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Viewing 31 to 60 of 17251
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1435
Yucheng Liu
A data acquisition system along with a sensor package was designed and installed on an existing mechanically-controlled cargo tractor to gather more data on their usage patterns. The data collected through the developed system include GPS route, vehicle speed and acceleration, engine state, transmission state, seat occupancy, fuel level, and video recording. The sensor package was designed and integrated in a way that does not interfere with the driver’s operation of the cargo tractor. Cellular network connectivity was employed to retrieve sensor data so as to minimize human effort and maintain typical usage patterns of the outfitted cargo tractors. Testing and validation results showed that the developed system can correctly and effectively record data necessary for further analysis and optimization. A fuel usage analysis was then completed using a chassis dynamometer based on the collected data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Regulation and certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and type approval. Self-certification requirements, currently used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations, must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements, currently used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations, can be more general relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of a 3rd party is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1410
Richard F Lambourn, James Manning
It occasionally happens, following a collision between a car and a pedestrian or in a deliberate assault with a motor vehicle, that the pedestrian comes to be caught or wedged beneath the car, and that the driver then travels on for a considerable distance, afterwards claiming to have been unaware of the presence of the person. In such incidents, investigators are often incredulous that the driver should not have been able to “feel” that there was something underneath his car, and that he did not stop at least to find out what the problem was. The only practical way of investigating the matter further is to carry out practical tests with a suitable car and dummy. This paper describes the tests performed by the authors following one such incident, and begins with accounts of two previous incidents investigated in a more subjective fashion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1362
James Marr, William Neale, tomas owens, Steven Beier
In 2016, Virtual Reality equipment became both affordable and available to the public market in the form of the Oculus (tm) and Vive (tm). This equipment includes a headset and earphone system that create a fully immersive environment for the user, and provides added abilities over traditional visualization tools like 2-D animation. These abilities include choosing where one looks, and for how long, and a spatial and depth perception, and auditory experience that traditional 2 D visualization cannot achieve without the headgear. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of this equipment in several driving and pedestrian simulation environments for both daytime and nighttime scenarios. As part of the study, the VR environment was compared to photographs, videos, and 2D visualizations of each of the scenarios to evaluate the level of realism achieved by the VR equipment. This was done through feedback from participants and through quantitative comparison of imagery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1368
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Steven Suway
Mapping the luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Such mappings are useful for a variety of purposes, including determining the effectiveness and appropriateness of lighting installations, and performing visibility analyses for accident case studies. One of the most common methods for mapping luminance is to use a spot type luminance meter. This requires individual measurements of all objects of interest and can be extremely time consuming. Luminance cameras can also be used to create a luminance map. While luminance cameras will map a scene’s luminance values more quickly than a spot luminance meter, commercially available luminance cameras typically require long capture times during low illuminance (up to 30 seconds). Previous work has shown that pixel intensity captured by consumer-grade digital still cameras can be calibrated to measure luminance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0032
Wei Yang, Ling zheng, Yinong Li, Yue Ren, Yusheng Li
Aiming at the automatic parking system to discontinuous problems, the Sigmoid function is adopted to fit the two section parking path. The transverse preview model is established and the path tracking error is estimated. Then the preview fuzzy control algorithm is adopted to track the ideal path. Finally, PreScan virtual simulation environment is established and the information of parking spaces is obtained by ultrasonic sensors. Research results show that the coefficient of determination can reach over 0.99 between the Sigmoid function and the two-section parking path. Based on the preview fuzzy control, the car can track the planning path successfully and park into parking spaces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0379
Tau Tyan, Leonard Shaner, Matt Niesluchowski, Nand Kochhar, Dilip Bhalsod, Jason Wang PhD
Three computational fluid and gas dynamic methods, UP (Uniform Pressure), ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian), and CPM (Corpuscular Particle Method), were investigated in this research in an attempt to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors. Acceleration-based crash sensors have been used extensively in the automotive industry to determine the restraint system firing time in the event of a vehicle crash. The prediction of acceleration-based crash pulses by using computer simulations has been very challenging due to the high frequency and noisy responses obtained from the sensors, especially those installed in crush zones. As a result, the sensor algorithm developments for acceleration-based sensors are largely based on prototype testing. With the latest advancement in the crash sensor technology, side crash pressure sensors have emerged recently and are gradually replacing acceleration-based sensor for side crash applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be interpreted for model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 is about to be released. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0268
Venkatesh Babu, Richard Gerth
Friction Stir Processing (FSP) has been used to refine grain structure in sheet metals, and is based on friction stir welding (FSW) principles developed and patented by TWI Ltd, Cambridge, UK in 1991. In Friction Stir Processing (FSP) a tool generates heat from friction and pressure causing a material to become plastic without melting. The tool then mixes the base material in a circular motion as it traverses laterally through the material . It is possible to add 2D or 3D Nano particles to locally alter the material’s stiffness (young’s modulus). For example in, friction stirred TiB2 particles in cast iron resulted in over 2x hardness and wear resistance (by ASTM G35). Since FSP is not a forming process, the pattern of the ribs can be any 2D pattern (linear, circular, spiral, etc.). The main focus of the Nano-reinforced FSP is to achieve increased localized stiffness with minimal increase in density of the local material to achieve light weighting.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0377
Peter Shery, William Altenhof, Ryan Smith, Elmar Beeh, Philipp Strassburger, Thomas Gruenheid
Cylindrical extrusions of magnesium AZ31B were subjected to quasi-static axial cutting and compression modes of deformation to study this alloy’s effectiveness as an energy absorber. For comparison, the tests were repeated using extrusions of AA6061-T6 aluminum of the same geometry. Axial cutting of AA6061-T6 extrusions has been shown to be an effective, ductile mode of energy dissipation, yielding a repeatable, nearly constant load/deflection response with a crush force efficiency (CFE) up to 96%. In the present tests, the quasi-static cutting deformation of AZ31B extrusions achieved a respectable CFE of 80%, but revealed a load/deflection response with sharp, minute, rapid fluctuations, indicating an undesirable fracturing failure. Additionally, the average specific energy absorption (SEA) of AZ31B was 11 kJ/kg, which is less than half that seen for AA6061-T6 extrusions of the same geometry (24 kJ/kg).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0045
Guirong Zhuo, Cheng Wu, Fengbo Zhang
Vehicle active collision avoidance includes collision avoidance by braking and by steering, however both of these two methods have their limitations. When the vehicle’s speed is high or road adhesion coefficient is small, critical braking distance is long by braking to avoid collision, and collision avoidance by steering is restricted to the vehicle driving condition on the side lane. Therefore, it is significant to establish the feasible region of active collision avoidance to choose the optimal way to avoid traffic accidents. Model predictive control (MPC), as an optimized method, not only makes the control input of current time to achieve the best, but also can achieve the optimal control input in a future time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly search their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0110
Hao Sun, Weiwen Deng, Chen Su, Jian Wu
The ability to recognize traffic vehicles’ lane change maneuver lays the foundation for predicting their long-term trajectories in real-time, which is a key component for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and autonomous automobiles. Learning-based approach is powerful and efficient, such approach has been used to solve maneuver recognition problems of the ego vehicles on conventional researches. However, since the parameters and driving states of the traffic vehicles are hardly observed by exteroceptive sensors, the performance of traditional methods cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a novel approach using multi-class probability estimates and Bayesian inference model is proposed for traffic vehicle lane change maneuver recognition. The multi-class recognition problem is first decomposed into three binary problems under error correcting output codes (ECOC) framework.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0368
Ying Zhao, Fangwu Ma, Longfan Yang, Yueqiang Wang, Hongyu Liang
The conventional hood with single material and stiffener structural form conceals some limitations on pedestrian protection and lightweight, not satisfying the requirements of structural strength, pedestrian protection and lightweight contradictory with each other at the same time. In this paper, a novel type hood is proposed to develop sandwich structure using architected cellular material with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) configuration based on the decoupling thought of structural strength and energy absorption. Core-layer aluminum alloy material with NPR is used to meet the requirement of impact energy absorption, inner and outer skin using carbon fiber is selected to achieve high structural stiffness needed. This paper starts from the relations between geometric parameters of core-layer architected cellular material and mechanical properties, on this basis, the optimal geometric parameters can be expected using the multiobjective optimization method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1469
Tao Wang, Liangmo Wang, Jingxing Liu
To investigate the crashworthiness capacity of a M1 type commercial vehicle, the full-scale finite element (FE) model of the vehicle has been established. On basis of the FE model, the impact simulation subject to the 100% frontal impact has been carried out, and the results have been verified with the physical impact test. The analysis of the deformation path and the energy absorption indicates that the M1 vehicle lacks sufficient frontal deformation area and its peak crash acceleration (PCA) is too high, which raises a huge challenge for the sequent development of a safety restraint system. To enhance the crashworthiness of the M1 vehicle, some structural improvements have been implemented, with adding the energy absorbing box, improving the frontal frame parts and enhancing the front door. The frontal collapsing area has been investigated in order to figure out the layout position of the energy absorbing box.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1440
Shixing Chen, Ming Dong, Jerry Le, Mike Rao
Vehicle safety systems may use occupant physiological information, e.g., occupant heights and weights to further enhance occupant safety. Determining occupant physiological information in a vehicle, however, is a challenging problem due to variations in pose, lighting conditions and background complexity. In this paper, we present two novel occupant height estimation approaches. In the first (2D) approach, by detecting the occupant’s eye level, the seating height of the occupant is first computed based on the distance from a conventional camera to the occupant’s head, which is then adjusted for the seat angles received from the seat angle sensors. In the second (3D) approach, we use additional depth information from a depth camera, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. In the 3D approach, we first detect human body and frontal face views (restricted by the Pitch and Roll values in the pose estimation) based on RGB and depth information.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
In recent years, a camera monitor system which displays car-mounted camera pictures to in-vehicle displays is being developed. For a future vehicle cockpit, a field of view (FOV) support system with plural displays is assumed, which includes not only a meter and a center display, but also an HUD and the camera monitor system. As a consequence, an area occupied with displays in a driver’s FOV increases. In this situation, coexistence of “easiness in seeing” to tell a driver about dangers early and “annoying reduction” to avoid the driver’s perception drops is needed for in-vehicle displays. In order to meet this requirement, questionnaires (psychological indicator) have been conventionally used. However, here are two difficulties. One is that two items (“easiness in seeing” and “annoying”) are contrary, and the other is that the relation between a result of questionnaires and driver’s security is uncertain.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1516
Daniel B. Honeycutt, Mesbah Uddin
Although, the implementation of lift-off prevention devices such as the NASCAR roof flaps have greatly reduced the frequency and severity of race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents, airborne incidents still occur occasionally in motorsports. In many cases, contact with another vehicle contributes to the lift-off. Race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents are analyzed and factors contributing to aerodynamic lift-off of various race vehicles are discussed in this paper. This is done by using aerodynamic lift data from wind tunnel testing for various NASCAR race vehicles, such as NASCAR stock cars and trucks, and sports car prototypes. The effectiveness of existing lift-off prevention measures and future trends in lift-off prevention are discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0418
Gregory McCann, Prashant Khapane
An increase in data measurement and recording within vehicles has allowed Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) to monitor a vehicles dynamic behavior in far more detail. This increased monitoring helps to improve vehicle response in scenarios such as braking whilst cornering and braking on uneven surfaces. Durability and Robustness (D&R) CAE department within Jaguar Land Rover discovered that the lack of a complex ABS system in virtual vehicle models was contributing to poor lateral and longitudinal loads correlation throughout the suspension and mounting systems. Last year the team started a project to incorporate Continentals ABS system, provided by '©Continental AG' for physical JLR vehicles, into SIMPACK virtual vehicles by means of a co-simulation. The work involved collaboration between 3 departments in Jaguar Land Rover and ultimately led to implementation of the ABS into the JLR wide virtual database.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0476
Seiji Furusako, Masatoshi Tokunaga, Masanori Yasuyama
In order to reduce the weight of automobile body, application of high strength steel sheets is expanding. And also a middle and high carbon steel is expected to be used to lower the environmental impact and cost in the field of automobile steel sheet. However, it is necesarry for its realization to enhance the joint strengh of the steel sheets. In this study, hat-shape components were made by resistance spot welding or arc-spot welding using S45C steel sheet of 1.4mm in thick with strength of 1200MPa grade . Then dynamice three-point bending test was carried out on the components and crashworthiness of them was compared. Absorbed energy of the arc-spot welded component was higher than that of the resistance spot-welded one by 30%. Some spot welds fractured (separated) during the three-point bending test but arc-spot welds did NOT fractured. Arc-spot welding is therefore seemed to be effective to improve strength and toughness of weld for a middle and high carbon steel sheet.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1470
Prasad S. Mehta, Prasad Tapkir
The crashworthiness of a vehicle is an important factor that needs to be considered during vehicle component design. The components sustaining the axial loads and the traverse loads are the prominent contributor as far as crashworthiness of the vehicle is concerned. The B-pillar is the crucial vehicle component responsible to absorb the side impact during the side car crash, whereas S-rail is supposed to face axial loads. This paper aims to have an optimized material density distribution (topology optimization) as well as thickness variation (Design optimization) in case of the B-pillar and S-rail that have maximum energy absorption during the side crash event of the car. Initially, B-pillar was extracted from the Toyota Camry car model, whereas standard S-rail geometry is considered for the non-linear finite element analysis. The explicit code of LS-DYNA is used to perform non-linear analysis on B-pillar and S-rail. The analysis is performed according to FMVSS regulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1414
William Bortles, David Hessel, William Neale
When the steer axle of a vehicle with protruding wheel studs makes contact with another vehicle or object in a sideswipe configuration, the tires and wheel studs of the vehicle can deposit distinct geometrical patterns onto the surfaces it contacts. Prior research has demonstrated how relative speeds between the two vehicles and surfaces can be calculated through analysis of the distinct patterns. This paper presents a methodology for performing this analysis by visually modeling the interaction between wheel studs and various surfaces, and presents a method for automating the calculations of relative speed between vehicles. This methodology also augments prior research by demonstrating how the visual modeling and simulation of the wheel stud contact can extend to almost any surface interaction that may not have any previous prior published tests, or test methods that would be difficult to setup in real life.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1433
Enrique Bonugli, Joseph Cormier, Matthew Reilly, Lars Reinhart
The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and ‘typical’ roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1423
Alan F. Asay, Christopher D. Armstrong, Bradley Higgins, John Steiner
Traditional accident reconstruction analysis methodologies include the study of the crush-energy relationship of vehicles. The process of estimating crush-energy and delta-v in real world collisions is primarily based upon a comparison of structural crush between a vehicle involved in a real world collision with that of a test vehicle. This process is well known and documented in the scientific literature. However, this process is limited to both the availability of the crash test data and the proximity of the structure engaged on the vehicle in the test. The largest source of publically available crash tests is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) crash tests database. NHTSA has conducted numerous Federal Motor Safety Vehicle Standard (FMVSS) compliance and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash tests of many passenger cars and pickup trucks sold in the United States.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1431
Ke Dong, Brian Putala, Kristen Ansel
Out-of-position (OOP) driver tests were designed to address concerns about airbag introduced injury in situations while the occupant is nearer to the airbag module than in a normal seated position. The 5th percentile female has instrumentation for measuring ATD sternum displacement (potentiometer) and acceleration (accelerometers) which can be used to compute compression rate. This paper documents a study investigating the capability of the chest accelerometers to accurately assess non-distributed loading of the chest during this test configuration. The study included ATD mechanical loading and instrumentation review. Finite element analysis was conducted using a Hybrid 3 - 5th percentile female ATD correlated to testing. The correlated restraint model was utilized with a Hybrid 3 – 50th percentile male ATD. A 50th percentile male Global Human Body Model was then applied for enhanced anatomical review.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1360
John D. Bullough
Nighttime driving cannot be accomplished without vehicle headlighting. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the role of lighting on visual performance and in turn on nightttime driving safety in terms of crashes. Indirect impacts of lighting via comfort or other factors are less well understood, however. A two-part field study using real-world drivers of an instrumented vehicle was conducted to assess the potential role of oncoming headlight glare as a factor in driving behaviors that might be related to increased crash risks. In the first part of the study, drivers' behaviors when navigating through roadway intersections having different levels of crash risk were recorded in order to identify responses that were correlated with the risk level. In the second part, drivers were exposed to different levels of glare from oncoming headlights; several of the same risk-related behaviors identified in the first part of the study were exhibited.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct accidents for years. Recently, a system has been introduced that will allow crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain navigation data in the form of tracklogs that provide a time history of vehicle geolocation that may be useful in reconstructing a crash. This paper presents testing in which the GPS navigation data imaged from the vehicle is compared to independent GPS instrumentation to analyze the accuracy of the retrieved navigation data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1393
Xuguang Wang
A new experimental seat was designed to investigate sitting biomechanics. Previous literature suggested links between sitting discomfort and shear forces, however, research on this topic is limited. The evaluation of sitting discomfort derived from past research has been primarily associated with seat pressure distribution. The key innovative feature of the experimental seat is not only pressure distribution evaluation but shear forces as well. The seat pan of the experimental seat compromises of a matrix of 52 cylinders, each equipped with a tri-axial force sensor, enabling us to measure both normal and shear forces. The position of each cylinder is also adjustable permitting a uniform pressure distribution underneath the soft tissue of the buttocks and thighs. Backrest, armrests, seat pan and flooring are highly adjustable and equipped with forces sensors to measure contact forces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1412
Christopher H. Goddard, David Price
Various mechanisms have been used to drive speedometers and other instrument gauges. This paper reviews the mechanisms used; in particular investigates the ability of stepper motors which have become the most common instrument motor in the last decade to freeze at the apparent reading prior to impact. Stepper motors require power to drive the needle to any indicated position, including having to return it to zero. Hence if power to the instrument is lost as a result of a collision, there is no power to move the needle and it should be left at the reading shown at the moment the power was lost. However, not all stepper motor instruments are the same and before accepting the reading, a number of criteria need to be considered to give a level of confidence in the result. As part of recent ITAI (Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators) crash test events in the UK, a number of instrument clusters were installed in vehicles to simulate both frontal and side impacts.
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