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Viewing 91 to 120 of 16055
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan kutty
Advanced driver assistance systems have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrade the image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low light condition, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, an image enhancement algorithm is proposed that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, William Newberry
Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer-induced rollovers to gain a deeper understand into vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle’s pre-trip motion (Asay et al., 2009; Asay et al., 2010). The current test series utilized ATDs in steer-induced rollovers to investigate occupant kinematics throughout the entire rollover sequence, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the final rest position. Two test vehicles (a sedan and a pickup truck) were fully instrumented, and each contained two restrained 50th percentile male ATDs in the front outboard seating positions. The pickup truck was equipped with rollover-activated side-curtain airbags that deployed prior to the first ground contact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1448
Lee Carr, Robert Rucoba, Dan Barnes, Steven Kent, Aaron Osterhout
With commercial availability of the Bosch Crash Data Retrieval Tool (CDR), the information stored in vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs) has increasingly been used to supplement traditional traffic crash data collection and reconstruction methods, allowing enhanced confidence levels in transportation safety research. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of EDR data images obtained with the Bosch CDR tool by comparing them to a known crash impulse. Multiple EDRs and necessary sensor arrays were mounted on a HYGE™ acceleration-type crash simulation sled system at various orientations representing different principal direction of force (PDOF) angles and subjected to controlled “crash” impulses, simulating a “deployment event” (DE) and triggering data to be saved in the EDRs. The data included in each EDR’s CDR report was compared to the known conditions of the impulse.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0493
Ying Wang, Ye Wang, You Qu, Sumin Zhang, Weiwen Deng
Research on advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) has gained great momentum recently in addressing increasing concerns on vehicle safety, such as forward and rearward collision warning and avoidance, lane departure warning and lane keeping, autonomous driving, etc. Vision-based ADAS, mainly using cameras as sensing devices, has received tremendous attention and become more and more attractive to the market nowadays. This is not only because of its low-cost advantage compared to radar or lidar, but also due to technological advancement and maturity in image processing, pattern recognition and digital signal processing. Unlike radar-based systems, vision-based ADAS may combine with object and lane detection via pattern recognition techniques to further enhance system performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1426
Drew A. Jurkofsky
Photogrammetry from images captured by terrestrial cameras and manned aircraft has been used for many years to model objects, create scale diagrams and measure distances for use in traffic accident investigation and reconstruction. Due to increasing capability and availability, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), including small UAS (SUAS), are becoming a valuable, cost effective tool for collecting overhead images for photogrammetric analysis. The metric accuracy of scale accident scene diagrams created from SUAS imagery has yet to be compared to conventional measurement methods, such as total station and laser measurement systems, which are widely used by public safety officials and private consultants. For this study, two different SUAS were used to collect overhead imagery for photogrammetric processing using PhotoModeler software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1435
Jeffrey Wirth, Enrique Bonugli, Mark Freund
Google Earth is a map and geographical information application created and maintained by Google Corporation. The program displays maps of the Earth using images obtained from available satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information systems (GIS) 3D globe. Google Earth has become a tool often used by accident reconstructionist to create scene drawings and obtain dimensional information. In some cases, a reconstructionist will not be able to inspect the scene of the crash due to various circumstances. For example, a reconstruction may commence after the roadway on which the accident occurred has been modified. In other cases, the time and expense required to physically inspect the incident site is not justifiable. In these instances, a reconstructionist may have to rely on Google Earth imagery for dimensional information about the site. The accuracy of the Google Earth is not officially documented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Over the past two decades, extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the performance of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions, as well the potential for injury though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Traditionally, the rollover tests utilized a test fixture to initiate the rollover event. Examples of various test methodologies include dolly rollovers, inverted drop tests, ramp-induced rollovers, curb-tripped rollover, and CRIS Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used in pickup trucks and SUVs to initiate steering induced rollovers, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. This study presents a series of rollover tests utilizing a crew-cab pickup and a mid-sized sedan which resulted in a steering-induced soil-tripped rollover.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
In order to mitigate traffic congestion, in this paper, we propose an effective approach of smoothing traffic flows by introducing smart cars. It is relied on the smartphone-based technology of detecting traffic congestion, initially developed by Honda Motor Co. Ltd throughout 2011-2013. The detection technology is basically aimed to correct erratic driving behaviors such as aggressive acceleration or rapid braking, and is referred as "smooth driving". Generally, it is known that traffic congestion will likely occur when volume of traffic generates demand for a space greater than the available road capacity. Nevertheless, driving patterns relative to reaction time, sensitivity and time headway, can also be crucial for traffic stability and congestion mitigation. So far, our driving strategy combined with the congestion detection has considered achieving the driving smoothness for "single" lane in particular.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1419
Raymond M. Brach
Numerous algebraic formulas and mathematical models exist for the reconstruction of vehicle speed of a vehicle-pedestrian collision using pedestrian throw distance. Unfortunately a common occurrence is that the throw distance is not known from accident evidence. When this is the case almost all formulas and models lose their utility. The model developed by Han and Brach published in 2001 is an exception because it can reconstruct vehicle speed based on the distance between the rest positions of the vehicle and pedestrian. The Han-Brach model is comprehensive and contains crash parameters such as pedestrian launch angle, height of the center of gravity of the pedestrian at launch, pedestrian-road surface friction, vehicle-road surface friction, road grade angle, etc. This approach provides versatility and allows variations of these variables to be taken into account for investigation of uncertainty.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor’s velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0564
Sung wook Moon, Byunghyun Kang, Jaeyoung Lim, Byoung-Ho Choi
In a car accident involving pedestrians, head injury occurs very frequently as head of the pedestrian hits the windshield. The head injury criterion (HIC) obtained through the windshield impact test is used to evaluate pedestrian injury and car manufacturers are trying to meet the criterion and lightweight at the same time. However, there are some difficulties in the windshield impact test like a large scatter of the test data or windshield shape-dependent property of the test. These problems make it very difficult to obtain the meaningful result from single test and thus, test should be done several times. In this study, lab-scale windshield impact test is done by using modified Instrumented dart impact (IDI) tester. Test was carried out by switching test conditions like impact speed, size of the headform and specimen thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0567
Kenji Takada, Kentaro Sato, Ninshu Ma
In order to reduce the automobile body weight and to improve the crashworthiness, the use of high strength steels is greatly increasing these years. An optimal combination of both the crash safety performance and a lightweight structure has been an important challenge in automobile body engineering. The application of high strength steel to automobile body structures has been considered to be an efficient solution because of a lower cost in volume production in the automotive industry. With the improvement of the formability of high strength steels by optimizing the metallic microstructure, the range of applications of high strength steels has been expanding in the automobile body structures. Recently, advanced high strength steels with strength from 980MPa to 1500MPa used in automobile bodies have being playing a crucial role in crash safety performance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0571
Andreas Teibinger, Christian Mayer, Ernö Dux, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Peter Luttenberger, Jac Wismans, Rémy Willinger
In the next 20 years the number of small and light-weight full electric vehicles will substantially increase especially in urban areas. These Small Electric Vehicles (SEVs) show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles (e.g. vertical windscreens, outstanding wheels). Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other (mostly heavier) vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. These fundamental changes are not adequately addressed by current vehicle safety evaluation methods and regulations. Furthermore, no assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e class currently. Therefore the final objective of the EC co-financed project SafeEV is the development of a clear and practicable guideline for virtual testing of small electric vehicles. As a basis a virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0575
SongAn Zhang, Qing Zhou, Yong Xia
Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle’s total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. Using finite element modeling, this paper presents a parametric analysis. For this research purpose, we first built LS-DYNA model of SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg , which is a two-seater. The model has no complex components, but it can provide reasonable crash pulses under full-frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
Sreelakshmi C, Krishnan kutty
Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans’ mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is a very easy task for human being. Human computer interface is a developing research field that enables humans’ to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures, but communication through expression is still a problem. There are a variety of fields such as biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression detection system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed for emotion analysis through facial expression, but most of them will work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to detect expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM). It includes face detection; face modeling, feature extraction and classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1479
Adria Ferrer, Eduard Infantes
In September 2009 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a report that investigated the incidence of fatalities to belted non-ejected occupants in frontal crashes involving late-model vehicles. The report concluded that after exceedingly severe crashes, the largest number of fatalities occurred in crashes involving poor structural engagement between the vehicle and its collision partner, such as corner impacts, oblique crashes, or impacts with narrow objects. In response to these findings, NHTSA designed and developed a test procedure intended to mitigate the risk of injuries and fatalities related to motor vehicle crashes involving poor structural engagement. This research demonstrated that an offset impact between a moving deformable barrier (RMDB) and a stationary vehicle at a 15º angle can reproduce vehicle crush, occupant kinematics, and risk of injury seen in vehicle-to-vehicle crashes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1484
Daniel E. Toomey, Eric S. Winkel, Ramnarain Krishnaswami
The evolution of airbag sensing system design has been rapid as electromechanical sensors used in earlier front airbag applications have been replaced by multi-point electronic sensors used to discriminate collision mechanics for potential airbag deployment in front, side and rollover accidents. In addition to multi-point electronic sensors, advanced airbag systems incorporate a variety of state sensors such as seat belt use status, seat track location, and occupant size classification that are taken into consideration by airbag system algorithms and occupant protection deployment strategies. Historically, traditional reconstruction methods and full scale vehicle crash testing were the primary means available to evaluate the field performance of passenger vehicle airbag systems. Electronic sensing systems have allowed for the advent of electronic data recorders (EDRs), which over the past decade, have provided increasingly more information related to airbag deployment events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop C P
Glare is subjective and can cause either disability or discomfort to eyes. A recent report from NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) shows that 22,487 deaths occurred in the year 2012. FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) shows that 10,480 deaths occur at night time. This accounts to 48% fatalities during night time. Thus glare during driving, especially at night time is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper consists of two promising technologies that can help in reducing glare. The system level design comprises of vision based identification of glare source. And a device placed between the driver and source is controlled for its transmittance. By changing the transparency locally the glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1485
Jiri Kral, Theresa Kondel, Mark Morra, Stephen Cassatta, Peter Bidolli, Patrick Stebbins, Vikas Joshi
A new apparatus for testing modern safety belt systems was developed. Its design, dynamic behavior and test procedure are described. A number of tests have been conducted using this apparatus. These tests allowed identification of key performance parameters of pretensioners and load limiting retractors which are relevant to occupant protection in crash environment. Good test repeatability was observed, which allows comparison of different safety belt designs. The apparatus may be used for better specification and verification of safety belt properties on subsystem level as well as for validation of CAE models of safety belts used in simulations of occupant response to crash.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1414
Jitendra Shah, Mohamed Benmimoun
In the framework of large scale project interactIVe co-funded by the European Commission Ford has developed an active safety system for the supported and autonomous avoidance of rear end collisions by intervention of braking and steering systems. This paper focuses on the assessment of threat perceived by drivers in collision avoidance situation. The decision making related to the initiation of the interventions by driver is crucial to understand how much threat is the driver can hold. The study has helped to understand how driver feels a threat arising from environment. It is a step towards autonomous driving where the system interventions have to be initiated as early as possible in order to avoid the collision and avoid unstable vehicle dynamics situations. In parallel the reaction has to be delayed long enough until it is likely that the driver will no longer intervene or respectively he is no longer able to intervene. For this reason an experiment is conducted with 26 subjects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0578
Wei Li, Yi-Pen Cheng, Lisa Furton
Finite element dummy models have been more and more widely applied in virtual development of occupant protection system across the automotive industry due to their predictive capabilities. H305 dyna dummy model is a finite element representative of the Hybrid III small female dummy, which is designed to represent the lower extreme of the United States adult population. Lower extremities are the leading injured body region and the risk of lower limb injuries is significant in all front crash impacts. The tibia index is a very important injury criteria to be predicted during frontal impact occupant simulations for FMVSS 208 and IIHS. A common issue in application of the dummy model is that it often over predicts lower tibia loading (forces and/or moments) and in turn generate unrealistically higher tibia indices, when compared against corresponding physical tests. In this paper, a few factors are analyzed, which affect achieving good tibia loading predictions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1382
Lisa Schei Blikeng, Siril Hegén Agerup
The number of electric vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in Norway were there today there are more than 35 000 electric cars, with a goal of 200 000 by 2020. With new Lithium-ion battery technology the battery packages is longer lasting and more useful for the normal family. Great interest of these vehicles leads to the discussion about fire safety. The major part of the thesis was to perform a full-scale fire experiment with a modern and drivable electric car, and in February 2013 a Peugeot iOn 2012 model was set on fire. The experiment was documented on video and thermocouples were used to measure temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1457
Aditya Belwadi, Richard Hanna, Audrey Eagle, Daniel Martinez, Julie Kleinert, Eric Dahle
Automotive interior design optimization must balance the design of the vehicle seat and occupant space for safety, comfort and aesthetics with the accommodation of add-on restraint products such as child restraint systems (CRS). It is important to understand the breadth of CRS dimensions so that this balance can be successfully negotiated. Previously this was addressed with the advent of advanced air bag systems, when emphasis was placed on the design and development of surrogate child restraints, which were used, in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. CRS design is constantly changing. In particular, the introduction of side impact protection for CRS as well as emphasis on ease of CRS installation has likely changed key design points of any child restraints. This ever-changing target puts pressure on the vehicle manufacturers to keep their vehicle seats and occupant space compatible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0281
Yang Zheng, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
In order to address vehicular and occupant safety, it is beneficial to understand how drivers drive as well as identify any variations in their driving performance. In-vehicle signal processing plays an increasingly important role in driving behavior and traffic modeling. A driver’s control actions directly impact the vehicle dynamic performance. Meanwhile, in-vehicle signals such as the steering wheel angle, vehicle speed and other signals from multiple sensors typically included in the CAN-Bus can be used to reflect the driver’s intention. Maneuvers, influenced by the driver’s choice and traffic/road conditions, are important in understanding variations in driving performance and to help rebuild the intended route. With access to continuous real-time in-vehicles signals, a suitable framing strategy should be adopted for maneuver recognition. One classical approach is to use fixed time frames to partition incoming data for time series analysis of maneuvers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1429
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 has requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance angles, up to 45 degree. In the author’s preliminary research, all DOT-C2 retroreflective tape on the market is advertised as meeting and exceeding FMVSS No. 108 requirements. The author’s literature review revealed that there have been no peer-reviewed publications measuring the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape would perform, beyond the minimum federal requirements. Therefore, the authors have measured the performance of different types of retroreflective tape with a laboratory grade retroreflectometer. The authors attempted to study a range of popular, commercially available, DOT-C2 retroreflective tape. In this study, 3M 963, 3M 983, Grote, and Trucklite DOT-C2 retoreflective tape was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0318
Sonu Thomas, Krishnan kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
Dense depth estimation is a critical application in the field of robotics and machine vision where the depth perception is essential. Unlike traditional approaches which use expensive sensors such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) devices or stereo camera setup, the proposed approach for depth estimation uses a single camera mounted on a rotating platform. This proposed setup is an effective replacement to usage of multiple cameras, which provide around view information required for some operations in the domain of autonomous vehicles and robots. Dense depth estimation of local scene is performed using the proposed setup. This is a novel, however challenging task because baseline distance between camera positions inversely affect common regions between images. The proposed work involves dense two view reconstruction and depth map merging to obtain a reliable large dense depth map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1480
Seung Kwon Cha, Jong Heon LEE, Tae Hoon SONG, YangGi LEE, HangChul KO, Un Ko
This paper focuses on the Barrier net system of the European vehicle(wagon). Recently, Car maker has being developed the wagon for European market. The characteristic of this vehicle is to have a capability of enough luggage space in order to minimize injuries of passengers at the accident. This is also a requirement of EU regulations(ECE R-17). Our company has adopted this system to small size car for the first time dependent on advanced foreign company’s technology. This reality still gives us the burden of high cost and royalty expenditure. Therefore, the objective of this study is to overcome our weak technologies, especially for patent circumvention or new mechanism which is entirely independent with previous system, and cost effectiveness(Barrier Net).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1432
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Accident reconstruction experts are often asked to evaluate the visibility and conspicuity of objects in the roadway. It is common for some of these objects, and required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 for certain vehicles and trailers, to have red and white DOT-C2 retroreflective tape installed on several locations. Retroreflective tape is designed to reflect light back towards the light source, at the same entrance angle. FMVSS No. 108 has performance requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance angles, up to 45 degree. The federal requirement for minimum performance of the retroreflective tape at 45 degrees is significantly less than the federal requirement for minimum performance of the retroreflective tape at 4 degrees. Additionally, the federal requirement for the minimum performance of white retroreflective tape is significantly different than the federal requirement for the minimum performance of red retroreflective tape.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0284
Li Gang, Zhou Zhicheng
In recent years, the study on driver characteristics is becoming hotter and hotter in intelligent vehicle field. The study on driver steering characteristics is one of them. This paper points at the classification of driver steering characteristics and identification of driver type based on the driving simulator experiments. Choose forty drivers to participate in experiments which were designed on driving simulator. The experimental data were acquired by dSPACE acquisition system. The maximum of yaw rate, the maximum of wheel steering angle, the maximum of wheel steering angle rate and vehicle longitude speed under maximum of wheel steering were received to create sample matrix. Fuzzy C-means algorithm was applied to construct clusters from the sample matrix and correlation analysis was used to figure out the criteria of classification. The forty drivers were classified according to the criteria of classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0282
Emrah Adamey, Guchan Ozbilgin, Umit Ozguner
In this paper, collaborative vehicle-tracking problem is studied for mixed-traffic environments where vehicles with differing sensing and communication capabilities coexist. The participating vehicles are classified according to their capabilities, as: (1) fully-equipped, (2) v2v-equipped, and (3) non-equipped vehicles. Fully-equipped vehicles have both onboard sensing and v2v communication capabilities; v2v-equipped vehicles have v2v communication capabilities alone; and non-equipped vehicles do not have communication capabilities. The task is to provide accurate and reliable vehicle tracking results to each participating vehicle, which can be done most effectively through wireless collaboration of fully-equipped vehicles with v2v-equipped vehicles. One particular issue that rises is the integration of the state estimates of non-equipped vehicles into the inter-vehicular communication network. Another important issue is the packet losses and delays.
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