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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
Abstract This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0163
Thomas Rothermel, Jürgen Pitz, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract This paper proposes a framework for semi-autonomous longitudinal guidance for electric vehicles. To lower the risk for pedestrian collisions in urban areas, a velocity trajectory which is given by the driver is optimized with respect to safety aspects with the help of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC). Safety aspects, such as speed limits and pedestrians on the roadway, are considered as velocity and spatial constraints within prediction horizon in NMPC formulation. A slack variable is introduced to enable overshooting of velocity constraints in situations with low risk potential to rise driver acceptance. By changing the weight of slack variable, the control authority can be shifted continuously from driver to automation. Within this work, a prototypical real-time implementation of the longitudinal guidance system is presented and the potential of the approach is demonstrated in human-in-the-loop test drives in the Stuttgart Driving Simulator.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0519
Xiaoqing Xu, Bohan Liu, Yan Wang, Yibing Li
Abstract The mechanical behavior of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film plays an important role in windshield crashworthiness and pedestrian protection and should be depth study. In this article, the uniaxial tension tests of PVB film at various strain rates (0.001 s-1, 0.01 s-1, 0.1 s-1, 1 s-1) and temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 10°C, 23°C, 40°C, 55°C, 70°C) are conducted to investigate its mechanical behavior. Then, temperature and strain rate dependent viscoelastic characteristics of PVB are systematically studied. The results show that PVB is a kind of temperature and strain rate sensitive thermal viscoelastic material. Temperature increase and strain rate decrease have the same influence on mechanical properties of PVB. Besides, the mechanical characteristics of PVB change non-linearly with temperature and strain rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1463
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Abstract It is extremely important to accurately depict photographs or video taken of a scene at night, when attempting to show how the subject scene appeared. It is widely understood that digital image sensors cannot capture the large dynamic range that can be seen by the human eye. Furthermore, todays commercially available printers, computer monitors, TV’s or other displays cannot reproduce the dynamic range that is captured by the digital cameras. Therefore, care must be taken when presenting a photograph or video while attempting to accurately depict a subject scene. However, there are many parameters that can be altered, while taking a photograph or video, to make a subject scene either too bright or too dark. Similarly, adjustments can be made to a printer or display to make the image appear either too bright or too dark. There have been several published papers and studies dealing with how to properly capture and calibrate photographs and video of a subject scene at night.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1461
William T. Neale, David Danaher, Sean McDonough, Tomas Owens
Abstract There are numerous publically available smart phone applications designed to track the speed and position of the user. By accessing the phones built in GPS receivers, these applications record the position over time of the phone and report the record on the phone itself, and typically on the application’s website. These applications range in cost from free to a few dollars, with some, that advertise greater functionality, costing significantly higher. This paper examines the reliability of the data reported through these applications, and the potential for these applications to be useful in certain conditions where monitoring and recording vehicle or pedestrian movement is needed. To analyze the reliability of the applications, three of the more popular and widely used tracking programs were downloaded to three different smart phones to represent a good spectrum of operating platforms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1457
John M. Scanlon, Kerry Page, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract There are over 4,500 fatal intersection crashes each year in the United States. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging active safety systems designed to detect an imminent intersection crash and either provide a warning or perform an automated evasive maneuver. The performance of an I-ADAS will depend on the ability of the onboard sensors to detect an imminent collision early enough for an I-ADAS to respond in a timely manner. One promising method for determining the earliest detection opportunity is through the reconstruction of real-world intersection crashes. After determining the earliest detection opportunity, the required sensor range, orientation, and field of view can then be determined through the simulation of these crashes as if the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1456
Rini Sherony, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien, Li Fu, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important to understand these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, there is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs move, especially at the most critical moments for potential crashes. In this study, a total of 832 pedestrian walking or cyclist biking cases were randomly selected from one large-scale naturalistic driving database containing 480,000 video segments with a total size of 94TB, and then the 832 video clips were analyzed focusing on their limb motions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1453
I-Hsuan Lee, Bi-Cheng Luan
Abstract Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems is one of the functions of the Advanced Driver Assists System to avoid or mitigate vehicle frontal collisions. Most of the previous studies focus on two-car scenario where the host vehicle monitors the distances to the vehicles in front, and automatically applies emergency brake when a collision is imminent. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Advanced-AEB control system that mitigates collisions in a multi-car scenario by measuring the distances to the vehicles in front as well as those to the vehicles behind using the concept of impedance control. A simple gain-scheduling PI controller was designed for the host vehicle to track the reference inputs generated by the impedance control. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AEB is effective in mitigating the collisions in a 3-car following scenario.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for helping avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. Since approximately 70% pedestrian crashes occur in dark conditions, one of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. This paper describes a general method to collect light sources and illuminance information by processing large amount of potential collision locations at night from naturalistic driving video data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1452
Eiichiro Murata, Tasuku Usui, Kazunori Nogi, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract In order to help avoid or mitigate rear-end collisions a Pre-Collision System (PCS) was developed. The purpose of this study is to clarify the Time-to-Collision (TTC) distribution when approaching a lead vehicle under normal driving condition. To enhance the effectiveness of PCS, warnings and/or automatic brake activation should happen as early as possible, however, if too early there is a high possibility of false warnings or activations, which is not desirable. If the distribution of distance to a lead vehicle under normal driving conditions is quantified, an approach limit can be estimated. In this study, we try to clarify a TTC distribution that is approximated by a log-normal distribution. Then, we investigate the Enhanced Time-to-Collision (ETTC) that is the secondary predictive value of TTC. And, we clarify the log-normal distribution of ETTC is a more stable approximator of normal driving than a log-normal distribution of TTC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
Abstract In China there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. In this paper driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied and pedalcyclists include bicyclist, tricyclist, electric bicyclist and motorcyclist. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1450
Peter Vertal, Hermann Steffan
Abstract The objective of this work is to test the potential benefit of active pedestrian protection systems. The tests are based on real fatal accidents with passenger cars that were not equipped with active safety systems. Tests have been conducted in order to evaluate what the real benefit of the active safety system would be, and not to gain only a methodological prediction. The testing procedure was the first independent testing in the world which was based on real fatal pedestrian accidents. The aim of the tests is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Volvo pedestrian detection system. The in-depth accident database ZEDATU contains about 300 fatal pedestrian traffic accidents in urban areas. Eighteen cases of pedestrians hit by the front end of a passenger vehicle were extracted from this database. Cases covering an average traffic scenario have been reconstructed to obtain detailed model situations for testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1448
Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract The effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) or similar crash warning/mitigation systems is highly dependent on driver acceptance. If a FCW system delivers the warning too early, it may distract or annoy the driver and cause them to deactivate the system. In order to design a system activation threshold that more closely matches driver expectations, system designers must understand when drivers would normally apply the brake. One of the most widely used metrics to establish FCW threshold is Time to Collision (TTC). One limitation of TTC is that it assumes constant vehicle velocity. Enhanced Time to Collision (ETTC) is potentially a more accurate metric of perceived collision risk due to its consideration of vehicle acceleration. This paper compares and contrasts the distribution of ETTC and TTC at brake onset in normal car-following situations, and presents probability models of TTC and ETTC values at braking across a range of vehicle speeds.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract As part of active safety systems for reducing bicyclist fatalities and injuries, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS), also known as Bicyclist Autonomous Emergency Braking System, is being studied currently by several vehicles manufactures. This paper describes the development of a surrogate bicyclist which includes a surrogate bicycle and a surrogate bicycle rider to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicycle is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch adult bicycle, which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the real adult sized bicycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Abstract Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1439
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Robert Marini, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson, Matthew Rizzo
Abstract We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver’s line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (∼80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
Abstract The paper is focused on both the subjective and the objective ride comfort evaluation of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride comfort level was performed by considering five different drivers. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of a farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective driver feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1490
Hans W. Hauschild, Frank Pintar, Dale Halloway, Mark Meyer, Rodney Rudd
Abstract Oblique crashes to the vehicle front corner may not be characteristic of either frontal or side impacts. This research evaluated occupant response in oblique crashes for a driver, rear adult passenger, and a rear child passenger. Occupant responses and injury potential were evaluated for seating positions as either a far-or near-side occupant. Two crash tests were conducted with a subcompact car. The vehicle’s longitudinal axis was oriented 45 degrees to the direction of travel on a moving platform and pulled into a wall at 56 km/h. Dummies utilized for the seating positions were an adult dummy (50th-percentile-HIII and THOR-Alpha) for the front-left (driver) position, 5th-percentile-female-HIII for the right-rear position, and a 3-year-old HIII for the left-rear position.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1487
Zhenhai Gao, Chuzhao Li, Hongyu Hu, Chaoyang Chen, Hui Zhao, Helen Yu
Abstract At the collision moment, a driver’s lower extremity will be in different foot position, which leads to the different posture of the lower extremity with various muscle activations. These will affect the driver’s injury during collision, so it is necessary to investigate further. A simulated collision scene was constructed, and 20 participants (10 male and 10 female) were recruited for the test in a driving simulator. The braking posture and muscle activation of eight major muscles of driver’s lower extremity (both legs) were measured. The muscle activations in different postures were then analyzed. At the collision moment, the right leg was possible to be on the brake (male, 40%; female, 45%), in the air (male, 27.5%; female, 37.5%) or even on the accelerator (male, 25%; female, 12.5%). The left leg was on the floor all along.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1483
Ross Hunter, Ryan Fix, Felix Lee, David King
Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of using high-speed frontal barrier crash tests to predict the impact speed, i.e. equivalent barrier speed (EBS), of a lower-speed frontal barrier crash. Force-displacement (F-D) curves were produced by synchronizing the load cell barrier (LCB) data with the accelerometer data. Our analysis revealed that the F-D curves, including the rebound phase, for the same vehicle model at the same impact speed were generally similar. The test vehicle crush at the time of barrier separation, determined from the F-D curves, was on average 17±16% (N = 150) greater than the reported maximum hand-measured residual crush to the bumper cover. The EBS calculated from the F-D curves was on average 4±4% (N=158) greater than the reported EBS, indicating that using F-D curves derived from LCB data is a reliable method for calculating vehicle approach energy in a crash test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1478
William T. Neale, David Hessel, Daniel Koch
Abstract This paper presents a methodology for determining the position and speed of objects such as vehicles, pedestrians, or cyclists that are visible in video footage captured with only one camera. Objects are tracked in the video footage based on the change in pixels that represent the object moving. Commercially available programs such as PFTracktm and Adobe After Effectstm contain automated pixel tracking features that record the position of the pixel, over time, two dimensionally using the video’s resolution as a Cartesian coordinate system. The coordinate data of the pixel over time can then be transformed to three dimensional data by ray tracing the pixel coordinates onto three dimensional geometry of the same scene that is visible in the video footage background.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1479
Gray Beauchamp, David Pentecost, Daniel Koch, Nathan Rose
Abstract Tire mark striations are discussed often in the literature pertaining to accident reconstruction. The discussions in the literature contain many consistencies, but also contain disagreements. In this article, the literature is first summarized, and then the differences in the mechanism in which striations are deposited and interpretation of this evidence are explored. In previous work, it was demonstrated that the specific characteristics of tire mark striations offer a glimpse into the steering and driving actions of the driver. An equation was developed that relates longitudinal tire slip (braking) to the angle of tire mark striations [1]. The longitudinal slip equation was derived from the classic equation for tire slip and also geometrically. In this study, the equation for longitudinal slip is re-derived from equations that model tire forces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1480
Jakub Zebala, Wojciech Wach, Piotr Ciępka, Robert Janczur
Abstract This article presents the results of an analysis of the yaw marks left by a car with normal pressure in all tires and then normal pressure in three tires and zero in one rear tire. The analysis is a continuation of research on influence of reduced tire pressure on car lateral dynamics in a passing maneuver, discussed in the SAE paper No. 2014-01-0466. Preliminary analysis of yaw marks has shown, that a wheel with zero pressure deposits a yaw mark whose geometry differs from the yaw mark made by a wheel with normal pressure based on which we could calculate: critical speed, slip angle and longitudinal wheel slip. The aim of the presented research was to analyze the yaw marks left by car with zero pressure in one rear wheel in order to check the possibility of determining the vehicle critical speed, slip angle and longitudinal wheel slip. It was reached by performing bench and road tests during which the vehicle motion parameters were recorded using GPS Data Logging System.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1481
Gary A. Davis, Abhisek Mudgal
Abstract A continuing topic of interest is how to best use information from Event Data Recorders (EDR) to reconstruct crashes. If one has a model which can predict EDR data from values of the target variables of interest, such as vehicle speeds at impact, then in principle one can invert this model to estimate the target values from EDR measurements. In practice though this can require solving a system of nonlinear equations and a reasonably flexible method for carrying this out involves replacing the inverse problem with nonlinear least-squares (NLS) minimization. NLS has been successfully applied to two-vehicle planar impact crashes in order to estimate impact speeds from different combinations of EDR, crush, and exit angle measurements, but an open question is how to assess the uncertainty associated with these estimates. This paper describes how Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation can be used to quantify uncertainty in planar impact crashes.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1477
Pamela D'Addario, Ken Iliadis, Gunter Siegmund
Abstract The ability to accurately calculate a snowmobile’s speed based on measured track marks in the snow is important when assessing a snowmobile accident. The characteristics and length of visible snowmobile track marks were documented for 41 locked-track braking tests and 38 rolldown tests using four modern snowmobiles on a groomed/packed snow surface. The documented track mark lengths were used to quantify the uncertainty associated with using track mark length to estimate initial speed. Regression models were developed for both data sets. The regression model of the locked-track tests revealed that using an average deceleration of 0.36g over the length of the locked track mark provides a good estimate of the best-fit line through the data, with the upper and lower 95th percentile prediction interval bounds best represented by using deceleration rates of 0.23g and 0.52g respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1469
Craig Luker
High image quality video surveillance systems have proliferated making it more common to have collision-related video footage that is suitable for detailed analysis. This analysis begins by using variety of methods to reconstruct a series of positions for the vehicle. If the frame rate is known or can be estimated, then the average travel speed between each of those vehicle positions can be found. Unfortunately with video surveillance systems, the frame rates are typically low and the vehicle may be hidden from view for multiple frames. As a result there are often relatively large time steps between known vehicle positions and the average speed between known positions becomes less useful. The method outlined here determines the instantaneous speed and acceleration time history of the vehicle that was required for it to arrive at the known positions, at the known times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1470
Nathan A. Rose, Neal Carter, Gray Beauchamp
Abstract Calculating the speed of a yawing and braked vehicle often requires an estimate of the vehicle deceleration. During a steering induced yaw, the rotational velocity of the vehicle will typically be small enough that it will not make up a significant portion of the vehicle’s energy. However, when a yaw is impact induced and the resulting yaw velocity is high, the rotational component of the vehicle’s kinetic energy can be significant relative to the translational component. In such cases, the rotational velocity can have a meaningful effect on the deceleration, since there is additional energy that needs dissipated and since the vehicle tires can travel a substantially different distance than the vehicle center of gravity. In addition to the effects of rotational energy on the deceleration, high yaw velocities can also cause steering angles to develop at the front tires. This too can affect the deceleration since it will influence the slip angles at the front tires.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1471
Anthony Timpanaro, Charles Moody, Wesley Richardson, Bradley Reckamp, Orion Keifer
Abstract It is well known that older vehicles’ headlight assemblies degrade with exposure to the elements and can become cloudy or crazed. It is also known that the degradation decreases the amount of useful light projected forward, which can drastically reduce night time or down-road visibility. Testing has been performed to measure the available light projected by old degraded headlamp assemblies and new replacement assemblies, to quantify the decrease in emitted light caused by the degradation. The work has been extended to quantify the improvement in available light when the degraded lenses are treated with commercially available restoration products. Five different vehicle headlamp assemblies representing four different manufacturers were tested measuring the illumination at a given distance with a modified Extech® illuminance meter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1472
Dietmar Otte, Martin Urban, Heiko Johannsen
Abstract Estimating the potential benefit of advanced safety systems by simulation has become increasingly important during the last years. All over the world OEMs and suppliers carry out benefit estimations by simulations via computer models. Such simulations should, of course, be based on real world scenario such as the pre-crash phase of real world accidents. Several methodologies for building up accident scenarios have been developed in the past. This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash1. The new method was developed by the Medical University Hannover (MHH) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden (Fraunhofer IVI). It is based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file into a scenario-database.
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