are also explained. The engineering involved in those standards concerning passenger car interior occupant protection, the relative rearward displacement of steering columns, and the 30 mph barrier crash, are discussed in some detail.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680305
Franklin T. Kurt
This discussion attempts to predict the pattern of expected accidents and the relative safety of verticraft in relation to airplanes and helicopters. Since crashes from the same cause may be more serious in one type than another and since exposure time to engine failure varies widely, the analysis is attempted by logic rather than statistics. Potential accidents are discussed first as to possible causes and then as to probable results. Loss of control and loss of power aspects are discussed in detail. It is hoped this philosophy will be helpful to verticraft designers, to FAA and to the military in preparing airworthiness regulations, and most of all, to those who are planning civil and military operations of verticraft. It is intended to define equivalent safety” and final conclusions are evaluated.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680542
John W. Garrett
Accident cases from the Cornell Automotive Crash Injury Research (ACIR) data pool involving 1968 cars are examined to determine whether injury differences exist between these cars and earlier models. Specific design features are reviewed and photographs and descriptions of illustrative case histories are provided. Improvements associated with several new design features are described and several injury hazards observed in the 1968 cars are pointed out. It is concluded that some progress has been made, but further improvement is possible through design change.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680543
L. C. Lundstrom
The search for improvements in occupant protection under vehicle impact is hampered by a real lack of reliable biomechanical data. To help fill this void, General Motors has initiated joint research with independent researchers such as the School of Medicine, U. C. L. A. – in this case to study localized head and facial trauma — and has developed such unique laboratory tools as “Tramasaf,” a human-simulating headform, and “MetNet,” a pressure-sensitive metal foam. Research applied directly to product design also has culminated in developments such as the Side-Guard Beam for side impact protection.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680557
Lawrence G. Harshfield
The safety engineering criteria, principles, and management techniques are applicable disciplines that are applied in concept studies, technical development plans, feasibility design, development and production of military materiel and are directly dependent upon the management emphasis received during the project phases. The system safety engineering program assures appropriate tests to obtain the reasonable assurances that the risk involved in the use of the new materiel is no greater than necessary.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680482
D. L. Veenstra
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680483
Alan M. Nahum, Arnold W. Siegel, Philip V. Hight, Samuel H. Brooks
A study was made of 290 collisions containing 464 front seat car occupants. Of the 405 injured occupants, 141 received their lower extremity injuries against the instrument panel. The occupant’s most serious injury was related to car model year, age of occupant, vehicle weight, and estimated impact speed. Statistically, a regression analysis shows a very strong correlation of these variables and collision injury. It is significant that the number of lower extremity injuries drops steeply for vehicles from 1957 through 1967. Rear seat occupant injuries were not considered in this paper.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680478
Vernon D. Halliday, Donald R. Hoover, Harry G. Holcombe, Ben C. Parr
The authors examine the engineering requirements of a passenger car instrument panel having improved ability to reduce occupant injury. In the development of materials and their geometric configuration, the pad and its underlying structure receive primary consideration. A prototype instrument panel is described, and data are presented on approximately 40 different materials and combinations of materials evaluating their ability to absorb occupant energy.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680477
D. J. Van Kirk, J. Hirsch, T. B. Sato
Investigations of injuries from automobile accidents are of limited valve unless they can be correlated with the severity of the accident. In order to provide a uniform base of accident severity, a method for relating the severity of impact to different types of objects to the barrier impact has been developed. The barrier impact is used as the reference since it is the most severe type of accident. The result is an effective barrier speed which relates the severity of the accident to an equivalent barrier speed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680491
Robert A. Wolf
The first issues of federal vehicle safety standards, stemming from the Highway Safety Acts of 1966, were directed primarily toward passenger cars. Vehicle safety standards for trucks are now receiving the strong attention of the new National Highway Safety Bureau which initiates the standards. Many of the worthwhile safety countermeasures now being treated by standards have been identified through the process of prior accident research. In view of the emerging emphasis on truck safety the author has reviewed accident research and data collection in the United States in order to summarize the present state of knowledge of accident causation and injury causation related to trucking. Commentary is provided on the potential utility of the existing data as well as the urgent need for new accident research to provide knowledge for guiding the specification of future safety countermeasures.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680486
Parvin M. Russell
Many new glass attachment designs have evolved since the introduction of tempered safety glass, as a result of its high strength, as well as its compatibility with heat-curing adhesives. Attachment methods include bonding, grooves in glass for frame retention, and holes through which bolted, plastic riveted, and pinned fasteners are secured. This paper discusses each of these methods in detail, noting that the expanding plastic rivet offers the most promise for the future.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680484
Noboru Miura, Koichiro Kawamura
A study of the deformation mechanism in head-on collision was conducted. A simple dynamic model of vehicle structure was assumed, and the model analyzed by using a high-speed computer; the solutions were then compared with the experimental results. Following are the findings obtained from the solutions: 1. In the case of a vehicle with independent rear suspension, the power train can provide much more resistance to the deformation as compared with a vehicle with conventional suspension. 2. The strength of front end structure has much effect on the deformation of passenger compartment.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680403
W. Lewis Hyde
This paper discusses some of the optical problems associated with the conventional rear view mirror, convex mirrors, combinations of plane mirrors, and periscopes. Two kinds of periscopes are described in some detail. The first is called a view finder and the second a folded telescope. The first presents an image inside the automobile on which the driver must focus his eyes. The second presents an image which seems to lie far away so that the driver can look into it without changing the focus of his eyes. Finally, an unconventional system is described built of parallel cylindrical lenses and mirrors and operating as a unit magnification telescope. Models of the latter system have been successfully installed in a variety of automobiles.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680600
James T. Sykes, Lloyd C. Newland
It is one thing for an engineer to design the safest vehicle and equip it with the most effective restraint system. It is quite another to have the user of this fine equipment use it to lengthen his own life. This paper explains the process one segment of a large government agency has successfully used to get approximately 88% use of the restraint system on the job and a slightly lower percentage of use by employee's families in the family car. Program emphasis has been on the 3-point lap/shoulder belt for maximum head protection.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680589
Alan G. Galbavy
Has the wheel taken us to the end of our road? Biomechanics’ functional morphologic approach to problems reveals the feasibility of machine designs through studying living phenomena. In addition to the solution of standing problems, the method leads to a series of advanced concepts -- from a one-man cupola simulating an arthropod claw to a weapons firing platform based on the structure, form, and movement found in a snake -- which are useful for new weapons development in the light of our rapidly advancing technology. Outgrowths are expected from this type of investigation through design ingenuity.
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