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Viewing 91 to 120 of 17251
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1233
Mohamed A. Elshaer, Allan Gale, Chingchi Chen
Vehicle safety is of a paramount importance when it comes to plugging the vehicle to the electric utility grid. The impact of high voltage ground fault has been neglected or, if not, addressed by guidelines extracted from general practices, written in international standards. The agile accession in Electric Vehicle (EV) development deems an exhaustive study on safety risks pertaining to fault occurrence. While vehicle electrification offers a vital solution to oil scarcity, it is essential that the fast development of the number of electric vehicles on the road does not compromise safety. Meanwhile, the link between technology and demands of society must be governed by vehicle safety. In this paper a comprehensive study on high voltage (HV) fault conditions occurring in an EV will be conducted. In the next decade EVs are expected to be prevalent worldwide. Ground fault characteristics are significantly dependent on the earthing system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1459
HangMook Kim, Jae Kyu Lee, Jin Sang CHUNG
If the door opening problem occurs in side crash, it results in raising the possibility of passenger ejection and serious injury. Therefore, for the sake of passenger’s safety, various research on preventing door opening during side impact test is conducted. Even though there are many causes for door opening, this study dealing with inertia effect caused by impact energy. Until now, there have been two classical methods for preventing the door opening. One is increasing the balance weight and spring force. That counterbalances the outside handle’s opening direction moment. The other is the application of the blocking lever. That prohibits the outside handle’s movement mechanically in the event of side crash. Recently, it is shown that the trend of crash test enhances the safety of the passengers by increasing the speed and weight of MDB. As a result, the impact energy transmitted to the vehicle increases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1407
Helene G. Moorman, Andrea Niles, Caroline Crump, Audra Krake, Benjamin Lester, Laurene Milan, Christy Cloninger, David Cades, Douglas Young
Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems, along with other types of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), are becoming more common in passenger vehicles, with the general aim of improving driver safety through automation of various aspects of the driving task. Drivers have generally reported satisfaction with ADAS with the exception of LDW systems, which are often rated poorly or even deactivated by drivers. One potential contributor to this negative response may be an increase in the cognitive load associated with lane-keeping when LDW is in use. The present study sought to examine the relationship between LDW, lane-keeping behavior, and concurrent cognitive load, as measured by performance on a secondary task. Participants drove a vehicle equipped with LDW in a demarcated lane on a closed-course test track with and without the LDW system in use over multiple sessions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1439
John C. Steiner, Christopher Armstrong
The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets of vehicles is quickly becoming commonplace. The GPS system can be used to track fleet vehicles resulting in more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS-based fleet telematics data is also valuable for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can also be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite its advantages for fleet management, there are performance limitations that affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of accidents. The U.S. Air Force, responsible for maintaining and operating the GPS space and control segments, publishes information about these limitations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0716
Randy Hessel, Zongyu Yue, Rolf Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
The goal of this paper is to present guidelines for interpreting soot natural luminosity images that are taken from within the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder research engine, which is fitted with a window in the piston-crown. In the experiments, fuel is injected near top-dead-center and luminosity from soot that forms as a result of the combustion process is imaged. Then, CFD simulations are run, from which soot luminosity and in-cylinder soot distributions are predicted. A luminosity to soot-distribution transfer function is developed from the CFD results and the transfer function is subsequently applied to the experimentally-obtained luminosity images in order to approximate soot distributions in the physical engine with improved accuracy. This method is applied to multiple operating conditions in order to develop the guidelines presented herein. Although this work builds on previous efforts, this is the authors’ first published work on this particular topic.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1432
Tadasuke Katsuhara, Yoshiki Takahira, Shigeki Hayashi, Yuichi Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
This paper discusses mechanisms of spine fracture during racecar crash, and investigates possible modifications to the seat and driver restraint system to help reduce spine fracture risk. This study focused on an accident during the World Endurance Championship in which a driver sustained bony spine fractures at T11 and T12 as the racecar collided against the tire wall. Finite element (FE) simulations were analyzed to understand the spinal fracture mechanism, the driver kinematics and interactions between the driver and the seat/restraint system. This FE model incorporated the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) scaled to the driver size, a model of the detailed racecar cockpit and a model of the seat/restraint systems. A frontal impact deceleration pulse was applied to the cockpit model. In the simulation, the driver torso moved forward under the shoulder belt and the pelvis was restrained by the crotch belt and the front of the seat cushion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1429
Sung Rae kim, Inju Lee, Hyung joo Kim
In motor-vehicle frontal crashes, occupants often suffer from the abdominal injuries when the lap belt excurses over the pelvic bone, commonly referred to as submarining. Especially, it is well known that the obese occupants frequently get injured caused by submarining due to out-of-position belt fittings. This paper aims to investigate the interaction between the pelvis and the lap belt during a frontal crash event. For this purpose, twelve sled tests on four obese female Post-Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) and four sled tests on the Hybrid III 50th dummy were carried out. In each test, a 3D motion capture system was installed to track the movement of the pelvis and the lap belt. Moreover, the validated subject specific FE model scaled from the 50th percentile male GHBMC model to fit to obese female PMHS in prior study was also simulated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are to be tested. Having a 3D virtual environment to enable testing many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or on a cluster reduces the amount of required road tests significantly. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, with potential applications to level 2 active safety systems as well, a shared memory interface between MATLAB/Simulink and Unreal Engine 4, such that perception and/or control algorithms running within or interfacing with MATLAB/Simulink can receive virtual sensor data generated in an Unreal Engine 3D virtual environment, and send information such as vehicle control signals back to the virtual environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0015
Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, Hubert Zangl
Authors: DI(FH) Wolfgang Granig, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Dirk Hammerschmidt, Infineon Technologies Austria AG Dr. Hubert Zangl, Alpe-Adria University Klagenfurt Abstract: Functional safe products conforming the ISO26262 standard are getting more important for automotive applications wherein electronic takes more and more response for safety relevant operations. Consequently safety mechanisms are needed and implemented in order to reach defined functional safety targets. To prove their effectiveness diagnostic coverage provides a measurable quantity. A straight forward safety mechanism for sensor systems can be established by redundant signal paths measuring the same physical quantity and subsequently performing an independent output difference-check that decides if the data can be transmitted or an error message shall be sent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1353
Michael G. Leffert
This paper will compare and contrast the fire patterns which developed on four nearly identical compact sedans when each was burned for exactly the same amount of time, but with different wind direction and wind speed during the burn. This paper will also compare and contrast the effects of environmental exposure to the fire patterns on the test vehicles. The burn testing was completed at an outdoor test facility in South East Michigan on four late model compact sedans. The wind direction was controlled by placing the subject vehicle with either the front facing into the wind, or rear facing into the wind. The wind speed was considered “low” when the average wind speed during the burn was less than or equal to 11kph or “high” when the average wind speed during the burn was greater than or equal to 19kph. The origination point of each vehicle fire was the same, with the fire being set by a small incendiary device and allowed to burn freely for twenty-four minutes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0096
Valentin Soloiu, Bernard Ibru, Thomas Beyerl, Tyler Naes, Charvi Popat, Cassandra Sommer, Brittany Williams
An important aspect of an autonomous vehicle system, aside from the crucial features of path following and obstacle detection, is the ability to accurately and effectively recognize visual cues present on the roads, such as traffic lanes, signs and lights. This ability is important because very few vehicles on the road are autonomously driven and must integrate with conventionally operated vehicles. An enhanced infrastructure has yet to be available solely for autonomous vehicles to more easily navigate lanes and intersections non-visually. Recognizing these cues efficiently can be a complicated task as it not only involves constantly gathering visual information from the vehicle’s surroundings but also requires accurate processing. Ambiguity of traffic control signals challenges even the most advanced computer decision making algorithms. The vehicle then must keep a predetermined position within its travel lane based on its interpretation of its surroundings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1422
Toby Terpstra, Seth Miller, Alireza Hashemian
Photogrammetry and the accuracy of a photogrammetric solution is reliant on the quality of photographs and the accuracy of pixel location within the photographs. A photograph with lens distortion can create inaccuracies within a photogrammetric solution. Due to the curved nature of a camera’s lens(s), the light coming through the lens and onto the image sensor can have varying degrees of distortion. There are commercially available software titles that rely on a library of known cameras, lenses, and configurations for removing lens distortion. However, to use these software titles the camera manufacturer, model, lens and focal length must be known. This paper presents two methodologies for removing lens distortion when camera and lens specific information is not available. The first methodology uses linear objects within the photograph to determine the amount of lens distortion present. This method will be referred to as the straight-line method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1462
Haiyan Li, Xin Jin, Hongfei Zhao, Shihai Cui, Binghui Jiang, King H. Yang
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinetic responds and injury mechanisim. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Patameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, was analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1475
Saeed Barbat, Xiaowei Li
On December 2015, The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published its proposal to implement U.S New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) changes beginning in 2019 model year. The proposal included a new frontal oblique impact (OI) test protocol which comprises of a new Oblique Moving Deformable Barrier (OMDB), new THOR 50th% male dummy, and a new test configuration? An OMDB of 2,486Kg impacts a stationary target vehicle at a speed of 90Kph at an angle of 15 degrees with a 35% barrier overlap. In vehicle-to-vehicle collisions, the lighter weight vehicle experience higher velocity change, thereby, occupants in the lighter vehicle experience higher injury risk. This paper describes the analyses of a 31 OI tests conducted by NHTSA, in which the target vehicles used were of different sizes and weight distribution ranging between 1034Kg-2624Kg. Deformation Energy (DE) in the OMDP was calculated from the honeycomb deformation and stiffness.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1417
Enrique Bonugli, Richard Watson, Mark Freund, Jeffrey Wirth
This paper reports on additional testing conducted using the test device described by Bonugli et al. (2014-01-1991). The method utilized quasi-static loading of bumper systems and other vehicle components to measure their force-deflection properties. Corridors on the force-deflection plots, for various vehicle combinations, were determined to define the system stiffness of the combined vehicle systems. Loading path and peak force measurements can then be used to evaluate the impact severity for low speed collisions in terms of delta-v and acceleration. The additional tests refine the stiffness corridors, previously published, which cover a wide range of vehicle types and impact configurations. The analysis of the collision models the compression phase of a low speed collision as a spring, the spring characteristics defined by the force-deflection corridors. This is followed by a linear rebound phase based on published restitution values.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1208
Kristin R. Cooney
This paper will discuss how Ford Motor Company meets the testing criteria of UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. The battery safety regulations that we were familiar with, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that is clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function; the tests in this regulation are among the more stringent validation tests that we perform. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. We created internal documents detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among our test engineers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0178
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Sam Gullman, David Jacobsson
Passive sensor (HVAC) manikins have been developed to obtain high resolution measurements of environmental conditions across a representative human body form. These manikins incorporate numerous sensors that measure air velocity, air temperature, radiant heat flux, and relative humidity. The effect of a vehicle’s climate control system on occupant comfort can be characterized from the data collected by an HVAC manikin. Equivalent homogeneous temperature (EHT) is often used as a first step in a cabin comfort analysis, especially since it reduces a large data set to a single intuitive number. However, the applicability of the EHT for thermal comfort assessment is limited since it does not account for human homeostasis, i.e., that the human body actively counter-balances heat flow with the environment in order to maintain a constant core temperature.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1465
William R. Bussone, Joseph Olberding, Michael Prange
At present, SAE J211 provides no definitive guidance as to the appropriate procedures for filtering angular rate sensor data prior to differentiation into angular acceleration data, especially for very short duration or impact data. Accordingly, a 3-2-2-2 array of linear accelerometers and a triaxial angular rate sensor were mounted into a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD headform and compared in a variety of impact events. An appropriate low-pass digital filter cutoff frequency for differentiating the angular rate sensor data into angular accelerations was sought via residual analysis in accordance with current SAE J211 guidelines to find appropriate cutoff frequencies which would best match the angular acceleration data measured by the 3-2-2-2 array, which is the present gold standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1448
Kevin Pline, Derek Board, Nirmal Muralidharan, Srinivasan Sundararajan, Eric Eiswerth, Katie Salciccioli
In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable belts in Ford Explorer. Interaction of rear inflatable seat belts with child restraint systems (CRS) when it is used to install a CRS or used in conjunction with belt position booster is an important consideration. This paper describes a standardized test methodology to assess the interaction of CRS with inflatable seat belts through frontal impact sled tests. Details of test methods including construction of additional fixtures and hardware are highlighted. This procedure is designed to enable test labs capable of running FMVSS 213 testing to adapt this test method, with minimal fabrication, by utilizing existing test benches. The test methodology can be used to quantify the effect of the inflatable seat belt compared to a standard lap/shoulder belt on CRS in terms of ATD/CRS responses and kinematics. Sample results are presented for various CRS types.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1445
Kevin Pline, Derek Board, Nirmal Muralidharan, Srinivasan Sundararajan, Eric Eiswerth, Katie Salciccioli, Noelle Baker
In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable belts in Ford Explorer. Interaction of rear inflatable seat belts with child restraint systems (CRS) when it is used to install a CRS or used in conjunction with belt position booster is an important consideration. A comprehensive series of frontal impact sled tests, using a standardized test method, was conducted to compare the performance of a CRS installed using an inflatable seat belt to the identical CRS installed using a standard lap/shoulder belt. The study included rear facing only CRS, both with and without bases, from several CRS manufacturers in the North American CRS market. CRABI 12 month old or Hybrid III 3 year old anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) were restrained in the CRS. The assessment included comparisons of ATD/CRS responses and kinematics, and CRS structural integrity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1434
Dongran Liu, Marcos Paul Gerardo-Castro, Bruno Costa, Yi Zhang
Heart rate is one of the most important biological features for health information. Most of the state-of-the-art heart rate monitoring systems relies on invasive technologies that require physical contact with the user. In this paper, we propose a non- invasive technology based on a single camera to measure the users heart rate in real time. The algorithm estimates the heart rate based on facial color changes. The input is a series of video frames with the automatically detected face of the user. A Gaus- sian pyramid spatial filter is applied on the inputs to obtain a down sampled high signal-to-noise ratio images. A temporal Fourier transform is applied to the video to get the signal spec- trum. Next, a temporal band-pass filter is applied on the trans- formed signal in the frequency domain to extract the frequency band of heart beats. The heart rate is then estimated by finding the dominant frequency in the Fourier domain.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1425
Brian Jones, Michael Calabro, Justin Brink, Scott Swinford
In minor inline rear-end accidents, vehicle damage is the primary tangible indicator of impact severity or vehicle change in velocity (V). Correspondingly, a technique for calculating change in velocity based on vehicle damage involves application of the Momentum Energy Restitution (MER) method. Offset inline rear-end testing, wherein minimal vehicle bumper or contact surface engagement occurs, has not been readily published to date. Thus, instrumented offset inline rear-end impacts were performed utilizing a 1997 Ford F-150 Pickup, 1996 Kia Sephia, and 1995 Chrysler LeBaron GTC. Vehicle engagement involved approximately 30.5 cm (12 in.) and 40.6 cm (16 in.) of lateral overlap with impact speeds ranging between 1.3 m/s (3 mph) to 4 m/s (9 mph). Test results indicated that a 30.5 cm (12 in.) or less lateral overlap between vehicle impacting surfaces promoted sideswipe impacts or an incomplete transfer of momentum relative to the bullet vehicle’s impact speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0118
Yang Wang, Ankit Goila, Rahul Shetty, Mahdi Heydari, Ambarish Desai, Hanlong Yang
Regarding safety, obstacle avoidance has been considered as one of the most important features among ADAS systems for ground vehicles. However, the implementation of obstacle avoidance functions to commercial vehicles are still under progress. In this paper, we demonstrate a complete process of obstacle avoidance strategy for unmanned ground vehicle and has implemented the strategy on the self-developed Arduino based RC Car. In this process, the sensor LIDAR was employed to detect the obstacles on the fore-path. Based on the measured radar data, an optimized path would be automatically generated with accommodation of current car position, obstacle locations, car operation capability and global environmental restrictions. The path planning is updated in real time while new or changing obstacles being detected. The Arduino provides required control inputs to the RC Car to follow the pre-planned path and self-positioned by the observed obstacles data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1468
Do Hoi KIm
Previous studies have dealt with the relationship between the injury criteria of dummies and vehicle drop during high-speed head on collisions. Ultimately, vehicle drops are found to worsen the injury criteria of dummies when exceeding 60mm during high-speed crashes. Also, vehicle drops affected the front side member of the vehicle body the most. The present study dealt with methods of improving vehicle drops by enhancing the connective structure of the front side member, the short gun, and the A pillar. Analyses on various vehicles confirm that arch-shaped front side members are an extremely important factor. Furthermore, if the short gun and A pillar are properly connected at the top of the arch shape on the front side member during crashes, the deformation energy of the vehicle could be converted to energy for lifting the A pillar lower. With a so-called body lift structure, BLS has been applied to the B/C segment vehicles of Hyundai and KIA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1399
Bin Wu, Xichan Zhu, Lin li, xuejun cang, jianping shen
A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1408
Satoshi Kozai
The goal of both automakers and vehicle users is to minimize the negative impacts of vehicles on society, such as traffic accidents, not only on the road but parking area, optimizing the enjoyment of using a car, comfort, and usability. To realize this, we have already provided automatic brake system (ICS) for static obstacles in parking area. We have also developed the Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system, which detects a vehicle approaching from the sides when backing out of a parking area. We decided RCTAB system specifications based on two information “Approaching vehicle speed in parking area” and “Maximum backing speed”. RCTAB system structure consists of Radar which shared with “Blind Spot Monitor” and ECU which shared with “ICS Computer”. The radar detects the approaching vehicle. The ICS Computer judge Collision prediction and request “Braking Force” and “Driving Force” to Brake and Engine Computer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1415
John D. Struble, Donald E. Struble
Crash tests of vehicles by striking deformable barriers are specified by Government programs such as FMVSS 214, FMVSS 301 and the Side Impact New Car Assessment Program (SINCAP). Such tests result in both crash partners absorbing crush energy and moving after separation. Compared with studying fixed rigid barrier crash tests, the analysis of the energy-absorbing behavior of the vehicle side (or rear) structure is much more involved. Described in this paper is a method by which analysts can use such crash tests to determine the side structure stiffness characteristics for the specific struck vehicle. Such vehicle-specific information allows the calculation of the crush energy for the particular side-struck vehicle during an actual collision – a key step in the reconstruction of that crash. Based on fundamental principles of physics and engineering, this method provides transparency in the calculation of side structure stiffness parameters for the particular vehicle of interest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1416
Daniel Eugene Toomey, B. Nicholas Ault
Reconstruction of passenger vehicle accidents involving side impacts with narrow objects has traditionally been approached using side stiffness coefficients derived from moveable deformable barrier tests or regression analysis using the maximum crush in available lateral pole impact testing while accounting for vehicle test weight. Current Lateral Impact New Car Assessment Program (LINCAP) testing includes 20 mph oblique lateral pole impacts. This test program often incorporates an instrumented pole so the force between the vehicle and pole at several elevations along the vehicle - pole interface is measured. Force-Displacement (F-D) characteristics of vehicle structures were determined using the measured impact force and calculated vehicle displacement from on-board vehicle instrumentation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1450
Daniel Perez-Rapela, Jason Forman, Haeyoung Jeon, Jeff Crandall
Current state-of-the-art vehicles implement pedestrian protection features that rely on pedestrian detection sensors and algorithms to trigger when impacting a pedestrian. During the development phase, the vehicle must “learn” to discriminate pedestrians from the rest of potential impacting objects. Part of the training data used in this process is often obtained in physical tests utilizing legform impactors whose external biofidelity is still to be evaluated. This study uses THUMS as a reference to assess the external biofidelity of the most commonly used impactors (Flex-PLI, PDI-1 and PDI-2). This biofidelity assessment was performed by finite element simulation measuring the bumper beam forces exerted by each surrogate on a sedan and a SUV. The bumper beam was divided in 50 mm sections to capture the force distribution in both vehicles. This study, unlike most of the pedestrian-related literature, examines different impact locations and velocities.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1451
Jan Vychytil, Jan Spicka, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
Active bonnet system is usually used in higher price range models of cars. Its application in small cars is exceptional. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to use numerical simulations for investigating this case. That is, to evaluate possible benefit of active bonnet system for a small car. We use a novel approach in developing a simplified model of a car bonnet. Its surface is segmented to form an MBS model with hundreds of rigid bodies. Each of them is connected via translational joint to a base body. Local stiffness of each joint is validated using a headform impactor corresponding to the EuroNCAP mapping. Hence, the structures beneath the bonnet are taken into account. The model of the bonnet is embedded in a whole model of a small car in a simulation of a real accident. VIRTHUMAN model is scaled in height, weight and age to represent exactly the pedestrian involved. Injury risk predicted by simulation is in correlation with data from real accident.
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