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Viewing 121 to 150 of 17251
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1460
Nitesh Jadhav, Linda Zhao, Senthilkumar Mahadevan, Bill Sherwood, Krishnakanth Aekbote, Dilip Bhalsod
The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1561
Anton A. Tkachev, Nong Zhang
Rollover prevention is one of the prominent priorities in vehicle safety and handling control. A promising alternative for roll angle cancellation is the active hydraulically interconnected suspension. This paper represents the analytical model of active hydraulically interconnected suspension system followed by the general simulation. Passive hydraulically interconnected suspension systems have been widely discussed and studied up to now. This work specifically focuses on the active hydraulically interconnected suspension system. Equations of motion of the system are formalised first. The entire system consists of two separate systems that can be modelled independently and further combined together for simulation. One of the two systems is 4 degrees of freedom half-car model which simulates vehicle lateral dynamics and vehicle roll angle response to lateral acceleration in particular.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0041
Shengguang Xiong, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Longjie Xiao
Automotive Front Lighting System (AFS) can receive the steering signal and the vehicle speed signal to automatically adjust the position of the headlamps light's body. AFS will provide drivers more information of the front road to protect drivers safe when driving at night. AFS works when there is a steering signal input. However, drivers often need the front road's information before they turn the steering wheel when vehicles are going to go round a sharp corner, AFS will not work in such a situation. In order to solve this problem, this paper studied how to foresight the front road and optimize the working time of AFS based on GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS (Geographic Information System). This paper built the model of the vehicle steering characteristics with the relationship between the headlamp steering lighting and the angle of the steering wheel based on the follow-up steering law of headlamps of AFS.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0058
Dajiang Suo, Sarra Yako, Mathew Boesch, Kyle Post
Developing requirements for automotive electric/electronic systems is challenging as they are becoming increasingly software-intensive. Increasingly, designs must account for unintended interactions among software features, combined with unforeseen environmental factors. In addition, engineers have to make architectural tradeoff and assign responsibilities to each component in the system before developing safety requirements. ISO 26262 is an industry standard for the functional safety of automotive electric/electronic systems. It specifies various processes and procedures for ensuring functional safety, but does not limit the methods that can be used for hazard and safety analysis. System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a new technique for hazard analysis in the sense that hazards are caused by unsafe interactions between components (including humans) as well as component failures and faults.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0084
Jiantao Wang, Bo Yang, Jialiang Liu, Kangping Ji, Qilu Wang
Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system.The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0080
Qilu Wang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Shengguang Xiong, XiaoXiao zhou
Mountain road winding and bumpy,traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present Curve warning system research are based on CCD, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map. Braking based on vehicle dynamics before entering the curve is used to identify the road. The critical safety speed which do not occur side-slip is calculated with the radius of curvature , side friction factor and so on using the vehicle lateral dynamics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0085
Wanyang XIA, Yahui Wu, Gangfeng Tan, Xianyao Ping, Benlong Liu
Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the highway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more responsible time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The highway exit speed limit sigh (ESLS) is an effect reminder for the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the Color Variable ESLS system, whose installation point is placed considering the vehicle dynamic difference, the traffic condition and the highway geometric design. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit requirement in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change between the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji
Mountainous roads have complex terrain. Traditional vehicle active safety system, such as ABS, only play a role when there's an emergency situation, and the loading rate is not high in the heavy vehicle. So the traffic accident rate is still high in the mountainous area. Researches show that if drivers react before the accident 2-3 s there could be 90% reduction in the accident rate. This safety speed warning system is combined with the digital map, which makes the drivers see the mountainous road information beyond the horizon. Compared to the road standard speed limit, the system combination with the road information and characteristics of heavy vehicle itself can provide a more accurate and more useful safety warning speed limit. It can effectively reduce the incidence of accidents.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0116
Hanlong Yang, Ambarish Desai, Ankit Goila, Feng Dang, Yue Sun, Yang Wang, Jian Dong, Mahdi Heydari, Rahul Shetty, Rakesh Babu Kailasa, Mohammed Alhasan, Manikanta Jonnalagadda
ADAS features development involve multidisciplinary technical fields, as well as extensive variety of different sensors and actuators, therefore the early design process requires much more resources and time to collaborate and implement. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative way of developing ADAS features by using RC car with low cost hobby type of controllers, such as Arduino Due and Raspberry Pi. Camera and one-beam type of Lidar are used together with Raspberry Pi. OpenCV free software is also used for developing lane detection and object recognition. In this paper, we demonstrate the high level concept algorithm architecture, development and potential operation as well as high level testing of various features and functionalities. The developed vehicle can be used as a prototype of the early design phase as well as functional safety testing bench.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1299
Nagurbabu Noorbhasha, Brendan J. O'Toole
The objective of this research is to optimize the structure of a roll cage for an off-road vehicle that was used for SAE Baja competition by UNLV SAE Baja team. Baja SAE is an intercollegiate competition to design, fabricate, and race a small, single passenger, off-road vehicle powered by a 10 HP Briggs & Stratton 4-Stroke gasoline engine. Since the off-road vehicle is powered by a small capacity engine, the weight of the structure is very critical and must be optimized to improve the performance of the vehicle. In an effort to optimize the structure, a roll cage model was generated using CAD and a finite element (FE) analysis was performed on the structure. A grid independence study was carried out on the FE model to reduce the analysis computation time and space. The effects of stress and deformation of the structure were studied for a linear static frontal impact analysis on roll cage for various mesh sizes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1406
Changliu Liu, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Jianyu Chen, Masayoshi Tomizuka
The development of automated vehicles brings new challenges to road safety. The behavior of the automated vehicles should be carefully designed in order to interact with the environment and other vehicles efficiently and safely. In our previous work, the authors proposed the robustly-safe automated driving system (ROAD) in order for the automated vehicle to prevent or minimize occurrences of collisions with surrounding vehicles and moving objects while maintaining efficiency. In this paper, a set of design principles are elaborated based on our previous work, including robust perception and cognition algorithms for environment monitoring and high level decision making and low level control algorithms for safe maneuvering of the vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1400
Keyu Qian, Gangfeng Tan, Binyu Mei, Wanyang XIA
Downhill mountain road is the accident prone section because of its complexity and variety. Drivers rely more on driving experience and it is very easy to cause traffic accidents due to negligence or failure of judgment. Traditional active safety systems, such as ABS, subjects to the driver's visual feedback, can’t fully guarantee the downhill driving safety in complex terrain environment. This study combines the characteristics of vehicle dynamics and geographic information, giving drivers safety speed in advance to reduce traffic accidents due to driver's miscarriage of justice or brake overheating and enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill. Firstly, establish the commercial vehicle driving model, main brake and auxiliary brake model, and study the characteristics of the driving conditions under the change of slope length and slope. Gather the real-time information of the vehicle, such as vehicle weight, speed, gear and engine speed to calculate the vehicle braking torque.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1446
Allen Charles Bosio, Paul Marable, Marcus Ward, Bradley Staines
With the introduction of the new USNCAP protocols, which incorporated assessment of a 5th percentile occupant in the passenger seat, a variety of solutions were introduced to achieve 5 star accreditation using additional restraint solutions such as, but not exclusively, knee airbags, dual pretensioning and adaptive venting . The engineering challenge was to understand and design a passenger airbag system that recognized and adapted itself to the smaller, belted, 5th percentile female, while adequately restraining the larger, unbelted, 50th percentile male. In this paper we describe the development of an airbag restraint which achieves 5 star performance levels, where the design focus from the outset was to achieve minimal head, neck & chest injury risk. This was achieved without the need for active adaptive features. The CAE tools Madymo and Radioss were critical to the design of a new patented airbag which repeatedly demonstrated USNCAP RRS <=0.66.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1428
Berkan Guleyupoglu, Ryan Barnard, F. Scott Gayzik
Computational modeling of the human body is increasingly used to evaluate countermeasure performance during simulated vehicle crashes. During crash simulations, there are different injury criteria that can be calculated from such models and these can either be correlative (HIC, BrIC, etc.) or based on local deformation and loading (rib fracture, organ damage, etc.). In this study, we present a method to extract rib fracture data. The GHMBC M50-O (v. 4.3, 1.3M nodes, 2.2M elements, 76.8 kg) model was used in the simulations with rib fracture enabled and were run on a Linux cluster using 48 CPUs and MPP LS-DYNA. Rib fracture in the M50-O model is handled through element deletion once the element surpasses 1.8% effective strain over multiple time-steps. The algorithm central to the methodology presented extracts rib fracture data and requires 4-element connectivity to register a fracture.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1467
Ashok Mache, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
There has been a keen interest in recent times on implementation of lightweight materials in vehicles to bring down the unladen weight of a vehicle for enhancing fuel efficiency. Fiber-reinforced composites comprise a class of such materials. As sustainability is also a pre-occupation of current product development engineers including vehicle designers, bio-composites based on natural fibers are receiving a special attention. Keeping these motivations of lower effective density, environment friendliness and occupational safety in mind, woven jute fabric based composites have been recently studied as potential alternatives to glass fiber composites for structural applications in automobiles. In the past, mechanical characterization of jute-polyester composites were restricted to obtaining their stress-strain behaviors under quasi-static conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1466
Claudia De La Torre, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero, Andreas Sprick
Studies in the EU and the USA found higher deformation and occupant injuries in frontal crashes when the vehicle was loaded outboard (frontal crashes with a small overlap). Due to that, in 2012 the IIHS began to evaluate the small overlap front crashworthiness In order to solve this problem. A set of small overlap tests were carried out at IDIADA’S passive safety laboratory and the importance of identifying the forces applied in each structural element involved in small overlap crash were determined. One of the most important structural elements in the small overlap test is the wheel. Its interaction in a small overlap crash can modify the vehicle interaction at the crash, which at the laboratory the interaction is with a barrier. That interaction has a big influence at the vehicle development and design strategy. In order to study and understand in a better way the wheel kinematics and separation strategy, IDIADA developed with HATCI a small overlap sled test.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1675
Genís Mensa, Núria Parera, Alba Fornells
Nowadays, the use of high-speed digital cameras to acquire relevant information is a standard for all laboratories and facilities working in passive safety crash testing. The recorded information from the cameras is used to develop and improve the design of vehicles in order to make them safer. Measurements such as velocities, accelerations and distances are computed from high-speed images captured during the tests and represent remarkable data for the post-crash analysis. Therefore, having the exact same position of the cameras is a key factor to be able to compare all of the values that are extracted from the images of the tests carried out within a long-term passive safety project. However, since working with several customers involves a large amount of different cars and tests, facilities have to readapt for every test mode making it difficult for them to reproduce the correct and precise position of the high-speed cameras throughout the same project.
2017-03-14
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-01-25
Book
This Index is the most current listing of Aerospace Material Specifications, enabling you to locate each document quickly and easily. Documents are indexed by subject and number, with the subject index organized into seven special interest areas including: Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals and Materials Tolerances Quality Control Processes Non-Metallic Materials and Processes Metals Parts In addition, a "Similar Specifications Index" is included, allowing you to easily find the AMS specifications that are similar to ASTM, AWS, Defense, Federal, or Military specifications. UNS and Alloy information are included as well. Also Available: Aerospace Standards Index
2017-01-18
Article
It's clear the global auto industry has entered a revolutionary era that is changing how we transport ourselves and our goods.
2017-01-18
Article
Artificial intelligence is the computer science that will make fully autonomous vehicles practical.
2017-01-18
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) is emerging as a mainstay of automated driving technologies, sparking a number of partnerships, product announcements—and safety concerns.
2017-01-18
WIP Standard
AIR6190A
This document provides information on provisions for passengers with disabilities on board commercial aircraft. In this context the term "provision of medical oxygen" shall be understood as application of oxygen on board an aircraft not linked to (post) decompression in the sense of Airworthiness Requirements FAR/CS 25 and Operational Regulations of FAR 121/135. Information about available equipment and physiological treatment in clinical practice will be provided in this document. It covers the use of oxygen concentrators according to guidance of FAR Advisory Circular AC120-95.
CURRENT
2017-01-18
Standard
J2419_201701
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting frontal impact restraint system tests for heavy truck applications. Its purpose is to establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system testing for heavy trucks. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
2017-01-17
WIP Standard
AIR6916
Provide guidance for use of the AS 6228 standard in evaluation and selection of powered hand tools. May serve as the outline for an organization's internal operating procedure(s) linking power tool evaluation, procurement and support with quality assurance and safety programs.
2017-01-17
WIP Standard
AIR4543/1A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains Lessons Learned from aerospace actuation, control and fluid power systems technologies. The lessons were prepared by engineers from the aerospace industry and government services as part of the work of SAE Committee A-6, Aerospace Actuation, Control and Fluid Power Systems. Each lesson was presented to the appropriate A-6 technical panel. The technical topics are organized into five sections covering systems, actuation, hydraulic components, electrical components and miscellaneous, each further divided into subsections. The information topics are presented in a concise format of Problem, Issue, Solution and Lesson Learned, often with accompanying descriptive diagrams and illustrations for clarity and understanding.
2017-01-16
WIP Standard
ARP693E
This document includes requirements of installations of adequate landing and taxiing lighting systems in aircraft of the following categories: a. Single engine personal and/or liaison type b. Light twin engine c. Large multiengine propeller d. Large multiengine turbojet e. Military high performance fighter and attack f. Helicopter
2017-01-15
Book
Greg Barnett
Battery Fires: Why They Happen and How They Happen was written to assist those interested in this type of incident understand how automotive fires develop, spread and the damage they cause, using both deductive and inductive reasoning. The main focus of the book resides in looking at differences in failure modes between DC and AC systems, general types of battery and electrical failure modes leading to fire, how to interpret electrical fire, determination of the primary failed part, and other skills the investigating engineer will require to perform technical failure mode analysis. However, some fires have consumed the evidence to the point where a determination cannot be made with any degree of certainty. In this instance, evidence will be quite limited, and the analysis will have its limitations and should be included in the discussion as such. In some cases, a “cause undetermined” report is all the evidence will support.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 17251

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