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Viewing 91 to 120 of 16507
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0399
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Amit Kulkarni, Dhanendra Nagwanshi, Joel Luther Thambi, Ruud Winters, Matthew Delaney
Automotive OEMs are proactively working on vehicle light-weighting, powertrain optimization, alternate/renewable energy sources and combinations of the three to meet challenging corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. Light-weighting of the body-in-white (BIW) is an obvious choice for vehicle light-weighting as this structure contributes to more than 30-35% of the total weight of a car. Changing manufacturing and assembly lines requires substantial investment. As such, OEMs are exploring short-term light-weighting strategies that do not require any major changes to the BIW. Local reinforcement for the BIW are pertinent solutions that does not require any major changes in the existing assembly lines. This paper focuses on the development of BIW reinforcement solutions using engineering thermoplastic materials that can be mounted at appropriate locations on a vehicle’s BIW to achieve significant weight-savings without compromising crash performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1412
Takeshi Hamaguchi, Satoshi Inoue, Shigeyuki Kimura, Terumasa Endo
In general, driver workload can be measured with questionnaires or other subjective methods for human-centered design. Many researchers have studied how subjective ratings of workload have good correspondence to physiological and/or behavioral, psychological measures. On the other hand, a model of driver behavior can be more informative because it allows researchers to estimate how drivers actually control the vehicle. Behavioral measures can be used to understand the interaction between a driver’s perception of information and his/her choice of action. Previously, pedal control was used for identifying specific individual habits or evaluating acceptability for a wide variety of driving assistance systems. Pedal behavior has not been modeled to estimate driver workload.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1485
Noritoshi Atsumi, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Satoko Hirabayashi, Eiichi Tanaka
The reduction of higher brain dysfunction due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head rotational impact in traffic accidents is needed. However, the injury mechanism still remains unclear. Brain parenchyma of the head finite element (FE) model has been generally modeled as simple isotropic viscoelastic materials in past analyses. In this study, we developed a new constitutive model describing most of the mechanical properties in brain parenchyma such as anisotropy in white matter, strain rate dependency, and the characteristics in unloading process for further understanding of TBI mechanism. The validation of the constitutive model were performed against several material test data from the literature by using simple one element model. The model was also introduced into the human head FE model of THUMS v4.02 and then validated against post mortem human subjects (PMHS) test data about brain tissue displacements under rotational impacts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1491
Eunjoo Hwang, Jason Hallman, Katelyn Klein, Jonathan Rupp, Matthew Reed, Jingwen Hu
Finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) have been widely used to understand the injury mechanisms in the motor vehicle crashes. However, current HBMs generally only represent young and mid-size male occupants and therefore do not account for body shape and composition variations among the population. Because it generally takes several years to build a whole-body HBM, a method to rapidly develop HBMs with a wide range of human attributes (size, age, obesity level, etc.) is critically needed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate skeleton and whole-body HBMs based on the statistical geometry targets developed previously. THUMS 4.01 mid-size male model jointly developed by Toyota Motor Corporation and Toyota Central R&D Labs. was used in this study as the baseline HBM to be morphed. Radial basis function (RBF) was used to morph the baseline model into other geometries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1486
Qi Zhang, Bronislaw Gepner, Jacek Toczyski, Jason Kerrigan
While over 30% of US occupant fatalities occur in rollover crashes, no dummy has been developed for such a condition. Currently, an efficient, cost-effective methodology is being implemented to develop a biofidelic rollover dummy. Instead of designing a rollover dummy from scratch, this methodology identifies a baseline dummy and modifies it to improve its response in rollover. Using computational models of the baseline dummy (both multibody and FE), the dummy’s structure was continually modified until its response was aligned (using BioRank metric) with biofidelity targets. A previous study (Part I) identified the THOR dummy as a suitable baseline dummy by comparing the kinematic responses of six existing dummies with PMHS response corridors through laboratory rollover testing. In this study (Part II), the whole-body kinematic response of THOR multibody and FE models were validated with responses of the physical THOR dummy in experiments that simulated rollover conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1420
Shinichi Kojima, Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka PhD, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada PhD, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
The purpose of this study is to develop the projection pattern which is capable to shorten the driver’s perception time to night pedestrian than illuminating only high beam. Our approach is based on spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. Visual contrast sensitivity is dependent on spatio-temporal frequency, and maximum contrast sensitivity frequency is adapted by environmental luminance. Conventionally, there are some applications of spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision such as NTSC television format. These were applied the low sensitivity of visual characteristics. By contrast, our approach applies the high sensitivity of visual characteristics. On the assumption that higher contrast sensitivity of spatio-temporal frequency is correlated with shorter perception time, we conducted an experiment to determine the frequency of maximum contrast sensitivity under lighting conditions that simulate night time light levels.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1414
Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka PhD, Shinichi Kojima, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada PhD, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
We investigated a lighting method supporting driver's pedestrian perception that makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments with a Campbell-Robson chart, we realized a suitable lighting pattern to improve the performance of driver's pedestrian perception. To assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests in the target environment were executed, the results of which validated the proposed method. From the preliminary experiments, the following were determined to be reasonable parameter values: 5 Hz for temporal frequency and 1.0 cycle/degree for spatial frequency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Approximately 20% of traffic deaths in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using Rollover Buck test system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. This paper describes results of occupant kinematics of 95th percentile male (AM95), 50th percentile male (AM50), and 5th percentile female (AF05), simulated using THUMS, when a rolling condition was added to Rollover Buck FE model that include the cases using a rigid mock-up seat and a vehicle seat. Main results were as follows: Lateral head displacement of AM95 case on the right side seat was the largest among all cases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu vallabhaneni, Munenori shinada, Kazuto Sato
Active hood system helps in increasing the space between the hood inner and the engine compartment by pushing the hood upwards during a pedestrian impact. Such systems should detect all the pedestrian impacts ranging from 6YO-child to 95th%-male. To carry out rational sensor evaluation tests, a pedestrian detection impactor (PDI-2) was developed to represent the hard to detect pedestrian. To shorten the time of total experimental verification cycle and to increase the efficiency of the sensor simulation logic, a PDI-2 FE model was developed as accurately as possible to match the physical entities such as CG, weight and inertia properties. It is then evaluated with two standard pendulum tests; the results have good correlation with the physical tests. Vehicles with different sensor configurations were impacted with PDI-2 and pedestrian human models of different size & postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0406
Akihiko Asami, TOMOYUKI IMANISHI, Yukio Okazaki, Tomohiro Ono, Kenichi Tetsuka
The realization of weight savings in automotive subframes has been pursued through the use of high-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum materials. The use of structures with closed sections is similarly the main approach to efficiently increasing the stiffness of parts. The realization of further reductions in thickness and weight by means of the application of high-tensile steel plates is challenging from the perspectives of stiffness and corrosion resistance. However, the use of subframes consisting of welded aluminum structures is not advancing due to high material, die, welding, and other costs. Hollow-cast aluminum subframes have come into use, but these subframes are manufactured by means of gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) using sand cores, making it difficult to reduce the thickness of the parts. The advantage of weight reduction is therefore lost as a result of the limitations of the manufacturing methods.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0028
Ali Shahrokni, Peter Gergely, Jan Söderberg, Patrizio Pelliccione
In novel areas, such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To keep up with the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for the engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools like spreadsheet tools are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability. At the other side of the spectrum, rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited ability to adapt to changes. As organizations become more agile, the need for flexible and agile data management increases; as products become more complex and developed in larger and more distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, consistent, and coherent data increases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0141
Prasanna Vasudevan, Sreegururaj Jayachander
The sense of smell has been strongly linked to taste through direct chemical mechanisms. Its role in affecting human moods is a more complex phenomenon involving both chemical and psychological processes. Several studies using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to throw light on the details of these processes. It is also a well-known fact that a large percentage of the commerce and trade powering global economics is facilitated by logistics through road transport networks. As distant producer – consumer connections are made, the drivers at the helms of the commercial transport vehicles make longer trips. This results in increased fatigue and risk of accidents. Work in the area of the effect of odors on alleviating the driver fatigue is limited. This paper shall describe, in detail and in particular, the effect of different odors typically obtainable in India.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1508
Gernot Pauer, Michal Kriska, Andreas Hirzer
In view of increasing safety requirements of vehicles, concerning the field of pedestrian safety, it is especially important to support these topics already from a very early stage of the development process, on a completely virtual basis, by CAE- and FE-methods. Especially if different requirements, e.g. for bumper stiffness, pedestrian safety and pedestrian detection may require conflicting structural solutions, design compromises have to be found against a background of an ever reducing number of real prototype testing possibilities, due to economical constraints. One way to overcome conflicting requirements in vehicle design is the usage of active bonnets to fulfill pedestrian head impact requirements. These systems allow increasing the deformation space towards the stiff parts in the engine compartment, but need an extra detection system for reliable activation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1527
Paul Podzikowski, Suk Jae Ham, John Cadwell, Aviral Shrivatri
Objective: Show the difference between Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) responses and kinematics for linear sled, pitching sled and vehicle test. Confirm that a newly introduced pitching sled with enhanced pitching capability could reproduce similar vehicle motion and ATD responses when compared to a vehicle test. Background: Introduction of revised New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) frontal crash test has been challenging due to more stringent ATD rating metrics, such as neck injury (Nij) and chest deflection values. These ATD responses in a full vehicle test are not predicted well with conventional linear sleds or existing pitching sled systems because they are not capable of reproducing the high pitching and vertical drop rates seen in some vehicles. Methods: This paper used a pitching sled test system equipped with accelerometers, angular rate sensors and a Hybrid III 5th percentile female ATD with extra instrumentation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1522
Zhenwen Wang, Brock Watson
Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) was developed in late 1990’s to advance Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) technology. In THOR alpha version, displacement sensor CRUX (Compact Rotary Unit) and DGSP (Double Gimbaled String Potentiometer) were designed to measure chest and abdomen deflection respectively (NHTSA 2005). However the string potentiometer has a delay when the ATD is impacted at high speeds. In 2005, NHTSA initiated a program to upgrade THOR alpha. The upgrade was completed by Humanetics Innovative Solutions (Humanetics) as THOR-K. In the meantime, Humanetics developed a THOR-M version under the NHTSA’s contract. In this program, 3D IRTRACC (Infrared Telescope Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression) was designed to replace the CRUX and DGSP in order to accurately measure chest deflection at higher loading rates.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0456
Zhaozhong Zhang, Dongpu Cao
This paper analyses how a human driver interacts with the steer-by-wire (SBW) controller using a simplified driver-vehicle-SBW system model. Driver model includes three main parameters: driver preview time, driver time delay and driver control gain. Driver neuromuscular dynamics are also considered using a simple transfer function. Simulation analyses and parametric studies have been conducted to draw conclusions for offering valuable information for SBW control design when considering driver-SBW collaborations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1481
Gary A. Davis, Abhisek Mudgal
An ongoing topic of discussion concerns how best to use information from Event Data Recorders (EDR) to reconstruct crashes. If one has a model which can predict EDR data from given values of target variables of interest, such as vehicle speeds at impact, then in principle one could invert this model to estimate the target values from the EDR measurements. In practice though this can involve solving a system of nonlinear equations and a reasonably flexible method for carrying this out involves replacing the inversion problem with a nonlinear least-squares (NLS) problem, where the target estimates are found by minimizing the weighted squared differences between the measurements and their predicted values.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0402
Eric S. Elliott, Christopher Roche, Jashwanth Reddy
Since the inception of the IIHS Small Overlap Impact (SOI) test in 2012, automotive manufacturers have implemented many combinations of solutions in vehicle body structure, forward of the vehicle cockpit and in the structure immediately surrounding the vehicle cockpit to achieve IIHS deemed “Good” rating. The structures forward of vehicle cockpit are designed to either 1) absorb vehicle energy from impact to the barrier, or 2) provide enough strength and rigidity to aid in deflecting the vehicle away from the barrier. The structures which are immediately outboard of the vehicle cockpit (known as pillars and rocker/sills) are traditionally components designed to be highly rigid stamped panels to protect the occupant in a multitude of crash events. This paper focuses on a concept for a portion of the cockpit structure that utilizes both absorbing and rigid (non-hot stamped) steel structure, which are not traditionally used in this area of vehicles architecture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1465
John Zolock, Carmine Senatore, Ryan Yee, Robert Larson, Brian Curry
As a result of recent FMVSS regulation 49 CFR 563, today’s automobiles provide electronic data measurements of a vehicle’s movement before and during a crash that might otherwise be indeterminate. Prior to this data, the only information available about the vehicle movements before or during a collision has come from witnesses, aftermarket camera systems on vehicles, and ground-based cameras that are monitoring vehicle traffic or used for security surveillance. Today’s vehicles with ADAS systems now provide vehicle-based sensors that measure information about the environment around a vehicle. Vehicles equipped with ADAS use radar, LIDAR, and/or cameras either in standalone operation or in combination to establish the range and movement of potential hazardous objects (e.g. vehicles and pedestrians).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1479
Tire mark striations are discussed often in the literature pertaining to accident reconstruction. The discussions in the literature contain many consistencies, but also contain disagreements. The literature is first summarized, and then the differences in the interpretation of this evidence are explored. In previous work, it was demonstrated that the specific characteristics of tire mark striations offer a glimpse into the steering and driving actions of the driver. Equations have been developed that use striation angles to define tire slip, the mathematical definition of braking. Initially, the striation slip equation was derived from the classic equation for tire slip, and also geometrically. It was hypothesized that striations are indicative of tire force direction. Based on this hypothesis, the same equation for slip was re-derived from equations that model tire forces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1489
Logan Miller, James Gaewsky, Ashley Weaver, Joel Stitzel, Nicholas White
Crash reconstructions using finite element (FE) vehicle and human body models (HBMs) allow researchers to investigate injury mechanisms, predict injury risk, and evaluate the effectiveness of injury mitigation systems, ultimately leading to a reduced risk of fatality and severe injury in MVCs. The Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) full body HBM (621,074 nodes and 1,727,232 elements) can be used in crash reconstructions for injury prediction. To predict injuries, regional-level injury metrics were implemented into THUMS v4.01 (THUMS AM50 Version 4.01, Toyota TCRDL, Japan). THUMS was instrumented with cross-sectional planes to measure forces and moments in the femurs, upper and lower tibias, ankles, pelvis (pubic symphysis, ilium, ischium, sacrum, ischial tuberosity, and inferior and superior pubic ramus), and the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1534
Rudolf Reichert, Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Daniel Brown
A detailed finite element model of a 2012 Toyota Camry was developed by reverse engineering. The model consists of 2.3M elements representing the geometry, thicknesses, material characteristics, and connections of relevant structural, suspension, and interior components of the mid-size sedan. This paper describes the level of detail of the simulation model, the validation process, and how it performs in various crash configurations, when compared to full scale test results. Under contract with the National Highway Safety Administration and the Federal Highway Administration, the Center for Collision Safety at the George Mason University has developed a fleet of vehicle models which have been made publicly available. The updated model presented in this paper is the latest finite element vehicle model with a high level of detail using state of the art modeling techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1468
In previous work, it was demonstrated that the specific characteristics of tire mark striations can be an indication of the braking actions of the driver. An equation that related tire mark striation angle to tire slip, the mathematical definition of braking, was presented. This equation can be used to quantify the driver’s braking inputs based on the physical evidence. The amount of braking will affect the speed of a yawing vehicle and, therefore, quantifying the amount of braking can increase the accuracy of a speed analysis. When using this technique in practice, it is helpful to understand the sensitivity and uncertainties of the equation. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the equation are explored and presented in this study. The results help to formulate guidelines for the practical use of the method and expected accuracy depending on the specific conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1497
William Bortles, Wayne Biever, Neal Carter, Connor Smith
This paper presents the most comprehensive literature review to date on the topic of original equipment event data recorders installed in passenger vehicles, focusing on the results from instrumented validation studies. In conducting this literature review, the authors have compiled 182 peer-reviewed studies, textbooks, legal opinions, governmental rulemaking policies, industry publications and presentations pertaining to these event data recorders. Of the 182 references in the literature, the authors have identified 66 references that presented instrumented validation testing. The authors have cataloged the test results by vehicle make, model and, whenever possible, by specific module type. The results from these studies have been summarized and analyzed to present a comprehensive collection of results that represent the performance of event data recorders.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1494
Peter Xing, Felix Lee, Thomas Flynn, Craig Wilkinson, Gunter Siegmund
The accuracy of the speed change reported by Generation 1 Toyota Corolla Event Data Recorders (EDR) in low-speed front and rear-end collisions has been previously studied. It was found that the EDRs underestimated speed change in frontal collisions and overestimated speed change in rear-end collisions. The source of the uncertainty was modeled using a threshold acceleration and bias model. This study compares the response of Generation 1,2 and 3 Toyota EDRs from Toyota Corolla, Camry and Prius models. A 2005 and a 2006 Toyota Corolla were used for a series of vehicle-to-barrier and vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests. Both vehicles were subjected to frontal and rear impacts. Generation 1,2 and 3 Toyota airbag control modules (ACM’s) from the Corolla, Camry and Prius models were then mounted on a linear sled. The ACM’s were subjected to replications of the collision pulses from the in-vehicle tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0066
Joe Hupcey, Bryan Ramirez
The #1 priority in vehicle security is to harden the “root of trust”; from which everything else – the hardware, firmware, OS, and application layer’s security – is derived. If the root of trust can be compromised, then the whole system is vulnerable. In the near future the root of trust will effectively be an encryption key – a digital signature for each vehicle — that will be stored in a secure memory element inside all vehicles. In this paper we will show how a mathematical, “formal” analysis techniques can be applied to ensure that this secure storage can’t be (A) read by an unauthorized party or accidentally “leak” to the outputs; or (B) be altered, overwritten, or erased by unauthorized entities. We will include a real world case study from a consumer electronics maker that has successfully used this technology secure their products from attacks 24/7/365.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1458
Ryuta Ono, Wataru Ike, Yuki Fukaya
We have developed for packaged safety system called Toyota Safety Sense P to deal with various type of accident based on accident analysis. Based on accident analysis, we developed five functions which are Pre-collision system (PCS) to deal with rear-end collision, pedestrian PCS to deal with pedestrian accident included under crossing, Lane Departure Alert(LDA) to assist deviating accident on a road, Automatic high beam(AHB) to assist ensuring the forward visibility, Adaptive Cruise Control(ACC) to reduce drivers operating load. “Toyota Safety Sense P” has been developed and formed as one package. These functions have been equipped optionally so far, however we aim TSS P to spread extensively by packaging five functions with a set. It is very important a technology to detect a danger of accident in this safety system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1490
Hans W. Hauschild, Frank Pintar, Dale Halloway, Mark Meyer, Rodney Rudd
Oblique crashes to one corner of the vehicle may not be characteristic of either frontal or side impacts. This research objective was to evaluate occupant response in oblique crashes for a driver, rear adult passenger, and a rear child passenger. Occupant responses and injury potential were evaluated for seating positions as either a far- or near-side occupant. Two crash tests were conducted with a subcompact car. The vehicle’s longitudinal axis was oriented 45 degrees to the direction of travel on a moving platform and pulled into a wall at 56-km/h. The initial point of contact was the right front corner in one test and the left front corner in the other test. Dummies utilized for the seating positions were an adult dummy (50th percentile male HIII and THOR) for the driver position, 5th percentile female HIII for the right-rear position, and a 3-year-old HIII for the left-rear position.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0136
Deepak Gangadharan, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee, BaekGyu Kim, Chung-Wei Lin, Shinichi Shiraishi
Optional software-based features (for example, to provide active safety, infotainment etc.) are increasingly becoming a significant cost driver in automotive systems. In state-of-the-art production techniques, these optional features are built into the vehicle during assembly . This does not give the customer the flexibility to chose the specific set of features as per their requirement. They either have to buy a pre-bundled option that may or may not satisfy their preferences or are unable to find an exact combination of features from the inventory provided by a dealership. Alternatively, they have to pre-order a car from the manufacturer, which could result in a substantial delay. Therefore, it is important to improve the flexibility of delivering the optional features to customers. Towards this objective, the vehicle could be configured with the desired options at the dealership, when the customer requires them.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated control and driver control, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a full-vehicle driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a book section on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in participants' accident avoidance ability following the different tasks.
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