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Viewing 121 to 150 of 17327
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1368
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Steven Suway
Abstract Mapping the luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Such mappings are useful for a variety of purposes, including determining the effectiveness and appropriateness of lighting installations, and performing visibility analyses for accident case studies. One of the most common methods for mapping luminance is to use a spot type luminance meter. This requires individual measurements of all objects of interest and can be extremely time consuming. Luminance cameras can also be used to create a luminance map. While luminance cameras will map a scene’s luminance values more quickly than a spot luminance meter, commercially available luminance cameras typically require long capture times during low illuminance (up to 30 seconds). Previous work has shown that pixel intensity captured by consumer-grade digital still cameras can be calibrated to measure luminance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1459
HangMook Kim, Jae Kyu Lee, Jin Sang CHUNG
Abstract During a new vehicle development process, there are several requirements for side impact test that should be confirmed. One of the requirements is the prevention of door opening during side impact test. Even though there are many causes for door opening problem, this study deals with inertia effect by impact energy. Until now, there have been two classical methods to prevent car door from opening in side impact. One is the increment of the inertia resistance by increasing the mass of the balance weight and the spring force. The other is the application of the blocking lever. Unfortunately, in spite of our efforts, the door opening problem occurs occasionally. Therefore, to improve the problem fundamentally, this paper proposes a new blocking lever mechanism that work similar to ball-point pen structure. The proposed mechanism fixes the blocking lever when the opening directional inertia force is applied to the door outside handle during side crash.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1473
Ling Zheng, Yinan Gao, Zhenfei Zhan, Yinong Li
Abstract Several surrogate models such as response surface model and radial basis function and Kriging models are developed to speed the optimization design of vehicle body and improve the vehicle crashworthiness. The error analysis is used to investigate the accuracy of different surrogate models. Furthermore, the Kriging model is used to fit the model of B-pillar acceleration and foot well intrusion. The response surface model is used to fit the model of the entire vehicle mass. These models are further used to calculate the acceleration response in B-pillar, foot well intrusion and vehicle mass instead of the finite element model in the optimization design of vehicle crashworthiness. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated in order to improve vehicle safety performance and keep its light weight. The particle swarm method is used to solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0031
Mohamed Benmimoun
Abstract In the last years various advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been introduced on the market. More highly advanced functions up to automated driving functions are currently under research. By means of these functions partly automated driving in specific situations is already or will be realized soon, e.g. traffic jam assist. Besides the technical challenges to develop such automated driving functions for complex situations, e.g. construction or intersection areas, new approaches for the evaluation of these functions under different driving conditions are necessary, in order to assess the benefits and identify potential weaknesses. Classical approaches for evaluation and market sign off will require an extensive testing, which results in high costs and time demands. Therefore the classical approaches are hardly feasible taking into account higher levels of support and automation. Today the final sign-off requires a high amount of real world tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1675
Genís Mensa, Núria Parera, Alba Fornells
Abstract Nowadays, the use of high-speed digital cameras to acquire relevant information is a standard for all laboratories and facilities working in passive safety crash testing. The recorded information from the cameras is used to develop and improve the design of vehicles in order to make them safer. Measurements such as velocities, accelerations and distances are computed from high-speed images captured during the tests and represent remarkable data for the post-crash analysis. Therefore, having the exact same position of the cameras is a key factor to be able to compare all the values that are extracted from the images of the tests carried out within a long-term passive safety project. However, since working with several customers involves a large amount of different cars and tests, crash facilities have to readapt for every test mode making it difficult for them to reproduce the correct and precise position of the high-speed cameras throughout the same project.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0113
Vaclav Jirovsky
Abstract Today's vehicles are being more often equipped with systems, which are autonomously influencing the vehicle behavior. More systems of the kind and even fully autonomous vehicles in regular traffic are expected by OEMs in Europe around year 2025. Driving is highly multitasking activity and human errors emerge in situations, when he is unable to process and understand the essential amount of information. Future autonomous systems very often rely on some type of inter-vehicular communication. This shall provide the vehicle with higher amount of information, than driver uses in his decision making process. Therefore, currently used 1-D quantity TTC (time-to-collision) will become inadequate. Regardless the vehicle is driven by human or robot, it’s always necessary to know, whether and which reaction is necessary to perform. Adaptable autonomous vehicle systems will need to analyze the driver’s situation awareness level.
2017-03-28
Collection
Papers in the collection focus on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) which are gaining major importance all vehicle segments. The effectiveness of these systems is based upon the ability to not only sense the outside world and the ability to use the information intelligently.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1380
Richard Young
Abstract Dingus and colleagues recently estimated the crash odds ratios (ORs) for secondary tasks in the Strategic Highway Research Program Phase 2 (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study. Their OR estimate for hand-held cell phone conversation (Talk) was 2.2, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.6 to 3.1. This Talk OR estimate is above 1, contrary to previous estimates below 1. A replication discovered two upward biases in their analysis methods. First, for video clips with exposure to a particular secondary task, Dingus and colleagues selected clips not only with exposure to that task, but often with concurrent exposure to other secondary tasks. However, for video clips without exposure to that task, Dingus and colleagues selected video clips without other secondary tasks. Hence, the OR estimate was elevated simply because of an imbalanced selection of video clips, not because of risk from a particular secondary task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1424
Mark Fabbroni, Jennifer Rovt, Mark Paquette
Abstract Collision reconstruction often involves calculations and computer simulations, which require an estimation of the weights of the involved vehicles. Although weight data is readily available for automobiles and light trucks, there is limited data for heavy vehicles, such as tractor-semitrailers, straight trucks, and the wide variety of trailers and combinations that may be encountered on North American roads. Although manufacturers always provide the gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR) for these vehicles, tare weights are often more difficult to find, and in-service loading levels are often unknown. The resulting large uncertainty in the weight of a given truck can often affect reconstruction results. In Canada, the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario conducted a Commercial Vehicle Survey in 2012 that consisted of weight sampling over 45,000 heavy vehicles of various configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1272
Nick Parson, Jerome Fourmann, Jean-Francois Beland
Abstract One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1399
Bin Wu, Xichan Zhu, Jianping Shen, Xuejun Cang, Lin li
Abstract A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1400
Keyu Qian, Gangfeng Tan, Renjie Zhou, Binyu Mei, Wanyang XIA
Abstract Downhill mountain roads are the accident prone sections because of their complexity and variety. Drivers rely more on driving experience and it is very easy to cause traffic accidents due to the negligence or the judgment failure. Traditional active safety systems, such as ABS, having subjecting to the driver's visual feedback, can’t fully guarantee the downhill driving safety in complex terrain environments. To enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill, this study combines the characteristics of vehicle dynamics and the geographic information. Thus, through which the drivers could obtain the safety speed specified for his/her vehicle in the given downhill terrains and operate in advance to reduce traffic accidents due to driver's judgment failure and avoid the brake overheating and enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1407
Helene G. Moorman, Andrea Niles, Caroline Crump, Audra Krake, Benjamin Lester, Laurene Milan, Christy Cloninger, David Cades, Douglas Young
Abstract Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems, along with other types of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), are becoming more common in passenger vehicles, with the general aim of improving driver safety through automation of various aspects of the driving task. Drivers have generally reported satisfaction with ADAS with the exception of LDW systems, which are often rated poorly or even deactivated by drivers. One potential contributor to this negative response may be an increase in the cognitive load associated with lane-keeping when LDW is in use. The present study sought to examine the relationship between LDW, lane-keeping behavior, and concurrent cognitive load, as measured by performance on a secondary task. Participants drove a vehicle equipped with LDW in a demarcated lane on a closed-course test track with and without the LDW system in use over multiple sessions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1406
Changliu Liu, Jianyu Chen, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract Road safety is one of the major concerns for automated vehicles. In order for these vehicles to interact safely and efficiently with the other road participants, the behavior of the automated vehicles should be carefully designed. Liu and Tomizuka proposed the Robustly-safe Automated Driving system (ROAD) which prevents or minimizes occurrences of collisions of the automated vehicle with other road participants while maintaining efficiency. In this paper, a set of design principles are elaborated as an extension of the previous work, including robust perception and cognition algorithms for environment monitoring and high level decision making and low level control algorithms for safe maneuvering of the automated vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1561
Anton A. Tkachev, Nong Zhang
Abstract Rollover prevention is one of the prominent priorities in vehicle safety and handling control. A promising alternative for roll angle cancellation is the active hydraulically interconnected suspension. This paper represents the analytical model of a closed circuit active hydraulically interconnected suspension system followed by the simulation. Passive hydraulically interconnected suspension systems have been widely discussed and studied up to now. This work specifically focuses on the active hydraulically interconnected suspension system. Equations of motion of the system are formalized first. The system consists of two separate subsystems that can be modeled independently and further combined for simulation. One of the two subsystems is 4 degrees of freedom half-car model which simulates vehicle lateral dynamics and vehicle roll angle response to lateral acceleration in particular.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1581
Jianbo Lu, Hassen Hammoud, Todd Clark, Otto Hofmann, Mohsen Lakehal-ayat, Shweta Farmer, Jason Shomsky, Roland Schaefer
Abstract This paper presents two brake control functions which are initiated when there is an impact force applied to a host vehicle. The impact force is generated due to the host vehicle being collided with or by another vehicle or object. The first function - called the post-impact braking assist - initiates emergency brake assistance if the driver is braking during or right after the collision. The second function - called the post-impact braking - initiates autonomous braking up to the level of the anti-lock-brake system if the driver is not braking during or right after the collision. Both functions intend to enhance the current driver assistance features such as emergency brake assistance, electronic stability control, anti-brake-lock system, collision mitigation system, etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0045
Guirong Zhuo, Cheng Wu, Fengbo Zhang
Abstract Vehicle active collision avoidance includes collision avoidance by braking and by steering. However, both of these two methods have their limitations. Therefore, it is significant to establish the feasible region of active collision avoidance to choose the optimal way to avoid traffic accidents. This paper focuses on the steering control of an autonomous vehicle to track the planned trajectory and to perform an emergency collision avoidance maneuver. Meanwhile, the collision avoidance effect of steering control is compared with that of braking control. The path tracking controller is designed by hierarchical control structure. The upper controller includes model predictive control allocation and speed controller, and the lower is designed by weighted least-squares control allocation for torque allocation. Besides, seven order polynomial is used for path planning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0096
Valentin Soloiu, Bernard Ibru, Thomas Beyerl, Tyler Naes, Charvi Popat, Cassandra Sommer, Brittany Williams
Abstract An important aspect of an autonomous vehicle system, aside from the crucial features of path following and obstacle detection, is the ability to accurately and effectively recognize visual cues present on the roads, such as traffic lanes, signs and lights. This ability is important because very few vehicles are autonomously driven, and must integrate with conventionally operated vehicles. An enhanced infrastructure has yet to be available solely for autonomous vehicles to more easily navigate lanes and intersections non-visually. Recognizing these cues efficiently can be a complicated task as it not only involves constantly gathering visual information from the vehicle’s surroundings, but also requires accurate real time processing. Ambiguity of traffic control signals challenges even the most advanced computer decision making algorithms. The vehicle then must keep a predetermined position within its travel lane based on its interpretation of its surroundings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
Abstract The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be applied to model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 has been distributed for review with a final publication scheduled for 2018. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0116
Ankit Goila, Ambarish Desai, Feng Dang, Jian Dong, Rahul Shetty, Rakesh Babu Kailasa, Mahdi Heydari, Yang Wang, Yue Sun, Manikanta Jonnalagadda, Mohammed Alhasan, Hanlong Yang, Katherine R. Lastoskie
ADAS features development involves multidisciplinary technical fields, as well as extensive variety of different sensors and actuators, therefore the early design process requires much more resources and time to collaborate and implement. This paper will demonstrate an alternative way of developing prototype ADAS concept features by using remote control car with low cost hobby type of controllers, such as Arduino Due and Raspberry Pi. Camera and a one-beam type Lidar are implemented together with Raspberry Pi. OpenCV free open source software is also used for developing lane detection and object recognition. In this paper, we demonstrate that low cost frame work can be used for the high level concept algorithm architecture, development, and potential operation, as well as high level base testing of various features and functionalities. The developed RC vehicle can be used as a prototype of the early design phase as well as a functional safety testing bench.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0476
Seiji Furusako, Masatoshi Tokunaga, Masanori Yasuyama
Abstract To reduce the weight of automobile bodies, application of high-strength steel sheets is expanding. Furthermore, middle and high carbon steels are expected to be used to lower the environmental impact and cost in the automobile steel sheet industry. However, it is necessary to enhance the joint strength of the steel sheets. In this study, hat-shaped components were made using resistance spot (RS) welding or arc spot (AS) welding on S45C steel sheets (including 0.44% carbon), 1.4 mm thickness and strength of 1180 MPa grade. A dynamic three-point bending test was conducted on the components and their crashworthiness was compared. Some RS welds fractured (separated) during the three-point bending test even though the diameter of the weld metal was increased to 5√t (t means thickness of the sheet); however, AS welds did not fracture.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1728
Nitin Singh, Aayoush Sharma, Sameer Shah, Balakumar Gardampaali
Abstract In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road. This input is given to a Local Control Unit (LCU) which is integrated on every road. Several such LCUs are connected to a Main Control Unit (MCU) which is located at the nearest police station. A single MCU covers the area administered by that police station. Additional CCTV cameras are present to give graphical view of accident.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1730
Gridsada Phanomchoeng, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana
Abstract Nowadays, the tendency of people using bicycles as the way of transportation has increased as well as the tendency of the bicycle accidents. According to the research of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), National Survey on Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitude and Behavior, the major root causes of bicycle accidents are from the road surface condition. Thus, this work has developed the system to detect the road surface condition. The system utilizes the laser and camera to measure the height of road. Then, with the information of the road height and bicycle speed, the road surface condition can be classified into 3 categories due to severe condition of the road. For the secure road, cyclists could safely ride on it. For the warning road, cyclists need to slow down the speed. Lastly, for the dangerous road, cyclists have to stop their bicycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1462
Haiyan Li, Xin Jin, Hongfei Zhao, Shihai Cui, Binhui Jiang, King H. Yang
Abstract Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0075
Shinya Kitayama, Toshiyuki Kondou, Hirokazu Ohyabu, Masaaki Hirose, Haneda Narihiro, Ryuta Maeda
Abstract In the future, autonomous vehicles will be realized. It is assumed that traffic accidents will be caused by the overconfidence to the autonomous driving system and the lack of communication between the vehicle and the pedestrian. We propose that one of the solutions is a display system to give the information the state of vehicle to pedestrians. In this paper, we studied how the information influences the motion of pedestrians. The vehicle gives the information, which is displayed on road by using of color light (red, yellow and blue), of the collision risk determined by the TTC (Time to Collision). The pedestrian is ordered to cross the road in several cases of the TTC. In the presence of the TTC information, the number of the pedestrians, who did not cross the road in the case of short TTC (red light is displayed), increased from 52% to 67%. It is cleared that the pedestrians determined whether they crossed the road or not by the information effectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1255
Zhihong Wu, Ke lu, Yuan Zhu, Xiaojun Lei, Liqing Duan, Jian_ning Zhao
Abstract Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are widely used in the electric vehicles for their high power density and high energy efficiency. And the motor control system for electric vehicles is one of the most critical safety related systems in electric vehicles, because potential failures of this system can lead to serious harm to humans’ body, so normally a high automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) will be assigned to this system. In this paper, an ASIL-C motor control system based on a multicore microcontroller is presented. At the same time, due to the increasing number of connectivity on the vehicle, secure onboard communication conformed to the AUTOSAR standard is also implemented in the system to prevent external attacks.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0058
Dajiang Suo, Sarra Yako, Mathew Boesch, Kyle Post
Abstract Developing requirements for automotive electric/electronic systems is challenging, as those systems become increasingly software-intensive. Designs must account for unintended interactions among software features, combined with unforeseen environmental factors. In addition, engineers have to iteratively make architectural tradeoffs and assign responsibilities to each component in the system to accommodate new safety requirements as they are revealed. ISO 26262 is an industry standard for the functional safety of automotive electric/electronic systems. It specifies various processes and procedures for ensuring functional safety, but does not limit the methods that can be used for hazard and safety analysis. System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a new technique for hazard analysis, in the sense that hazards are caused by unsafe interactions between components (including humans) as well as component failures and faults.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
Abstract The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct crashes for years. Recently, a third-party system has been introduced that allows crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain information and event data from cellular telephones and other devices connected to the vehicle, vehicle events and navigation data in the form of tracklogs. These tracklogs provide a time history of a vehicle’s geolocation that may be useful in investigating an incident involving an automobile or reconstructing a crash. This paper presents an introduction to the type of data that may be retained and the methods for performing data acquisitions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0059
Barbaros Serter, Christian Beul, Manuela Lang, Wiebke Schmidt
Abstract Today, highly automated driving is paving the road for full autonomy. Highly automated vehicles can monitor the environment and make decisions more accurately and faster than humans to create safer driving conditions while ultimately achieving full automation to relieve the driver completely from participating in driving. As much as this transition from advanced driving assistance systems to fully automated driving will create frontiers for re-designing the in-vehicle experience for customers, it will continue to pose significant challenges for the industry as it did in the past and does so today. As we transfer more responsibility, functionality and control from human to machine, technologies become more complex, less transparent and making constant safe-guarding a challenge. With automation, potential misuse and insufficient system safety design are important factors that can cause fatal accidents, such as in TESLA autopilot incident.
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