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Viewing 121 to 150 of 16506
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. One of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. Previously, the development of lighting system for PAEB Testing is based only on ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00, which define the average illuminance level and light uniformity of the lighting requirement in US roadway lighting design. This approach is intrinsic and cost effective, but lacks of real lighting characteristic in urban area.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0162
Takashi Kodachi, Masaharu Shimizu, Hideaki Yamato, Kengo Toda, Takayuki Furuta, Hirotoshi Ochiai, Mitsuhiro Ando
Recently such issues as aging, environments and energy are becoming serious social problems. We're developing a new personal mobility unit to support the short-range transportation in urban areas to solve these problems. Our new mobility unit enables the comfortable and safe movement in an indoor/outdoor pedestrian space including public roads. So far two different types of units according to the user attribute are developed. They are with a safety function to limit the travelling speed automatically corresponding to the surrounding circumstances. Also our verification test results on a public road, which shows an effectiveness of the unit is discussed in this paper. This paper describes the concept of those mobility units, the principle and effects of the safety features.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0063
Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck, Udo Dannebaum
The introduction of Ethernet and Gigabit-Ethernet as the main in- vehicle network infrastructure is the foundation for different new functionalities such as piloted driving, minimizing the CO2-footprint and others. The high data rate of such systems influence also the used microcontrollers due the fact, that the big amount of data has to be transferred, encrypted, etc. The usage of Ethernet as the in vehicle network enable the possibility that future road vehicles are going to be connected with other vehicles and information systems to improve system functionality. These previously closed automotive systems will be opened up for external access. Such accesses can be Car2X connectivity or connection to personal devices. This may result in new vulnerabilities that could be exploited by malicious attackers. Any external access to the system must be authorized and firewalled, so that only trustworthy users and services can make use of the functionality.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1469
Craig Luker
High image quality video surveillance systems have proliferated making it more common to have collision video footage that is suitable for detailed analysis. This analysis begins by finding a series of positions for the vehicle that can be reconstructed using variety of methods. If the frame rate is known or can be estimated, then the average travel speed between each of those vehicle positions can be found. Unfortunately with video surveillance systems, the frame rates are typically low and the vehicle may be hidden from view for multiple frames. As a result there are often relatively large time steps between known vehicle positions and the average speed between known positions becomes less useful. The method outlined here determines the instantaneous speed and acceleration time history of the vehicle that was required for it to arrive at the known positions at the known times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1449
Taylor Johnson, Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Road departure crashes are one of the most dangerous crash modes in the United States. When the vehicle drifts out of lane and departs the roadway, it has a higher potential of impacting less compliant objects, such as trees, poles, as well as oncoming vehicles. In the U.S., road departure crashes account for 10% of all crashes, but is responsible for over 30% of all vehicle occupant fatalities. Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can detect an impending road departure and deliver an alert to allow the driver to steer back to the lane. LDW has great potential to reduce the number of road departure crashes, but the effectiveness is highly dependent upon driver acceptance. However, if the driver perceives there is little danger after receiving an alert, the driver may become annoyed and deactivate the system. Most current LDW systems rely heavily upon distance to lane boundary (DTLB) in the decision to deliver an alert.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1457
John M. Scanlon, Kerry Page, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Intersection Advanced Driver Assist Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging, vehicle-based active safety systems that aim to help drivers safely navigate intersections. These systems can detect a potential intersection-related crash and provide either a warning to the driver or activate automatic braking/steering. This paper presents a strategy for reconstructing the pre-crash trajectories of vehicles in real-world cross traffic crashes which might be mitigated using I-ADAS. The crashes were then simulated as if either vehicle was equipped with a side or forward facing radar system. This study is based on evidence collected from 48 crashes (96 vehicles) within the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) years 2004 to 2014. Pre-crash kinematics were generated using vehicle positions indicated by the investigator-generated scene diagram and pre-crash event data recorder (EDR) records. Two main research questions were posed in this study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1496
Richard R. Ruth, Brad Muir
Earlier research suggests there may be some positive offset in the longitudinal G sensor in Toyota Gen 1 & 2 vehicles. For this research a series of low speed forward and rearward collisions into a stationary vehicle were conducted on a 2007 Toyota Yaris. In addition to the installed vehicle ACM, additional identical "ride along" ACM's were installed back to back, one forward facing and one rearward facing. The vehicle was also instrumented with a video VBOX to record speed at impact and with the high precision "IST" accelerometer reference instrumentation. In all frontal collisions, the forward facing ACM's under-reported the negative longitudinal Delta V, and after the initial impact was over, had a positive slope indicating a G sensor bias and at the end of the 200ms recording were reporting a positive net Delta V.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1456
Rini Sherony, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien, Li Fu, Yaobin Chen, hiroyuki takahashi
Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to help mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important for understanding these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, these is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs need to move during road crossing phrases, which usually are the most critical moments for potential crashes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0050
Huafeng Yu, Chung-Wei Lin, BaekGyu Kim
Modern vehicles can have millions of lines of software, for vehicle control, infotainment, etc. The quality and correctness of the software play a key role in the safety of whole vehicle. In order to assure the safety, engineers give an effort to prove correctness of individual subsystems or their integration using testing or verification methods. One needs to eventually certify that the developed vehicle as a whole is indeed safe using the artifacts and evidences produced throughout the development cycle. Such a certification process helps to increase the safety confidence of the developed software and reduce OEM’s liability. However, software certification in automotive domain is not yet well established, compared to other safety-critical domains, such as medical devices and avionics. At the same time, safety-relevant standards and techniques, including ISO 26262 and assurance case, have been well adopted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1511
Jan Vychytil, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
In this work we present the VIRTHUMAN model as a tool for injury risk assessment in pedestrian crash scenarios. It is a virtual human body model formed of a multibody structure and deformable segments to account for the mechanical response of soft tissues. Extensive validation has been performed to ensure its biofidelity. Due to the scaling algorithm implemented, variations in the human population in terms of height, weight, gender and age can be considered. Assessment of the injury risk is done via automatic evaluation software developed. Injury criteria for individual body parts are evaluated using accelerations, forces and displacements of certain points. Injury risk is indicated by the colour of particular body parts in accordance with NCAP rating. A real accident is investigated in this work. A 60-year-old female was hit laterally by a passenger vehicle with the impact velocity of 40 km/h. The accident is reconstructed using VIRTHUMAN as pedestrian representative.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1492
Ming Shen, Haojie Mao, Binhui Jiang, Feng Zhu, Xin Jin, Liqiang Dong, Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan, Clifford Chou, King Yang
To predict the injuries of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Currently, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) representing a pedestrian and an occupant postures with sufficient anatomic details and reasonable biofidelity. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). After the integration of the sub-models, the whole-body pedestrian model (standing) was assembled and a positioning procedure was then conducted to transform it into the occupant model (seated). The two FE models have shown reasonable responses in whole-body impact simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, in order to control test variables, the systems trade-off characteristics of real life rollovers, making it difficult to compare laboratory and real life tests. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTs vehicle tests were performed to judge the ability of DRoTs to match conditions measured during a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and some touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1453
I-Hsuan Lee, Bi-Cheng Luan
Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems is one of the functions of the Advanced Driver Assists System to avoid or mitigate vehicle frontal collisions. Most of the previous studies focus on two-car scenario where the host vehicle monitors the distances to the vehicles in front, and automatically applies emergency brake when a collision is imminent. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Advanced-AEB control system that mitigates collisions in a multi-car scenario by computing the Time-to-Collision (TTC) to the vehicles in front as well as those to the vehicles behind using the concept of impedance control. A simple gain-scheduling PI controller was designed for the host vehicle to track the reference inputs generated by the impedance control. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AEB is effective in mitigating the collisions in a 3-car following scenario.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1520
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou
The present work is concerned with the objective of design optimization of an automotive front end structure meeting both occupant and pedestrian safety requirements. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the mass of the front end structure of a passenger car meeting the safety requirements without sacrificing the performance targets. The front end structure should be sufficiently stiff to protect the occupant by absorbing the impact energy generated during a high speed frontal collision and at the same time it should not induce unduly high impact loads during a low speed pedestrian collision. These two requirements are potentially in conflict with each other; however, the goal of design would be to find an optimum solution that meets both the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1507
Jisi Tang, Qing Zhou, Bingbing Nie, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Yuichi Kitagawa
Lower extremities are the most frequently injured parts in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study is to investigate the effects of pre-impact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle front-end. A finite element (FE) pedestrian body model (THUMS Version 4.0.1 for LS-DYNA) was modified to consider both standing and a representative walking posture. Simulation cases were conducted in the frontal impact scenarios at the centerline of a FE sedan model considering three impact velocities (40/50/60 kph). Rotation of the knee joint around three axis was calculated by matrix transformation of the local coordinate system defined at the long bones, i.e., flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, internal/external rotation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1471
Anthony Timpanaro, Charles Moody, Wesley Richardson, Bradley Reckamp, Orion Keifer
It is well known that older vehicles’ headlight assemblies degrade with exposure to the elements and can become cloudy. It is also known that the degradation, decreases the amount of useful light projected forward, which can drastically reduce night time visibility and can be a significant factor in dark object visibility. Testing has been performed to measure the available light on a dark object with old degraded headlamp assemblies and new replacement assemblies to quantify the decrease in available light on a dark object caused by the degradation. The work has been extended to quantify the improvement in available light when the degraded lenses are treated with commercially available restoration products. Five different headlamp configurations representing four different manufacturers were tested measuring the illumination at a given distance with an Extech™ illuminance meter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1476
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
As part of a visibility and conspicuity analysis, it is often desired to determine the luminance of different objects in a scene. Luminance is defined as the amount of light leaving a surface. For any surface, the amount of light leaving a surface is related to the amount of illuminance or luminous flux incident to that surface as well as the surface properties. Currently, the most common way to determine the actual luminance of an object, for the purposes for accident reconstruction, is to locate the object on the subject roadway, at the correct position and orientation and then measure the object with a luminance meter. This process is extremely time consuming and could possibly require the roadway to be closed for safety purposes. Alternatively, the luminance can be calculated by measuring the reflectance of the subject surface and measuring the illuminance incident to the surface.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1514
Varun Bollapragada, Taewung Kim, Mark Clauser, Jeff Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
In controlled dynamic tests, kinematic parameters describing a rollover crash at touchdown (speed, drop speed, roll rate, pitch angle, etc.) are programed as inputs. The complexity of vehicle, environmental, and crash characteristics makes prediction of realistic touchdown conditions for rollover crashes, and moreover, identification of parameter sensitivities to these characteristics, impossible without simulation tools. The goal of this study was to study the sensitivity of driver input to touchdown parameters and the risk of rollover in case of steering-induced soil-tripped rollover crashes which are the most prevalent type of rollover crashes. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using two multibody models (sedan and pickup) by varying the driving inputs (speed, steer angle, steer rate) for typical driving maneuvers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0319
David E. Verbitsky
Proper failure analysis (FA) is an essential tool helping to effectively and efficiently resolve and prevent complex safety, quality, reliability, improvement-development, profitability (SQRIP) and accelerated reliability testing (ART) problems of modern mobility electronics. Yet, FA role is underestimated and underutilized, especially during ART. Moreover, attention is traditionally paid to normal and wear-out failures overlooking early troubles. Systemic early FA methodology (SEFA) provides SQRIP-ART feedback utilizing harmonized proprietary systematic hierarchical complementary studies and methods. Current paper describes organization of subject matter detailed technical root-cause FA (RCA). RCA is the main part of SEFA distinguishable from simple FMA and costly FA R&D. Flexible comprehensive RCA target important failures' symptoms, mechanisms and causes recommending optimized effective and efficient corrective-preventive actions (CAPA).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0124
Andrew Scott Alden, Brian Mayer, Patrick Mcgowen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. Naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS), and 1 experimental vehicle equipped with a DAS and 76 GHz radar. Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0150
Felix Pistorius, Andreas Lauber, Johannes Pfau, Alexander Klimm, Juergen Becker
In order to further improve road safety and efficiency V2X based applications have been proposed and developed, such as emergency brake or crash warning. Hard real-time constraints have to be satisfied in order to build these safety applications. Existing V2X systems adhering to the IEEE 1609 (WAVE) and SAE J2735 (DSRC) standards implement most message processing in software. This means the latency of these systems strongly depends on the CPU load as well as the number of incoming messages per time. According to safety constraints all messages of nearby vehicles have to be processed, whereby no prediction of the message importance can be given without analyzing the message content first. This paper proposes a novel architecture that optimizes latency to satisfy the hard real-time constraints for V2X messages. At the same time it allows to reduce the load of the V2X application CPU (V2X-APU).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0147
Toshiya Hirose, Tomohiro Makino, Masanobu Taniguchi, Hidenobu Kubota
1. Background of this study Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and use as a safety driving assist for driver. Currently, requirements of technical guideline have been studied in Japan. In particular, it is investigated to clarify appropriate activation timing for collision information, caution and warning. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information with V2V, and investigated an effective activation timing of collision information. In addition, this study investigated the relationship between the activation timing and the accuracy of the vehicle position. 2. Experimental method This experiment used Driving Simulator. The experimental scenario is four situations of (1) “Assist for braking”, (2) “Assist for accelerating”, (3) “Assist for right turn” and (4) “Assist for left turn” in blind intersection.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0151
Ganesan Easwaran, Kulandaivelu Shanmugam, Rangaraj Sakthivel, Ramkumar Rajachandrasekaran
The EyeOnRoad System intends to predict the road anomalies accurately and alerts the vehicles. This system introduces a new technique to detect road anomalies (bumps, potholes, cracks, expansion joints, patches, etc) automatically, using sensor fusion technique. This system integrates the road anomaly information with the existing navigation system which forecasts the distance, type & extent of the anomaly along with the recommended speed. The driver is suggested with an alternate route to avoid the road anomalies. With the road anomaly information and traffic density, the accurate travel time can be estimated. This system obtains the live updates (using sensory data) automatically via Cloud- Internet of things. This concept is applicable for multiple platforms, which includes In-Car navigation system and Smartphone's. This system intends to fill the technology barriers in anomaly detection, which imports intelligence to the navigation system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1541
Zuolong Wei, Hamid Reza Karimi, Kjell Gunnar Robbersmyr
The analysis of the vehicle crash performance is of great meaning in the vehicle design process. Due to the complexity of vehicle structure and uncertainty of crash, the analysis of vehicle crashworthiness is based on the experience of researcher in most cases. In this paper, the deformation modes of energy absorption components are studied firstly. Especially, the bumper, crash box and the front longitudinal beam have different frequency characteristics in the deformation process. According to these characteristics, it is possible to identify the influence of each component in the crash process of assembled structures. To achieve this goal, the crash responses of the assembled structure are decomposed by the time-frequency transformation. Different frequency components exist mainly in a specified period of the crash process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1450
Peter Vertal, Hermann Steffan
The objective of this work is to test the potential benefit of active pedestrian protection systems. The tests are based on real fatal accidents with passenger cars that were not equipped with active safety systems. Tests have been conducted in order to evaluate what the real benefit of the active safety system would be, and not to gain only a methodological prediction. The testing procedure was the first independent testing in the world which was based on real fatal pedestrian accidents. The aim of the tests is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Volvo pedestrian detection system. The in-depth accident database ZEDATU contains about 300 fatal pedestrian traffic accidents in urban areas. Eighteen cases of pedestrians hit by the front end of a passenger vehicle were extracted from this database. Cases covering an average traffic scenario have been reconstructed to obtain detailed model situations for testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1539
Do Hoi KIm
At present, the most issues are a safety of passengers. so thus OEMs have endeavored to enhance the safety of passenger when vehicle crash happened. Passenger's movement, airbag and seatbelt are related to passenger's injury. especially the correlation between vehicle drop and injury of passenger is mainly issued. this paper is to present the definition of vehicle drop and the relationship between vehicle drop and passenger's injury by analysis and dynamic sled test. Furthermore it shows what factors among vehicle's parts(body structure, chassis, layout of engine room, tire, center position of vehicle weight...) affect the vehicle drop and how much each factor of vehicle drop influences to the vehicle drop. In conclusion, this paper suggests the optimized area of vehicle drop for crash performance and how to attain the goal of vehicle drop by analysis and dynamic sled test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1463
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
It is extremely important to calibrate photographs or video taken of a scene at night, when attempting to accurately show how the subject scene appeared. It is widely understood and published that digital image sensors cannot capture the large dynamic range that can be seen by the human eye. Furthermore, todays commercially available printers, computer monitors, TV’s or other displays cannot reproduce the dynamic range that is captured by the digital cameras. Therefore, care must be taken when presenting a photograph or video when attempting to accurately depict a subject scene. However, there are many parameters that can be altered, while taking a photograph or video, to make a subject scene either too bright or too dark. Similarly, adjustments can be made to a printer or display to make the image appear either too bright or too dark.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1455
John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz, Susan Chrysler, Pujitha Gunaratne
In 2010 more than 32,500 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile accidents, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane change crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane change crashes accounted for approximately 9%. In order to develop effective crash avoidance systems, we investigate incorporating driver response models to actuate the systems in a timely manner. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior as well as warning systems that are tuned to issue useful alerts that are not perceived as false, or nuisance, alerts by the driver. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of such driver behavior modeling. Several scenario events were designed to fill in gaps left by previous crash research.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0400
Xuqian Jiang, Hailing Luo, Yong Xia, Qing Zhou
As mechanical damage induced thermal runaway of lithium battery has become a research hotspot, it is quite critical to understand the mechanical behavior of components of lithium battery. This study focus on the mechanical performance of separators and electrodes under different loading conditions and the error source analysis for test results Uniaxial tensile tests and punch tests were conducted under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The strain was obtained through the combination of high speed camera and digital image correlation (DIC) method while the force was gained from a self-designed load cell. Noticeable anisotropy and strain rate effect were observed for separators.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 16506

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