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Viewing 61 to 90 of 16507
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1528
Peijun Ji, Qing Zhou
For crash protection, it is desirable that the restraint loads are spread to the sturdy parts of human body such as head, shoulders, rib cage, pelvis and femurs, as uniformly as possible. However, seatbelts and airbags may have some deficiency in this regard even though they have been proved to be effective restraint devices for occupant impact protection. Seatbelt could generate unwanted local penetrations to the chest and abdomen and airbag could pose disproportional risks to small stature and out-of-position occupants. The problem is more prominent in severe crash. Some study has also shown that restraint in the vehicles on the market today could not efficiently protect occupants in high-speed crash, however they are optimized. This paper explores a uniform restraint concept aiming at providing protection at higher impact velocity. In this study, we use THUMS 50th percentile occupant model to simulate sled test frontal impact loading.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1455
John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz, Susan Chrysler, Pujitha Gunaratne
In 2010 more than 32,500 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile accidents, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane change crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane change crashes accounted for approximately 9%. In order to develop effective crash avoidance systems, we investigate incorporating driver response models to actuate the systems in a timely manner. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior as well as warning systems that are tuned to issue useful alerts that are not perceived as false, or nuisance, alerts by the driver. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of such driver behavior modeling. Several scenario events were designed to fill in gaps left by previous crash research.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1517
Cole R. Young PE, David J. King, James V. Bertoch
The purpose of this study was to characterize the kinematics of four Chevrolet Tracker rollover tests and to determine their average and intermediate deceleration rates while traveling on concrete and dirt. Single vehicle rollover tests were performed using four 2001 Chevrolet Trackers fitted with six degree of freedom kinematic sensors. Tests were conducted using a rollover test device (RTD) in accordance with SAE J2114. The test dolly was modified (resting height of the vehicle wheels was raised) between tests 1, 2, and 3. The RTD was accelerated to 15.6 m/s (35 mph) and then decelerated rapidly by an energy absorbing crash cushion (EA) to cause the vehicle to launch and roll. The vehicles initially rolled on a smooth concrete surface and continued into loose dirt. This paper adds to the body of work identifying phases of constant deceleration during staged RTD tests and compares these phases to the overall deceleration rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0040
Ming Meng, Wilson Khoo
The Security Development Lifecycle (SDL) is a software development process that helps developers build more secure software and address security compliance requirements while reducing development cost. The SDL process has been developed to appropriately outline the development process specifically for the consumer electronics oriented mindset. Unfortunately this approach does not always correlate to an appropriate approach from the automotive OEM mindset. This paper will analyze the current SDL process in detail and provide suggestions with improvements to the overall SDL process creating an Automotive Security Development Lifecycle (ASDL).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1467
Improvements in computer image processing and identification capability have led to programs that can rapidly perform calculations and model the three-dimensional spatial characteristics of objects simply from photographs or video frames. This process, known as structure-from-motion or image based scanning, is a photogrammetric technique that analyzes features of photographs or video frames from multiple angles to create dense surface models or point clouds. Concurrently, unmanned aircraft systems have gained widespread popularity due to their reliability, low-cost, and relative ease of use. These aircraft systems allow for the capture of video or still photographic footage of subjects from unique perspectives. This paper explores the efficacy of using a point cloud created from unmanned aerial vehicle video footage with traditional single-image photogrammetry methods to recreate physical evidence at a crash scene.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1529
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Malhar Kumar
Periprosthetic fractures refer to the fractures that occur in the vicinity of the implants of joint replacement arthroplasty. Most of the fractures during an automotive frontal collision involve the long bones of the lower limbs (femur and tibia). Since the prevalence of persons living with lower limb joint prostheses is increasing, periprosthetic fractures that occur during vehicular accidents are likely to become a considerable burden on health care systems. It is estimated that approximately 4.0 million adults in the U.S. currently live with a Total Knee Replacement (TKR). Therefore, it is essential to provide countermeasures in the automotive design that minimize the severity of the periprosthetic fractures. The aim of the present study is to develop an advanced finite element model that simulates the possible fracture patterns that are likely during vehicular accidents involving occupants who have joint prostheses in situ.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1536
Chung-Kyu Park, Cing-Dao Kan
The vehicle crash pulse severity is a measure of how severely the vehicle crash pulse has an effect on the occupant injury. The objective of this research is to evaluate the assessability of vehicle crash pulse severity in frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) tests. In this study, the existing metrics derived from vehicle crash pulse in the frontal impact are reviewed and categorized into 4 groups in the way of how occupant responses are considered. Then the severity of vehicle crash pulses of the frontal NCAP tests was evaluated by existing metrics. A total of 60 frontal NCAP test data collected from the MY 2012 vehicle test program are analyzed. The linear regression analyses and sled test simulations are conducted to identify their correlation to other metrics and dummy injuries. The results show that some of existing metrics are able to assess crash pulse severity in frontal NCAP tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1448
Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
The effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) or similar crash warning/mitigation systems is highly dependent on driver acceptance. If a FCW system delivers the warning too early, it may distract the driver or annoy the driver and cause him/her to deactivate the system. In order to design a system activation threshold that matches driver expectations, system designers must understand when drivers would normally apply the brake. One of the most widely used metrics to establish FCW threshold is Time to Collision (TTC). TTC measures the time remaining before two vehicle would collide if they continued at their current speeds. One limitation of TTC is that it assumes constant vehicle velocity. Enhanced Time to Collision (ETTC) is potentially a more accurate metric of perceived collision risk due to its consideration of vehicle acceleration. This paper will compare and contrast the population distribution of ETTC and TTC at brake onset in normal car-following situations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0163
Thomas Rothermel, Jürgen Pitz, Hans-Christian Reuss
In the field of electric mobility, one of the key issues is to improve the safety for pedestrians in urban areas with help of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Due to cruising range restrictions, nowadays electric vehicles are mainly operated in urban areas where risk potential for pedestrian collision is increased. Furthermore low noise emissions, in comparison to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, lead to a reduced acoustic perception through pedestrians. The paper proposes a framework for semi-autonomous longitudinal guidance for electric vehicles. To lower the risk for pedestrian collisions in urban areas, a velocity reference trajectory which is given by the driver is optimized with respect to safety aspects by means of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC). The velocity reference trajectory is determined from accelerator pedal input.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0396
Prasad S. Mehta, Jennifer Solis Ocampo, Andres Tovar, Prathamesh Chaudhari
Biologically inspired designs have become evident and proved to be innovative and efficacious throughout the history. This paper introduces a bio-inspired design of a vehicle structure that is lightweight and provides outstanding crashworthiness indicators, e.g., high specific energy absorption and reduced peak crushing force. In the proposed approach, the protective function of the vehicle structure is matched to the protective capabilities of natural structures such as the fruit peel (e.g., pomelo), abdominal armors (e.g., mantis shrimp), bones (e.g., ribcage and woodpecker skull), as well as other natural protective structures with analogous protective functions include skin and cartilage as well as hooves, antlers, and horns, which are tough, resilient, lightweight, and functionally adapted to withstand repetitive high-energy impact loads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1538
Vaibhav V. Gokhale, Carl Marko, Tanjimul Alam, Prathamesh Chaudhari, Andres Tovar
This work introduces a new Advanced Layered Composite (ALC) design that redirects impact load through the action of a lattice of 3D printed micro-compliant mechanisms. The proposed ALC is composed of three layered phases: (1) outer hard shell, (2) compliant buffer zone, and (3) inner soft core. The outer shell is a layered composite of woven fiber imbibed into high-impact polymer matrix. The compliant buffer zone is made of 3D printed thermoplastic material. The inner core is made of impact arresting material (crushable foam). The compliant buffer zone, comprised by the lattice of micro-compliant mechanism, is designed using topology optimization to dynamically respond by distributing localized impact in the normal direction into a distributed load in the radial direction (perpendicular to the normal direction). The compliant buffer zone depicts large radial deformation in the middle but not on the surface, which only move in the normal direction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1495
Motomi Iyoda, Tom Trisdale, Rini Sherony, Daniel Mikat, William Rose
EDR (Event Data Recorder) is a function of recording vehicle status at the timing of accident. Toyota introduced EDR from August 2000 one after the other. Now about 70% of Toyota vehicles in North America have EDR. This is more than about 50% EDR coverage of all vehicles in North America. There is EDR regulation in USA, so we record EDR data based on the regulation. We think this is the minimum requirement and we record additional necessary data required from accident reconstruction. They are, (1) additional pre-crash data, (2) additional side crash recording system, (3) roll over recording system, (4) pedestrian protection PUH (Pop Up Hood) recording system, (5) non-crash triggered recording system VCH (Vehicle Control History), etc. Commercially available tool is necessary for EDR data retrieval, based on the regulation in USA. So we adopted BOSCH CDR (Crash Data Retrieval). All Toyota EDR can be retrieved using CDR for all over the world including North America.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1487
Zhenhai Gao, Chuzhao Li, Hongyu Hu, Chaoyang Chen, Hui Zhao, Helen YU
At the collision moment, a driver’s lower extremity will be in different braking stage, which leads to different posture of lower extremity with various muscle activations. These will affect the driver’s injury during collision but it was not fully investigated. In this study, a simulated collision scene was constructed and the posture and muscle activation of lower extremity at the collision moment were studied. 20 participants (10 male and 10 female) were recruited for the simulated collision test and muscle activation of 8 major muscles in both right and left legs were measured. Muscle activation of lower extremity in different postures was analyzed. It was found that the driver’s right leg was possible to be on the brake, in the air or even on the accelerator at the collision moment. The left leg was on the floor all along. Significant differences of right leg’s muscle activation were found between different postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1525
Anil Kalra, Kartik Somasundram, Ming Shen, Vishal Gupta, Clifford C. Chou, Feng Zhu
Numerical models of Hybrid III had been widely used to study the effect of underbody blast loading on lower extremities. These models had been primarily validated for automotive loading conditions of shorter magnitude in longer time span which are different than typical blast loading conditions of higher magnitude in shorter time duration. Therefore, additional strain rate dependent material models were used to validate lower extremity of LSTC Hybrid III model for such loading conditions. Current study focuses on analyzing the mitigating effect of combat boots in injury responses with the help of validated LSTC Hybrid III model. Numerical simulations were run for various impactor speeds using validated LSTC Hybrid III model without any boot (bare foot) and with combat boot. The results from the current study show that the stiffness of boot material plays a major role in generating accurate biomechanical response in such loading conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1475
Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, Alireza Hashemian
Video and photo based photogrammetry software has been utilized in the accident reconstruction community for decades. It has continued to develop in its ease of use, cost, and effectiveness in determining three dimensional data points from two dimensional photographs. Contemporary photogrammetry software packages offer an automated solution capable of generating dense point clouds with millions of 3D data points from multiple images. While alternative modern documentation methods exist, including LiDAR technologies such as 3D scanning, which provide the ability to collect millions of highly accurate points in just a few minutes, the appeal of automated photogrammetry software as a tool for collecting dimensional data is the minimal equipment and ease of use. This research, evaluates the accuracy and capabilities of four automated photogrammetry based software programs to accurately obtain 3D point clouds, by comparing the results to the more established method of 3D scanning.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1493
Jeremy Daily, James Johnson, Amila Perera
It has been shown that recovery of snapshot data recorded by Caterpillar engine control modules (ECMs) using CatET software requires a complete record that contains information gathered both before and after the event. However, if an event is set and a crash ensues, or a crash creates an event, then it is possible for the ECM to loose power and not complete the recording. As such, the data could not be download with the CatET maintenance software. An examination of the J1708 network traffic reveals the snapshot data does exist and is recoverable. A motivational case study of a crash test between a Caterpillar powered school bus and a parked transit bus is presented to establish the hypothesis. Subsequently, a digital forensic recovery algorithm is detailed as it is implemented in the Synercon Technologies Forensic Link Adapter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0119
Preeti J. Pillai, Veeraganesh Yalla, Kentaro Oguchi
This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. The EoD score is a novel driving metric related to the driving difficulty of road scenes, ranging from ‘A’ (Very Easy) to ‘E’ (Very Difficult). In this paper, we introduce a method to compute the EoD during night-time driving conditions. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affects the road visibility and the driving easiness. Strong illumination variations are introduced at night from light sources such as traffic lights, building lights, overly-lit streetlights and unlit alleys; posing a challenge for the onboard vision system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1226
Takefumi Kaji, Yuki Amano, Hiromitsu Asai
 Recently, motorization strongly progress in the automotive field because of severe emission regulations all over the world. Traction motors, like Motor Generator (MG) and Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) impressed high voltage, can dramatically reduce emissions and are essential products for meeting the emission regulations. Operation under high voltage creates partial discharge (PD) between the winding wires in these motors. PD such as micro-lightning would erode the surface of insulation film of coils, and finally electrical breakdown occurs. Therefore it is important to clarify the PD phenomenon or to comprehend partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) for developing high reliable motors. Generally, PDIVs are estimated by two kinds of voltage: breakdown voltage for air ionization called Paschen curve, and voltage shared to air. This analysis method is able to cover the variation of only atmospheric pressure and permittivity of insulation films of coil.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0221
Roberto Monforte, Fabrizio Mattiello, Andrea Perosino, Fabrizio Porta, Susanna Paz, Pablo Lopez del Rincón
The adoption of a low-GWP refrigerant gas in MAC systems is mandatory from 2017 according to the European Directive 2006/40/EC requirements for new vehicles registration. The paper will present the activities held by CRF to support the FCA evaluation of the risk involved by the adoption of the low-GWP refrigerant gas R-1234yf in the MAC systems equipping both new types and current programs, which MACs have to be converted in order to exploit the low-GWP refrigerant gas R-1234yf in order to comply with the 2006/40/EC Directive requirements and gain vehicle registrations from January 1st, 2017. In certain concentrations, R-1234yf could present a safety hazard to the vehicle occupants or to a technician required to service the vehicle. Hazard: event which has the potential to cause harm to an individual. Risk: numerical estimate of the probability or likelihood that a given hazard will occur. Risks are estimated via the process of risk assessment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1521
Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Takeki Tanoue, Ryosuke Chikazawa
This paper describes bio-fidelity of ATDs including Hybrid Ⅲ and THOR in oblique frontal impact test. Kinematics and injury values of FE models of the ATDs were compared with those of human FE model (THUMS). Sled simulations of mid-size sedan with FE models of the ATDs and THUMS were performed. Kinematic of THOR was close to that of THUMS, while that of Hybrid Ⅲ was different from that of THUMS. THOR and THUMS indicated rotation rib cage around z axis due to twisting of lumber spine, white Hybrid Ⅲindicated insignificant rotation of rib cage. Lateral movement of head of THOR and THUMS were mostly caused by twisting of lumber spine around z axis, head of THOR and THUMS contacted door trim or instrument panel, and caused high HIC number. Lateral movement of head of Hybrid Ⅲ was less than those of THOR and THUMS and did not contact the door trip and did not cause high HIC numbers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1653
Vehicle Longitudinal Control (VLC) algorithm is the basis function of automotive Cruise Control System. The main task of VLC is to achieve an acceleration tracking controller, whose performance requirements include fast response and high tracking accuracy. At present, to implement vehicle longitudinal control, at least three control methods, such as the classical PID controller, the method based on numerical look-up table and the controller based on vehicle longitudinal dynamics model, are used to implement vehicle longitudinal acceleration tracking control. However, the above methods are needed to be improved. The PID controller and the numerical look-up table based method need a large number of experiments to calibrate the parameters of controller. Moreover, the controller based on vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is not able to achieve accurate tracking control of target acceleration because of inevitable model error.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1506
David Poulard, Huipeng Chen, Matthew Panzer
Pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) are used to investigate and predict the injury outcomes from vehicle-pedestrian impact. Due to the sensitivity of pedestrian biomechanics to anthropometry, a PFEM with a generic anthropometry (50th-percentile male) cannot be sufficiently evaluated against post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) test data without accounting for the specific anthropometry. Global geometric personalization can scale the PFEM geometry to match the height and weight of a specific PMHS, while local geometric personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match specific PMHS anatomy. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the benefit of locally-morphed PFEM anthropometry compared to globally-scaled and generic PFEM by comparing the biomechanics of vehicle-pedestrian impact.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1512
Jeya Padmanaban, Roger Burnett, Andrew Levitt
This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and belted rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from fifteen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle models (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the injury rate for belted drivers and belted rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1464
Jorge Martins, Ricardo Ribeiro, Pedro Neves, F. P. Brito
The process for accident reconstruction may be very complex and there are various studies and methodologies to analyse collisions and reconstruct the accident. CRASH 3 is one of such methodologies for accident reconstruction. This program is comprised of two distinct and independent modules, one for the trajectory analysis and the other one for damage analysis. This paper will focus on the latter part, damage analysis. The main interest of the research is the ability to create a database based on crash-test data and use it in an already existing model for damage evaluation. This model calculates the dissipated energy associated to the damaged area of the vehicle during the accident. Various organizations over the world perform crash-tests of vehicles, but the major databases are those kept by the NHTSA (of the USA) and Euro NCAP (of Europe).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1424
Yi G. Glaser, Robert E. Llaneras, Daniel S. Glaser, Charles A. Green
Partially automated driving involves the relinquishment of longitudinal and/or latitudinal control to the vehicle. Partially automated systems, however, are not full automation and require driver oversight to avoid road hazards. Researchers have expressed concern that automation promotes extended eyes off road behaviors which may lead to a loss of road awareness, degrading a driver’s ability to detect hazards and make necessary overrides. A potential countermeasure to visual inattention is the orientation of the driver’s attention towards potential hazards. This method is based on the assumption that drivers are able to rapidly identify hazards once their attention is drawn to the area of interest regardless of preceding eyes off road behavior. This work tested this assumption by investigating if the time to detect a hazard is positively correlated with preceding off-road gaze duration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1526
Daniel V. McGehee, Cheryl A. Roe, Linda Ng Boyle, Yuqing Wu, Kazutoshi Ebe, James Foley, Linda Angell
Pedal misapplications may be rare, but the outcomes can be tragic. A naturalistic driving study with 30 drivers was conducted to gain a better understanding of foot pedal behaviors. Foot movements were observed from the moment subjects entered and positioned themselves in their vehicle, and continued through starting the ignition, shifting into gear, accelerating to driving speed, and finally, resting their foot after parking the vehicle. A coding methodology was developed to categorize the various foot movements and behaviors. Over 3,300 startup and parking sequences were coded. This paper describes the unique challenges involved in classifying foot movements and behaviors when drivers’ intentions are not known. For example, hesitant or interrupted foot movements often occurred when a driver was transitioning from a gas pedal press to a brake pedal press.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1504
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1540
Timothy Keon
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has performed prior research investigating THOR 50th male (THOR-50M) response in Oblique crash tests. This research is being expanded to investigate THOR-50M in the driver position in a 56 kph frontal rigid barrier crash event. In addition, Hybrid III 5th adult female (AF05) ATDs are used in this testing to evaluate the RibEye Deflection Measurement System. The AF05 ATDs are positioned in the right front passenger and right rear passenger seating positions. For the right front position, the NCAP seating procedure was used with the seat fore-aft position set to mid-track. For the right rear position, the seating procedure used was from the FMVSS 214 Side Impact TP. The NCAP Frontal Impact Testing test procedure was followed for test setup and execution. Some additional instrumentation on the vehicle as well as some additional measurements was added to this test setup.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1417
Toshinao Fukui, Kazuhiko Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Satake
Recently, head up displays (HUD) have become a common visual feedback device of advanced technologies as the HUD can display feedback to the driver in a highly visible area. However, a reflection to front windshield is often caused by the outline (mikiri line) of the HUD unit on the dash board when the dash board is in direct sun light. The reflection can lead to driver annoyance on an asphalt road as well as dark view in front of windshield. In certain conditions of the front view, location and thickness, and contrast of the outlines were considered as factors impacting annoyance. These factors were considered to contribute to the visibility of stripe pattern (a contrast sensitivity function). In addition, since the reflection of the outlines can be enhanced by bright sunlight coming to the dash board, the present study considered high illuminance on the dash board as an environmental factor. This additional factor was not considered in the past study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1473
Orion P. Keifer, Bradley Reckamp, Charles Moody, Anthony Timpanaro
Evaluation of the severity of low speed motor vehicle crashes have been the subject of significant research for more than 20 years. These crashes typically involve no or very minor damage to the vehicles involved and therefore the ability to determine the threshold of damage would be very useful in analysis of such cases. One such threshold, which has been used by accident reconstructionist, is the manufacturer’s published bumper rating in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for Vehicle Bumpers. The rationale is that if there is any damage to the bumper system of the vehicle in question, the impact must have had a change in velocity greater than the bumper rating. While attractive, due to its simplicity, the rational is not supported by the data.
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