Display:

Results

Viewing 91 to 120 of 16141
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0217
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1448
Lee Carr, Robert Rucoba, Dan Barnes, Steven Kent, Aaron Osterhout
With commercial availability of the Bosch Crash Data Retrieval Tool (CDR), the information stored in vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs) has increasingly been used to supplement traditional traffic crash data collection and reconstruction methods, allowing enhanced confidence levels in transportation safety research. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of EDR data images obtained with the Bosch CDR tool by comparing them to a known crash impulse. Multiple EDRs and necessary sensor arrays were mounted on a HYGE™ acceleration-type crash simulation sled system at various orientations representing different principal direction of force (PDOF) angles and subjected to controlled “crash” impulses, simulating a “deployment event” (DE) and triggering data to be saved in the EDRs. The data included in each EDR’s CDR report was compared to the known conditions of the impulse.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1442
Wolfgang Sinz, Jörg Moser, Christoph Klein, Robert Greimel, Karsten Raguse, Class Middendorff, Christina Steiner
Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with an accuracy of approximately 5 millimetres, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimetres.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitoring systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions while at the same time improve driver visibility in future cars with a more aerodynamic profile. This improvement in visibility is expected to be more beneficial during the night or under extreme weather conditions. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit. The CMS is intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of mandatory and legally prescribed interior and exterior mirrors in vehicles as specified in various international regulations and standards such as FMVSS 111 and SAE J985. Such system must take into consideration not only the required external field of view (FoV), but also the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity. This captured information is subsequently displayed to the driver inside the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance, response time, and behavior accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1382
Lisa Schei Blikeng, Siril Hegén Agerup
The number of electric vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in Norway were there today there are more than 35 000 electric cars, with a goal of 200 000 by 2020. With new Lithium-ion battery technology the battery packages is longer lasting and more useful for the normal family. Great interest of these vehicles leads to the discussion about fire safety. The major part of the thesis was to perform a full-scale fire experiment with a modern and drivable electric car, and in February 2013 a Peugeot iOn 2012 model was set on fire. The experiment was documented on video and thermocouples were used to measure temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0215
Reena Kumari Behera, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Redundancy plays a key role in increasing the computation time in case of most vision based systems. In vision based applications, the images captured from the camera are processed pixel by pixel in order to get the desired information. There is plenty of redundant data in most of the images. Removal of this unwanted data would help in increasing the processing time considerably. This paper presents a simple yet novel approach to remove unwanted data from a given image. The proposed work focuses on clutter removal from outdoor scenes. More specifically, this approach would be more applicable to Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). An outdoor scene captured consists of two main parts a) ground region consisting of the road area and other lane markings especially white or yellow in color. b) The background region consisting of various structures, trees, sky etc. The definition of unwanted regions depends on the application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1449
Ada H. Tsoi, John Hinch, Michael Winterhalter, H. Gabler
As specified in 49 CFR 563 (Part 563), event data recorder (EDR) data are required to survive crash tests as specified by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and FMVSS 214. EDR data have been shown to survive these crash tests, which represent most U.S. highway crashes. However, some have argued the need for greater survivability, including supporters of the not enacted U.S. Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 2010. Similar devices, such as flight data recorders (FDRs), have considerably more demanding data survivability requirements. Minimum standards for FDR survivability include 30 days of sea water immersion, 5 hours exposure to a 260°C fire, and 5 minutes of 1,000lb static crush. In some cases EDRs are exposed to more severe crashes, fire, and immersion; however, little is known about whether current EDR data are capable of surviving these events and whether such improvements are cost-effective.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1444
Ada H. Tsoi, John Hinch, H. Gabler
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) established survivability requirements on Event Data Recorder (EDR) data for the first time in 49 CFR 563 (Part 563) in September 2012. This regulation requires EDRs to remain functional during and after compliance crash tests as specified in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and FMVSS 214. These tests are representative of a major proportion of the crashes that occur on the nation’s highways; however, there are always crashes that are outside the typical distributions. Recent legislative bills have suggested that these survivability requirements should exceed Part 563 in delta-v, and include fire and immersion specifications. Little is known about whether EDRs are capable of surviving these events or whether the data received by the EDRs can be recovered after these events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1445
Wesley Vandiver, Robert Anderson, Isaac Ikram, Bryan Randles, Christopher Furbish
Although the 2012 Kia Soul was manufactured with an Airbag Control Module (ACM) Event Data Recorder (EDR) that was designed to record crash data, the download tool and software manufactured for Kia vehicles and distributed by GIT America, Inc. provides coverage for the Kia Soul that begins with model year 2013. Eight vehicle-to-barrier crash tests were conducted in a 2012 Kia Soul. The Kia EDR tool was utilized to retrieve crash data from the vehicle's EDR following each test by choosing the software translation settings for a 2013 Kia Soul. The recorded and translated crash data for those tests was analyzed and compared to on-board instrumentation including a Racelogic VBOX, TDAS Data Acquisition System, and Vericom VC4000DAQ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1483
Anindya Deb, N Shivakumar, Clifford Chou
Rigid polyurethane (PU) foam finds wide applications as a lightweight material in impact safety design such as improving occupant safety in vehicle crashes. The two principal reacting compounds for formulating such a foam are variants of polyol and isocyanate. In the present study, an alternative mechanical engineering-based approach for determining, with confidence, the desirable ratio of reacting compounds for formulation of a rigid/crushable PU foam for mechanical applications is demonstrated. According to the present approach, PU foam samples are prepared by varying the mixing ratio over a wide range. The desirable mixing ratio is shown to be the one that optimizes key mechanical properties under compression such as total absorbed energy, specific absorbed energy and energy absorption efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1485
Jiri Kral, Theresa Kondel, Mark Morra, Stephen Cassatta, Peter Bidolli, Patrick Stebbins, Vikas Joshi
A new apparatus for testing modern safety belt systems was developed. Its design, dynamic behavior and test procedure are described. A number of tests have been conducted using this apparatus. These tests allowed identification of key performance parameters of pretensioners and load limiting retractors which are relevant to occupant protection in crash environment. Good test repeatability was observed, which allows comparison of different safety belt designs. The apparatus may be used for better specification and verification of safety belt properties on subsystem level as well as for validation of CAE models of safety belts used in simulations of occupant response to crash.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1488
Adam G. M. Cook, Moustafa El-Gindy, David Critchley
This work investigates the multi-objective optimization methods for Front Underride Protection Devices (FUPDs) using varying meta-modeling and direct optimization techniques, while implementing several materials and minimizing cost of the design. The developed dsFUPD F9 design for a Volvo VNL was subjected to a modified ECE R93 quasi-static loading to objectify deformations. A developed application was needed to objectify the cost as a third target objective to minimize with mass and deformation of the design. NSGA-II, SPEA-II genetic algorithms and adaptive simulated annealing optimization methods were under investigation in combination with three meta-modeling techniques; Feedforward Neural Network, Radial Basis Function Network, and Kriging. Leapfrog LFOPC algorithm hybridized forms of genetic algorithms and adaptive simulated annealing was also investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1475
Alan F. Asay, Jarrod Carter, James Funk, Gregory Stephens
A follow-up case study on rollover testing was conducted with an instrumented single full-size SUV under real-world conditions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a well-documented rollover event that could be utilized in evaluating various reconstruction methods and techniques over the phases associated with rollover accidents. The phases documented and discussed inherent to rollovers are: loss-of-control, trip, and rolling phases. With recent advances in technology, new devices and techniques were implemented to capture and document the events surrounding a vehicle rollover. These devices and techniques are presented and compared with previous test methodology. In this case study, an instrumented 1996 GMC Jimmy SUV was towed to speed and then released. A steering controller steered the vehicle through maneuvers intended to result in rollover. The SUV experienced two non-rollover events before the vehicle finally rolled 1-1½ times.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1491
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Dhanendra Nagwanshi, Matthew Marks
Automotive OEMs, insurance agencies and regulatory bodies are continuously looking at various accident statistics and proper ways of evaluating unaccounted (as per current regulations and safety ratings) accident scenarios to improve the safety standards of cars. Small overlap and oblique impacts during which a corner of a car hits a tree or the corner of another vehicle are two such situations. To address these scenarios, IIHS has incorporated small overlap impact in the NCAP rating. Similarly, NHTSA is developing an oblique test to address this. Most of the vehicles which are on road scored low when tested for these impact scenarios. This is mainly because most of the energy-absorbing structures (in a vehicle) such as rails and crush boxes during a high speed crash do not get engaged with the impactor as the overlap is very small.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1479
Adria Ferrer, Eduard Infantes
In September 2009 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a report that investigated the incidence of fatalities to belted non-ejected occupants in frontal crashes involving late-model vehicles. The report concluded that after exceedingly severe crashes, the largest number of fatalities occurred in crashes involving poor structural engagement between the vehicle and its collision partner, such as corner impacts, oblique crashes, or impacts with narrow objects. In response to these findings, NHTSA designed and developed a test procedure intended to mitigate the risk of injuries and fatalities related to motor vehicle crashes involving poor structural engagement. This research demonstrated that an offset impact between a moving deformable barrier (RMDB) and a stationary vehicle at a 15º angle can reproduce vehicle crush, occupant kinematics, and risk of injury seen in vehicle-to-vehicle crashes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1446
Timothy P. Austin, David P. Plant, Joseph E. LeFevre
The use of Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (HVEDRs) in collision analysis has been recognized in past research. Numerous publications have been presented illustrating data accuracy both in normal operating conditions as well as under emergency braking conditions. These data recording devices are generally incorporated into Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) for engines or Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for other vehicular components such as the Anti-Lock Brake System. Other research has looked at after-market recorders, including publically-available Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and fleet management tools such as Qualcomm. In 2009, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) incorporated a Vehicle Data Recorder (VDR) component into their Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. The purpose of this was to “…capture data that can be used to promote safe driving and riding practices.” The Standard requires minimum data elements, recording times, and sample rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1447
Hirotoshi Ishikawa, Kunihiro Mashiko, Tetsuyuki Matsuda, Koichi Fujita, Asuka Sugano, Toru Kiuchi, Hirotsugu Tajima, Masaaki Yoshida, Isao Endou
Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) is spreading in many countries.ACN provides notification in the event of a traffic accident automatically when an automobile's air bags are deployed or when the occupant restraint system is activated. ACN also serves as a diagnostic tool to determine the potential extent of injuries to those involved in motor vehicle incidents. Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel can utilize this information to determine how quickly their services are needed and it can minimize the number of victims who might be transferred to medical facilities mistakenly by the initial triage group. Various Electronic Control Units (ECUs) are equipped in vehicles. Air bag ECUs control the deployment of the air bag system and record various information on an event data recorder (EDR) during collisions. Data on the occupants, vehicles, and collisions recorded in EDR could be used as a parameter for estimating the occupant injury severity in an accident.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver’s limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0213
Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Anusha Baskaran, Krishnan Kutty
In the research field of automotive systems, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are gaining of paramount importance. As significance for such systems increase, the challenges associated with it also increases. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to nature (haze, fog etc.) In terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS, haze formation in the atmosphere poses the challenging problem. In this paper, the proposed method addresses a novel technique of enhancing the quality in terms of visibility and visual perception of the haze affected images. Using HSV color space and the haze model, the haze affected images are recuperated. The proposed procedure involves retaining of hue (H) and scaling of saturation (S) value of each pixel between the haze input and de-hazed output images. In addition, a simple method for manipulating the ‘V’ space to de-haze the input image is also proposed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1492
Kazunobu Ogaki, Takayuki Kawabuchi, Satoshi Takizawa
We test the mid-size sedan according to NHTSA Oblique test to assess the occupant protection and to provide possible design changes to improve the oblique collision performance. This test result predicted high potential injury for BrIC, chest deflection, and lower extremities. Injury reductions could likely be achieved through optimization of the restraint devices. We focus to reduce the lower extremity injury. Traditionally, lower extremity injuries are often mitigated by reducing the intrusion of the cabin’s dashboard lower region; however, this type of design change can lead to a significant increase in vehicle weight. Increasing the energy absorbed within the engine compartment is more efficient than reinforcing the passenger compartment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1439
Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yukou Takahashi
To evaluate vehicle safety performance for Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) in crashes, comprehensive injury criteria is required. Few research results for injury criteria focused on Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI) in crashes or pedestrian impacts exist. We developed injury criteria based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head for occupant and pedestrian crashes. We used the mid-sized male human head/brain FE model to investigate correlation between injury criteria based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head and intracranial responses related to DAI. The input pulses applied to the skull of the head/brain model were determined from the head acceleration data, and articulated rigid body simulation results of frontal occupant and pedestrian crashes. Results showed low applicability of the injury criteria to pedestrian impacts, presumably due to the maximum rotational velocity occurring before head contact to the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1437
Tony R. Laituri, Raed E. El-Jawahri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Various risk curves for head injury potential were assessed theoretically relative to field data. Specifically, two AIS2+ risk curves were studied: the HIC15-based risk curve from Mertz (1997) and the provisional, BRIC-based risk curve from Takhounts et al. (2013). These two risk curves were used to estimate attendant injury potential for belted drivers in full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The occupant responses pertaining to those crashes were estimated from representative math models, and the risk curves were used to convert event responses into event risks. The assessment was conducted from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph) and a point-estimate (56 kph, barrier-like). Finally, the point-estimate assessment was supplemented by considering corresponding laboratory tests. The results from HIC15-based risk curve were understated, whereas the results from the BRIC-based risk curve were overstated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
A study of belted driver injury in various types of frontal impacts in the US field data was conducted. Specifically, subject to the Frontal Impact Taxonomy of Sullivan et al. (2008), injury potential of belted drivers in non-rollover, frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) was assessed. The field data pertained to 1985 - 2013 model-year light passenger vehicles in 1995 - 2012 calendar years of NASS. Two levels of injury were considered: AIS2+ and AIS3+. For ease of presentation, we grouped the injury data into lower- or upper-body regions. Frontal impacts were binned into eight taxonomic groups: Full-engagement, Offset, Narrow, Oblique, Side-swipe corner, High/low vert (i.e., over- and under-ride crashes), DZY-No rail (i.e., distributed crashes, but with negligible frame rail involvement), and Other. The results of the survey yielded insights into the distribution of belted-driver injury in NASS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1486
Craig A. Markusic, Ram Songade
Full vehicle crash simulations typically require several days of effort from a highly skilled FE (finite element) analyst to set-up, execute, and analyze. The goal of this project was to create a simplified FE model of a side crash utilizing the same sophisticated software (LS-DYNA) that the FE analysts use along with a custom graphical user interface (GUI) that will allow an inexperienced user to set-up, execute, and analyze a number of side impact scenarios in a matter of hours, not days, and with very little training. The GUI allows the user to easily modify the performance characteristics of the side impact system that are critical to side crash performance including but not limited to intrusion rate, door liner stiffness, side airbag stiffness, side airbag time to fire, etc. The user can then compile and submit the model with a few simple clicks of a button.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1480
Seung Kwon Cha, Jong Heon Lee, Un Ko, Tae Hoon Song, HangChul Ko, YangGi Lee
This paper focuses on the Barrier net system of the European vehicle(wagon). Recently, Car maker has being developed the wagon for European market. The characteristic of this vehicle is to have a capability of enough luggage space in order to minimize injuries of passengers at the accident. This is also a requirement of EU regulations(ECE R-17). Our company has adopted this system to small size car for the first time dependent on advanced foreign company’s technology. This reality still gives us the burden of high cost and royalty expenditure. Therefore, the objective of this study is to overcome our weak technologies, especially for patent circumvention or new mechanism which is entirely independent with previous system, and cost effectiveness(Barrier Net).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1380
Kumar Kumar
According to the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA), from the most recent available data, it was estimated that there were 164,000 highway vehicle fires in 2013 causing roughly 300 civilian fire deaths, 925 civilian fire injuries and $1.1 billion in property damages. In a modern automobile, the plastics content is dramatically higher than it was in 1972, when Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 302 was implemented. FMVSS 302 applies only to materials in the passenger compartment and was put in place to address accidental fires started from sources such as cigarettes, matches, etc. There has never been any regulation for the plastic materials used outside the vehicle interior, including those used in under-the-hood (UTH) applications, and this is true even for today’s automobiles. Combustible materials are roughly twice the weight and represent twice the heat content of the gasoline used in a typical passenger car today, constituting the major fire load.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1443
Morteza Seidi, Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, James Ferguson, Vincent Caccese
Falls in the elderly population is an important concern to individuals, family, friends, and in the healthcare industry. When the head is left unprotected, head impact levels can reach upwards of 500 g (gravitational acceleration), which is a level that can cause serious injury or death. A protective system for a fall injury needs to be designed with specific criteria in mind including energy protection level, thickness, stiffness, weight, and cost among others. The current study quantifies the performance of a protective head gear design for persons prone to falls. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the injury mitigation of head protection gear made from a patented system of polyurethane honeycomb and dilatant materials. To that end, a twin wire fall system equipped with a drop arm that includes a Hybrid-III head/neck assembly was used.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 16141

Filter