Display:

Results

Viewing 61 to 90 of 16083
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0265
Martin Krammer, Philip Stirgwolt, Helmut Martin
A single malfunction in a product can initiate a costly product recall. With ever increasing reliance on electronic and electric components contributing to the functional safety of next generation vehicles, a malfunction may cause such inconvenience too. Automotive E/E systems perform highly networked functions, including dense system interactions, and with a large number of product variants and features, complexity increases beyond human susceptibility. This is considered to be the main source for systematic faults and does not only affect newly developed systems, like complex driver assistance systems. Also well-known systems often bear a non-negligible safety threat. Safety critical automotive product development starts with a comprehensive and well-coordinated concept phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0266
Rolf Schneider, Dominik Reinhardt, Dominik Juergens, Georg Hofstetter, Udo Dannebaum, Andreas Graf
Within the German funded project ARAMiS the project partners intended to get ready for the future of electronics for mobility and integration of safety related functionality on upcoming multicore based hardware platforms. ARAMiS therefore also included work on several demonstrators one of which was an multicore approach on large scale software integration (LSSI) for the automotive domain. Specifically on this demonstrator the partners Audi, BMW, EFS and Infineon were working together to obtain figures on the added overhead both for multicore as well as safety, based on practical work and close-to-production implementations. Thereby BMW and Audi intentionally implemented different integration solutions to gain both experience and real live data on different approaches including an hypervisor concept as well as using AUTOSAR-based methods for later comparison.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0268
Pablo Oliveira Antonino, Mario Trapp, Ashwin Venugopal
Safety requirements are crucial artifacts in the specification of safety-critical systems, since, as recommended by standards such as ISO 26262 and the DO-178C, they must result from a safety analysis of the architecture and must ultimately be addressed by architecture elements. Because of the key role of safety requirements in safety engineering, it is important to assure that they meet certain quality attributes. In particular, the “completeness” and “consistency” of safety requirements have been widely discussed, as industrial evidence has shown that the lack of guidance on how to specify safety requirements that are traceable to the architecture and to failure propagation models is one of the main reasons for their incompleteness and inconsistency, and, consequently, a root cause of safety incidents. For example, industry practitioners have revealed to us that it is common to document traceability ad-hoc, just prior to submitting a product for certification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0260
Ashlie B. Hocking, John C. Knight, M. Anthony Aiello, Shin'ichi Shiraishi
In domains such as automotive and aviation engineering, software verification is a critical component of software development. Various software verification techniques have been developed including different forms of testing, inspection, static analysis, and formal (mathematical) verification. Formal verification offers the great advantage that it corresponds, at least informally, to testing all possible paths through the software. Despite this advantage, formal verification has not been applied widely. Many reasons for this lack of application have been advanced, including the expected technical difficulty of the formalism and the anticipated cost. In this paper, we present an approach to formal verification in model-based development and report on a case study of its use on an automotive application. We illustrate the technical feasibility, potential results, and reasonable resource demands of the technology.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0277
Seth Placke, John Thomas, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson
Automobiles are becoming ever more complex as advanced safety features are integrated into the vehicle platform. As the pace of integration and complexity of new feature rises, it is becoming increasingly difficult for system engineers to assess the impact of new additions on vehicle safety and performance. In response to this challenge, a new approach for analyzing multiple control systems using the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) framework has been developed. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that may or may not have been developed in a coordinated manner, and assess them for safety and performance. The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0278
Ingo Stürmer, Heiko Doerr PhD, Thomas End PhD
Managing ISO 26262 software development projects is a challenging task. This paper discusses major challenges in managing safety-critical projects from a high-level perspective, i.e. from a manager’s point of view. We address managers (directors) with full project responsibility including software and hardware teams. Rather than discussing how to fulfill (technical) requirements stated by the ISO standard, we highlight major challenges and tough decisions a manager has to face on her way from project start up to delivery of the safety case. We discuss important project management topics and best practices such as negotiation issues with the contractor (OEM), selection of the appropriate functional safety manager, general ISO 262626-related project management matters, as well as contractual issues with supplier such as development interface agreement. We discuss the topics on the basis of real-life experience we collected during several ISO 26262 management projects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0280
Falco K. Bapp, Oliver Sander, Timo Sandmann, Duy Viet Vu, Steffen Baehr
As state-of-the-art technology, multicores gain more and more importance in automotive and aerospace systems. Not only in infotainment and non-safety-critical applications they are going to be used in near future. Also in safety-critical systems, this technology will be introduced. Various commercial off-the-shelf processors are available that are not built for such applications. In order to ensure a correct system behavior, online monitoring can be used for processors that target infotainment or general purpose applications. The cores and other bus masters within the MPSoC compete about the exclusive use of shared resources like for example a memory controller. It is of high importance to provide guarantees of usage, e.g. in terms of access time and rates, in such cases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0281
Yang Zheng, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
In order to address vehicular and occupant safety, it is beneficial to understand how drivers drive as well as identify any variations in their driving performance. In-vehicle signal processing plays an increasingly important role in driving behavior and traffic modeling. A driver’s control actions directly impact the vehicle dynamic performance. Meanwhile, in-vehicle signals such as the steering wheel angle, vehicle speed and other signals from multiple sensors typically included in the CAN-Bus can be used to reflect the driver’s intention. Maneuvers, influenced by the driver’s choice and traffic/road conditions, are important in understanding variations in driving performance and to help rebuild the intended route. With access to continuous real-time in-vehicles signals, a suitable framing strategy should be adopted for maneuver recognition. One classical approach is to use fixed time frames to partition incoming data for time series analysis of maneuvers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0282
Emrah Adamey, Guchan Ozbilgin, Umit Ozguner
In this paper, collaborative vehicle-tracking problem is studied for mixed-traffic environments where vehicles with differing sensing and communication capabilities coexist. The participating vehicles are classified according to their capabilities, as: (1) fully-equipped, (2) v2v-equipped, and (3) non-equipped vehicles. Fully-equipped vehicles have both onboard sensing and v2v communication capabilities; v2v-equipped vehicles have v2v communication capabilities alone; and non-equipped vehicles do not have communication capabilities. The task is to provide accurate and reliable vehicle tracking results to each participating vehicle, which can be done most effectively through wireless collaboration of fully-equipped vehicles with v2v-equipped vehicles. One particular issue that rises is the integration of the state estimates of non-equipped vehicles into the inter-vehicular communication network. Another important issue is the packet losses and delays.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0283
Allan Lewis, Mohammad Naserian
A method of locating a charging target device (vehicle) in a parking lot scenario by the evaluation of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) signal and Global Positioning System (GPS) data is proposed in this paper. As a result of this method, a vehicle will achieve expedited charger to system pairing while in the company of multiple chargers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0284
Li Gang, Zhou Zhicheng
In recent years, the study on driver characteristics is becoming hotter and hotter in intelligent vehicle field. The study on driver steering characteristics is one of them. This paper points at the classification of driver steering characteristics and identification of driver type based on the driving simulator experiments. Choose forty drivers to participate in experiments which were designed on driving simulator. The experimental data were acquired by dSPACE acquisition system. The maximum of yaw rate, the maximum of wheel steering angle, the maximum of wheel steering angle rate and vehicle longitude speed under maximum of wheel steering were received to create sample matrix. Fuzzy C-means algorithm was applied to construct clusters from the sample matrix and correlation analysis was used to figure out the criteria of classification. The forty drivers were classified according to the criteria of classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0270
Shuhei Yamashita
ISO26262 : Automotive Functional Safety Standard provides a guide for safety design by introducing structured approach of making ‘Safety Concept’. And it’s important to recognize that this specific idea of the standard :Safety Concept includes not only FSC and TSC (Functional Safety Concept / Technical Safety Concept) but also architectural design in both Hardware and Software. And during these Safety Concept making processes SR (Safety Requirement) derivation and detailing, SR allocation for system elements and ASIL(Automotive Safety Integrity Level) assignment on the element according to SR allocation have to be performed correctly. Further, in the processes so-called Decomposition and Coexistence of Safety Elements are also needed to be treated appropriately according to effective analysis. This time in the paper a new method for Safety Concept description which is expected to support automotive E/E engineers to achieve Safety Concept making processes properly is proposed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0272
Ludovic Pintard, Michel Leeman, Abdelillah YMLAHI OUAZZANI, Jean-Charles Fabre, Karama Kanoun, Matthieu Roy
The complexity and the criticality of automotive electronic embedded systems are steadily increasing today, and that is particularly the case for software development. The new ISO 26262 standard for functional safety is one of the answers to these challenges. The ISO 26262 defines requirements on the development process in order to ensure the safety. Among these requirements, Fault Injection (FI) is introduced as a dedicated technique to assess the effectiveness of the safety mechanisms and demonstrate the correct implementation of the safety requirements. Our work aims at developing an approach that will help integrate FI in the whole development process in a continuous way, from system requirements to the verification and validation phase. This leads us to explore the benefits of safety analyses (FMEA, FTA, CPA or FFI Analysis…) for the definition of the test plan and particularly define efficient FI tests cases.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0273
Helmut Martin, Martin Krammer, Bernhard Winkler, Christian Schwarzl
Today the development of cyber-physical systems - in particular in the automotive domain - has to cover a variety of challenges: (1) increasing complexity because of interconnection and communication of distributed E/E systems in a vehicle, (2) pressure on cost reduction and faster time to market, (3) multidisciplinary of automotive systems has to be handled (electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal disciplines for e.g. automotive battery systems) and (4) all these systems have to be compliant to functional safety standards like the ISO 26262 . The presented approach in this paper allows the handling of these challenges in an effective way to be competitive on the market. In this paper we present a model based systems safety engineering approach based on SysML to specify relevant safety artefacts. Through the use of specific diagram types different views on the available data can be provided corresponding to the specific needs of all stakeholders.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, test, production, or even later when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform the hazard analysis iteratively in parallel with the development process. This safety-driven design technique is based on Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) and is demonstrated in this paper using a realistic Shift-By-Wire design concept.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0275
Gokul Krithivasan, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
In ISO 26262, the top-level safety goals are derived using the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment. Functional safety requirements (FSR) are then derived from these safety goals in the concept phase (ISO 26262-3:2011). The standard does not call out a specific method to develop these FSRs from safety goals. However, ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6, of the standard does establish requirements to ensure consistent management and correct specification of safety requirements with respect to their attributes and characteristics throughout the safety lifecycle. In a way, there is an expectation on the part of system engineers to bridge this gap. We are proposing an approach and method in this paper which utilizes concepts from process modeling to ensure the completeness of these requirements, eliminate any external inconsistencies between them and improve verifiability – important requirements laid down in the above mentioned ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0276
Doug Barnes, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
The demands of functional safety analysis of software at the system level are clearly required by the ISO 26262 standard. For practicing software engineers, demonstrating adherence to these requirements is no small task. The task is made more difficult due to complex software development that merges software components from multiple sources into a single ECU (Electronic Control Unit) application. This paper will identify the functional safety analysis requirements as specified by the ISO 26262 standard. The tasks for applying the requirements to a simple development (single development source) will be described. Support of the identified tasks in complex development arrangements (multiple development sources, including internal and external, model based and “home grown code”) will be illustrated through a hypothetical development model, based on real-world examples. The illustration will be extended to show the full software analysis at the system level.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor’s velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0294
Takamasa Koshizen, MAS Kamal, Hiroyuki Koike
In order to mitigate traffic congestion, in this paper, we propose an effective approach of smoothing traffic flows by introducing smart cars. It is relied on the smartphone-based technology of detecting traffic congestion, initially developed by Honda Motor Co. Ltd throughout 2011-2013. The detection technology is basically aimed to correct erratic driving behaviors such as aggressive acceleration or rapid braking, and is referred as "smooth driving". Generally, it is known that traffic congestion will likely occur when volume of traffic generates demand for a space greater than the available road capacity. Nevertheless, driving patterns relative to reaction time, sensitivity and time headway, can also be crucial for traffic stability and congestion mitigation. So far, our driving strategy combined with the congestion detection has considered achieving the driving smoothness for "single" lane in particular.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0295
Dominik Moser, Harald Waschl, Roman Schmied, Hajrudin Efendic, Luigi del Re
Modern cars feature a variety of different driving assistance systems, which aim to improve driving comfort as well as fuel consumption. Due to the technical progress and the possibility to consider vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategies have received strong interest both from research and industrial communities. The performance of such systems can be enhanced if the future development of the surrounding traffic can be predicted. This paper presents a stochastic model of the future velocity of a preceding car based on the incorporation of available information sources such as V2X and radar information. Generally, human driving behavior is a complex process and influenced by several environmental impacts. The main influences on the velocity prediction considered in this work are current and previous velocity measurements and traffic light signals.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0298
Wontaek Lim, Junsoo Kim, Chulhoon Jang, Yongwoo Jo, Myoungho Sunwoo
Autonomous vehicle technology has developed to meet the demands of drivers for improving driving safety and convenience. In particular, the study of parking for the autonomous driving has received significant attention from automotive researchers because many drivers have trouble estimating a parking path in a complex area. This difficulty is due to the characteristic of non-holonomic constraints and the restricted free-space of parking lots. Many reports have been published on the topic of geometric methods that use circles and straight lines as well as fuzzy logic based path planners for parking. These methods generate feasible paths from a starting position to a desired parking position and consider maximum steering angle, Ackermann steering geometry, and vehicle speed. However, it is difficult to generate repeated backward-forward paths for a narrow parking lot since the paths are made in a wide parking space.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
This paper studies the problem of characterizing the driving behavior during steady-state and transient car-following. An approach utilizing the online learning of an evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model that is combined with a Markov model is used to characterize the multi-model and evolving nature of the driving behavior. Such an approach is targeted for real-time implementation instead of the traditional off-line approach to driver characterization. The approach is validated by testing on a test vehicle during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0289
Yuan Chen, Bhavin Chamadiya, Ulrich Bueker
Progressed efforts have been made on the development of Vehicle to Vehicle communication technology. The European Telecommunications Standard Institute has allocated a dedicated frequency band of 5.855 – 5.925 GHz to vehicular communication. Numerous on road measurement campaigns have been conducted by joint consortium to evaluate the performance of V2V communication around the world. However due to the scalability limitation of on road measurement, light-weight simulation tools are more widely implemented to gain general insights into V2V communication. Hence, the needs of simulation regarding evaluation on the performance of this technology have been aroused. In order to ensure the reliability of the simulation, propagation model on V2V communication should be accurate to have realistic results. In this paper, we conducted a survey of the available propagation models in urban, suburban and highway area.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan kutty
Advanced driver assistance systems have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrade the image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low light condition, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, an image enhancement algorithm is proposed that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0309
Mayurika Chatterjee, Atchyuta Rao, Chaitanya Rajguru
Parking assist systems have become very common in current vehicles. The purpose of such a system is to assist the driver to park the vehicle without collision. The sensors serve as eyes of the driver during parking maneuver by sensing any obstacle in the path. The parking sensors, typically ultrasonic sensors, are mounted on front and rear of vehicle to assist the driver to park the vehicle. Thus, such a system can cover only the front and rear portion of the vehicle and is unable to cover the side portions of the vehicle. This paper proposes a novel method to monitor the perimeter of a vehicle while parking using minimum sensors placed at strategic locations. A local map of the parking area is generated using data from sensors which helps in identifying static obstacles. The map is constantly updated in real time during parking. The algorithm ascertains that the entire perimeter of the vehicle is protected from impending collisions in real time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0315
Francesco Braghin, Andrea Fuso, Edoardo Sabbioni, Nicola De Val
The Linear Time Variant (LTV) Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a linear model predictive control based on linearization of the nonlinear vehicle model. The linearization is carried out around each vehicle state. The developed model is able to both steer and adjust the vehicle forward speed to avoid obstacles and follow a given path and speed profile. Once the optimal parameters are found, both in terms of trajectory following and real-time performances, the LTV-MPC is used for assessing the limit vehicle conditions as a function of the vehicle forward target speed, the obstacle shape and speed as well as the road conditions (both dry and wet road conditions were taken into account). It is shown that, to avoid collisions, given performances of the vehicle brakes and of the mounted sensors are required.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0371
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Human thermal comfort is a principal objective of the climate control systems such as the automotive air conditioning system. Applying the results of research studies on human thermal comfort to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environmental parameters, such as the impinging solar radiation. Photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in automotive climate control systems for the measurement of impinging solar radiation intensity. The erroneous information from sensor can cause thermal discomfort. Such an erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to opaque body elements of vehicle is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement. Fundamental geometric principles can be used to determine if sensor is shaded, for a given position of the sun with respect to vehicle and for a given geometry of the vehicle passenger compartment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0690
Salah H. R. Ali, Badr S. N. Azzam
The aim of this research is to assess and develop a polymeric material consisting of a mixture of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and high molecular weight polyethylene (MWHDPE) reinforced by carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) by optimizing the mixing concentration of the three constituents. This optimized mixture is accomplished by using a melt extruder-mixing process. An experimental evaluation for accurate assessment of the developed nanocomposite material characteristics is achieved by using a universal tensile test machine and a plint-tribometer pin-on-disc machine. Moreover, the hardness of the material surface and its surface topography are assessed by a hardness tester machine and SEM technique, respectively. Developed samples for testing are classified into two groups of nanocomposites. The first group is created through mixing two pure polymeric UHMWPE and HDPE with different mass ratios of each.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0657
Binglu Tu
This innovation is a Developed Anti-Lock Brake System (DABS for short) to automatically and precisely identify, correct and verify the peak-value slip ratio S0'' (i.e. braking force = adhesion force) when ε (namely the utilization ratio of adhesion coefficient, which is defined as the quotient of maximum braking strength divided by adhesion coefficient when ABS works) =1, and control S0'' to output continuously. It is a revision on the theory, method and algorithm of current ABS control that intermittently produces S0''. The objects are to eliminate the hidden unsafety of sideslip or ε<1 due to excessive or insufficient braking force, have more simplified structure and reduced costs than ABS, and improve the eligibility from ε≥0.75 to ε≥0.95.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0570
Horst Lanzerath
Tubular designs for the body structure enable a significant weight saving versus the conventional, stamped sheet metal designs. There are several manufacturing processes on the market than can deliver tubular structures, e.g. hydroforming. But currently the processes are limited to material grades up to 1000MPa UTS for body structure parts. Similar to the development in stamping, the target is the have tubular designs available with Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) properties (1500MPa) that are known from hot-stamping parts. Within stamping the development was going from Mild Steels (MS) to Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and finally to hot-formed steels with 1500MPa UTS, enabling a significant weight saving potential compared to MS or AHSS. Analogous to this there are some new processes upcoming which are able to produce tubular designs with 1500 MPa strength.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 16083

Filter