Abstract Labor costs rank second only to fuel in expenses for commercial air transports. Labor issues are a growing concern in the airline industry, with an impending worldwide pilot shortage. One solution proposed and requested by some of the industry leaders is to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories that highlight pilot error and anchor their viewpoint on further regulating a two-person crew. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash. Technology is not the problem.
Abstract The increasing functionality associated with the rising complexity of aircraft cabin systems which are used by cabin crew, passengers, maintenance staff and other stakeholders, requires a reconsideration of the methods for the development of aircraft cabin systems. This paper deals with a model-based security engineering approach based on the so called Three-V-Model as an appropriate process model, which represents the governing system engineering process (SEP) associated with the safety engineering process (SafEP) and the security engineering process (SecEP). All three processes are pursued concurrently and are interacting reciprocally by working within the same system model on each development level. We describe in detail the involved model-based security engineering activities of the SecEP and the integration of the CORAS risk analysis method in a consistent System Modeling Language (SysML) approach.
Abstract Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control ground stations. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. But when Transponder is shut down, and the redundant transponder fails to operate, there is no system within the aircraft which can continue transmitting altitude and important data to ATC ground stations. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective communication systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present. The present work introduces a novel design ‘RTSA’ which can be effective in catering safe transmission of emergency signal.
A Multifaceted Investigation and Intervention into the Process of Flight Clearance for UAS Experimental Flight Test
Abstract Unmanned aviation systems (UAS) acquired for US Navy for military roles are developed in the context of NAVAIR's rigorous and well-established policies, procedures and processes employed in the acquisition and development of manned aircraft. A key process is the preparation and approval of interim flight clearances (IFC) prior to flight test to ensure the aircraft is airworthy and thus safe to operate. Due to the perceived risks of UAS experimental flight test, the use of this process has been mandated for all Navy organizations, including use of commercially available UAS in research projects. This policy has proved to be a challenge, impeding and discouraging the use of UAS in research and experimental projects. Currently, the cost of compliance is unaffordable and IFC preparation and approval time are inconsistent with research cycle time expectations.
Abstract Fault-tolerance in commercial aircraft applications is typically achieved by redundancy. In such redundant systems the primary component is checked before the start of a flight to see if it operates correctly. The aircraft will not take off unless the primary is functioning. Airplane manufacturers must certify the airplane systems to be safe for flight. One means of safety certification is by safety analysis which shows that the probability of failure in a typical flight is bounded. The probability bound requirement for a system is based on the criticality of system failure. Usually backup components are checked at intervals that span multiple flights. The first backup may be checked more frequently than the second or higher levels. This leads to flights where the system may have latent faults in the backup components. The probability of failure in such cases varies from flight to flight due to the different exposure times for components in the system.
Abstract Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
Finite Element Analysis Simulation of a Fireproof Test for an Aircraft Propulsion Engine Mount Structure Made of Titanium
Abstract Aviation regulations requires that engine mounts, and other flight structures located in designated fire zones must be constructed of fireproof material so that they are capable of withstanding the effects of fire. Historically, steel is defined as being inherently fireproof, however, titanium was not. Therefore, a fireproof test was conducted using 6AL-4V titanium structure for the attachment of the propulsion system on a mid-size business jet to satisfy FAA Federal Aviation Requirement 25.865. To determine if the titanium structure would be able to support normal operating loads during the fire event, finite element analysis was performed on the titanium structure simulating the fire test. The fire test simulates a fire on the aircraft from the propulsion system by using a burner with jet fuel exposing the component to a 2000 °F (1093°C) flame. The 2000 °F (1093°C) Flame is calibrated based on FAA Advisory Circular AC20-135.
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - thermodynamic characteristics of working fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms; and 2F - properties of heat transfer fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR 1168/9: 2A-Properties of the natural environment; 2B-Properties of gases; 2C-Properties of liquids and 2D- Properties of solids.
FITTING ASSEMBLY, TEE, MALE FLARELESS ON THE RUN, AXIALLY SWAGED ON THE RUN AND THE BRANCH, HYDRAULIC, 3000 PSI
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the requirements for a Stationary Runway Weather Information System (referred to as the system) to monitor the surface conditions of airfield operational areas to ensure safer ground operations of aircraft. The system provides (1) temperature and condition information of runway, taxiway, and ramp pavements and (2) atmospheric weather conditions that assist airport personnel to maintain safer and more efficient airport operations. The system can be either a wired system or a wireless system.
It’s widely predicted that vehicle-to-vehicle communications technology will be required on all vehicles due to its significant role in improving safety. These transmissions are mainly for safety, but the wealth of real-time information will undoubtedly be useful for something else.
This recommended practice aims to prescribe clear and consistent labeling methodology for communicating important xEV-specific safety information. Examples of such information include identifying key high voltage system component locations and high voltage disabling points. These recommendations are based on current industry best practices identified by the responder community. The label methodology described by this recommendation is only intended for xEVs. Although this practice is targeted for xEVs with high voltage systems, these practices may be applicable to any vehicle type.
In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
Driving EVs toward lower cost The race is on to reduce battery and electric-drive systems costs while improving efficiency. Seeking ways to make better computer crashes New models and simulations help improve safety as software and hardware provide more realism to iterate designs more quickly. Evaluating aluminum bonds Adhesively joined aluminum alloy sheets present challenges that steel-adhesive joints do not. Ford researchers present a modified technique to inspect Al-adhesive joints in lab and production environments. Leading the attack on engine pumping losses Cylinder deactivation delivers real-world fuel economy gains, helping vehicles to meet and exceed their sticker numbers. That's why the downsized/boosted guys now want it on their engines.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes hydraulic system design and installation to minimize the effects of lightning, especially when the aircraft structure is composite. Techniques for effective electrical bonding, hydraulic system lightning protection, and lightning protection verification techniques are discussed.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting frontal impact restraint tests for heavy truck applications. Its purpose is to establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system testing for heavy trucks. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
For automakers, earning a 5-star safety rating in the government and insurance industry tests is a major source of pride. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the latest vehicle to earn 5 stars: Honda's 2016 Pilot.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes a test procedure and recommended surge pressure limit value for the evaluation of fixed aircraft pressure fuel dispensing systems. Note: This ARP is not applicable to aerial refueling systems or mobile aircraft refueling systems (trucks, hydrant servicing vehicles, etc.). Testing of aerial refueling systems is addressed in ARSAG documents. Testing of mobile refueling systems is addressed in ARP 5918. Note: This ARP does not address requirements that may be specific to the testing of shipboard aircraft refueling systems.
The automaker is developing a camera-based lighting system that can automatically widen dipped beams at road junctions and roundabouts. It is also researching infrared image triggered spotlighting and an intelligent GPS linked system.
This ARP addresses the issue of passengers smoking in aircraft lavatories and the need to improve warnings about the danger of fire caused by smoking.
This Information Report provides recommendations for alphanumeric messages that are supplied to the vehicle by external (e.g., RDS, satellite radio) or internal (e.g., infotainment system) sources while the vehicle is in-motion. Information/design recommendations contained in this report apply to OEM (embedded) and aftermarket systems. Ergonomic issues with regard to display characteristics (e.g., viewing angle, brightness, contrast, font design, etc.) should review ISO 15008.
The advent of stop-start technology As environmental concerns grow for R&D teams, OEMs look to bring the strategy further into the mainstream. Recycling opportunities for hybrid/electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries With limited reserves and strict environmental regulations, re-cyclers look to established extraction means to reuse, recycle, and dispose of the used batteries. Cameras look to go the distance Automakers seek vision systems with greater distances, improved reliability, and more functionality, thanks to ruggedized complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies. Getting right with composites With composites now a mainstay in most new aircraft de-signs, the engineering emphasis has switched from understanding if they work to thinking through the most efficient way to manufacture them, such as using design-for-manufacturing software.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the requirements for a flexible, lightweight, low pressure, self-extinguishing, silicone hose assembly. The hose has a fully fluorinated fluoropolymer inner liner and is primarily intended for use in aircraft potable water systems.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum ice and rain performance criteria for electrically-heated pitot and pitot-static probes intended for use on the following classes of fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The classes of fixed-wing aircraft are defined by aircraft flight envelopes and are shown in Figure 1. The flight envelopes generally fall into the classes as shown below: Class 1: Cruise altitude ≤ 23 000 feet Class 2: Cruise altitude ≤ 31 000 feet Class 3: Cruise altitude ≤ 42 000 feet Class 4: Cruise altitude > 42 000 feet Class R: Rotorcraft The user of this standard must evaluate the aircraft level installation requirements for the probe against the class definition criteria to ensure adequate coverage for the application. It may be necessary to step up in class or modify the test conditions in order to meet the applicable installation requirements. NOTE: Class 2 is divided into two subgroups identified as either Class 2a or Class 2b.
Making sense of autonomy Industry offers a range of sensors that will free humans from many tasks while also improving reliability, though devising strategies that meet demanding requirements without breaking the bank is no easy challenge. Life-cycle planning-Design and calibration for ultimate efficiency The ultimate power of Big Data technologies relies on the implementation of new strategies. Unlike a traditional engine calibration process, in which only calibration test data and model simulation data are used, multiple source data introduced into the adaptive engine calibration process contributes to efficiency and cost reduction. The complicated future of off-highway engines Developing an optimum engine is getting tricky now that the European Union has established a Stage V for off-highway engines, and the U.S. has not. What effect will this have on future engine designs?
This document provides information on the preparation and use of video for operational and maintenance training of personnel associated with GSE.
Big Data, aircraft, and a better future Aircraft manufacturers, in particular engine makers, are exploiting the opportunities that come with collecting the vast amount of data available, from customer reports to engine exhaust temperatures. Why is it potentially so useful? What are some of the best ways to use it? Let the good times continue to roll The booming international commercial aviation sector continues to be a bright light leading the future of the aerospace industry.
This SAE recommended practice establishes a uniform, powered vehicle T.P. for lane departure warning systems used in highway trucks and buses greater than 4,546 kg (10,000 lb) GVW. Systems similar in function but different in scope and complexity, including Lane Keeping/Lane Assist and Merge Assist, are not included in this T.P. This T.P. does not apply to trailers, dollies, etc. This T.P. does not intend to exclude any particular system or sensor technology. The specification will test the functionality of the LDWS (e.g., ability to detect lane presence, and ability to detect an unintended lane departure), its ability to indicate LDWS engagement, its ability to indicate LDWS disengagement, and determine the point at which the LDWS notifies the Human Machine Interface (HMI) or vehicle control system that a lane departure event is detected. The HMI is not addressed herein, but is considered in SAE Standard J2808.
The company is looking at adjacent markets for its large video screens and sees the truck industry as a potential opportunity. The Safety Truck prototype was developed with the aim of improving road safety.