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Viewing 31 to 60 of 16638
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0163
Thomas Rothermel, Jürgen Pitz, Hans-Christian Reuss
Abstract This paper proposes a framework for semi-autonomous longitudinal guidance for electric vehicles. To lower the risk for pedestrian collisions in urban areas, a velocity trajectory which is given by the driver is optimized with respect to safety aspects with the help of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC). Safety aspects, such as speed limits and pedestrians on the roadway, are considered as velocity and spatial constraints within prediction horizon in NMPC formulation. A slack variable is introduced to enable overshooting of velocity constraints in situations with low risk potential to rise driver acceptance. By changing the weight of slack variable, the control authority can be shifted continuously from driver to automation. Within this work, a prototypical real-time implementation of the longitudinal guidance system is presented and the potential of the approach is demonstrated in human-in-the-loop test drives in the Stuttgart Driving Simulator.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0217
Somnath Sen, Mayur Selokar, Diwakar Nisad, Kamal Kishore
Abstract Adequate visibility through the vehicle windshield over the entire driving period is of paramount practical significance. Thin water film (fog) that forms on the windshield mainly during the winter season would reduce and disturb the driver’s visibility. This water film originates from condensing water vapor on inside surface of the windshield due to low outside temperatures. Primary source of this vapor is the passenger’s breath, which condenses on the windshield. Hot and dry air which impinges at certain velocity and angle relative to the windshield helps to remove the thin water film (defogging) and hence improves driver’s visibility. Hence a well-designed demisting device will help to eliminate this fog layer within very short span of time and brings an accepted level of visibility. An attempt is made here to design and develop a demisting device for a commercial vehicle with the help of numerical and analytical approach and later on validated with experimental results.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0340
Tina Hull, Monika A. Minarcin
Abstract Applications using industrial robotics have typically led to establishing a safeguarded space encompassing a wide radius around the robot. Operator access to this hazard zone was restricted by a combination of means, such as hard guarding, safeguarding, awareness means, and personal protective equipment. The introduction of collaborative robots is redefining safeguarding requirements. Many collaborative robots have inherently safe designs that enable an operator and a robot to work within a shared, collaborative workspace. New technology in industrial robotics has opened up opportunities for collaborative operation. Collaborative operation could include either industrial or collaborative robots, depending on its application. The current defined modes of collaborative operation are hand guiding; speed and separation monitoring; safety-rated monitored stop; and, power and force limiting.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0316
Dorin Drignei, Zissimos Mourelatos, Ervisa Kosova, Jingwen Hu, Matthew Reed, Jonathan Rupp, Rebekah Gruber, Risa Scherer
Abstract We have recently obtained experimental data and used them to develop computational models to quantify occupant impact responses and injury risks for military vehicles during frontal crashes. The number of experimental tests and model runs are however, relatively small due to their high cost. While this is true across the auto industry, it is particularly critical for the Army and other government agencies operating under tight budget constraints. In this study we investigate through statistical simulations how the injury risk varies if a large number of experimental tests were conducted. We show that the injury risk distribution is skewed to the right implying that, although most physical tests result in a small injury risk, there are occasional physical tests for which the injury risk is extremely large. We compute the probabilities of such events and use them to identify optimum design conditions to minimize such probabilities.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0398
Yuqing Zheng, Xichan Zhu, Xueqing Dong
Abstract To overcome some drawbacks of using AHSS (Advanced High Strength Steel) in vehicle weight reduction, like brittleness, spot weld HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) softening and high cost, a new ridgeline strengthening technology was introduced and applied to the thin-walled structure in this paper. The energy absorption mechanism of thin-walled box structure with selective strengthened ridgelines under axial compressing load was discussed in first section. After this, the formulas of mean crushing force and corresponding energy absorption for square tube were theoretically discussed. To demonstrate prediction capabilities of formulas, a set of FE simulations of square tubes were conducted. Simulation results show that energy absorption capacity of square tube under quasi-static axial crushing load is dramatically improved by selectively strengthening their ridgelines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0396
Prasad S. Mehta, Jennifer Solis Ocampo, Andres Tovar, Prathamesh Chaudhari
Abstract Biologically inspired designs have become evident and proved to be innovative and efficacious throughout the history. This paper introduces a bio-inspired design of protective structures that is lightweight and provides outstanding crashworthiness indicators. In the proposed approach, the protective function of the vehicle structure is matched to the protective capabilities of natural structures such as the fruit peel (e.g., pomelo), abdominal armors (e.g., mantis shrimp), bones (e.g., ribcage and woodpecker skull), as well as other natural protective structures with analogous protective functions include skin and cartilage as well as hooves, antlers, and horns, which are tough, resilient, lightweight, and functionally adapted to withstand repetitive high-energy impact loads. This paper illustrates a methodology to integrate designs inspired by nature, Topology optimization, and conventional modeling tools.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0405
Fupin Wei, Li Xu, Chen Cao, Youmei Zhao
Crash Test Dummies are the very important tools to evaluate the vehicle safety performance. In order to ensure the dummy performance during the crash tests, the dummy components need to be certificated. In the neck certification procedure, the head angle is the most important parameter, which is the head rotation respect to the neck base. To get the head angle, couples of rotary potentiometers should be mounted either on the calibration fixture or on the dummy head. The rotation is then calculated from those potentiometer readings. There are two potentiometers mounted in the Hybrid III family dummies, while three potentiometers mounted in ES2, ES-2re, SID-IIs, and WorldSid 50th dummies. In the certification, maximum head angle and time occurred should be within certain ranges in the Hybrid III family dummies while for the ES2 and WorldSid 50th dummies, not only the maximum head angle, but also the other angles and their timings should meet the requirements.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0407
Da-Zhi Wang, Guang-Jun Cao, Chang Qi, Yong Sun, Shu Yang, Yu Du
Abstract The increasing demand for lightweight design of the whole vehicle has raised critical weight reduction targets for crash components such as front rails without deteriorating their crash performances. To this end the last few years have witnessed a huge growth in vehicle body structures featuring hybrid materials including steel and aluminum alloys. In this work, a type of tapered tailor-welded tube (TTWT) made of steel and aluminum alloy hybrid materials was proposed to maximize the specific energy absorption (SEA) and to minimize the peak crushing force (PCF) in an oblique crash scenario. The hybrid tube was found to be more robust than the single material tubes under oblique impacts using validated finite element (FE) models. Compared with the aluminum alloy tube and the steel tube, the hybrid tube can increase the SEA by 46.3% and 86.7%, respectively, under an impact angle of 30°.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0040
Ming Meng, Wilson Khoo
The modern vehicle development is highly dependent on software. The software development plays an extremely important role in vehicle safety and security. In order to ensure software high quality and safety standards, we have investigated the secure software development process and analyzed the works in this area. Based on our analysis, we have identified the similarities and differences between the secure software development process and the existing vehicle development process. We then made suggestions on how to adopt the secure software development process in the overall vehicle development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
Abstract A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0063
Karsten Schmidt, Harald Zweck, Udo Dannebaum
Abstract/Short Version Introduction The introduction of Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet [2] as the main invehicle network infrastructure is the technical foundation for different new functionalities such as piloted driving, minimizing the CO2- footprint and others. The high data rate of such systems influences also the used microcontrollers due the fact that a big amount of data has to be transferred, encrypted, etc.Figure 1 Motivation - Vehicles will become connected to uncontrolled networks The usage of Ethernet as the in-vehicle-network enables the possibility that future road vehicles are going to be connected with other vehicles and information systems to improve system functionality. These previously closed automotive systems will be opened up for external access (see Figure 1). This can be Car2X connectivity or connection to personal devices.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0068
Yoshihiro Ujiie, Takeshi Kishikawa, Tomoyuki Haga, Hideki Matsushima, Tohru Wakabayashi, Masato Tanabe, Yoshihiko Kitamura, Jun Anzai
Abstract Controller area network (CAN) technology is widely adopted in vehicles, but attention has been drawn recently to its lack of security mechanisms. Numerous countermeasures have been proposed, but none can be regarded as a generic solution, in part because all the proposed countermeasures require extensive modifications to existing in-vehicle systems. To arrive at a solution to this problem, we propose a new method of protecting CAN without the need to modify existing systems. In this paper, we explain the principle of our proposed method and the architecture of the electronic control unit (ECU) that implements it. We report the result of our experiments and show its efficacy against typical security threats faced by CAN.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0067
Ryan Wilson, Wayne Music, Brian Anderson
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to add new functions or to patch flaws to ensure safe and secure operation. Updates accomplished through a compromised cellular base station could lead to an update process that may be vulnerable to attack. We have been investigating techniques for determining whether an LTE base station (known as an eNodeB) appears to be suspicious, so that an update could be paused or terminated until a trusted eNodeB is available. We describe a detector we developed as part of our research that scans LTE signals for anomalies and provides an alert when an anomaly is found.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0066
Joe Hupcey, Bryan Ramirez
Abstract The number one priority in vehicle security is to harden the root-of-trust; from which everything else - the hardware, firmware, OS, and application layer’s security - is derived. If the root-of-trust can be compromised, then the whole system is vulnerable. In the near future the root-of-trust will effectively be an encryption key - a digital signature for each vehicle - that will be stored in a secure memory element inside all vehicles. In this paper we will show how a mathematical, formal analysis technique can be applied to ensure that this secure storage cannot (A) be read by an unauthorized party or accidentally “leak” to the outputs or (B) be altered, overwritten, or erased by unauthorized entities. We will include a real-world case study from a consumer electronics maker that has successfully used this technology to secure their products from attacks 24/7/365.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0069
Dae-Kyoo Kim, Eunjee Song, Huafeng Yu
Abstract Cyber security concerns in the automotive industry have been constantly increasing as automobiles are more computerized and networked. AUTOSAR is the standard architecture for automotive software development, addressing various aspects including security. The current version of AUTOSAR is concerned with only cryptography-based security for secure authentication at the communication level. However, there has been an increasing need for authorization security to control access on software resources such as data and services in the automobile. In this paper, we introduce attribute-based access control (ABAC) to AUTOSAR to address authorization in automotive software.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Abstract Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the “ultimate mobile device”, connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a new proposed architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Abstract In this work, we analyze the use of the Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus (and some of its potential variants) as Safety Element out of Context (SEooC) from an ISO-26262 perspective and provide the reader with an analysis methodology to compare between a range of different LIN protocol configurations and benchmark them against Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) targets as defined in ISO-26262. A methodology for a quantitative residual failure probability analysis is shown before applying it to the standard LIN protocol. The residual failure rate in time (RF) of LIN (compliant with ISO26262) has been investigated with a range of reasonable application assumptions. This paper shows that a high bit error probability assumption of 3e-5 yields an RF of 3e-4/h which is too high to satisfy the assumed ASIL-B target (1e-7/h) or higher functional safety requirements in noisy application.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0114
Chris Schwarz, Timothy Brown, John Lee, John Gaspar, Julie Kang
Abstract Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs and lane position. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0113
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0119
Preeti J. Pillai, Veeraganesh Yalla, Kentaro Oguchi
Abstract This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affect the road visibility and the driving easiness. In order to resolve the problem of analyzing the driving complexity of roads at night, a brightness detection module is incorporated in our end-to-end nighttime EoD system, which computes the ‘brightness factor’ (bright or dark) for that given night-time road scene. The brightness factor along with a multi-level machine learning classifier is then used to classify the EoD score for a night-time road scene.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0124
Andrew Scott Alden, Brian Mayer, Patrick Mcgowen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0136
Deepak Gangadharan, Oleg Sokolsky, Insup Lee, BaekGyu Kim, Chung-Wei Lin, Shinichi Shiraishi
Abstract Optional software-based features (for example, to provide active safety, infotainment, etc.) are increasingly becoming a significant cost driver in automotive systems. In state-of-the-art production techniques, these optional features are built into the vehicle during assembly. This does not give the customer the flexibility to choose the specific set of features as per their requirement. They either have to buy a pre-bundled option that may or may not satisfy their preferences or are unable to find an exact combination of features from the inventory provided by a dealership. Alternatively, they have to pre-order a car from the manufacturer, which could result in a substantial delay. Therefore, it is important to improve the flexibility of delivering the optional features to customers. Towards this objective, the vehicle could be configured with the desired options at the dealership, when the customer requires them.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0149
Mehdi Jalalmaab, Mohammad Pirani, Baris Fidan, Soo Jeon
In this paper, a consensus framework for cooperative parameter estimation within the vehicular network is presented. It is assumed that each vehicle is equipped with a dedicated short range communication (DSRC) device and connected to other vehicles. The improvement achieved by the consensus for parameter estimation in presence of sensor’s noise is studied, and the effects of network nodes and edges on the consensus performance is discussed. Finally, the simulation results of the introduced cooperative estimation algorithm for estimation of the unknown parameter of road condition is presented. It is shown that due to the faster dynamic of network communication, single agents’ estimation converges to the least square approximation of the unknown parameter properly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0141
Prasanna Vasudevan, Sreegururaj Jayachander
Abstract Several studies in the field of hedonics using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to explain the complex psychological and chemical processes. Work on the effect of odors in alleviating driver fatigue is limited. The potential to improve road safety through non-pharmacological means such as stimulating odors is the impetus behind this paper. This is especially relevant in developing countries today with burgeoning economies such as India. Longer road trips by commercial transport vehicles with increasingly fatigued drivers and risk of accidents are being fuelled by distant producer - consumer connections. This work describes a two stage comparative study on the effects of different odors typically obtainable in India. The stages involve administration of odorants orthonsally and retronasally after the onset of circadian fatigue in test subjects. This is followed by a small cognitive exercise to evaluate hand-eye coordination.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0147
Toshiya Hirose, Tomohiro Makino, Masanobu Taniguchi, Hidenobu Kubota
Abstract Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and can use as a safety driving assist for driver. Currently, it is investigated to clarify an appropriate activation timing for collision information, caution and warning in Japan. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information (Provide objective information for safe driving to the driver) on V2V, and investigated an effective activation timing of collision information, and the relationship between the activation timing and the accuracy of the vehicle position. This experiment used Driving Simulator. The experimental scenario is four situations of (1) “Assistance for braking”, (2) “Assistance for accelerating”, (3) “Assistance for right turn” and (4) “Assistance for left turn” in blind intersection. The activation timing of collision information based on TTI (Time To Intersection) and TTC (Time To Collision).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0170
Vidya Nariyambut Murali, Ashley Micks, Madeline J. Goh, Dongran Liu
Abstract Camera data generated in a 3D virtual environment has been used to train object detection and identification algorithms. 40 common US road traffic signs were used as the objects of interest during the investigation of these methods. Traffic signs were placed randomly alongside the road in front of a camera in a virtual driving environment, after the camera itself was randomly placed along the road at an appropriate height for a camera located on a vehicle’s rear view mirror. In order to best represent the real world, effects such as shadows, occlusions, washout/fade, skew, rotations, reflections, fog, rain, snow and varied illumination were randomly included in the generated data. Images were generated at a rate of approximately one thousand per minute, and the image data was automatically annotated with the true location of each sign within each image, to facilitate supervised learning as well as testing of the trained algorithms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
Abstract This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0162
Takashi Kodachi, Masaharu Shimizu, Hideaki Yamato, Kengo Toda, Takayuki Furuta, Hirotoshi Ochiai, Mitsuhiro Ando
Abstract Our society is faced with the serious problems such as aging population growth, environmental pollution and limited energy resource issues. As a means to address these issues, we are developing new mobility vehicles designed to support short-distance trips in urban settings. These mobility vehicles are intended for use in pedestrian areas inside buildings as well as outside, including public roads. In order to ensure safe and convenient operation for both pedestrians and mobility users, we conducted a risk assessment of mobility vehicles in pedestrian areas, and then developed a feature to autonomously limit the speed according to their surrounding conditions. This report discusses the utility of these mobility vehicles with the safety functions based on the fully conducted risk assessment, collision test and performance evaluation in public roads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1541
Zuolong Wei, Hamid Reza Karimi, Kjell Gunnar Robbersmyr
Abstract The analysis of the vehicle crash performance is of great meaning in the vehicle design process. Due to the complexity of vehicle structures and uncertainty of crashes, the analysis of vehicle crashworthiness is generally depending on the researchers' experiences. In this paper, different deformation modes of energy absorption components are studied. More specifically, the bumper, crash box, the front longitudinal beam and the engine/firewall have different frequency characteristics in the deformation process. According to these characteristics, it is possible to identify the performance of each component in the crash process of assembled structures. To achieve this goal, the crash response of the passenger cabin is decomposed by the time-frequency transformation. Different frequency components exist mainly in a specified period of the crash process.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1540
Timothy Keon
Abstract The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has performed research investigating the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint 50th male (THOR-50M) response in Oblique crash tests. This research is being expanded to investigate THOR-50M in the driver position in a 56 km/h frontal impact crash. Hybrid III 5th percentile adult female (AF05) anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were used in this testing to evaluate the RibEye Deflection Measurement System. The AF05 ATDs were positioned in the right front passenger and right rear passenger seating positions. For the right front passenger, the New Car Assessment Procedure (NCAP) seating procedure was used, except the seat fore-aft position was set to mid-track. For the right rear passenger, the seating followed the FMVSS No. 214 Side Impact Compliance Test Procedure. The NCAP frontal impact test procedure was followed with additional vehicle instrumentation and pre/post-test measurements.
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