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1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760691
L. J. Cobb
In this paper a two dimensional dynamic analysis is used to simulate an overturning condition for crawler tractors. Input for the analysis includes tractor dimensions, surface conditions, force-deflection characteristics of the tractor's rollover protective structure, soil properties, initial tractor position, initial tractor velocity, tractor mass, and tractor mass moment of inertia. Results of the analysis are used to study the effect of tractor mass on the force and energy absorbed by the tractor's rollover protective structure.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760702
Robert D. Tomlinson
Product liability is becoming an increasingly important factor in the manufacture and distribution of products. For this reason, both the manufacturer and distributor should be aware of the legal concept of product liability and take steps to reduce the probability of injury from their products and protect the mutual interests of themselves and their customers in the event of product liability litigation.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760798
Haluk Bekiroglu
In this study an investigation is made into the crash phase of automobile intersection collisions. Analytical as well as experimental methods were used to show that the automobile crash phenomena may be explained macroscopically by rigid body impact theory. Analysis of experimental results indicated the numerical range of the coefficient of friction between the colliding vehicles and the coefficient of restitution necessary to explain the crushing characteristics of the automobile structures and the final velocities at the end of the crash phase for different modes of intersection collisions.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760777
Roy S. Rice, Fred Dell'Amico, Richard E. Rasmussen
Loss of vehicle control accounts for a significant number of high severity accidents involving single vehicles in non-urban areas and, research indicates, is often directly attributable to the driver. In order to identify specific aspects of the driving task that are not adequately performed so that countermeasures can be developed, clinical approaches have been applied to the study of driver behavior. This paper presents the results of one such clinical driver behavior study conducted by the Calspan Corporation for General Motors.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760652
John N. Murphy, Richard S. Fowkes
A review of alternate power sources under consideration or development for underground vehicles will be covered including (1) diesel (emission control and environmental monitoring), (2) steam engine, (3) flywheel, and (4) alternate battery supplies.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760649
Irmin O. Kamm, Gilbert A. Wray, James C. Ault
This paper presents a progress report of our study of the front-end loader (FEL) roll-over instability problem and the development status of a stability indicator used to improve the safety of front-end loader operations. As this paper is being written the program is still active and progress is continuing. The contributing factors have been identified, the loader stability characteristics have been determined and several overturn warning indicators are being fabricated for installation for subsequent field evaluation. The indicator is sensitive to bucket load and position, pitch and roll angle, articulation angle and vehicle speed. The above signals are used as inputs to analog circuits which solve a correlation equation and compare the actual roll angle to the “critical” roll angle. The device displays a visual warning to the operator.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760259
Peter Peterson
While European passenger cars are already being equipped with sheet molding compound (SMC) bumpers, a new high strength SMC material system named “Oriented Roving SMC” is introduced to expand further the use of SMC in this area. Bumpers made with conventional chopped roving SMC, continuous roving SMC and oriented roving SMC as well as with steel and aluminum were sled tested under various conditions and the results are compared, which indicate that SMC absorbs and stores a high amount of energy. Cost considerations and bumper design proposals are given together with an attempt to evaluate the future of SMC in bumper applications.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760224
R. J. Welgos, E. C. Caughey
Notched Izod Impact has been accepted for purposes of reporting impact resistance for plastic material. It has been shown that these reported values can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the real impact of plastic materials, due to the morphological and visco-elastic differences between polymers. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the inherent shortcomings of the notched Izod tests.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760374
William J. J. Liu, Michael W. Monk
Many impact tests use some type of pendulum. For example, the compliance test of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 215, the bumper standard of automobiles, is usually conducted by using a parallel linkage pendulum. Since the center of percussion as well as the equivalent impacting mass of the test device are mentioned in the standard, some dynamic characteristics of the pendulum need to be examined. It is found that for a parallel linkage pendulum: (1) There exists no center of percussion regardless where the impact line is on the impacting block; but nevertheless, the summation of horizontal reaction forces in the top supporting hinges reduces drastically when the mass ratio of the impact block and the total masses of the supporting linkages is greater than one. (2) There does exist an optimum impact point to eliminate the rotational effect of the vertical reactions.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760460
Loyd C. Parker
A study of a Pilot Advisory System (PAS) concept for high density uncontrolled airports is described. The PAS concept will provide general aviation pilots with automatic audio voice airport and air traffic advisories in two-minute intervals and mid-air collision warnings as necessary. The system when installed will operate automatically without necessity for manual input. The PAS includes the options of fixed-base operator runway select, automatic restart and self-test, and remote inquiry of system status and messages.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760689
Ronald D. Wetjen
Simplified testing procedures which fulfill the loading requirements of SAE Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS) Code J1040a have been developed. Also, a tubular fixture was devised which accurately directs the drop object toward the overhead guard as required by Falling Object Protective Structure (FOPS) Code J231.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760345
Roy S. Rice, Stephen Sacks
This paper describes an approach to the development of a test procedure for measuring the combined steering and braking performance of automobiles with possible application to the formulation of a safety standard. The study was performed under Contract No. DOT-HS-4-00971 for the NHTSA. The influences and interactions of the many factors which must be considered in developing a meaningful and objective procedure are discussed. These include such diverse items as definition of test conditions and equipment requirements, identification of the significant operational variables (initial speed, permissible control functions, performance metrics, etc.), means for discriminating between vehicle and driver effects, and determination of acceptable performance levels. A full-scale test program, aimed at obtaining actual performance information on the effect of various factors, is described.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760176
B. Meffert, G. Wiegand, G. Menges
Investigations of the mechanical behaviour of materials have proved the existence of critical strain limits for plastics. The exceeding of these limits leads to the formation of irreversible damages in the microstructure of the materials. Measuring procedures for the determination of the first material damages are pointed out and evaluated. By means of a special example, the investigation of the microcracks development of a chopped strand glass mat reinforced UP-resin under uniaxial tensile loading up to high rates of deformation, it can be proved that even for extremely quick deformation processes, unequivocal determination of the critical strain is still possible.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760216
Carl Ballard, Ron Andrade
FMVSS 105 was a modification of the former SAE voluntary standard and was useful as one of a number of test procedures required to establish the acceptability of a brake system. The subsequent FMVSS 105-75 established criteria which do not appear to correlate to the real world, and adequate brake system design still depends on the integrity of manufacturers and engineers. FMVSS 105-75 has created compliance problems, has increased vehicle costs, and has been of marginal benefit to the customer.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760217
Rudolf Limpert
The purpose of this paper is to outline and analyze the functions of a braking system, to review the elements of an objective and meaningful braking standard, to evaluate Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 105-74, and to recommend revisions to FMVSS 105-75.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760569
K. C. Hoffman, J. J. Reilly, F. J. Salzano, C. H. Waide, R. H. Wiswall, W. E. Winsche
Metal hydrides offer the possibility of a convenient and safe method for the storage of hydrogen. These compounds provide for compact storage in a form that is equal to or better than cryogenic liquid hydrogen on a volume basis. Considerable research has gone into the study of hydrides derived from rare earth, iton-titanium, and magnesium alloys. The formation of these compounds is reversible and the chemistry of relevant hydrides has been discussed. Heat must be provided to decompose these compounds and release the hydrogen, while heat is liberated when the compounds are formed and must be removed to allow the hydriding reactions to proceed to completion. The iron-titanium and magnesium alloys are especially promising hydride storage media, the former in stationary applications, or where weight is not a limiting consideration, and the latter for mobile applications.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760785
Alan J. Cross
FMVSS 105-75 imposed maximum effort to be applied to the parking brake on passenger vehicles to hold the vehicle on 20% and 30% grades. The previous unlimited regulation had allowed vehicles to be built with grade parking efforts beyond the ability of many drivers. For the Ford vehicle range, an average improvement of 40% was required to comply with the new regulation. This paper describes the program entered into by Ford to establish the most cost effective method of achieving the improvement.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760295
Geoffrey Wildsmith, Robert Ward
Seamless 90/10 copper-nickel brake tubing has been introduced in the European market for both original equipment and replacement applications on automobiles and trucks. It offers a significant advantage over other materials in terms of its combination of corrosion resistance, strength and formability at a price which is not prohibitive.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760743
D. H. James, H. M. Keen
ELIMINATION OF THE AUTOMOBILE SPARE WHEEL and maintenance of vehicle control/mobility during and after tyre deflation are important objectives. The DENOVO tyre/wheel system with runflat capability offers a potential means of obtaining these goals. The system combines tyre/wheel geometric design; positive location of bead to rim; an internal lubricant system and special rubber compounding. Field experience over 2-1/2 years has confirmed its technical viability, establishing a minimum performanace of 50 miles at 40 mph in the deflated mode. Work on weight and cost reduction is proceeding.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760430
Graham Walker
Experience has shown that the conventional service brakes on large mining trucks are not adequate for emergency use when the trucks are used in mountain mining. Following several serious accidents involving runaway vehicles, in Alberta and British Columbia, the regulatory authorities have instituted ‘on the road’ brake tests both for vehicle type and for annual monitoring. In addition, the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board commissioned a technical review of present service brake practice and a study of the requirements when trucks are utilized in mountain mining service. This paper summarizes the recommendations emanating from that study for the service brake and emergency brake systems. A rational justification for the recommendations is presented and numerical examples for the various calculations are included.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760370
D. F. Huelke, T. E. Lawson
Injuries to the lower torso (abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine) were studied in front seat, lap-belted, outboard occupants involved in frontal crashes. The data indicate that the “no injury” category is increased by 50% in belt users over unbelted occupants. Of injured lap-belted occupants, only one in five was injured in the lower torso area. Of these injuries, 7 out of 10 were rated as minor. Belts reduce the occurrence of serious injuries in all lower torso regions except the lumbar area. The more serious injuries occur at impact speeds of over 30 mph. Only 5% of the injured lap-belted occupants had critical to life-threatening injuries in the lower torso area. The angle of the seat belt does not appear to be related to lower torso injury severity.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760339
Raymond R. McHenry
An unusual application of a computer simulation of automobile dynamics to the design of a thrill show stunt is described. The rationale for development of the simulation for highway safety applications is discussed and the general analytical approach is described. Computer graphics displays of simulation outputs, consisting of detailed perspective drawings of the vehicle and terrain features or obstacles at selected intervals of time during a simulated maneuver, are presented. For the presentation of the paper, computer graphics displays of simulation outputs will be animated through the use of motion picture film. Also, motion picture coverage of both developmental tests and public performances of the Astro Spiral Jump will be shown.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760063
Michael R. Appleby, Louis J. Bintz
Bumper standards are examined for real world relevance by performing a literature review and comparing laboratory type test data with actual collision data. Conflicting or lack of data precluded reaching a conclusion that bumper standards result in safety benefits for pedestrians and vehicle occupants. Vehicle damage data are also examined and similar conclusions are made.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760059
J. A. MacDonald
Advanced technology is pushing the power capabilities of racing cars to the point where the lives of the drivers could be terminated in a split second. Some of the hazards are due to inadequate barriers; caused by sudden impact and by deflections over or under the barrier. This is also dangerous for the thousands of spectators who crowd the track for a better view. By request of the Motor Racing Safety Society, engineering students from over fifty universities took part in a Roadside Barrier Design Contest, resulting in many imaginative and innovative concepts. The engineering students from the University of Guelph were judged the overall winners. This paper is based primarily on their submission.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760022
Yoshihiro Kajio, Ichiro Hagiwara
This paper describes a non-linear analysis of automobile body structure by the finite element method. Numerical calculations were made for both the roof crush resistance and seat belt anchorage strength of a body structure and were compared with test results. Dynamic analysis was also made by an incremental method similar to that used for the static case. Results calculated for both situations indicate correspondence well with experimental results.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760014
Francis A. DiLorenzo
This paper attempts to establish a correlation between bodily injury and the rate at which energy (power) is transferred to the body. Two head impacts are analyzed to demonstrate the procedures, however, analysis results are given for eleven head impacts. The methods involve the fundamental laws of mechanics and only the power levels are established empirically. Equations are developed that relate power to the absolute values of acceleration and the product of momentum and jerk. From the derived mathematical expressions a procedure for analyzing experimental data is given. The appendix contains a computer program for performing the analysis. Lastly arguments are given that predict the ideal processes for changing energy levels. Although the procedures described in this paper address only the human tolerances, it is conceivable the same procedure may be useful for analysis of inorganic structures.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760013
Stanley H. Backaitis, Edwin M. Trout, Randolph J. Wolf
A solid state, low power, self-contained digital crash recorder was developed and installed in the Part 572 crash test dummy for capturing and storing the crash severity-time event. The crash recorder is capable of recording upon internal triggering command the dummy's response in 10 separate data channels. The recorder's performance was evaluated in laboratory and vehicle tests consisting of simulated and real rigid barrier collisions in the forward impact mode and moving barrier collisions in side impacts. The recorder was found to be suitable for capturing and storing high quality crash data compatible with currently used hardwire data acquisition techniques.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760824
Max Bender, John W. Melvin, Richard L. Stalnaker
Abstract A versatile high-speed cineradiographic system developed in the Biomechanics Department of The University of Michigan's Highway Safety Research Institute has recently been completed, for application to human injury and tolerance and occupant protection research. This system consists of a high-speed motion picture camera which views a 2-inch diameter output phosphor of a high gain 4-stage, magnetically focussed image intensifier tube, gated on and off synchronously with shutter pulses from the motion picture camera. A fast lens optically couples the input photocathode of the image intensifier tube to x-ray images produced on a fluorescent screen by a d-c x-ray generator.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760825
Alan M. Nahum, Randall W. Smith
A series of blunt head impacts has been performed on stationary unembalmed human cadavers. The specimens were prepared to simulate realistic fluid pressures within the cerebrospinal fluid space and cerebral blood vessels. Translational acceleration-time histories of the head were recorded by biaxial accelerometers attached to the skull. Peak resultant head accelerations in excess of 3,000 m/s2 and pulse durations of 5 ms. or less were observed in a series of 10 experiments. The cerebral vascular system was perfused with a carbon particle tracer solution. Following impact, careful gross and microscopic pathologic studies of the cranial soft tissues were performed to assess vascular hemorrahage as represented by extravasation of tracer solution into the brain tissue. Data is presented describing the input forcing function, resultant head acceleration, and detailed necropsy findings.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760776
Raymond R. McHenry
Correlation of injury with the nature and severity of the acceleration exposure in actual highway accidents is complicated by problems with uniformity in the interpretation of accident evidence. The SMAC and CRASH computer programs have been developed with the objective of providing aids for interpretation of physical evidence. Through the use of such aids in accident studies, it is possible to establish injury thresholds and mechanisms for living humans in relatively detailed exposures and under different conditions of restraint and protection. In addition to providing refined measures of the performance of protective devices, such studies can provide an improved basis for evaluation of test devices (i.e., anthropomorphic dummies and other surrogate crash victims). The existing forms and the evidence requirements of the SMAC and CRASH programs are described and results of pilot application studies are presented and discussed.
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