Display:

Results

Viewing 121 to 150 of 17306
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0361
Amar Marpu, George Garfinkel, Patrick Maguire
Abstract Modeling of High Voltage (HV) wires is an important aspect of vehicle safety simulations for electrified powertrains to understand the potential tearing of the wire sheath or pinching of HV wiring. The behavior of the HV wires must be reviewed in safety simulations to identify potential hazards associated with HV wire being exposed, severed, or in contact with ground planes during a crash event. Modeling HV wire is challenging due to the complexity of the physical composition of the wire, which is usually comprised of multiple strands bundled and often twisted together to form the HV electrical conductor. This is further complicated by the existence of external insulating sheathing materials to prevent HV exposure during normal operating conditions. This paper describes a proposed method to model and characterize different types of HV wires for usage in component- and vehicle-level safety models.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0363
Karthik Ramaswamy, Vinay L. Virupaksha, Jeanne Polan, Biswajit Tripathy
Abstract Expanded Polypropylene (EPP) foams are most commonly used in automotive applications for pedestrian protection and to meet low speed bumper regulatory requirements. In today’s automotive world the design of vehicles is predominantly driven by Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). This makes it necessary to have a validated material model for EPP foams in order to simulate and predict performance under various loading conditions. Since most of the automotive OEMs depend on local material suppliers for their global vehicle applications it is necessary to understand the variation in mechanical properties of the EPP foams and its effect on performance predictions. In this paper, EPP foams from three suppliers across global regions are characterized to study the inter-supplier variation in mechanical properties.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0365
Kentaro Sato, Takayuki Futatsuka, Jiro Hiramoto, Kei Nagasaka, Akira Akita, Takeshi Kashiyama
Abstract A simple testing method is proposed in order to investigate ductile fracture in crashed automotive components made from advanced high strength steels. This type of fracture is prone to occur at spot-welded joints and flange edges. It is well known that the heat affected zone (HAZ) is a weak point in high strength steel due to the formation of annealed material around the spot-welded nugget, and the flange edge also has low ductility due to the damage caused by shearing. The proposed method is designed to simulate a ductile fracture which initiates from a spot-welded portion or a sheared edge in automotive components which are deformed in a crash event. Automotive steel sheets with a wide range of tensile strengths from 590MPa to 1470MPa are examined in order to investigate the effect of material strength on fracture behavior. The effects of material cutting methods, namely, machining and shearing, are also investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0373
Fabian Jorg Uwe Koark, Christian Beul
Abstract Achieving functional safety in mechatronic systems with growing product functionality is a major challenge in systems engineering. Following the current discussion, this challenge is mostly allocated to electronics and software development. For most of the scenarios this focus is feasible. Product design - the construction of the product - defines the properties and the appearance of the product by shape, material and assembly. So, the product design is often not under control of the safety management system. A hazardous deviation of part shape can be easily identified after the parts product or at least at its mounting. A wrong assembly is controlled by assembly documentation or data (e.g. screw torques) and identified at end of assembly line checks. The identification of a hazardous material choice depends on the product material class. Product materials can be separated into two classes: passive or active materials.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0367
Yueqian Jia, Yu-wei Wang, Yuanli Bai
Abstract A fully modularized framework was established to combine isotropic, kinematic, and cross hardening behaviors under non-monotonic loading conditions for advanced high strength steels. Experiments under the following types of non-proportional loading conditions were conducted, 1) uniaxial tension-compression-tension/compression-tension-compression full cycle reversal loading, 2) uniaxial reversal loading with multiple cycles, and 3) reversal shear. The calibrated new model is decoupled between isotropic and kinematic hardening behaviors, and independent on both anisotropic yield criterion and fracture model. Nine materials were calibrated using the model, include: DP590, DP600, DP780, TRIP780, DP980LY, QP980, AK Steel DP980, TBF1180, and AK Steel DP1180. Good correlation was observed between experimental and modeled results.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0368
Ying Zhao, Fangwu Ma, Longfan Yang, Yueqiang Wang, Hongyu Liang
Abstract The conventional hood with single material and stiffener structural form conceals some limitations on pedestrian protection and lightweight, not satisfying the requirements of structural strength, pedestrian protection and lightweight contradictory with each other at the same time. In this paper, a novel type hood is proposed to develop sandwich structure using architected cellular material with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) configuration based on the decoupling thought of structural strength and energy absorption. Core-layer aluminum alloy material with NPR is used to meet the requirement of impact energy absorption, inner and outer skin using carbon fiber is selected to achieve high structural stiffness needed. This paper starts from the relations between geometric parameters of core-layer architected cellular material and mechanical properties, on this basis, the optimal geometric parameters can be expected using the multiobjective optimization method.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0378
Yuta Imanami, Kunikazu Tomita, Kazuaki Fukuoka, Kimihiro Nishimura
Abstract In order to develop a new carburizing steel material that realizes an intermediate heat treatment-free process in parts manufacturing, the cold forgeability of the as-rolled steel and suppression of abnormal grain growth of austenite were studied. It was shown that adjustment of addition amount of Si, Mn and Cr, suppression of dynamic strain aging during cold forging, and an increase of ferrite fraction by controlled rolling contribute to the reduction of deformation resistance. However, Nb precipitation control by fully utilizing mill manufacturing processes was also necessary for suppression of abnormal grain growth of austenite. A new steel for carburizing was developed by integrating these technologies, making it possible to eliminate annealing before cold forging and normalizing before carburizing simultaneously. Thus, the developed steel is an important innovation in the parts manufacturing process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0377
Peter Shery, William Altenhof, Ryan Smith, Elmar Beeh, Philipp Strassburger, Thomas Gruenheid
Abstract Cylindrical extrusions of magnesium AZ31B were subjected to quasi-static axial compression and cutting modes of deformation to study this alloy’s effectiveness as an energy absorber. For comparison, the tests were repeated using extrusions of AA6061-T6 aluminum of the same geometry. For the axial compression tests, three different end geometries were considered, namely (1) a flat cutoff, (2) a 45 degree chamfer, and (3) a square circumferential notch. AZ31B extrusions with the 45 degree chamfer produced the most repeatable and stable deformation of a progressive fracturing nature, referred to as sharding, with an average SEA of 40 kJ/kg and an average CFE of 45 %, which are nearly equal to the performance of the AA6061-T6. Both the AZ31B specimens with the flat cutoff and the circumferential notch conditions were more prone to tilt mid-test, and lead to an unstable helical fracture, which significantly reduced the SEA.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0379
Tau Tyan, Leonard Shaner, Matt Niesluchowski, Nand Kochhar, Dilip Bhalsod, Jason Wang
Three computational gas and fluid dynamic methods, CV/UP (Control Volume/Uniform Pressure), CPM (Corpuscular Particle Method), and ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian), were investigated in this research in an attempt to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors. Acceleration-based crash sensors have been used extensively in the automotive industry to determine the restraint system firing time in the event of a vehicle crash. The prediction of acceleration-based crash pulses by using computer simulations has been very challenging due to the high frequency and noisy responses obtained from the sensors, especially those installed in crush zones. As a result, the sensor algorithm developments for acceleration-based sensors are largely based on prototype testing. With the latest advancement in the crash sensor technology, side crash pressure sensors have emerged recently and are gradually replacing acceleration-based sensor for side crash applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1436
Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
Abstract Various electronic control units from Kawasaki Ninja 300 motorcycles were tested in-situ in order to heuristically examine the capabilities and behavior of the event data recorders (EDR). The relevant hexadecimal data was downloaded from the ECU and translated using known and historically proven applications. The hexadecimal translations were then confirmed using data acquisition systems as well as the Kawasaki Diagnostic Software (KDS). Numerous tests were performed to establish the algorithms which cause the EDR to record data. It was determined that the EDR recording “trigger” was caused by the activation of the tip-over sensor, which in turn shuts the engine off. In addition, specific conditions must be met with regards to the rear wheel rotation prior to engine shut-down.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1581
Jianbo Lu, Hassen Hammoud, Todd Clark, Otto Hofmann, Mohsen Lakehal-ayat, Shweta Farmer, Jason Shomsky, Roland Schaefer
Abstract This paper presents two brake control functions which are initiated when there is an impact force applied to a host vehicle. The impact force is generated due to the host vehicle being collided with or by another vehicle or object. The first function - called the post-impact braking assist - initiates emergency brake assistance if the driver is braking during or right after the collision. The second function - called the post-impact braking - initiates autonomous braking up to the level of the anti-lock-brake system if the driver is not braking during or right after the collision. Both functions intend to enhance the current driver assistance features such as emergency brake assistance, electronic stability control, anti-brake-lock system, collision mitigation system, etc.
2017-03-28
Collection
Papers with an emphasis on, but not limited to, innovative ideas to enhance automotive safety with improved material constitutive modeling, analysis method developments, simulation and pre/post processing tools, optimization techniques, crash code developments, finite element model updating, model validation and verification techniques, dummies and occupants, restraint systems, passive safety as well as lightweight material applications and designs are included in the collection.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1516
Daniel B. Honeycutt, Mesbah Uddin
Abstract Although, the implementation of lift-off prevention devices such as the NASCAR roof flaps have greatly reduced the frequency and severity of race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents, airborne incidents still occur occasionally in motorsports. The effectiveness of existing lift-off prevention measures and future trends in lift-off prevention are addressed in this paper. The results and analysis presented in this paper will be of paramount interest to race vehicle designers and sanctioning bodies because the effects of aerodynamics on vehicle lift-off need to be comprehended, but there exists a scarcity of reliable data in this area.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1561
Anton A. Tkachev, Nong Zhang
Abstract Rollover prevention is one of the prominent priorities in vehicle safety and handling control. A promising alternative for roll angle cancellation is the active hydraulically interconnected suspension. This paper represents the analytical model of a closed circuit active hydraulically interconnected suspension system followed by the simulation. Passive hydraulically interconnected suspension systems have been widely discussed and studied up to now. This work specifically focuses on the active hydraulically interconnected suspension system. Equations of motion of the system are formalized first. The system consists of two separate subsystems that can be modeled independently and further combined for simulation. One of the two subsystems is 4 degrees of freedom half-car model which simulates vehicle lateral dynamics and vehicle roll angle response to lateral acceleration in particular.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0716
Randy Hessel, Zongyu Yue, Rolf Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
Abstract One way to develop an understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes that occur during direct injection and combustion in an internal combustion engine is to image the natural luminosity from soot over time. Imaging is possible when there is optical access to the combustion chamber. After the images are acquired, the next challenge is to properly interpret the luminous distributions that have been captured on the images. A major focus of this paper is to provide guidance on interpretation of experimental images of soot luminosity by explaining how radiation from soot is predicted to change as it is transmitted through the combustion chamber and to the imaging. The interpretations are only limited by the scope of the models that have been developed for this purpose. The end-goal of imaging radiation from soot is to estimate the amount of soot that is present.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1233
Mohamed A. Elshaer, Allan Gale, Chingchi Chen
Abstract Vehicle safety is of paramount importance when it comes to plugging the vehicle into the electric utility grid. The impact of high voltage ground fault has been neglected or, if not, addressed by guidelines extracted from general practices, written in international standards. The agile accretion in Electric Vehicle (EV) development deems an exhaustive study on safety risks pertaining to fault occurrence. While vehicle electrification offers a vital solution to oil scarcity, it is essential that the fast development of the number of electric vehicles on the road does not compromise safety. Meanwhile, the link between technology and demands of society must be governed by vehicle safety. In this paper, a comprehensive study on high voltage (HV) fault conditions occurring in an EV will be conducted. In the next decade, EVs are expected to be prevalent worldwide. Ground fault characteristics are significantly dependent on the earthing system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Abstract Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are tested. Using a 3D virtual environment to enable testing of many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or cluster significantly reduces the amount of required road tests. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, a shared memory interface between MATLAB, Simulink, and Unreal Engine 4 can send information (such as vehicle control signals) back to the virtual environment. The shared memory interface conveys arbitrary numerical data, RGB image data, and point cloud data for the simulation of LiDAR sensors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
Abstract The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct crashes for years. Recently, a third-party system has been introduced that allows crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain information and event data from cellular telephones and other devices connected to the vehicle, vehicle events and navigation data in the form of tracklogs. These tracklogs provide a time history of a vehicle’s geolocation that may be useful in investigating an incident involving an automobile or reconstructing a crash. This paper presents an introduction to the type of data that may be retained and the methods for performing data acquisitions.
CURRENT
2017-03-28
Standard
J3102_201703
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the dynamic and static testing procedures required to evaluate the integrity of the ambulance substructure, to support the safe mounting of an SAE J3027 compliant litter retention device or system, when exposed to a frontal, side or rear impact (i.e., a crash impact). Its purpose is to provide manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that to a great extent ensure the ambulance substructure meets the same performance criteria across the industry. Prospective manufacturers or vendors have the option of performing either dynamic testing or static testing. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, test fixture, and performance metrics are included.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1414
William Bortles, David Hessel, William Neale
Abstract When a vehicle with protruding wheel studs makes contact with another vehicle or object in a sideswipe configuration, the tire sidewall, rim and wheel studs of that vehicle can deposit distinct geometrical damage patterns onto the surfaces it contacts. Prior research has demonstrated how relative speeds between the two vehicles or surfaces can be calculated through analysis of the distinct contact patterns. This paper presents a methodology for performing this analysis by visually modeling the interaction between wheel studs and various surfaces, and presents a method for automating the calculations of relative speed between vehicles. This methodology also augments prior research by demonstrating how the visual modeling and simulation of the wheel stud contact can extend to almost any surface interaction that may not have any previous prior published tests, or test methods that would be difficult to setup in real life.
2017-03-23
WIP Standard
AS6369
Create a new specification same form and fit as AS4751. This specification will include /1 coupling, /2 sheet metal flange and /3 solid flange. Define new operating, proof and burst pressures. This will have QPL requirement.
2017-03-22
WIP Standard
ARP6389
This ARP provides guidelines for improving the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis process, including alternative or additional methods, for flight critical actuation equipment electronics and software.
CURRENT
2017-03-21
Standard
J2945/9_201703
This document provides recommendations of safety message minimum performance requirements between a Vulnerable Road User (VRU) and a vehicle. It addresses the transmission of Personal Safety Messages (PSM) from road user devices carried by pedestrians, bicycle riders and public safety personnel, to provide driver and vehicle system awareness and potentially offer safety alerts to VRUs. This document includes the recommendation of standards profiles, function descriptions and minimum performance requirements for transmitting the SAE J2735-defined PSM [1] over a Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Wireless communication link as defined in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1609 and the IEEE 802.11 Standards [[1]-[5]].
2017-03-17
Article
Experts serve cautionary tales for connected cars while discussing potential cyber solutions.
2017-03-17
Article
The data-driven vehicle is re-shaping the supplier landscape.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 17306

Filter