Display:

Results

Viewing 31 to 60 of 16510
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1524
Feng Zhu, Binhui Jiang, Clifford C. Chou
This paper represents the development of a new design methodology based on data mining theory for decision making in vehicle crashworthy products development. The new methodology allows exploring the big crash simulation dataset to discover the underlying complicated relationships between vehicle crash responses and design variables at multi-levels, and deriving design rules based on the whole vehicle safety requirements to make decisions towards the component and sub-component level design. The method to be developed will resolve the issue of existing design approaches for vehicle crashworthiness, i.e. limited information exploring capability from big datasets, which may hamper the decision making and lead to a poor design. A preliminary design case study is presented to demonstrate the performance of the new method. This method will have direct impacts on improving vehicle safety design and can readily be applied to other complex systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1498
Hironori Wakana, Masuyoshi Yamada, Minoru Sakairi
The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and it must be solved. In Japan, to reduce the number of accidents caused by drunk driving, the drivers of buses and trucks have been required to carry out an alcohol check before taking the wheel since 2011. We have been studying an alcohol detection system in breath for safe driving since 2008. This paper reports on a portable device that enables checking the sobriety of drivers using a breath-alcohol-detection system. The system consists of a water vapor sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors, for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of this system’s features is that the system detects water vapor from human exhaled breath to prevent false detection by fake gases. Each gas concentration is calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the exhaled breath, we applied AC voltage between the two electrodes of the water sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1532
Kyoungtaek Kwak, Seungwoo SEO, Randi Potekin, Antoine Blanchard, Alexander Vakakis, Donald McFarland, Lawrence Bergman
In order to secure the safety of the passengers, the door should be kept closed during side impact crash and many car makers conduct a various research on this area. Typically, there are two major factors that affect the opening of door during side impact crash tests. One is a physical failure such as the damage of linkage of door locking system, which can be intuitively analyzed and resolved. The other is the inertia effect due to the instantaneous impact and deformation between a barrier and door outer panel. In case that the door opening is, however, resulted from the inertia effect, it is difficult to be intuitively resolved because it takes extremely short time less than 30ms for a whole phenomenon to come out. Also, because the randomly deformed outer panel due to the crash generates not only translational but also angular accelerations that more complicatedly affect dynamic behavior of door handle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1477
The ability to accurately calculate a snowmobile’s speed based on measured track marks in the snow is important when assessing a snowmobile accident. The characteristics and length of visible snowmobile track marks were documented for 41 locked-track braking tests and 38 rolldown tests using four modern snowmobiles on a groomed/packed snow surface. The documented track mark lengths were used to quantify the uncertainty associated with using track mark length to estimate initial speed. Regression models were developed for both data sets. The regression model of the locked-track tests revealed that using an average deceleration of 0.36g over the length of the locked track mark provides a good estimate of the best-fit line through the data, with the upper and lower 95th percentile prediction interval bounds best represented by using deceleration rates of 0.23g and 0.52g respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1501
Aditya Belwadi, Richard Hanna
Automotive interior design optimization must balance the design of the vehicle seat and occupant space for safety, comfort and aesthetics with the accommodation of add-on restraint products such as child restraint systems (CRS). It is important to understand the range of CRS dimensions so that this balance can be successfully negotiated. CRS design is constantly changing. In particular, the introduction of side impact protection for CRS as well as emphasis on ease of CRS installation has likely changed key design points of many child restraints. This ever-changing target creates a challenge for vehicle manufacturers to assure their vehicle seats and occupant spaces are compatible with the range of CRS on the market. To date, there is no accepted method for quantifying the geometry of child seats such that new designs can be catalogued in a simple, straightforward way.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1404
Steven E. Hodges
Fire protection, active and passive, has been, and is, an active area of concern during the design, development and deployment phases for all modern ground vehicles. All US military vehicles carry handheld fire extinguishers, and many tactical and all combat vehicles have automatic fire protection systems that protect the crew, engine, and in some cases, external components such as fuel tanks and wheels, from potentially catastrophic combat events involving fire. Vehicle designs also mitigate fire hazards by separating the vehicle occupants from the most flammable materials, e.g., fuel and ammunition, as much as practical. Explosion protection of the crew and passengers in military vehicles is a unique application with unique requirements that must balance suppr3ession effects with safety limits. This paper presents an overview of general guidelines related to protecting military ground vehicle crews from injury due to fire, and lessons learned from the experiences of fielded systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
The paper is focused on both the the subjective and the objective ride comfort of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride confort was performed. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective drivers' feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1639
An investigation into two new control strategies for the vehicle Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) are made for a possible replacement of current non-optimal slip control method. In an emergency braking situation, there is a maximum braking force that can be applied at the wheel in which the vehicle does not slide and lose steering control. This maximum braking force is dictated by a number of uncertain conditions and parameters e.g. road type, tire condition, tire temperature, etc. Current ABS in use today attempt to provide the maximum braking force by providing an increase in brake pressure until the wheel slides, then lets off the pressure and repeats. This algorithm is not ideal and non-optimal as it simply reacts to wheel sliding in order to provide the maximum braking force. Furthermore, for most drivers, the subjective brake pedal feedback from this strategy is poor. This paper/work applies two techniques in order to maximize the braking force without any tire sliding.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1667
Long Chen, Shuwei Zhang, Mingyuan Bian, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li
As one characteristic parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measurement of the road friction potential is an expensive work for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper, which aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0069
Dae-Kyoo Kim, Eunjee Song, Huafeng Yu
Cyber security concerns in the automotive industry have been constantly increasing as automobiles are more computerized and networked. AUTOSAR is the standard architecture for automotive software, addressing various aspects of software development including security. The current version of AUTOSAR is concerned with only cryptography-based security for secure authentication at the communication level. However, there has been an increasing need for security on authorization to control access to software resources in the automobile. In this paper, we introduce attribute-based access control (ABAC) to AUTOSAR to address access control concerns in automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0432
Xincheng Liang
Vibration energy may cause thermal failure of shock absorber when vehicles are driving on the terrible roads. If the energy can be regenerated, the thermal failure is eliminated entirely and the driving range is enhanced a lot for electric vehicles. Hence, a system of recycling vibration is proposed, and some curves, including force-displacement and rotating speed of the motor, are also got in the paper. In order to validate the credibility of simulations, a test bench is built and concerned data have been collected. In addition, some factors, which are closely related to the performance of riding comfort, are analyzed. Simulation and experiment results indicate bubbles in the oil are vital to the reliability of recycling system, and the damping resistance should be in the more appropriate scope. So the structure of recycling vibration system must be optimized, and the more excellent feature of recycling system is expected.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1439
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Robert Marini, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson, Matthew Rizzo
We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 36 younger drivers (25-50, mean = 36 years) and 36 older drivers (65-90, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0114
Chris Schwarz, Timothy Brown, John Lee, John Gaspar, Julie Kang
Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs, lane position and the like. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1500
Renran Tian, Keyu Ruan, Lingxi Li, Jerry Le, Mike Rao
Driver state sensing technologies start to be widely used in vehicular systems developed from different manufacturers. To optimize the cost and minimize the intrusiveness towards driving, majority of these systems rely on the in-cabin camera(s) and other optical sensors. With their great capabilities of detecting and intervening driver distraction and inattention, these technologies might become key components in future vehicle safety and control systems. However, currently there is no common standard available to compare the performance of these technologies, thus it is necessary to develop one standardized process for the evaluation purpose.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1474
Edward C. Fatzinger, Tyler L. Shaw, Jon B. Landerville
Six electronic needle-display speedometers from five different manufacturers were tested in order to determine the behavior of the gauge following a power interruption and impact. Subject motorcycles were accelerated to pre-determined speeds, at which point the speedometer wiring harnesses was disconnected. The observed results were that the dial indicator would move slightly up, down, or remain in place depending on the model of the speedometer. The observed change of indicated speed was within +/- 7mph upon power loss. Additionally, the speedometers were subjected to impact testing to further analyze needle movement due to collision forces. Speedometers were attached to a linear drop rail apparatus instrumented with an accelerometer. A minimum acceleration due to impact which could cause needle movement was measured for each speedometer assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0149
Mehdi Jalalmaab, Mohammad Pirani
This paper presents a multi-agent estimation approach to identify unknown parameters of autonomous vehicle environment in presence of communication fault in vehicular network. For some application, e.g. look-ahead road condition estimation, it is required for an agent to have access to other agents’ measurements, particularly frontal vehicles to predict the upcoming situations. By taking the advantage of the hybrid nature of the cooperative estimation problem, short time scale for V2V communication and longer time scale for single agent estimation convergence, the authors provide a multi agent consensus estimation, with an observer to access other agents’ measurements even for out of range agents in faulty network. Furthermore, the described estimation strategy is implemented in an adaptive model predictive collision avoidance policy for unknown road condition driving situation to demonstrate the application of proposed cooperative estimation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1523
Libo Cao, Changhai Yao, Hequan Wu
The traditional deterministic optimal design mostly is based on meeting regulatory requirements specified in impact standards ,without taking the randomness of the impact velocity and impact angle at the real world situation into consideration. This often leads to the optimization results that converge to the boundary constraints, thus cannot meet the reliability requirements of the product design. This paper deals with optimization of B-pillar inner panel, outer panel, and the reinforcing plate which plays a major role in the safety performance in side impact crashes by considering their dimensions and materials as the design variables, and the impact velocity and impact angle from real-world traffic accident conditions as the random variable inputs . Using combined design of experiment, response surface models, reliability theory and the reliability of design optimization method, a B-pillar was constructed based on the product quality engineering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
In china there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. Driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied in this paper. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis. The results show that driver brake parameters under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist obey log-normal distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0398
Yuqing Zheng, Xichan Zhu, Xueqing Dong
Customer demand and safety regulatory requirements continue to drive automakers to develop vehicles with better fuel efficiency and structural performance. To overcome some drawbacks of using AHSS (Advanced High Strength Steel) in hard machining and part welding for vehicle weight reduction, such as brittleness, spot weld HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) softening and high cost. The strength distribution and energy absorption behavior of thin-walled box structures with higher strength in ridgelines under bending and axial compressive load were firstly studied in this paper by describing different collapse modes in the ridgeline and flat plate. And the corresponding energy absorption evaluations are theoretically derived. Furthermore, the CAE simulation models for above structures are developed to demonstrate the theoretical conclusions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1472
Dietmar Otte, Martin Urban lng, Heiko Johannsen PhD
This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash . The new method has been developed by the Medical University Hannover and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file of in-depth-data into a scenario-database. In order to analyse boundary conditions (e.g. introduction of certain active safety systems), a so-called Pre Crash Matrix (PCM) of time related parameter of the pre crash phase was developed by the Dresden Accident Research Team (VUFO) in 2008 . By using the PCM and including 5 seconds before the crash, the driving behaviours of the vehicles is digitalized out of PC-Crash data and the scenarios are analysed, whether or not a sensor system would have been able to recognise the dangerous situation in time to avoid or mitigate the accident.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1484
Terry D. Day
This paper presents the application of simulation software to reconstruct the famous car chase scene from the 1968 movie “Bullit.” In this car chase, a 1968 Ford Mustang, driven by Lt. Frank Bullit of the San Francisco Police Department, is chasing a criminal driving a 1968 Dodge Charger through the hilly streets of the Russian Hill district of San Francisco. The purpose of the simulation was to reconstruct the chase scene to determine the level of realism. To produce the simulation, several city blocks of the pertinent area of the city were surveyed and exemplar vehicles were measured and inspected. 3-dimensional computer models of the scene and vehicles were built. The movie footage was analyzed to determine driver inputs and vehicle speeds. The event was then simulated using 3-dimensional simulation software. The results of the simulation confirmed the vehicles could not have navigated through the course at the speeds shown in the movie.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
As part of active safety systems, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS) is being studied currently by several vehicle manufactures to help reduce bicyclist fatalities and injuries. This paper describes the development of surrogate bicycle with a bicyclist mannequin on top to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicyclist is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicycles and cyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch mountain bike which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the 10 different adult sized bicycles. The surrogate bicycle is constructed with detachable components with shatter resistant material to prevent structural damage during collision, and matches the look and RCS of a real 26 inch mountain bicycle from all 360 degree angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. Bicyclist PCS (Pre-Collision System) is being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis of the United States national crash databases (FARS and GES) and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of highest occurring test scenarios, and the motion speed and profile of bicycle carrier. The carrier was designed as an autonomous platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system. Each wheel is an independent suspension system to protect motors, gears and reduce the vibrations. The height of carrier was minimized to 78mm to reduce the interference to PCS sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Topology optimization is an effective tool to find the optimal structural layout in the concept design stage of the automotive industry. Mostly, topology optimization is carried out with linear finite element analysis because of its simplicity. However, in the real world, structural problems always involve various nonlinear and dynamic responses. Thus, there is a growing requirement to consider crashworthiness performance in the topology optimization process of the automotive development. In current study, a topology optimization method based on equivalent static loads method (ESL) is proposed to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative crash loads. The chosen load conditions are frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and high speed rear impact.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1482
Paul Montalbano, Daniel Melcher, Rachel Keller, Thomas Rush, Jay Przybyla
There have been a number of methods presented previously in the literature that attempt to address the challenging process of determining the actual impact speed of a motorcycle at its point of contact with another, typically larger and heavier, vehicle or object. Published works specifically addressing the impact speed portion of the event have included the utilization of the conservation of rotational momentum, the use of crush-based methodologies utilizing the damage profiles of both the motorcycle and the struck vehicle, the application of the conservation of linear momentum, or computer simulation modeling. However, all of the introduced methods to date have known limitations and challenges in gathering adequate data. Unlike passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles, most motorcycles and scooters carry no on-board electronic data recorders to provide insight into the impact phase of the collision.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0081
Husein Dakroub, Adnan Shaout, Arafat Awajan
Connectivity has become an essential need for daily device users. With the car projected to be the "ultimate mobile device", connectivity modules will eventually be mainstream in every car. Network providers are expanding their infrastructure and technology to accommodate the connected cars. Besides making voice and emergency calls the connected car will be sharing data with telematics service providers, back end systems and other vehicles. This trend will increase vehicle modules, complexity, entry points and vulnerabilities. This paper will present the current connected car architectures. The paper will present current architectural issues of the connected car and its vulnerabilities. The paper will present a suggested architecture for the future connected car that enhances efficiency and security.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0068
Yoshihiro Ujiie, Tomoyuki Haga, Takeshi Kishikawa, Tohru Wakabayashi, Yoshihiko Kitamura, Hideki Matsushima, Masato Tanabe, Jun Anzai
Controller Area Network (CAN) is a technology widely adopted among vehicles but its vulnerability has been pointed out recently. Many countermeasures have been proposed, but none of them can be deemed as a generic solution. One reason is that those proposed countermeasures all require a heavy level of modification to the existing in-vehicle system.In order to accomplish this problem, we propose new methods to protect CAN network without affecting the existing system. In this paper, we explain the principle of our proposed method as well as the architecture of the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) that implements it, report the result of our experiments, and show the effects against spoofing attacks as well as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1452
Eiichiro Murata, tasuku usui, kazunori nogi, hiroyuki takahashi
The purpose of this study is to clarify the TTC (Time-to-Collision) distribution when approaching the preceding vehicle under driver’s normal operation. To improve the effectiveness of the PCS (Pre-Collision Safety), the activate timing shall be earlier. However, too early timing may interfere with the driver’s avoidance operation. If the TTC distribution can be approximated by a probability distribution, it can be used to estimate how close approach to the preceding car, and consider the setting to maximize the effectiveness of the PCS. In this study, we examine to clarify the TTC distribution using log-normal distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1370
Vali Farahani, Salamah Maaita, Aditya Jayanthi
During the course of automobile Instrument Panel (IP) design development, the occupant head impact CAE simulation on IP are routinely performed to validate FMVSS201 requirements. Based on FMVSS201 requirements, the potential head impact zones on the IP are first identified. Then, the head impact zones are used to locate the various target points that must be impacted on IP. Once the critical target locations on IP are chosen, there are several computational steps that are required to calculate impact angles and head form (HF) center of rotation in reference to target points. Then, CAE engineer performs a repetitive process that involves positioning each individual HF with proper impact angle, assigning initial velocity to HF, and defining surface contacts within the finite element model (FEM). To simplify these lengthy manual steps, a commercially available CAE software tool is used to automate these steps.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1528
Peijun Ji, Qing Zhou
For crash protection, it is desirable that the restraint loads are spread to the sturdy parts of human body such as head, shoulders, rib cage, pelvis and femurs, as uniformly as possible. However, seatbelts and airbags may have some deficiency in this regard even though they have been proved to be effective restraint devices for occupant impact protection. Seatbelt could generate unwanted local penetrations to the chest and abdomen and airbag could pose disproportional risks to small stature and out-of-position occupants. The problem is more prominent in severe crash. Some study has also shown that restraint in the vehicles on the market today could not efficiently protect occupants in high-speed crash, however they are optimized. This paper explores a uniform restraint concept aiming at providing protection at higher impact velocity. In this study, we use THUMS 50th percentile occupant model to simulate sled test frontal impact loading.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 16510

Filter