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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1443
Morteza Seidi, Marzieh Hajiaghamemar, James Ferguson, Vincent Caccese
Falls in the elderly population is an important concern to individuals, family, friends, and in the healthcare industry. When the head is left unprotected, head impact levels can reach upwards of 500 g (gravitational acceleration), which is a level that can cause serious injury or death. A protective system for a fall injury needs to be designed with specific criteria in mind including energy protection level, thickness, stiffness, weight, and cost among others. The current study quantifies the performance of a protective head gear design for persons prone to falls. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the injury mitigation of head protection gear made from a patented system of polyurethane honeycomb and dilatant materials. To that end, a twin wire fall system equipped with a drop arm that includes a Hybrid-III head/neck assembly was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Over the past two decades, extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the performance of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions, as well the potential for injury though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Traditionally, the rollover tests utilized a test fixture to initiate the rollover event. Examples of various test methodologies include dolly rollovers, inverted drop tests, ramp-induced rollovers, curb-tripped rollover, and CRIS Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used in pickup trucks and SUVs to initiate steering induced rollovers, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. This study presents a series of rollover tests utilizing a crew-cab pickup and a mid-sized sedan which resulted in a steering-induced soil-tripped rollover.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1487
Andreas Teibinger, Harald Marbler-Gores, Harald Schluder, Veit Conrad, Hermann Steffan, Josef Schmidauer
Structural component testing is essential for the development process to have an early knowledge of the real world behaviour of critical structural components in crash load cases. This is due to the earlier availability and lower cost of hardware components in comparison to the whole vehicle. Current approaches mainly use originally moving deformable barriers and therefore a full vehicle test facility is needed. The objective of this work is to show the development for a self-sufficient structural component test bench, which can be used for different side impact crash load cases. The test bench is designed with simulations and includes a control for the force impact. This test bench is able to reproduce the same intrusion speeds as in whole vehicle tests and doesn’t block a full vehicle test facility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1476
P Selvakumar, Arun Mahajan, R Murasolimaran, C Elango
Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to reduce costs and shorten product development cycle, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. Often correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. This research has the proposal of showing the correlation between simulation and prototype test results of tractor ROPS. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop Parameswaraiah
Glare is subjective and can cause either disability or discomfort to eyes. A recent report from NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) shows that 22,487 deaths occurred in the year 2012. FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) shows that 10,480 deaths occur at night time. This accounts to 48% fatalities during night time. Thus glare during driving, especially at night time is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper consists of two promising technologies that can help in reducing glare. The system level design comprises of vision based identification of glare source. And a device placed between the driver and source is controlled for its transmittance. By changing the transparency locally the glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1450
Jeremy Daily, Andrew Kongs, James Johnson, Jose Corcega
The proper investigation of crashes involving commercial vehicles is critical for fairly assessing liability and damages, if they exist. In addition to traditional physics based approaches, the digital records stored within heavy vehicle electronic control modules (ECMs) are useful in determining the events leading to a crash. Traditional methods of extracting digital data use proprietary diagnostic and maintenance software and require a functioning ECM. However, some crashes induce damage that renders the ECM inoperable, even though it may still contain data. As such, the objective of this research is to examine the digital record in an ECM and understand its meaning. The research was performed on a Detroit Diesel DDEC V engine control module. The data extracted from the flash memory chips include: Last Stop Record, two Hard Brake events, and the Daily Engine Usage Log. The procedure of extracting and reading the memory chips is explained.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1472
Roberto Arienti, Carlo Cantoni, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu, Mario Pennati, Giorgio Previati
The lightweight seat of a high performance car is designed taking into account a rear impact. The basic parameters of the seat structure are derived resorting to the simulation of a crash test. A dummy is positioned on the seat and subject to a rear impulse. The simulations provide the dynamic loads acting on the seat structure, in particular the ones applied at the joint between the seat cushion and the seat backrest. Such a joint is simulated as a plastic hinge and dissipates some of the crash energy. By means of the simulations the proper parameters of the plastic hinge can be derived to design a safe seat. The simulations are validated by means of indoor tests with satisfactory results. By using the validated model, the influence of seat cushion and backrest parameters on seat passenger's injury are studied. An efficient tool has been developed for the preliminary design of lightweight seats for high performance cars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0203
Brian Anderson, Mark Brooks, Ryan Wilson, Purser K. Sturgeon II
There are several wireless interfaces in modern vehicles to include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), and the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS). Each of these could serve as an attack surface where direct physical access may not be needed to gain some influence over a part of the vehicle's operation. Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology is extremely useful in performing research into new protocols and protocol variations because of its extreme flexibility and configurability. In addition, researchers may use SDR technology to investigate and gain control over portions of the communication process that are typically proprietary. This presentation will review previous and projected uses of SDR technology to investigate wireless security threats on vehicles, including research on DSRC and cellular (3G and LTE) technology that is being carried out by the authors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate ejection mitigation countermeasures that are intended to help minimize the likelihood of a complete and/or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this new safety ruling is a deployable restraint; specifically a Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an improved simulation response, with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements of a SABIC. The simulated SABIC system is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1700
John D. Bullough
Warning lights and beacons on service vehicles such as maintenance trucks, tow trucks, utility service vehicles and delivery vehicles are an important line of defense for the workers who operate them. These lights can also contribute to visual chaos making it difficult to navigate through a work zone location. Research on the flashing configuration and spatial and temporal coordination of warning lights that adapt to ambient conditions and situations will be described, leading to recommendations for preliminary performance specifications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1703
John D. Bullough
Assessing the safety impacts of vehicle forward lighting is a challenge because crash data do not always contain details necessary to ascertain the role, if any, of lighting in crashes. The present paper will describe several approaches to evaluating the safety impacts of lighting using naturalistic driving data. Driving behavioral data and records of near-miss incidents might provide new opportunities to understand how forward lighting improves traffic safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1484
Daniel E. Toomey, Eric S. Winkel, Ram Krishnaswami
The evolution of airbag sensing system design has been rapid as electromechanical sensors used in earlier front airbag applications have been replaced by multi-point electronic sensors used to discriminate collision mechanics for potential airbag deployment in front, side and rollover accidents. In addition to multi-point electronic sensors, advanced airbag systems incorporate a variety of state sensors such as seat belt use status, seat track location, and occupant size classification that are taken into consideration by airbag system algorithms and occupant protection deployment strategies. Historically, traditional reconstruction methods and full scale vehicle crash testing were the primary means available to evaluate the field performance of passenger vehicle airbag systems. Electronic sensing systems have allowed for the advent of electronic data recorders (EDRs), which over the past decade, have provided increasingly more information related to airbag deployment events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0310
R Danymol, Krishnan Kutty
Camera sensors that are made of silicon photodiodes, used in ordinary digital cameras are sensitive to visible as well as NIR wavelength. However, since the human vision is sensitive only in the visible region, a hot mirror/infrared blocking filters are used in cameras. Certain complimentary attributes of NIR data are, therefore, lost in this process. RGB and NIR images are captured in entirely two different spectra/wavelength, thereby retaining different information. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate an NIR image from a given optical image. This was undertaken using the compressed sensing framework. The NIR data estimation is formulated as an image recovery problem in compressed sensing. The NIR data is considered as missing pixel information and its approximation is done during the image recovery phase. Thus for a given optical image, with NIR data being considered as missing information, the recovered NIR data gives the corresponding NIR image.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0312
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
Advanced driver assistance systems have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrade the image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low light condition, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, an image enhancement algorithm is proposed that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0311
Reecha Yadav, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty, Vinay Vaidya, Sunita Ugale
In view of the continuous efforts by the automotive fraternity, for achieving traffic safety, detecting pedestrians from image/video has become an extensively researched topic in recent times. The task of detecting pedestrians in the urban traffic scene is complicated by the considerations involving pedestrian figure size, articulation, fast dynamics, background clutter, etc. A number of methods using different sensor technologies have been proposed in the past for the problem of pedestrian detection. To limit the scope, this paper reviews the techniques involved in day-time detection of pedestrians, with emphasis on the methods making use of a monocular visible-spectrum sensor. The paper achieves its objective by discussing the basic framework involved in detecting a pedestrian, while elaborating the requisites and the existing methodologies for implementing each stage of the basic framework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0318
Sonu Thomas, Krishnan Kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
Dense depth estimation is a critical application in the field of robotics and machine vision where the depth perception is essential. Unlike traditional approaches which use expensive sensors such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) devices or stereo camera setup, the proposed approach for depth estimation uses a single camera mounted on a rotating platform. This proposed setup is an effective replacement to usage of multiple cameras, which provide around view information required for some operations in the domain of autonomous vehicles and robots. Dense depth estimation of local scene is performed using the proposed setup. This is a novel, however challenging task because baseline distance between camera positions inversely affect common regions between images. The proposed work involves dense two view reconstruction and depth map merging to obtain a reliable large dense depth map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0369
Rupesh Sonu Kakade
Apart from thermal comfort of occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is the primary objective of automotive climate control systems. Integrated dew point and glass temperature is widely used senor among several technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the windshield. The erroneous information from sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to delayed response of climate control system. A differential equation model of cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time the ambient humidity of passenger compartment. The specific humidity from the model is used to determine relative humidity for a known window surface temperature. The uniform spatial distribution of cabin air humidity is used to advantage. However non-uniform distribution of window surface temperature and the uncertainty of parameters of differential equation model are evaluated to determine risk of fogging to an acceptable accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0267
Ryoichi Inada, Teppei Hirotsu, Yasushi Morita, Takahiro Hata
ISO 26262 is a standard for functional safety of road vehicles. Automotive manufacturers and suppliers are developing electronic control unit (ECU) that complies with the standard. The standard requires the manufacturers to perform quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of the ECU that is defined as fault rate that is covered by safety mechanisms, and show evidence that the DC is above a specific threshold. We can refer to some generic fault diagnostic methods and their DC value prescribed in the standard. However, it is not practical to claim validity of the DC value if we simply refer to DC in the standard. Also, we have to evaluate the DC value separately, if we introduce a proprietary fault diagnostic method other than the methods described in the standard. In this paper, we propose a novel method for quantitatively evaluating the DC value.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0275
Gokul Krithivasan, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
In ISO 26262, the top-level safety goals are derived using the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment. Functional safety requirements (FSR) are then derived from these safety goals in the concept phase (ISO 26262-3:2011). The standard does not call out a specific method to develop these FSRs from safety goals. However, ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6, of the standard does establish requirements to ensure consistent management and correct specification of safety requirements with respect to their attributes and characteristics throughout the safety lifecycle. In a way, there is an expectation on the part of system engineers to bridge this gap. We are proposing an approach and method in this paper which utilizes concepts from process modeling to ensure the completeness of these requirements, eliminate any external inconsistencies between them and improve verifiability – important requirements laid down in the above mentioned ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1415
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
The number of traffic deaths in Japan decreased over the past 20 years to 4373 in 2013. Among accident types of road-accident fatalities, only cyclist fatalities increased in number from 2012 to 2013, from 563 to 600, an increase of 7%. The Japanese government began assessing the safety performance of car bonnet tops in terms of pedestrian deaths in 2005, but there has been no effective regulation for cyclist protection in Japan. The implementation of countermeasures that reduce the severity of injuries and number of deaths in traffic accidents requires a detailed understanding of the features of cyclist injuries in vehicle-versus-cyclist accidents. The aim of this study is to clarify the circumstances in which cyclists are injured.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1428
Shane Richardson, Andreas Moser, Tia Lange Orton, Roger Zou
Currently techniques that can be used to evaluate and analyse lateral impact speeds of vehicle crashes with poles are based on measuring the deformation crush and using lateral crash stiffness data to estimate the impact speed. However, in some cases the stiffness data is based on broad object side impacts rather than pole impacts. The premise is that broad object side impact tests can be used for narrow object impacts; previous authors have identified the fallacy of this premise. Publicly available pole crash test data is evaluated. A range of simulated pole impact tests at various speeds and impact angles are conducted on validated publicly available Finite Element Vehicle models of a 1991 Ford Taurus, a 1994 Chevrolet C2500 and a 1997 Geo Metro (Suzuki Swift), providing a relationship between impact speed, crush depth and impact angle. This paper builds on previous publications and contains additional pole tests and new Finite Element Analyses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1429
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 has requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance angles, up to 45 degree. In the author’s preliminary research, all DOT-C2 retroreflective tape on the market is advertised as meeting and exceeding FMVSS No. 108 requirements. The author’s literature review revealed that there have been no peer-reviewed publications measuring the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape would perform, beyond the minimum federal requirements. Therefore, the authors have measured the performance of different types of retroreflective tape with a laboratory grade retroreflectometer. The authors attempted to study a range of popular, commercially available, DOT-C2 retroreflective tape. In this study, 3M 963, 3M 983, Grote, and Trucklite DOT-C2 retoreflective tape was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1427
Jay Przybyla, Jason Jupe, Thomas Rush, Rachel Keller
Vehicles involved in rollover accidents can leave debris trails which can include glass from broken windows. The glass patterns can be useful in identifying the vehicle path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle-to-ground impacts. The location of glass, which is often window specific, can be used to identify where the window fractured during the rollover sequence. The longevity of the glass debris fields, subject to various real-world conditions and disturbances (i.e. slope, weather, mowing, soil type, etc.), was tested over a period of two years. The glass debris fields were placed and mapped in multiple locations across the United States. Periodically during each year, the glass debris fields were examined and the new field extents were mapped. The comparison between the original debris field and the subsequent debris fields are presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1432
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Accident reconstruction experts are often asked to evaluate the visibility and conspicuity of objects in the roadway. It is common for some of these objects, and required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 for certain vehicles and trailers, to have red and white DOT-C2 retroreflective tape installed on several locations. Retroreflective tape is designed to reflect light back towards the light source, at the same entrance angle. FMVSS No. 108 has performance requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance angles, up to 45 degree. The federal requirement for minimum performance of the retroreflective tape at 45 degrees is significantly less than the federal requirement for minimum performance of the retroreflective tape at 4 degrees. Additionally, the federal requirement for the minimum performance of white retroreflective tape is significantly different than the federal requirement for the minimum performance of red retroreflective tape.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1430
Brian Gilbert, Joseph McCarthy, Ron Jadischke
Objectives: The analysis and modeling of vehicle crush in accident reconstruction has traditionally been based upon the use of linear crush-based, stiffness coefficients. Recent research has allowed for the calculation and implementation of non-linear crush coefficients. Through the use of Engineering Dynamics Corporation (EDC) accident reconstruction software Human-Vehicle-Environment (HVE), which contains the collision algorithm called DyMESH (DYnamic MEchanical SHell), these coefficients have increased the accuracy of predicted crash pulse data. Research on non-linear crush coefficients thus far has been limited to frontal impacts into rigid barriers. Side Impact tests are typically more complex than a frontal collision testing. One form of side impact tests involve a Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB) impacting a stationary subject vehicle at a crab angle of 26-27 degrees.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1418
Shane Richardson, Nikola Josevski, Andreas Sandvik, Tandy Pok, Tia Lange Orton, Blake Winter, Xu Wang
Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However based on investigated pedestrian collisions there is a depending on where and how the vehicle and pedestrian engaged with one another, the definition of the engagement can and does significantly influence the throw distance. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at multiple speeds and pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots were created. The pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of vehicle types and pedestrian sizes are presented.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1419
Raymond M. Brach
Numerous algebraic formulas and mathematical models exist for the reconstruction of vehicle speed of a vehicle-pedestrian collision using pedestrian throw distance. Unfortunately a common occurrence is that the throw distance is not known from accident evidence. When this is the case almost all formulas and models lose their utility. The model developed by Han and Brach published in 2001 is an exception because it can reconstruct vehicle speed based on the distance between the rest positions of the vehicle and pedestrian. The Han-Brach model is comprehensive and contains crash parameters such as pedestrian launch angle, height of the center of gravity of the pedestrian at launch, pedestrian-road surface friction, vehicle-road surface friction, road grade angle, etc. This approach provides versatility and allows variations of these variables to be taken into account for investigation of uncertainty.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1416
Clay Coleman, Donald Tandy, Jason Colborn, Nicholas Ault
In the field of accident reconstruction, a reconstructionist will often inspect a crash scene months or years after a wreck has occurred. With this passage of time important evidence is sometimes no longer present at the scene (i.e. the vehicles involved in the crash, debris on the roadway, tire marks, gouges, paint marks, etc.). When a scene has not been totally documented with a survey by MAIT or the investigating officers, the only hope for the reconstructionist is to rely on police, fire department, security camera, or witness photographs. Traditionally, these photos can be used to locate missing evidence by employing photogrammetric techniques. However, these techniques are limited to planar surfaces and/or the pairing of discrete points between the original photographs and the scene.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1417
Jeffrey Muttart
An analysis was performed utilizing the results from seven emergency steering studies and four routine lane change studies. Closed course and naturalistic research were included. These studies showed that in a routine lane change, Drivers reached peak lateral acceleration approximately one-second after steering after which lateral acceleration decreases linearly. These results were consistent with those from forward and backing acceleration research published elsewhere. Though, when drivers steered in response to an emergency situation, again, peak lateral acceleration occurred near one-second after steering onset, but average lateral acceleration decreased non-linearly. This non-linear decrease between onset of steering and completion of the maneuver was indicative of counter-steering, or reduced subsequent steering (straightening). The results show that the average lateral acceleration could be modeled with a power function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1420
John C. Steiner, John Olsen, Tom Walli, Tyler Kress, Christopher Armstrong, Ralph Gallagher, Stein Husher, John Kyes
Traditional accident reconstruction analysis methodologies include the study of the crush-energy relationship of vehicles. By analyzing the measured crush from a vehicle involved in a real world accident, to crush measured at a known energy in a crash test, the real world vehicle’s damage energy, the forces of the impact, and change-in-velocity (or Delta-V) can be evaluated. The largest source of publically available crash tests is from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), which conducts and reports on numerous Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) compliance and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) testing for many passenger vehicles for sale in the United States.
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