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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1437
Tony R. Laituri, Raed E. El-Jawahri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Various risk curves for head injury potential were assessed theoretically relative to field data. Specifically, two AIS2+ risk curves were studied: the HIC15-based risk curve from Mertz (1997) and the provisional, BRIC-based risk curve from Takhounts et al. (2013). These two risk curves were used to estimate attendant injury potential for belted drivers in full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The occupant responses pertaining to those crashes were estimated from representative math models, and the risk curves were used to convert event responses into event risks. The assessment was conducted from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph) and a point-estimate (56 kph, barrier-like). Finally, the point-estimate assessment was supplemented by considering corresponding laboratory tests. The results from HIC15-based risk curve were understated, whereas the results from the BRIC-based risk curve were overstated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
A study of belted driver injury in various types of frontal impacts in the US field data was conducted. Specifically, subject to the Frontal Impact Taxonomy of Sullivan et al. (2008), injury potential of belted drivers in non-rollover, frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) was assessed. The field data pertained to 1985 - 2013 model-year light passenger vehicles in 1995 - 2012 calendar years of NASS. Two levels of injury were considered: AIS2+ and AIS3+. For ease of presentation, we grouped the injury data into lower- or upper-body regions. Frontal impacts were binned into eight taxonomic groups: Full-engagement, Offset, Narrow, Oblique, Side-swipe corner, High/low vert (i.e., over- and under-ride crashes), DZY-No rail (i.e., distributed crashes, but with negligible frame rail involvement), and Other. The results of the survey yielded insights into the distribution of belted-driver injury in NASS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1480
Seung Kwon Cha, Jong Heon Lee, Un Ko, Tae Hoon Song, HangChul Ko, YangGi Lee
This paper focuses on the Barrier net system of the European vehicle(wagon). Recently, Car maker has being developed the wagon for European market. The characteristic of this vehicle is to have a capability of enough luggage space in order to minimize injuries of passengers at the accident. This is also a requirement of EU regulations(ECE R-17). Our company has adopted this system to small size car for the first time dependent on advanced foreign company’s technology. This reality still gives us the burden of high cost and royalty expenditure. Therefore, the objective of this study is to overcome our weak technologies, especially for patent circumvention or new mechanism which is entirely independent with previous system, and cost effectiveness(Barrier Net).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1380
Kumar Kumar
According to the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA), from the most recent available data, it was estimated that there were 164,000 highway vehicle fires in 2013 causing roughly 300 civilian fire deaths, 925 civilian fire injuries and $1.1 billion in property damages. In a modern automobile, the plastics content is dramatically higher than it was in 1972, when Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 302 was implemented. FMVSS 302 applies only to materials in the passenger compartment and was put in place to address accidental fires started from sources such as cigarettes, matches, etc. There has never been any regulation for the plastic materials used outside the vehicle interior, including those used in under-the-hood (UTH) applications, and this is true even for today’s automobiles. Combustible materials are roughly twice the weight and represent twice the heat content of the gasoline used in a typical passenger car today, constituting the major fire load.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1476
P Selvakumar, Arun Mahajan, R Murasolimaran, C Elango
Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to reduce costs and shorten product development cycle, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. Often correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. This research has the proposal of showing the correlation between simulation and prototype test results of tractor ROPS. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1450
Jeremy Daily, Andrew Kongs, James Johnson, Jose Corcega
The proper investigation of crashes involving commercial vehicles is critical for fairly assessing liability and damages, if they exist. In addition to traditional physics based approaches, the digital records stored within heavy vehicle electronic control modules (ECMs) are useful in determining the events leading to a crash. Traditional methods of extracting digital data use proprietary diagnostic and maintenance software and require a functioning ECM. However, some crashes induce damage that renders the ECM inoperable, even though it may still contain data. As such, the objective of this research is to examine the digital record in an ECM and understand its meaning. The research was performed on a Detroit Diesel DDEC V engine control module. The data extracted from the flash memory chips include: Last Stop Record, two Hard Brake events, and the Daily Engine Usage Log. The procedure of extracting and reading the memory chips is explained.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1427
Jay Przybyla, Jason Jupe, Thomas Rush, Rachel Keller
Vehicles involved in rollover accidents can leave debris trails which can include glass from broken windows. The glass patterns can be useful in identifying the vehicle path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle-to-ground impacts. The location of glass, which is often window specific, can be used to identify where the window fractured during the rollover sequence. The longevity of the glass debris fields, subject to various real-world conditions and disturbances (i.e. slope, weather, mowing, soil type, etc.), was tested over a period of two years. The glass debris fields were placed and mapped in multiple locations across the United States. Periodically during each year, the glass debris fields were examined and the new field extents were mapped. The comparison between the original debris field and the subsequent debris fields are presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1416
Clay Coleman, Donald Tandy, Jason Colborn, Nicholas Ault
In the field of accident reconstruction, a reconstructionist will often inspect a crash scene months or years after a wreck has occurred. With this passage of time important evidence is sometimes no longer present at the scene (i.e. the vehicles involved in the crash, debris on the roadway, tire marks, gouges, paint marks, etc.). When a scene has not been totally documented with a survey by MAIT or the investigating officers, the only hope for the reconstructionist is to rely on police, fire department, security camera, or witness photographs. Traditionally, these photos can be used to locate missing evidence by employing photogrammetric techniques. However, these techniques are limited to planar surfaces and/or the pairing of discrete points between the original photographs and the scene.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1417
Jeffrey Muttart
An analysis was performed utilizing the results from seven emergency steering studies and four routine lane change studies. Closed course and naturalistic research were included. These studies showed that in a routine lane change, Drivers reached peak lateral acceleration approximately one-second after steering after which lateral acceleration decreases linearly. These results were consistent with those from forward and backing acceleration research published elsewhere. Though, when drivers steered in response to an emergency situation, again, peak lateral acceleration occurred near one-second after steering onset, but average lateral acceleration decreased non-linearly. This non-linear decrease between onset of steering and completion of the maneuver was indicative of counter-steering, or reduced subsequent steering (straightening). The results show that the average lateral acceleration could be modeled with a power function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1420
John C. Steiner, John Olsen, Tom Walli, Tyler Kress, Christopher Armstrong, Ralph Gallagher, Stein Husher, John Kyes
Traditional accident reconstruction analysis methodologies include the study of the crush-energy relationship of vehicles. By analyzing the measured crush from a vehicle involved in a real world accident, to crush measured at a known energy in a crash test, the real world vehicle’s damage energy, the forces of the impact, and change-in-velocity (or Delta-V) can be evaluated. The largest source of publically available crash tests is from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), which conducts and reports on numerous Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) compliance and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) testing for many passenger vehicles for sale in the United States.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1424
Jeffrey Croteau, Charles L. Crosby, Micky Marine, Andrew Kwasniak
Bollard systems are often used to separate errant vehicular travel from pedestrian and bicycle traffic. A variety of bollard systems are available for this function that includes varying installations, functional design, and protection levels. The security-type bollards are primarily used at high security locations (e.g. military bases and other government installations) around the world. While a test protocol exists for testing and rating security bollards, no such protocol or recommended practices/standards currently exists for non-security-type bollards. Non-security, concrete filled bollards are commonly used by cities/states, local government organizations, and the private sector to be used as “perceived impediments” to protect against slow moving vehicles. There is a general lack of publically available test data to evaluate these non-security bollards and conventional installation procedures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1421
Dennis Turriff, David J. King, James Bertoch
Vehicle rollovers generate complicated damage patterns as a result of multiple vehicle-to-ground contacts. The goal of this work was to isolate and characterize specific directional features in coarse- and fine-scale scratch damage generated during a rollover crash. Four rollover tests were completed using stock 2001 Chevrolet Trackers. Vehicles were decelerated and launched from a rollover test device to initiate driver’s side leading rolls onto concrete and dirt surfaces. Gross vehicle damage and both macroscopic and microscopic features of the scratch damage were documented using standard and macro lenses, a stereomicroscope, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The most evident indicators of scratch direction, and thus roll direction, were accumulations of abraded material found at the termination points of scratch-damaged areas.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1434
Gary A. Davis
Martinez and Schlueter (1996) described a method for reconstructing tripped rollover crashes, where the vehicle’s path is divided into pre-trip, trip, and post-trip phases. Brach and Brach (2011) also describe this method and noted that the trajectory segmentation method for the pre-trip phase needs further validation. When the rolling vehicle leaves a measurable yaw mark at the start of its pre-trip phase it might be possible to partially validate the roll model by comparing its initial speed estimates to those obtained from the critical speed method. This paper describes a Bayesian reconstruction of two such cases. For the first, the 95 percent confidence interval via the critical rate method was (64 mph, 73 mph) while the 95 percent confidence interval via the rollover model was (65 mph, 80 mph). For the second case the confidence intervals were (78 mph, 85 mh) and (79 mph, 92 mph), respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1330
Yoshiyuki Tosa, Hiroyuki Mae
The passenger airbag hits the windshield when it deploys, causing the impulse force to the windshield. To protect passengers, we must adequately support the airbag between the windshield and the instrument panel. We must not fracture the windshield deploying the airbag. We reviewed methods to simulate the stress on the windshield during deployment. This research predicts the dynamic strain on the windshield from deploying the airbag without vehicle tests. Deployment is fast enough to ignore spatial difference in the patterns of the pressure time histories. In this study, the prediction method consists of a deployment test and an FE simulation. The simple deployment test measures the dynamic pressure distribution between the airbag and the flat panel simulating the windshield.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1341
Hisaki Sugaya, Yoshiyuki Tosa, Kazuo Imura, Hiroyuki Mae
When airbags deploy they break a plastic tear part of the instrument panel. Timing and the tear fracture process change the airbag’s deployment behavior. The tear fracture process is dependent on the plastic’s temperature. We developed a tear fracture simulation . Because the tear line is composed of 1mm width and 0.5mm-3.0mm flute thickness, simulating the tear fracture process is difficult, even using two models: airbag deployment, and plastic fracture. Thickness determines the tear fracture. The strain distribution of its parts should be predicted accurately. The tear fracture using solid mesh, which is 0.1mm mesh pitch, is predictable. Although it is a very complicated model and has a high computation cost, it is not applicable to the mass production development. We increase the accuracy of the tear fracture process prediction using the shell mesh, which is applicable to the mass production development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1464
Qiang Chen, Miao Lin, Bing Dai, Jiguang Chen
The objective of this work was to describe typical accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China. The accident analysis aims to develop test procedures for assessing Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems. Beyond that, this study was also with the goal of estimating the effectiveness of potential reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians by AEB systems.Based on statistics, more than 25% of traffic fatalities were pedestrians in China. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems are already penetrating the vehicle market and are designed to offer protection against the occurrence and severity of collisions. However there is a need to evaluate the systems and their effectiveness. Test methods for such active safety systems are being developed and will be implemented in NCAP tests in the near future, e.g. 2016 in Euro-NCAP, and most probably in 2018 C-NCAP tests (still in consulting phase).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1460
Massoud Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
This study was conducted to explore the effect of various combinations of seatbelt-related safety components on the adult rear passenger involved in a frontal collision. The study was conducted on a 50th male and a 5th female Hybrid III ATD in the rear seat of a mid-sized sedan. Each ATD was seated in an outboard position with 3-point continuous lap-shoulder belts. On these belts were combinations of pretensioners and load limiters. Since the main objective of the test series was to cross-compare the seatbelt configurations, front seats were not included in the buck to avoid the possibility of contact with the front seat, hence avoiding such uncontrollable variables. Nevertheless, there was a short barrier devised to act as a foot-stop for both ATDs. A design of experiment (DOE) was constructed as a full factorial with and without a pretensioner and three types of load limiters. Each ATD was tested with a progressive load limiter (PLL1).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1458
Jia Hu
The driver and front row occupant safety is always the focus in the development of crash regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). However in recent years, rear row occupant safety is also being paid attention to widely. The rear row occupant safety is being included in the NCAP of different countries. JNCAP began to assess the rear row occupant safety in 2009. C-NCAP started to assess the rear row occupant safety from July, 2012. Euro NCAP is also being updated. The frontal 50-kph full rigid barrier impact test will be included in Euro NCAP from 2015 and two Hybrid III 5th percentile dummies will be positioned in both the driver seat and the rear seat. For the rear row occupants wearing seatbelts, thoracic injuries from the seatbelt are by far the dominant injury type. For unbelted rear row occupants, the extremities and head are frequently injured by the B pillar, the front seat and other interior components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1456
Mani Ayyakannu, Latha Subbiah, Mohammed Syed
Abstract: Knee Bolster requirements have changed substantially in recent years due to expanded safety requirements. A knee bolster assembly has been evolved to meet this matrix of requirements while being extremely lightweight (as low as 2 lbs), low in cost and easily tunable to work in various car/truck programs. The energy absorber is the primary component of this assembly and allows for a range of occupant sizes and weights to be protected( from a 50 Kg/5ft 5th percentile female to a 100 Kg/6ft 2 in 95th percentile male occupants). The evolution of this knee bolster assembly design is described using crush analysis, component testing to validate the crush analysis, instrument panel assembly level analysis with occupant models and sled tests. Steel and aluminum versions of this knee bolster are compared - in terms of weight, cost, design tunability for various crash conditions, structural stiffness etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1457
Aditya Belwadi, Richard Hanna, Audrey Eagle, Daniel Martinez, Julie Kleinert, Eric Dahle
Automotive interior design optimization must balance the design of the vehicle seat and occupant space for safety, comfort and aesthetics with the accommodation of add-on restraint products such as child restraint systems (CRS). It is important to understand the breadth of CRS dimensions so that this balance can be successfully negotiated. Previously this was addressed with the advent of advanced air bag systems, when emphasis was placed on the design and development of surrogate child restraints, which were used, in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. CRS design is constantly changing. In particular, the introduction of side impact protection for CRS as well as emphasis on ease of CRS installation has likely changed key design points of any child restraints. This ever-changing target puts pressure on the vehicle manufacturers to keep their vehicle seats and occupant space compatible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1462
Seung Jun Yang
Euro-Ncap committee has been adopted overall impact star-grade system after 2009 and strengthening pedestrian protection cut-off score to obtain best impact-star grade until 2016. It is very difficult target to pass enhanced pedestrian cut-off score due to previous method. In this paper, I studied where is pedestrian weak area and why pedestrian injury is so high at that area based on our test result. I compared long-hood, 3 corner pop-up hood and pedestrian air-bag system. Finlly I suggest 3-corner rear-ward hood pop-up system is best method to meet our Impact new target in considering pedestrian protection ability, cost &weight.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1461
Dietmar Otte
During most pedestrian-vehicle crashes the car front impacts the pedestrian and the whole body wraps around the front shape of the car. Meanwhile the windscreen is tested in NCAP conditions. The severity of injuries is influenced by car impact speed; type of vehicle; stiffness and shape of the vehicle; nature of the front (such as the bumper height, bonnet height and length, windscreen frame); age and height of the pedestrian; and standing position of the pedestrian relative to the vehicle front. The socalled Wrap Around Distance WAD is one of important measurement for the assessment of protection. For the study accidents with pedestrians and bicyclists are used for the analysis, how good is the WAD for injury prediction. GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident-Study) collects accidents as representative sample of the German accident situation based on in-depth-investigation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1469
Yan Wang, Taewung Kim, Yibing Li, Jeff Crandall
The characteristic of neck plays an important role on the kinematics and injury of pedestrian’s neck and head during the impact with vehicle, and the accuracy of the mathematical model affects the analysis results directly. A new mathematical pedestrian model has been developed in University of Virginia (UVA), which combines the advantages of both TNO facet occupant model and the lower extremity with more accuracy of biomechanical characteristics. So in this new pedestrian model, the occupant’s facet neck model developed by TNO is used to evaluate the pedestrian’s kinematics and dynamic response. Since the neck is special developed for occupants, the mechanical characteristics for lateral impact may not as good as that of frontal impact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1471
Hiroyuki Asanuma, Yukou Takahashi
Investigation with a pedestrian dummy develops further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents. Investigating injuries to the pedestrian lower body, biofidelity of the thigh, leg, and pelvis of a pedestrian dummy were improved. Plastic solid shafts, covered by flesh jackets were the thigh and the leg from earlier studies. Biofidelity has been evaluated by means of 3-point bending; however, the inertial properties of these parts were adjusted to mimic a human. Biofidelity of the dummy’s pelvis was evaluated in lateral compression of an isolated pelvis. The dummy tests were performed in only quasi-static condition. This study improves and validates the lower limb and the pelvis of the pedestrian dummy, enhancing injury assessment. These parts were subjected to latero-medial 3-point bending at the deflection rate of 1.5 m/s.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1466
Dietmar Otte, Thorsten Facius, Birgit Wiese
The overall number of severely injured participants and fatalities in road traffic accidents has decreased enormously in the last decades. These casualties in the group of riders of motorcycles in traffic accidents have only decreased in a smaller percentage. The aim of this study is to analyze the accident situation of motorcycles with severely injured and killed riders of motorcycles with cubic capacity > 125 cm³ in Germany, to identify the characteristics in injury mechanisms and accident constellations and to find countermeasures to be suggested. The accident data of 1,498 drivers of motorcycles involved in traffic accidents were analyzed, collected by a scientific research team of GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study) in the area of Hannover and Dresden within the years 2000 up to 2013. For finding such characteristic, two samples are selected and compared, first the group of MAIS 3+ injured cyclists (n= 245) and second the group of MAIS 1 and 2 injured cyclists (n= 1253).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1467
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Munenori Shinada
Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrians’ lower extremity injury depends on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of impact. The head injury of a pedestrian is also influenced by the ratio of pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small, medium and large pedestrian w.r.t the pedestrian to BLE height-ratio in order to quantify the degree of influence of different parameters (leg orientation, direction of impact, and running/walking state before crash) on pedestrian injuries. Large adult male FE model (95th %ile male AM95:190 cm and 103 kg) is developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1452
Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Kyle Boyle, Laura Malik, Miriam Manary, Jingwen Hu
This study documented the position and orientation of child restraint systems (CRS) installed in the second rows of vehicles, providing a database of 486 installations. Thirty-one different CRS were evaluated, selected to provide a range of manufacturers, sizes, types, and weight limits. Eleven CRS were rear-facing only, fourteen were convertibles, five were combination restraints, and one was a booster. Ten top-selling vehicles were selected to provide a range of manufacturers and body styles: four sedans, four SUVS, one minivan, and one wagon. Each CRS was marked with three reference points on each moving component. The contours and landmarks of each CRS were first measured in the laboratory. Vehicle interior contours, belt anchors, and LATCH anchors were measured using a similar process. Then each CRS was installed in a vehicle using LATCH according to manufacturers’ directions, and the reference points of each CRS component were measured to document the installed orientation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0219
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Abstract Starting January 2015 the government of the United Kingdom will allow driverless cars on public roads. From a first glance this can and should be seen as a great step towards the adoption of autonomous vehicles. Yet as any new technology driverless vehicles carry with them many new risks and disadvantages that need to be understood and protected against in order for the introduction of said systems into the market place to be a long lasting and fruitful one. The present work will look at the possible safety and security risks posed by the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems on the open road, motivated by the fact that many projected autonomous vehicle concept systems rely on them for object detection and avoidance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1468
Radovan Miucic, Xinzhou Wu, Sue Bai, James Misener
This paper explores using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) that can improve safety by exchanging messages between vehicles and pedestrians. In recent years, the percentage of pedestrian fatalities has risen in the US compared to other traffic crash victims. In 2012 alone there were 4743 pedestrian fatalities, which is 14.1 percent of the total fatalities. DSRC is the next chapter for the advanced vehicle safety systems, which can reduce the total number of fatalities and injuries. Even though the DSRC was intended for the vehicle-to-vehicle communication it can be extendable to vehicle-to-pedestrian communication. In August 2012 we successfully demonstrated this prototype safety system using an off-the-shelf smartphone with a modified Wi-Fi transceiver and a DSRC-equipped vehicle. In addition to existing on-board sensors, DSRC can provide an opportunity to increase pedestrian visibility, enable the vehicle to warn the driver and assist in vehicle control.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0717
Anindya Deb, G S Venkatesh, Ashok Mache
Abstract The usage of lightweight materials such as plastics and their derivatives continues to increase in automobiles driven by the urgency for weight reduction. For structural performance, body components such as A-pillar or B-pillar trim, instrument panel, etc. have to meet various requirements including resistance to penetration and energy absorption capability under impact indentation. A range of plain and reinforced thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics has been considered in the present study in the form of plates which are subject to low velocity perforation in a drop-weight impact testing set-up with a rigid cylindrical indenter fitted to a tup. The tested plates are made of polypropylene (PP), nanoclay-reinforced PP of various percentages of nanoclay content, wood-PP composites of different volume fractions of wood fiber, a jute-polyester composite, and a hybrid jute-polyester reinforced with steel.
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