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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1330
Yoshiyuki Tosa, Hiroyuki Mae
The passenger airbag hits the windshield when it deploys, causing the impulse force to the windshield. To protect passengers, we must adequately support the airbag between the windshield and the instrument panel. We must not fracture the windshield deploying the airbag. We reviewed methods to simulate the stress on the windshield during deployment. This research predicts the dynamic strain on the windshield from deploying the airbag without vehicle tests. Deployment is fast enough to ignore spatial difference in the patterns of the pressure time histories. In this study, the prediction method consists of a deployment test and an FE simulation. The simple deployment test measures the dynamic pressure distribution between the airbag and the flat panel simulating the windshield.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1480
Seung Kwon Cha, Jong Heon LEE, Tae Hoon SONG, YangGi LEE, HangChul KO, Un Ko
This paper focuses on the Barrier net system of the European vehicle(wagon). Recently, Car maker has being developed the wagon for European market. The characteristic of this vehicle is to have a capability of enough luggage space in order to minimize injuries of passengers at the accident. This is also a requirement of EU regulations(ECE R-17). Our company has adopted this system to small size car for the first time dependent on advanced foreign company’s technology. This reality still gives us the burden of high cost and royalty expenditure. Therefore, the objective of this study is to overcome our weak technologies, especially for patent circumvention or new mechanism which is entirely independent with previous system, and cost effectiveness(Barrier Net).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1467
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrians’ lower extremity injury depends on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of impact. The head injury of a pedestrian is also influenced by the ratio of pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small, medium and large pedestrian w.r.t the pedestrian to BLE height-ratio in order to quantify the degree of influence of different parameters (leg orientation, direction of impact, and running/walking state before crash) on pedestrian injuries. Large adult male FE model (95th %ile male AM95:190 cm and 103 kg) is developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1427
Jay Przybyla, Jason Jupe, Thomas Rush, Rachel Keller
Vehicles involved in rollover accidents can leave debris trails which can include glass from broken windows. The glass patterns can be useful in identifying the vehicle path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle-to-ground impacts. The location of glass, which is often window specific, can be used to identify where the window fractured during the rollover sequence. The longevity of the glass debris fields, subject to various real-world conditions and disturbances (i.e. slope, weather, mowing, soil type, etc.), was tested over a period of two years. The glass debris fields were placed and mapped in multiple locations across the United States. Periodically during each year, the glass debris fields were examined and the new field extents were mapped. The comparison between the original debris field and the subsequent debris fields are presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1445
Wesley Vandiver, Robert Anderson, Isaac Ikram, Bryan Randles, Christopher Furbish
Although the 2012 Kia Soul was manufactured with an Airbag Control Module (ACM) Event Data Recorder (EDR) that was designed to record crash data, the download tool and software manufactured for Kia vehicles and distributed by GIT America, Inc. provides coverage for the Kia Soul that begins with model year 2013. Eight vehicle-to-barrier crash tests were conducted in a 2012 Kia Soul. The Kia EDR tool was utilized to retrieve crash data from the vehicle's EDR following each test by choosing the software translation settings for a 2013 Kia Soul. The recorded and translated crash data for those tests was analyzed and compared to on-board instrumentation including a Racelogic VBOX, TDAS Data Acquisition System, and Vericom VC4000DAQ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1433
Matthew Brach, Richard Mink, Raymond Brach
This paper presents a novel reconstruction technique in which nonlinear optimization is used in combination with an impact model to quickly and efficiently find a solution to a given set of conditions to reconstruct a collision. These conditions correspond to known or prescribed collision information (physical evidence) and can be incorporated into the optimized collision reconstruction technique in a variety of means including as a prescribed value, through the use of a constraint, as part of a quality function, or possibly as a combination of these means. This reconstruction technique provides a proper, effective, and efficient means to incorporate data collected by event data recorders (EDR) or engine control modules (ECM). The technique is presented using the Planar Impact Mechanics (PIM) collision model in combination with the Solver utility in Microsoft Excel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1441
Yibing Shi, Guy Nusholtz
The method of assessing the similarity of a set of impact test signals has been the subject of several studies. The cumulative variance measure has been proposed and used in some studies; while the correlation-based assessment represents an alternative approach. In this study, a normalized formulation unites these two approaches by establishing a relationship between the normalized cumulative variance metric (v), an overall similarity metric, and the normalized magnitude similarity metric (m) and shape similarity metric (s): v=1-m∙s. Each of these ranges between 0 and 1 (for the practical case of signals acquired with the same polarity), and they are independent of the physical unit of measure. Under generally satisfied conditions, the magnitude similarity m is independent of the relative time shifts among the signals in the set; while the shape similarity s is dependent of these.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1435
Jeffrey Wirth, Enrique Bonugli, Mark Freund
Google Earth is a map and geographical information application created and maintained by Google Corporation. The program displays maps of the Earth using images obtained from available satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information systems (GIS) 3D globe. Google Earth has become a tool often used by accident reconstructionist to create scene drawings and obtain dimensional information. In some cases, a reconstructionist will not be able to inspect the scene of the crash due to various circumstances. For example, a reconstruction may commence after the roadway on which the accident occurred has been modified. In other cases, the time and expense required to physically inspect the incident site is not justifiable. In these instances, a reconstructionist may have to rely on Google Earth imagery for dimensional information about the site. The accuracy of the Google Earth is not officially documented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1446
Timothy P. Austin, David P. Plant, Joseph E. LeFevre PhD
The use of Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (HVEDRs) in collision analysis has been recognized in past research. Numerous publications have been presented illustrating data accuracy both in normal operating conditions as well as under emergency braking conditions. These data recording devices are generally incorporated into Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) for engines or Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for other vehicular components such as the Anti-Lock Brake System. Other research has looked at after-market recorders, including publically-available Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and fleet management tools such as Qualcomm. In 2009, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) incorporated a Vehicle Data Recorder (VDR) component into their Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. The purpose of this was to “…capture data that can be used to promote safe driving and riding practices.” The Standard requires minimum data elements, recording times, and sample rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance, response time, and behavior accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0204
Biswajit Panja, Lars Wolleschensky
Vehicle Health Monitoring (VHM) is one of the most active fields of research for wireless sensor networks. VHM involves the implementation of an autonomous system for actively monitoring the internal parameters including engine temperature, fluid levels, tire pressure, etc. The benefits of VHM include a longer lifetime for the vehicle, lower operational cost, and improved safety. The results of VHM is also used for scheduled maintenance visits. The challenge with using wireless sensor networks to perform VHM tasks stems from various issues with wireless technology. Wireless sensor networks use RF channels which are easy to break into. Hackers can attack the system without physical access. Though there are many obstacles to successfully performing VHM with wireless sensor networks, the benefits that would be realized are much larger. In this paper we propose a secure wireless sensor network system for vehicle health monitoring.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0202
Armin Wasicek, Andre Weimerskirch
Combatting the modification of automotive control systems is a current and future challenge for OEMs and suppliers. ‘Chip-tuning’ is a manifestation of manipulation of a vehicle’s original setup and calibration. With the increase in automotive functions implemented in software and corresponding business models, chip-tuning will become a major concern. Recognizing tuned control units in a vehicle is required to report that circumstance for technical as well as legal reasons. This work approaches the problem by capturing the behavior of relevant control units within a machine learning system called a recognition module. The recognition module continuously monitors vehicle’s sensor data. It comprises a set of classifiers that have been trained on the intended behavior of a control unit before the vehicle is delivered. When the vehicle is on the road, the recognition module uses the classifier together with current data to ascertain that the behavior of the vehicle is as intended.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1443
Morteza Seidi, Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, James Ferguson, Vincent Caccese
Falls in the elderly population is an important concern to individuals, family, friends, and in the healthcare industry. When the head is left unprotected, head impact levels can reach upwards of 500 g (gravitational acceleration), which is a level that can cause serious injury or death. A protective system for a fall injury needs to be designed with specific criteria in mind including energy protection level, thickness, stiffness, weight, and cost among others. The current study quantifies the performance of a protective head gear design for persons prone to falls. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the injury mitigation of head protection gear made from a patented system of polyurethane honeycomb and dilatant materials. To that end, a twin wire fall system equipped with a drop arm that includes a Hybrid-III head/neck assembly was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0559
Cheryl Caffrey, Kevin Bolon, Greg Kolwich
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted FEV to conduct an analysis of the potential for reducing the mass of a light-duty pickup truck in the 2020 to 2025 timeframe. Body-on-frame trucks are designed to meet a broad range of requirements, providing particular utility and performance that are much different from most passenger vehicles. These additional requirements drive unique design considerations which may both limit the amount of mass reduction achievable in the future, and increase the cost. This whole-vehicle study of a pickup truck, the first of its kind to be published, is intended to supplement earlier mass reduction studies for passenger cars and cross-over utility vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1476
Selvakumar P, Arun Mahajan, R Murasolimaran, Elango chinnasamy
Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to reduce costs and shorten product development cycle, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. Often correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. This research has the proposal of showing the correlation between simulation and prototype test results of tractor ROPS. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1440
Srinivas Gunti, Anindya Deb, Malhar Kumar MD
Human lumbar spine is one of the most commonly injured parts of the anatomy in vehicle accidents. Earlier studies have shown higher severity of lumbar spine injuries in occupants subjected to vehicle rollover crash. An understanding of its mechanical response is essential for developing accurate finite element models for studying Lumbar spinal injury patterns resulting from vehicle rollover crash. In the present work, experimental and numerical characterization of the elasto-plastic behaviour of human lumbar truncated vertebral unit (TVU) under quasi static and impact loading was studied. A truncated vertebral unit was prepared from lumbar spine of a donated male body and tested in a universal testing machine (UTM) for mechanical characterization under quasi static compressive loading conditions. Experiments were then conducted in a drop-weight impact testing device to investigate crash performance characteristics such as mean crush load and absorbed energy of the TVU.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0150
Sidharth Gupta
This paper will present the methodology for alarm (Hooting & blinking) activation applicable for two-wheeler against any illegal damage of steering lock or open the lock by duplicate key with very low cost approach and system comprises a low cost limit-switch rigidly integrated inside the steering system, immobilizer, operatively connected between an electric- power source and a theft alarm system. Two wheeler theft is a serious problem in many countries and in maximum cases thief, damage the steering lock or use duplicate keys for theft. Proposed system will activate the alarm (Hooting & blinking) if there is any electrical wires disconnection, system fault condition, communication issue between ECU's, damage in steering lock or duplicate key used for theft with low cost approach. This paper explains immobilizer wake stragetory & communication between Immobilizer & CDI with consider the current consumption during vehicle is in lock state.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1458
Jia Hu
The driver and front row occupant safety is always the focus in the development of crash regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). However in recent years, rear row occupant safety is also being paid attention to widely. The rear row occupant safety is being included in the NCAP of different countries. JNCAP began to assess the rear row occupant safety in 2009. C-NCAP started to assess the rear row occupant safety from July, 2012. Euro NCAP is also being updated. The frontal 50-kph full rigid barrier impact test will be included in Euro NCAP from 2015 and two Hybrid III 5th percentile dummies will be positioned in both the driver seat and the rear seat. For the rear row occupants wearing seatbelts, thoracic injuries from the seatbelt are by far the dominant injury type. For unbelted rear row occupants, the extremities and head are frequently injured by the B pillar, the front seat and other interior components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1460
Massoud Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
This study was conducted to explore the effect of various combinations of seatbelt-related safety components on the adult rear passenger involved in a frontal collision. The study was conducted on a 50th male and a 5th female Hybrid III ATD in the rear seat of a mid-sized sedan. Each ATD was seated in an outboard position with 3-point continuous lap-shoulder belts. On these belts were combinations of pretensioners and load limiters. Since the main objective of the test series was to cross-compare the seatbelt configurations, front seats were not included in the buck to avoid the possibility of contact with the front seat, hence avoiding such uncontrollable variables. Nevertheless, there was a short barrier devised to act as a foot-stop for both ATDs. A design of experiment (DOE) was constructed as a full factorial with and without a pretensioner and three types of load limiters. Each ATD was tested with a progressive load limiter (PLL1).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera
Over the past two decades, extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the performance of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions, as well the potential for injury though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Traditionally, the rollover tests utilized a test fixture to initiate the rollover event. Examples of various test methodologies include dolly rollovers, inverted drop tests, ramp-induced rollovers, curb-tripped rollover, and CRIS Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used in pickup trucks and SUVs to initiate steering induced rollovers, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. This study presents a series of rollover tests utilizing a crew-cab pickup and a mid-sized sedan which resulted in a steering-induced soil-tripped rollover.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan
Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. This is due to the earlier availability and lower cost of hardware components in comparison to the whole vehicle. Current approaches mainly use originally moving deformable barriers and therefore a full vehicle test facility is needed. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases. The test bench is designed with simulations and includes a control for the force impact. This test bench is able to reproduce the same intrusion speeds as in whole vehicle tests and doesn’t block a full vehicle test facility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1459
Lotta Jakobsson, Magnus Björklund, Anders Axelson
Vertical accelerations can cause thoracic and lumbar spine injuries to a car occupant. Representative crashes potentially causing occupant vertical accelerations include; rollover events or free flying events when the car lands on its wheels, and run off road events when the car goes into the ditch and collides with an embankment from a crossing road. The spinal tolerances are dependent on occupant posture at time of impact which is an important factor with respect to limit of tolerances. Up to date, there is no standardized test method evaluating this occupant loading mechanism. The aim of this study was to develop test methods addressing vertical acceleration for car occupants and to evaluate countermeasures reducing the vertical loadings. Based on real world run off road crash investigations, representative test track methods were developed; including free flight before landing on the wheels and traveling in ditch impacting an embankment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1472
Roberto Arienti, Giorgio Previati, Carlo Cantoni, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
The lightweight seat of a high performance car is designed taking into account a rear impact. The basic parameters of the seat structure are derived resorting to the simulation of a crash test. A dummy is positioned on the seat and subject to a rear impulse. The simulations provide the dynamic loads acting on the seat structure, in particular the ones applied at the joint between the seat cushion and the seat backrest. Such a joint is simulated as a plastic hinge and dissipates some of the crash energy. By means of the simulations the proper parameters of the plastic hinge can be derived to design a safe seat. The simulations are validated by means of indoor tests with satisfactory results. By using the validated model, the influence of seat cushion and backrest parameters on seat passenger's injury are studied. An efficient tool has been developed for the preliminary design of lightweight seats for high performance cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1438
Maria de Odriozola
Nowadays, the development of high performance passive safety systems is becoming more and more demanding in order to enhance the performance of the new vehicles that are being introduced in the automotive market. With this aim, a series of new generation dummies are being developed so as to dispose of anthropomorphic test devices that count with higher biofidelity levels than the dummies that have been used until now. For frontal impact, the NHTSA is currently developing the THOR Dummy with the objective to achieve a dummy with a high level of performance to enable the investigation and creation of improved restraint systems. By using the THOR dummy it is possible to study the movement of the 3D surface of the occupants’ chest and, in this way, to acquire much more information for the adequate design of restraint systems for frontal impact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1595
Kristoffer Lundahl, Erik Frisk, Lars Nielsen, Chih Feng Lee
Rollover has for long been a major safety concern for trucks, and will be even more so as automated driving is envisaged to becoming a key element of future mobility. A natural way to address rollover is to extend the capabilities of current active-safety systems with a system that intervenes by steering or braking actuation when there is a risk of rollover. Assessing and forecasting the rollover is usually performed using rollover indices, which can be calculated either from lateral acceleration, lateral load transfer, or roll energy. Since these indices are evaluated based on different physical observations it is unclear how they can be compared and how well they reflect rollover events in different situations. In this paper we investigate the implication of the above mentioned rollover indices, in different critical maneuvers, for a heavy 8x4 twin-steer truck.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves, acceleration and braking performances following the SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the gear ratios and the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The paper also includes a comparison between two methods for the data acquisition for a low cost implementation when there is no access to a chassis dynamometer, being the main difference between the two the data acquisition time interval.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1447
Hirotoshi Ishikawa PhD, Kunihiro Mashiko MD, Tetsuyuki Matsuda, Koichi Fujita, Asuka Sugano, Toru Kiuchi, Hirotsugu Tajima, Masaaki Yoshida, Isao Endou
Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) is spreading in many countries.ACN provides notification in the event of a traffic accident automatically when an automobile's air bags are deployed or when the occupant restraint system is activated. ACN also serves as a diagnostic tool to determine the potential extent of injuries to those involved in motor vehicle incidents. Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel can utilize this information to determine how quickly their services are needed and it can minimize the number of victims who might be transferred to medical facilities mistakenly by the initial triage group. Various Electronic Control Units (ECUs) are equipped in vehicles. Air bag ECUs control the deployment of the air bag system and record various information on an event data recorder (EDR) during collisions. Data on the occupants, vehicles, and collisions recorded in EDR could be used as a parameter for estimating the occupant injury severity in an accident.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1457
Aditya Belwadi, Richard Hanna, Audrey Eagle, Daniel Martinez, Julie Kleinert, Eric Dahle
Automotive interior design optimization must balance the design of the vehicle seat and occupant space for safety, comfort and aesthetics with the accommodation of add-on restraint products such as child restraint systems (CRS). It is important to understand the breadth of CRS dimensions so that this balance can be successfully negotiated. Previously this was addressed with the advent of advanced air bag systems, when emphasis was placed on the design and development of surrogate child restraints, which were used, in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. CRS design is constantly changing. In particular, the introduction of side impact protection for CRS as well as emphasis on ease of CRS installation has likely changed key design points of any child restraints. This ever-changing target puts pressure on the vehicle manufacturers to keep their vehicle seats and occupant space compatible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10.5 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma and finite element analysis is used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
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