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2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2123
Eric Defer, Jean-Louis Brenguier, Jos De Laat, Julien Delanoe, Fabien Dezitter, Michael Faivre, Amanda Gounou, Alice Grandin, Anthony Guignard, Jan Fokke Meirink, Jean-Marc Moisselin, Frederic Parol, Alain Protat, Claudine Vanbauce
Abstract The High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) Sub-Project 3 (SP3) focuses on the detection of cloud regions with high ice water content (IWC) from current available remote sensing observations of space-based geostationary and low-orbit missions. The SP3 activities are aimed at supporting operationally the two up-coming HAIC flight campaigns (the first one in May 2015 in Cayenne, French Guyana; the second one in January 2016 in Darwin, Australia) and ultimately provide near real-time cloud monitoring to Air Traffic Management. More in detail the SP3 activities focus on the detection of high IWC from space-borne geostationary Meteosat daytime imagery, explore the synergy of concurrent multi-spectral multiple-technique observations from the low-orbit A-Train mission to identify specific signatures in high IWC cloud regions, and finally develop a satellite-based nowcasting tool to track and monitor convective systems over the Tropical Atlantic.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2122
Cameron Butler, Eric Loth
Abstract In recent years, there has been a growing desire to incorporate computational methods into aircraft icing certification practices. To improve understanding of ice shapes, a new experimental program in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) will investigate swept hybrid models which are very large relative to the test section and are intended to operate at high lift coefficients. The present computations were conducted to help plan the experiments and to ascertain any effects of flow separation and unsteady forces. As they can be useful in robustly and accurately predicting large separation regions and capturing flow unsteadiness, a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach has been adopted for simulating the flow over these large high-lift wing sections. The DES methodology was first validated using experimental data from an unswept NACA 0012 airfoil with leading-edge ice accretion, showing reasonable performance.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2129
Andrea Munzing, Stephane Catris
Abstract Different Airbus Helicopters main rotor blade profiles were tested in different icing wind tunnels and for different icing conditions. One of the objectives of the accretion tests was to validate the use of 2D icing scaling laws established for fixed wing aircraft on helicopter blade profiles. Therefore, ice shapes resulting from tests with the same icing similarity parameters are compared to each other allowing the assessment of icing scaling laws for helicopter applications. This paper presents the icing scaling laws used at Airbus Helicopters on blade profiles, the different test set ups and test models and it presents the comparison of the ice shapes collected during the icing wind tunnel test campaigns.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2121
Yong Chen, Liang Fu
Abstract In helicopter, the icing rotor blades will decrease the effectiveness of the helicopter and endanger the lives of the pilots. The asymmetrical ice break-up and shedding could also lead to severe vibrations of the rotor blade. Ice break-up from the main rotor may strike the fuselage and tail rotor, even worse, find its way into the engine, which may cause serious aircraft accidents. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for ice shedding process is necessary in order to optimize the helicopter rotor blade design and de-icing system to avoid hazardous ice shedding. In this paper, the ice shedding model is improved by introducing a bilinear cohesive zone model (CZM) to simulate the initiation and propagation of ice/blade interface crack. A maximum stress criterion is used to describe the failure occurred in the ice.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2128
Enrico Bellussi
Abstract This paper describes the AgustaWestland (AW) experience in the use of the results obtained with the HISS flight tests to support the civil ice clearance for rotorcraft. The use of the HISS, a US Army CH-47D Chinook fitted with a spray bar system providing a cloud where the helicopter can fly in icing conditions, allows stable and prolonged flight data, conditions extremely difficult to encounter during natural ice flights. The paper analyses the definition of the HISS test matrix, to optimize the points needed for system development and the points possibly usable during certification, in both normal and failure mode conditions. It is also shown how the HISS ice campaigns results can be assessed, and how they can be compared to the natural ice flights to validate them. Finally it is explained how the HISS results can be used, in addition to natural ice flights results, to support the certification.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2127
Andrea Munzing, Franck Hervy, Stephane Catris
Abstract A helicopter blade profile was tested in the DGA Aero-engine Testing's icing altitude test facility S1 in Saclay, France during the winter of 2013/2014. The airfoil was a helicopter main rotor OA312 blade profile made out of composite material and with a metallic erosion shield. Dry air and ice accretion tests have been performed in order to assess the iced airfoil's aerodynamic behaviour. Several icing conditions were tested up through Mach numbers around 0.6. This paper presents the test setup, the test model and some of the test results. The test results presented in this paper include the ice shapes generated as well as dry air and iced airfoil lift and drag curves (polars) which were obtained with the real ice shapes on the airfoil.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2125
Dan Fuleki, Jennifer L.Y. Chalmers, Brian Galeote
This paper describes the equipment, analysis methods and results obtained for particle size measurements based on a particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) system in which a short duration laser pulse is used to backlight airborne particles. This produces high quality and high resolution images of fast moving airborne particles in a non-intrusive manner. This imaging technique is also used to examine particle morphology and 2D particle trajectory and velocity. The image analysis methods are outlined and validation test results discussed which show the measurement of reference glass beads between 20 and 400 microns were generally to within their stated size. As well, validation testing using known icing wind tunnel droplet distributions were compared with Spraytek 2000 Malvern droplet size measurements and showed agreement of the MVD's to be within ±5% for distributions having nominally 20, 40 and 80 micron MVD's.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2151
Reinhard F.A. Puffing, Wolfgang Hassler, Andreas Tramposch, Marian Peciar
Abstract When studying ice accretion processes experimentally it is desirable to document the generated ice shapes as accurately as possible. The obtained set of data can then be used for aerodynamic studies, the improvement of icing test facilities, the development of design criteria, the validation of ice accretion simulation tools as well as other applications. In the past, various ice shape documentation methods have been established including photography, cross-sectional tracing, molding and casting as well as 3D-scanning. This work introduces a new ice shape documentation technique based on active 3D-scanning in combination with fluorescent dyes and an optimized set of optical filters. The new approach allows recording the time-resolved three dimensional growth of an arbitrary ice shape. Based on this concept a so-called 4D-scanning system is developed, which allows a detailed evaluation of icing experiments and hence a better understanding of the ice accretion process itself.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2147
Sandra Turner, Jean-Marc Gaubert, Remy Gallois, Thibault Dacla, Ingrid Mullie, Aurelien Bourdon, Fabien Dezitter, Alice Grandin, Alain Protat, Rodney Potts, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, J. Walter Strapp
Abstract The PLANET System was used for real-time satellite data transmission during the HAIC-HIWC Darwin field campaign (January to March 2014). The basic system was initially providing aircraft tracking, chat, weather text messages (METAR, TAF, etc.), and aeronautical information (NOTAMs) in a standalone application. In the framework of the HAIC project, many improvements were made in order to fulfill requirements of the onboard and ground science teams for the field campaign. The aim of this paper is to present the main improvements of the system that were implemented for the Darwin field campaign. New features of the system are related to the hardware component, the communication protocol, weather and tracking display, geomarkers on the map, and image processing and compression before onboard transfer.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2154
Franck Hervy, Severine Maguis, François Virion, Biagio Esposito, Hugo Pervier
Abstract The A06 test facility designed for combustor testing in altitude has been modified to be converted in an icing facility for probe testing. The objective was to be able to simulate ice crystals conditions at high altitude, high Mach number and low temperature. This facility has been upgraded in several steps extending the median size of the ice crystals produced and the ice water content range. The aero-thermal and icing capabilities have been assessed during commissioning tests. Finally, in order to prepare the calibration of the facility, some measurement techniques for cloud characterization have been selected or developed, especially for cloud uniformity measurement.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2148
Erdem Ayan, Serkan Ozgen, Canibek Murat, Erhan Tarhan
Abstract Ice crystal ingestion to aircraft engines may cause ice to accrete on internal components, leading to flameout, mechanical damage, rollback, etc. Many in-flight incidents have occurred in the last decades due to engine failures especially at high altitude convective weather conditions [1]. Thus, in the framework of HAIC FP7 European project, the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystals and mixed-phase conditions are investigated. Within the HAIC FP7 European project, TAI will implement models related to the ice crystal accretion calculation to the existing ice accumulation prediction program for droplets, namely TAICE. Considered models include heat transfer & phase change model, drag model and impact model. Moreover, trajectory model and Extended Messinger Model require some modifications to be used for ice crystal accretion predictions.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2155
Tadas P. Bartkus, Peter Struk, Jen-Ching Tsao
Abstract This paper describes a numerical model that simulates the thermal interaction between ice particles, water droplets, and the flowing air applicable during icing wind tunnel tests where there is significant phase-change of the cloud. It has been previously observed that test conditions, most notably temperature and humidity, change when the icing cloud is activated. It is hypothesized that the ice particles and water droplets thermally interact with the flowing air causing the air temperature and humidity to change by the time it reaches the test section. Unlike previous models where the air and particles are uncoupled, this model attempts to explain the observed changes in test conditions by coupling the conservation of mass and energy equations. The model is compared to measurements taken during wind tunnel tests simulating ice-crystal and mixed-phase icing that relate to ice accretions within turbofan engines.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2152
Earle Williams, Michael F. Donovan, David J. Smalley, Robert G. Hallowell, Elaine P. Griffin, Kenta T. Hood, Betty J. Bennett, Mengistu Wolde, Alexei V. Korolev
Abstract MIT Lincoln Laboratory is tasked by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to investigate the use of the NEXRAD polarimetric radars* for the remote sensing of icing conditions hazardous to aircraft. A critical aspect of the investigation concerns validation that has relied upon commercial airline icing pilot reports and a dedicated campaign of in situ flights in winter storms. During the month of February in 2012 and 2013, the Convair-580 aircraft operated by the National Research Council of Canada was used for in situ validation of snowstorm characteristics under simultaneous observation by NEXRAD radars in Cleveland, Ohio and Buffalo, New York. The most anisotropic and easily distinguished winter targets to dual pol radar are ice crystals.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2153
David Serke, Michael King, Andrew Reehorst
In early 2015, a field campaign was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The purpose of the campaign is to test several prototype algorithms meant to detect the location and severity of in-flight icing (or icing aloft, as opposed to ground icing) within the terminal airspace. Terminal airspace for this project is currently defined as within 25 kilometers horizontal distance of the terminal, which in this instance is Hopkins International Airport in Cleveland. Two new and improved algorithms that utilize ground-based remote sensing instrumentation have been developed and were operated during the field campaign. The first is the ‘NASA Icing Remote Sensing System’, or NIRSS. The second algorithm is the ‘Radar Icing Algorithm’, or RadIA.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2140
Emiliano Iuliano
Abstract The presence of ice crystals in deep convective clouds has become a major threat for aviation safety. As recently highlighted, once inside the engine core, ice crystals encounter a high temperature environment, so that they can either melt by convection with the warm environment or melt upon impact onto hot static components of the low-pressure components. As a consequence, a liquid film may form which, in turn, is able to capture further ice crystals by sticking mechanism. This scenario results in a significant decrease of the local surface temperature and, hence, promotes the accretion of ice. Therefore, it is clear that icing simulation capabilities have to be updated in order to be able to predict such phenomena. The paper proposes an extension of CIRA icing tools to deal with ice crystals along with supercooled water droplets.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2141
Markus Widhalm
Abstract This paper focuses on the numerical simulation of the motion of regular shaped ice particles under the forces and torques generated by aerodynamic loading. Ice particles can occur during landing and take-off of aircraft at ground level up to the stratosphere at cruising altitude. It may be expected that the particle Reynolds number is high because the flow around the aircraft is in certain regions characterized by strong acceleration and deceleration of the flow. In combination with this flow pattern, the rotation of particles becomes important. Applicable translational and rotational equations of motion combined with a drag correlation taking into account rotation will be derived for a Lagrangian type particle tracking. Orientation is described with quaternions to prevent the singularities associated with the description by Euler angles. The influence of regular shaped particles on collection efficiencies is investigated.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2138
E. Iuliano, E. Montreuil, E. Norde, E.T.A. Van der Weide, H.W.M. Hoeijmakers
Abstract In this study a comparison is made between results from three Eulerian-based computational methods that predict the ice crystal trajectories and impingement on a NACA-0012 airfoil. The computational methods are being developed within CIRA (Imp2D/3D), ONERA (CEDRE/Spiree) and University of Twente (MooseMBIce). Eulerian models describing ice crystal transport are complex because physical phenomena, like drag force, heat transfer and phase change, depend on the particle's sphericity. Few correlations exist for the drag of non-spherical particles and heat transfer of these particles. The effect or non-spherical particles on the collection efficiency will be shown on a 2D airfoil.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2144
James MacLeod, Michael Clarke, Doug Marsh
The Global Aerospace Centre for Icing and Environmental Research Inc. (GLACIER) facility is located in Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. This facility provides icing certification tests for large gas turbine engines, as well as performance, endurance and other gas turbine engine qualification testing. This globally unique outdoor engine test and certification facility was officially opened back in 2010. The prime purpose of this facility is for icing certification of aero gas turbines. As a generic engine test facility, it includes the infrastructure and test systems necessary for the installation of both current and future gas turbine engines. The GLACIER facility completed its commissioning in the winter of 2010/2011, and has now experienced five years of full icing seasons. Rolls-Royce and Pratt and Whitney have both successfully performed certification and engineering icing testing with 5 engines completing their icing certification.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2139
E.J. Grift, E. Norde, E.T.A. Van der Weide, H.W.M. Hoeijmakers
Abstract In this study the characteristics of ice crystals on their trajectory in a single stage of a turbofan engine compressor are determined. The particle trajectories are calculated with a Lagrangian method employing a classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta time integration scheme. The air flow field is provided as input and is a steady flow field solution governed by the Euler equations. The single compressor stage is represented using a cascaded grid. The grid consists of three parts of which the first and the last part are stator parts and the centre part is a rotor. Each particle is modelled as a non-rotating rigid sphere. The remaining model does allow the exchange of heat and mass to and from the particle resulting in a mass, temperature and phase change of the particle. The phase change is based on a perfectly concentric ice core-water film model and it is assumed that the particle is at uniform temperature.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2142
Colin Hatch, Roger Gent, Richard Moser
Abstract Low power ice protection systems are an important research area that is highlighted in the EU Clean Sky programme. In this paper an icing wind tunnel test of a full-scale wing incorporating both an electro-thermal and a hybrid electro-thermal electro-mechanical system is described. A description of a software tool to analyse both systems as full 3D models is also given. Preliminary comparisons of test data and prediction are shown both for the electro-thermal system and the hybrid system. Initial comparisons show a reasonable correlation in the main with recommendations for a structure tear-down to identify exact internal transducer locations. Recommendations are also made with regard to undertaking tests to determine a more consistent set of mechanical failure properties of ice. Future work in the development of the tool is also discussed.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2143
Christian Mendig
Abstract In the project SuLaDI (Supercooled Large Droplet Icing) research about the icing of aerofoils through large and super cooled droplets is done at the Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems (German Aerospace Center-DLR) and at the Institute of Adaptronics and Function Integration (Technische Universität Braunschweig). In the framework of the project an icing wind tunnel was built. It consists of a cooling chamber and a wind tunnel of the Eiffel-type therein. The icing of model takes place in the test section of the wind tunnel at temperatures below 0 °C. Between the flow straightener and the contraction section a spray system is built in, which sprays water droplets into the wind tunnel. The droplets are accelerated by the airstream and supercool on their way to the model. When hitting the model they freeze on it to rime ice, clear ice or mixed ice. At the model research about a structure integrated ice detection is done.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2160
Alidad Amirfazli
Abstract The surfaces that shed drops helps with mitigation of icing. Shedding of drop depends on surface hydrophobicity, which becomes affected when exposed to water and/or UV. The hydrophobicity degradation of six (Spray SHS, Etched Al SHS, Hydrobead, Neverwet, Waterbeader, and WX2100) different super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHS), exposed to water or UV, were studied from the drop shedding perspective. Two methods were adopted for the hydrophobicity analysis. Among them, one is to study the contact angles (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) change at static state (i.e., no airflow) compared to the untreated surface. The other one is to analyze the change in critical air velocity (Uc) for a given drop exposed to airflow, on water/UV treated surfaces at room temperature (22 °C) and icing conditions (−1 and −7 °C).
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2161
Kazem Hasanzadeh, Dorian Pena, Yannick Hoarau, Eric Laurendeau
Abstract The paper presents the framework of fully automated two/three dimensional ice accretion simulation package, with emphasis on the remeshing step. The NSMB3D-ICE Navier-Stokes code, coupled to an Eulerian droplet module and iterative Messinger thermodynamic model, can perform multi time-steps ice accretion simulations via an automated multi-block elliptic/parabolic grid generation code (NSGRID3D). Attention is paid to the efficiency and robustness of the numerical calculations especially for complex 3D glaze ice simulation. The new automated multi time-step icing code NSMB3D-ICE/NSGRID3D is used to compute several icing studies on the GLC305 wing for rime and glaze ice cases.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2162
Krzysztof Szilder, Edward Lozowski
Abstract We have developed an original, three-dimensional icing modelling capability, called the “morphogenetic” approach, based on a discrete formulation and simulation of ice formation physics. Morphogenetic icing modelling improves on existing ice accretion models, in that it is capable of predicting simultaneous rime and glaze ice accretions and ice accretions with variable density and complex geometries. The objective of this paper is to show preliminary results of simulating complex three-dimensional features such as lobster tails and rime feathers forming on a swept wing. The results are encouraging. They show that the morphogenetic approach can predict realistically both the overall size and detailed structure of the ice accretion forming on a swept wing. Under cold ambient conditions, when drops freeze instantly upon impingement, the numerical ice structure has voids, which reduce its density.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2163
Caio Fuzaro Rafael, Diogo Mendes Pio, Guilherme A. Lima da Silva
Abstract The present paper presents a validation of momentum boundary-layer integral solution and finite-volume Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results for skin friction around airfoils NACA 8H12 and MMB-V2 as well as heat transfer around an isothermal cylinder with rough surface. The objective is to propose a two-equation integral model and compare its predictions to results from a robust CFD tool, to experimental data and to results from a one-equation integral solution. The latter is the mathematical model used by classic 2D icing codes. All proposed model predictions are compared to CFD results for verification and, whenever possible, to experimental data for validation. The code-to-code verification brings reliability to both the proposed code and the CFD tool when there is no test data available.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2157
Mengyao Leng, Shinan Chang, Yuanyuan Zhao
Abstract Aircraft icing causes a great threaten to flight safety. With the development of anti-icing or de-icing systems for aircraft, some attention has been paid on coating strategies for an efficient way to prevent water remaining on the surface. By application of hydrophobic or super-hydrophobic coatings, characterized by low surface adhesion, shedding of liquid from the surface can be enhanced. The motivation behind this work is to identify the way that wettability affects the motion of runback water, and establish an empirical formula of critical departure diameter. The surface property is characterized by the equilibrium contact angle and the hysteresis angle. The relationship between the air speed and the droplet shedding diameter is studied, corresponding to different surfaces.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2156
Michael Oliver
Abstract The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2158
Tatsuma Hyugaji, Shigeo Kimura, Haruka Endo, Mitsugu Hasegawa, Hirotaka Sakaue, Katsuaki Morita, Yoichi Yamagishi, Nadine Rehfeld, Benoit Berton, Francesc Diaz, Tarou Tanaka
Coating has been recently considered as having good potential for use in preventing in-cloud icing on the leading edge of the lifting surfaces of an aircraft in cold climates. In terms of wettability, a coat may exhibit hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity depending on its specific properties. The same applies to the ice adhesion strength, which may be either high or low. It is thus necessary to determine which type of anti-icing or de-icing coat would be appropriate for a particular application in order to fully utilize its specific properties. Notwithstanding, a coat is incapable of preventing ice accretion by itself, and a perfect icephobic coat is yet to be developed. Coating is also sometimes applied to the surfaces of electrical heaters and load-applying machines to enable them to function more effectively and use less energy. The coating used for an electric heater, for instance, should be hydrophobic because of the need for rapid removal of molten water from the surface.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2149
Caroline Laforte, Caroline Blackburn, Jean Perron
Abstract This paper depicts icephobic coating performances of 274 different coatings, including 11 grease-type coatings, which were tested over the past 10 years in various research projects at the Anti-Icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL). Icephobic performance is evaluated using two comparative test methods. The first method, the ice Centrifuge Adhesion Test (CAT), measures the force required to separate the accreted ice from the coating (e.g. adhesive failure). The test involves simultaneously icing, under supercooled precipitation, the extremity of bare reference and freshly coated aluminum samples. The ice adhesion shear stress is calculated from the ice detachment rotation speed. The results are reported as Adhesion Reduction Factor (ARF), which is the ice adhesion stress on the bare aluminum reference samples divided by the ice adhesion stress on the coated samples.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2146
Matthew Feulner, Shengfang Liao, Becky Rose, Xuejun Liu
Abstract A through-flow based Monte Carlo particle trajectory simulation is used to calculate the ice crystal paths in the low pressure compressor of a high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The simulation includes a statistical ice particle breakup model due to impact on the engine surfaces. Stage-by-stage ice water content, particle size and particle velocity distributions are generated at multiple flight conditions and engine power conditions. The majority of the ice particle breakup occurs in the fan and first LPC stage. The local ice water content (IWC) within LPC is much higher than the ambient conditions due to scoop effects, centrifuging and flow-path curvature. Also the ice particles approach the stators at lower incidence angles than the air flow. The simulation results prompt the need to revisit the approach for properly setting up boundary conditions for component or cascade testing.
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