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Viewing 61 to 90 of 16649
2016-04-11
Article
Automakers are increasingly employing digital crash test dummies made of zeroes and ones to take the big hits in virtual vehicles.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-07
Article
Annual New York Auto Show Traffic Safety Symposium points to high fatality and injury rate among teens, while University of Bridgeport design school students propose technology solutions and Ford discusses impaired driving simulator "suits.
2016-04-07
WIP Standard
ARP6199A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides an approach for determining which parts on aircraft seats are non-traditional, large, non-metallic panels that need to meet the test requirements of 14CFR Part 25 Appendix F, Parts IV & V.
2016-04-06
WIP Standard
AS85352A
This specification covers a direct reading, remote control, pneumatic pressure inflator assembly, for use on aircraft tires and struts having pneumatic pressure requirements up to 600 psi. It includes pressure relief provisions for safe inflation. Also included are dual chuck stem gages for measuring tire pressure.
2016-04-06
WIP Standard
J1163
This SAE standard specifies a method and the device for use in determining the position of the Seat Index Point (SIP) for any kind of seat. This SAE document provides a uniform method for defining the location of the SIP in relation to some fixing point on the seat.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AS6302A
This specification covers one type of fuel pressure transmitter designated MS28005-7.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
J1301
The scope and purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a classification system for deformation sustained by trucks involved in collisions on the highway. Application of the document is limited to medium trucks, heavy trucks, and articulated combinations. The TDC classifies collision contact deformation, as opposed to induced deformation, so that the deformation is segregated into rather narrow limits or categories. Studies of collision deformation can then be performed on one or many data banks with assurance that data under study are of essentially the same type. Many of the features of the SAE J224 MAR80 have been retained in this document, although the characters within specific columns vary. Each document must therefore be applied to the appropriate vehicle type. It is also important to note that the Truck Deformation Classification (TDC) does not identify specific vehicle configurations and body types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1521
Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Takeki Tanoue, Ryosuke Chikazawa
Abstract This paper describes impact kinematics and injury values of Hybrid III AM50, THOR AM50 and THUMS AM50 in simulated oblique frontal impact conditions. A comparison was made among them in driver and passenger seat positions of a midsize sedan car finite element (FE) model. The simulation results indicated that the impact kinematics of THOR was close to that of THUMS compared to that of the Hybrid III. Both THOR and THUMS showed z-axis rotation of the rib cage, while Hybrid III did not. It was considered that the rib cage rotation was due primarily to the oblique impact but was allowed by flexibility of the lumbar spine in THOR and THUMS. Lateral head displacement observed in both THOR and THUMS was mostly induced by that rotation in both driver seat and passenger seat positions. The BrIC, thorax and abdominal injury values were close to each other between THOR and THUMS, while HIC15 and Acetabulum force values were different.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, dynamic test methods remove some of the characteristics of actual crashes in order to control testing variables. These simplifications to the test make it difficult to compare laboratory tests to crashes. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTS vehicle tests were performed and compared to a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1520
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract The present work is concerned with the objective of design optimization of an automotive front end structure meeting both occupant and pedestrian safety requirements. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the mass of the front end structure meeting the safety requirements without sacrificing the performance targets. The front end structure should be sufficiently stiff to protect the occupant by absorbing the impact energy generated during a high speed frontal collision and at the same time it should not induce unduly high impact loads during a low speed pedestrian collision. These two requirements are potentially in conflict with each other; however, there may exist an optimum design solution, in terms of mass of front end structure, that meets both the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1525
Anil Kalra, Kartik Somasundram, Ming Shen, Vishal Gupta, Clifford C. Chou, Feng Zhu
Abstract Numerical models of Hybrid III had been widely used to study the effect of underbody blast loading on lower extremities. These models had been primarily validated for automotive loading conditions of shorter magnitude in longer time span which are different than typical blast loading conditions of higher magnitude of shorter duration. Therefore, additional strain rate dependent material models were used to validate lower extremity of LSTC Hybrid III model for such loading conditions. Current study focuses on analyzing the mitigating effect of combat boots in injury responses with the help of validated LSTC Hybrid III model. Numerical simulations were run for various impactor speeds using validated LSTC Hybrid III model without any boot (bare foot) and with combat boot.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1523
Libo Cao, Changhai Yao, Hequan Wu
Abstract The traditional deterministic optimal design is mostly based on meeting regulatory requirements specified in impact standards, without taking the randomness of the impact velocity and angle at the real world situation into consideration. This often leads to the optimization results that converge to the boundary constraints, thus cannot meet the reliability requirements of the product design. Structure members of B-pillar (e.g. inner panel, outer panel, and the reinforcing plate) play a major role in the side impact safety performance. This paper dealt with optimization of B-pillar by considering its dimensions and materials as the design variables, and the impact velocity and angle from real-world traffic accident conditions as the random variable inputs. Using a combination of design of experiment, response surface models, reliability theory and the reliability of design optimization method, a B-pillar was constructed based on the product quality engineering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1524
Feng Zhu, Binhui Jiang, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract This paper represents the development of a new design methodology based on data mining theory for decision making in vehicle crashworthy components (or parts) development. The new methodology allows exploring the big crash simulation dataset to discover the underlying complicated relationships between vehicle crash responses and design variables at multi-levels, and deriving design rules based on the whole vehicle safety requirements to make decisions towards the component and sub-component level design. The method to be developed will resolve the issue of existing design approaches for vehicle crashworthiness, i.e. limited information exploring capability from big datasets, which may hamper the decision making and lead to a nonoptimal design. A preliminary design case study is presented to demonstrate the performance of the new method. This method will have direct impacts on improving vehicle safety design and can readily be applied to other complex systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1529
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Malhar Kumar
Abstract Periprosthetic fractures refer to the fractures that occur in the vicinity of the implants of joint replacement arthroplasty. Most of the fractures during an automotive frontal collision involve the long bones of the lower limbs (femur and tibia). Since the prevalence of persons living with lower limb joint prostheses is increasing, periprosthetic fractures that occur during vehicular accidents are likely to become a considerable burden on health care systems. It is estimated that approximately 4.0 million adults in the U.S. currently live with Total Knee Replacement (TKR) implants. Therefore, it is essential to study the injury patterns that occur in the long bone of a lower limb containing a total knee prosthesis. The aim of the present study is to develop an advanced finite element model that simulates the possible fracture patterns that are likely during vehicular accidents involving occupants who have knee joint prostheses in situ.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1530
Yury Chudnovsky, Justin Stocks-Smith, Jeya Padmanaban, Joe Marsh
Abstract NASS/CDS data (1993-2013) was used to examine serious injury rates and injury sources for belted drivers in near- and far-side impacts. Frequency and severity of near- and far-side impacts by crash severity (delta-V) were compared for older (1994-2007 MY) and newer (2008-2013 MY) vehicles. For 2008-2013 MY, individual cases were examined for serious thorax injury in far-side impacts. Results show that, for newer passenger cars, about 92% of side impacts have a delta-V under 15 mph and, for older cars, the percentage is about 86%. The rate of serious injury is higher for nearside compared to far-side crashes for both older and newer models, and the near-side injury rate is much lower for newer models. Safety features, including side airbags, are effective in reducing injuries to near-side belted drivers in newer models. The serious injury rate for near-side belted drivers in older cars is 5.5% for near-side crashes and 1.2% for far-side crashes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1528
Peijun Ji, Qing Zhou
Abstract As the restraint technologies for front-seat occupant protection advance, such as seatbelt pre-tensioner, seatbelt load limiter and airbag, relative effectiveness of rear-seat occupant protection decreases, especially for the elderly. Some occupant protection systems for front-seat have been proved to be effective for rear-seat occupant protection as well, but they also have some drawbacks. Seatbelt could generate unwanted local penetrations to the chest and abdomen. And for rear-seat occupants, it might be difficult to install airbag and set deployment time. For crash protection, it is desirable that the restraint loads are spread to the sturdy parts of human body such as head, shoulders, rib cage, pelvis and femurs, as uniformly as possible. This paper explores a uniform restraint concept aiming at providing protection in wide range of impact severity for rear-seat occupants.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Abstract Based on equivalent static loads method (ESL), a nonlinear dynamic topology optimization is carried out to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative legislative crash loads, including frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and rear impact. To meet the crashworthiness performances, two evaluation indexes are defined to convert the practical engineering problems into mathematic optimization problems. The strain energy is treated as the stiffness evaluation index of the BIW and the relative displacement is employed as the compliance index of the components and parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1536
Chung-Kyu Park, Cing-Dao Kan
Abstract In this study, the available metrics to evaluate the crash pulse severity are reviewed and their assessability is investigated by using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) test data. Linear regression analysis and sled test simulations are conducted. In addition, a new approach is proposed to measure the crash pulse severity and restraint system performance separately and objectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1532
Kyoungtaek Kwak, Seungwoo Seo, Randi Potekin, Antoine Blanchard, Alexander Vakakis, Donald McFarland, Lawrence Bergman
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop a dynamic model that can accurately predict the motion of the door handle and counterweight during side impact crash tests. The door locking system, mainly composed of the door outside handle and door latch, is theoretically modeled, and it is assumed that the door outer panel can rotate and translate in all three directions during a side impact crash. Additionally, the numerical results are compared with real crash video footage, and satisfactory qualitative agreement is found. Finally, the simplified test rig that efficiently reflects the real crash test is introduced, and its operation is analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1534
Rudolf Reichert, Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Daniel Brown
Abstract A detailed finite element model of a 2012 Toyota Camry was developed by reverse engineering. The model consists of 2.25M elements representing the geometry, thicknesses, material characteristics, and connections of relevant structural, suspension, and interior components of the mid-size sedan. This paper describes the level of detail of the simulation model, the validation process, and how it performs in various crash configurations, when compared to full scale test results. Under contract with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Center for Collision Safety and Analysis (CCSA) team at the George Mason University has developed a fleet of vehicle models which has been made publicly available. The updated model presented is the latest finite element vehicle model with a high level of detail using state of the art modeling techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1503
Shotaro Odate, Yukinori Midorikawa, Yuki Yamazaki
Abstract Motorized seatbelt systems that retract seatbelts using motors are being mass-produced by many manufacturers. Scenarios for operation of these systems cover a wide range, including automatic braking for collision avoidance, brake assist and other such pre-crash situations, when the seatbelt is buckled, unbuckled and stored, during sport driving, or under normal conditions. These systems increase the retracting load of the motor using gears, and they can apply a high load in retracting the seatbelt. Previous systems, however, were designed primarily for pre-crash conditions. In previous systems, motor speed rose to higher levels in the normal operating state. The tendency to generate more noise and the application of higher loads on seatbelt retraction therefore became issues. For the present study, these issues were addressed using simulation to optimize the gear ratio.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1499
Willy Klier, Thomas Lich, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Heiko Freienstein, Armin Koehler, Bastian Reckziegel, Zerong Yu
Abstract On the way to automated driving, the installation rate of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior to, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1498
Hironori Wakana, Masuyoshi Yamada, Minoru Sakairi
Abstract The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and must be reduced. This paper reports on a prototype system mounted on a car mock-up and a prototype portable system that enables the checking of the drivers’ sobriety using a breath-alcohol sensor. The sensor unit consists of a water-vapor-sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of the systems’ features is that they can detect water vapor from human-exhaled breath to prevent false detection with fake gases. Each gas concentration was calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the water vapor in exhaled breath, we applied an AC voltage between the two electrodes of the breath-water-vapor sensor and used our alcohol-detection algorithm. The ethanol level was automatically calculated from the three gas sensors as soon as the water vapor was detected.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1505
William W. Van Arsdell, Paul Weber, Charles Stankewich, Brian Larson, Ryan Hoover, Richard Watson
Abstract This paper investigates the role that load-limiters play with respect to the performance of occupant protection systems, with focus on performance in frontal crashes. Modern occupant protection systems consist of not just the seat belt, but also airbags, interior vehicle surfaces and vehicle structure. Modern seat belts very often incorporate load-limiters as well as pretensioners. Published research has established that load-limiters and pretensioners increase the effectiveness of occupant protection systems. Some have argued that load-limiters with higher deployment thresholds are always better than load-limiters with lower deployment thresholds. Through testing, modeling and analysis, we have investigated this hypothesis, and in this paper we present test and modeling data as well as a discussion to this data and engineering mechanics to explain why this hypothesis is incorrect.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1504
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Abstract Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1511
Jan Vychytil, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
Abstract In this work we present the VIRTHUMAN model as a tool for injury risk assessment in pedestrian crash scenarios. It is a virtual human body model formed of a multibody structure and deformable segments to account for the mechanical response of soft tissues. Extensive validation has been performed to ensure its biofidelity. Due to the scaling algorithm implemented, variations in the human population in terms of height, weight, gender and age can be considered. Assessment of the injury risk is done via automatic evaluation software developed. Injury criteria for individual body parts are evaluated using accelerations, forces and displacements of certain points. Injury risk is indicated by the colour of particular body parts in accordance with NCAP rating. A real accident is investigated in this work. A 60-year-old female was hit laterally by a passenger vehicle with the impact velocity of 40 km/h. The accident is reconstructed using VIRTHUMAN as pedestrian representative.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu Vallabhaneni, Munenori Shinada, Kazuto Sato
Abstract Many active safety systems are being developed with the intent of protecting pedestrians namely; pedestrian airbags, active hood, active emergency braking (AEB), etc. Effectiveness of such protection system relies on the efficiency of the sensing systems. The pop-uphood system was developed to help reduce pedestrian head injuries. A pop-up system is expected to make full deployment of the hood before the pedestrian’s head could hit the hood. The system should have the capability to detect most road users ranging from a six year old (6YO) child to a large male. To test the sensing system, an impactor model (PDI-2) was developed. Sensor response varies for vehicles with different front end profile dimensions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1508
Gernot Pauer, Michal Kriska, Andreas Hirzer
Abstract Active bonnet safety systems are implemented into vehicles, to fulfill pedestrian head impact requirements despite little available deformation space. For such systems it is necessary to consider a variety of aspects already from the very beginning of the vehicle design process and the functionality of the whole system needs to be continually cross-checked throughout the whole design process. Many of these aspects are already supported by finite element (FE) methods from vehicle manufacturers and in this paper it is shown, how the last missing links within the development process, the optimization of pedestrian detection sensor signals can also be efficiently supported by FE simulation. The modeling and validation of a pressure tube based sensor system and so called “misuse objects” are demonstrated.
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