Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 271 to 300 of 15824
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko
Abstract The high frequency of fatal head injuries of elderly people in traffic accidents is one of the important issues in Japan. One of the causes may be vulnerability of the aged brain. While a human head/brain FE model is a useful tool to investigate head injury mechanism, there has not been a research result using a model considering the structural and qualitative changes of the brain by aging. The objective of this study was to clarify the generational difference of intracranial responses related to traumatic brain injuries (TBI) under impact loading. In this study, the human head/brain FE models in their twenties (20s) and seventies (70s) were used. They were developed by reflecting the age-specific characteristics, such as shape/size and stiffness of brain matter and blood vessels, to the baseline model developed by Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) LLC. The generational difference of intracranial responses related to TBI, such as cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM), dilatational damage measure (DDM) and elongation of bridging vein (BV), were studied using the models.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
In the present study, transfer equations relating the responses of post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) to the mid-sized male Hybrid III test dummy (HIII50) under matched, or nearly-identical, loading conditions were developed via math modeling. Specifically, validated finite element (FE) models of the Ford Human Body Model (FHBM) and the HIII50 were used to generate sets of matched cases (i.e., 256 frontal impact cases involving different impact speeds, severities, and PMHS age). Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting age-dependent FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was conducted for five different body regions: head, neck, chest, femur, and tibia. All of the resulting regression equations, correlation coefficients, and response ratios (PHMS relative to HIII50) were consistent with the limited available test-based results.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
R. Matthew Brach, Raymond M. Brach, Katherine Pongetti
Little experimental data have been reported in the crash reconstruction literature regarding high-speed sideswipe collisions. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) conducted a series of high-speed, small overlap, vehicle-to-barrier and vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests for which the majority resulted in sideswipe collisions. A sideswipe collision is defined in this paper as a crash with non-zero, final relative tangential velocity over the vehicle-to-barrier or vehicle-to-vehicle contact surface; that is, sliding continues throughout the contact duration. Using analysis of video from 50 IIHS small overlap crash tests, each test was modeled using planar impact mechanics to determine which were classified as sideswipes and which were not. The test data were further evaluated to understand the nature of high-speed, small overlap, sideswipe collisions and establish appropriate parameter ranges that can aid in the process of accident reconstruction. An example reconstruction of a small overlap, sideswipe collision using optimization methods based on the planar impact mechanics model is included in the paper.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Brian Gilbert, Ron Jadischke, Joseph McCarthy
Abstract The analysis and modeling of vehicle crush in accident reconstruction has traditionally been based upon the use of linear crush-based, stiffness coefficients. Engineering Dynamics Corporation (EDC) created the accident reconstruction software Human-Vehicle-Environment (HVE) which contains the collision algorithm called DyMESH (DYnamic MEchanical SHell) which is capable of utilizing a non-linear stiffness coefficient model. The objective of this research was to develop an improved methodology for the calculation of non-linear stiffness coefficients. Stiffness coefficients are used to represent the relationship between the impact force on a vehicle and the resulting vehicle crush. The method explored in the present research was focused on developing vehicle specific, non-linear stiffness coefficients (Pressure Model) based upon frontal crash tests into a fixed, rigid barrier equipped with load cells. The load cell data from the barrier and the accelerometer data from the vehicles were used to establish a force per unit area (pressure) versus vehicle displacement (deflection) relationship.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nathan A. Rose, Neal Carter, David Pentecost
Abstract PC-Crash™, a widely used crash analysis software package, incorporates the capability for modeling non-constant vehicle acceleration, where the acceleration rate varies with speed, weight, engine power, the degree of throttle application, and the roadway slope. The research reported here offers a validation of this capability, demonstrating that PC-Crash can be used to realistically model the build-up of a vehicle's speed under maximal acceleration. In the research reported here, PC-Crash 9.0 was used to model the full-throttle acceleration capabilities of three vehicles with automatic transmissions - a 2006 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (CVPI), a 2000 Cadillac DeVille DTS, and a 2003 Ford F150. For each vehicle, geometric dimensions, inertial properties, and engine/drivetrain parameters were obtained from a combination of manufacturer specifications, calculations, inspections of exemplar vehicles and full-scale vehicle testing. In each case, the full-throttle acceleration of the vehicles modeled in PC-Crash showed good agreement with the acceleration of the real vehicles in our road tests.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Se Jin Park, Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Heeran Lee, Dong Gyun Kim, Cheol Pyo Hong
Abstract Vibration is both a source of discomfort and a possible risk to human health. There have been numerous studies and knowledge exists regarding the vibrational behavior of vehicle seats on adult human occupants. Children are more and more becoming regular passengers in the vehicle. However, very little knowledge available regarding the vibrational behavior of child safety seats for children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the vibrations in three different baby car seats and to compare these to the vibrations at the interface between the driver and the automobile seat. The test was performed on the National road at the average speed of 70 km/h and acceleration levels were recorded for about 350 Sec (5.83 min). One male driver considered as an adult occupant and a dummy having a mass of 9 kg was representing one year old baby. Four accelerometers were used to measure the vibration. All measured accelerations were relative to the vertical direction. Vibration Analysis Toolset (VATS) was used for time domain analysis.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard Young
A key aim of research into cell phone tasks is to obtain an unbiased estimate of their relative risk (RR) for crashes. This paper re-examines five RR estimates of cell phone conversation in automobiles. The Toronto and Australian studies estimated an RR near 4, but used subjective estimates of driving and crash times. The OnStar, 100-Car, and a recent naturalistic study used objective measures of driving and crash times and estimated an RR near 1, not 4 - a major discrepancy. Analysis of data from GPS trip studies shows that people were in the car only 20% of the time on any given prior day at the same clock time they were in the car on a later day. Hence, the Toronto estimate of driving time during control windows must be reduced from 10 to 2 min. Given a cell phone call rate about 7 times higher when in-car than out-of-car, and correcting for misclassification of some post-crash calls as pre-crash, the final required downward adjustment of the Toronto and Australian RR estimates is about 7 times.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Flaura Winston, Catherine McDonald, Venk Kandadai, Zachary Winston, Thomas Seacrist
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Yet, few simulator protocols have been validated for their ability to assess driving performance under conditions that result in actual collisions. This paper presents results from a new Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), a 35- to-40-minute simulated assessment delivered on a Real-Time® simulator. The SDA was developed to represent typical scenarios in which teens crash, based on analyses from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). A new metric, failure to brake, was calculated for the 7 potential rear-end scenarios included in the SDA and examined according two constructs: experience and skill. The study included an inexperienced group (n=21): 16-17 year olds with 90 days or fewer of provisional licensure, and an experienced group (n=17): 25-50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Richard Young
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving. The Utah data are next compared to those from a larger study that included visual-manual as well as auditory-vocal tasks.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Madhav Khadilkar
Abstract The purpose of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 is to reduce fatalities and serious injuries when vehicle roof crushes into occupant compartment during rollover crash. Upgraded roof crush resistance standard (571.216a Standard No. 216a) requires vehicle to achieve maximum applied force of 3.0 times unloaded vehicle weight (UVW) on both driver and passenger sides of the roof. (For vehicles with gross vehicle weight rating ≤ 6,000 lb.) This paper provides an overview of current approach for dual side roof strength Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and its limitations. It also proposes a new approach based on powerful features available in virtual tools. In the current approach, passenger side loading follows driver side loading and requires two separate analyses before arriving at final assessment. In the proposed approach only one analysis suffices as driver and passenger side loadings are combined in a single analysis. This is achieved by using sensors to control loadings, resulting in reduced consumption of CPU time (for computer simulation) and disk space utilization without compromising accuracy of current approach.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Payman Khani, Mehrdad S. Sharbaf
Abstract Vehicular Network is an emerging and developing technology to improve traffic management and safety issues, and enable a wide range of value-added services such as collision warning/avoidance. Many applications have been designed to provide safety and comfort for passengers. This technology is a prolific area for attackers who will attempt to challenge the network with their malicious or rational attacks. In this paper we elaborate what a vehicular network is, different kinds of communication in this field, main mechanism and related parts and how vehicular networks work then we introduce some of its applications. After primary familiarity with this system we investigate to different type of attacker, more important security issues, How to secure vehicular networks (security requirements and some tools and methods to achieve secure vehicular networks), difficulties and providing viable security solutions, and at the end briefly explanation of related standards.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fei Han, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Bei Ren, Ying Wang, Jie Bai
This paper presents a novel approach of developing a vision-based forward collision warning system (FCW) under a virtual and real-time driving environment. The proposed environment mainly includes a 3D high-fidelity virtual driving environment developed with computer graphics technologies, a virtual camera model and a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system with a driver simulator. Some preliminary simulation has been conducted to verify that the proposed virtual environment along with the image generated by a virtual camera model is valid with sufficient fidelity, and the real-time HIL development system with driver in the loop is effective in the early design, test and verification of the FCW and other similar ADAS systems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kumar B. Kulkarni, Jaisankar Ramalingam, Ravi Thyagarajan
It is of considerable interest to developers of military vehicles, in early phases of the concept design process as well as in Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) phase, to quickly predict occupant injury risk due to under-body blast loading. The most common occupant injuries in these extremely short duration events arise out of the very high vertical acceleration of vehicle due to its close proximity to hot high pressure gases from the blast. In a prior study [16], an extensive parametric study was conducted in a systematic manner so as to create look-up tables or automated software tools that decision-makers can use to quickly estimate the different injury responses for both stroking and non-stroking seat systems in terms of a suitable blast load parameter. The primary objective of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of using such a tool in lieu of building a detailed model for simulation and occupant injury assessment.
Collection
2014-04-01
Active Safety & Advanced Driver Assistance Systems help prevent accidents or mitigate accident severity. Some of these safety systems provide alerts to the driver in critical situations, while others respond to threats by automatically braking and steering the vehicle to avoid crashes. This technical paper collection covers the latest technologies in active safety and driver assistance systems.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focuses on the latest research related to methods and techniques for reconstructing vehicular crashes involving wheeled and tracked vehicles, pedestrians, and roadside features. Emphasis is placed on experimental data and theoretical methods that will enable reconstructionists to identify, interpret and analyze physical evidence from vehicular crashes.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection covers papers with an emphasis on, but not limited to, innovative ideas to enhance automotive safety with improved material constitutive modeling, analysis method developments, simulation and pre/post processing tools, optimization techniques, crash code developments, finite element model updating, model validation and verification techniques, dummies and occupants, restraint systems, passive safety as well as lightweight material applications and designs.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focuses on current developments in the fields of vehicle fire science, statistics, risks, assessment and mitigation. Papers addressing vehicle design, live-fire tests and fire investigation issues applicable to traditional, electric and alternatively fueled vehicles are included.
Collection
2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focuses on cybersecurity for cyber-physical vehicle systems. Topics include: design, development and implementation of security-critical cyber-physical vehicle systems, cybersecurity design, development, and implementation strategies, analysis methodologies, process and life-cycle management, comparisons of system safety and cybersecurity, etc. Application areas include: security-critical automotive systems as well as other security-critical ground vehicle and aviation systems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Patrick Galipeau-Belair, Srikanth Ghantae, David Critchley, Sarathy Ramachandra, Moustafa EL-Gindy
Abstract This work describes the design and testing of side underride protection devices (SUPD) for tractor-trailers and straight trucks. Its goal is to reduce the incompatibility between small passenger cars and these large vehicles during side collisions. The purpose of these crash attenuating guards is to minimize occupant injury and passenger compartment intrusion. The methods presented utilize a regulation previously created and published for testing the effectiveness of these devices based on the principles of a force application device already implemented in the Canadian rear underride guard regulation. Topology and multi-objective optimization design processes are outlined using a proposed design road map to create the most feasible SUPD. The test vehicle in question is a 2010 Toyota Yaris which represents the 1100C class of vehicle from the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). Since the tractor-trailers and straight trucks utilize different structural components, separate concepts must be generated to accommodate each individual application.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ellen L. Lee, Patrick J. Lee, Mark S. Erickson, Wilson C. Hayes
Abstract When vehicle-specific stiffness coefficients cannot be acquired, stiffness coefficient values that are representative of the desired vehicle type, class, wheelbase or weight are routinely used for accident reconstructions. Since the original compilation of representative vehicle stiffness data almost 20 years ago, changes in crash testing standards and other safety and technological improvements in vehicular design have affected vehicle stiffness. While generic frontal stiffness data have been recently updated to reflect these vehicular changes, rear and side stiffness data have not. Structural, geometric and inertial data for over 300 passenger cars and light trucks were collected. Among the vehicles targeted were the top-selling cars, SUVs, vans and pickups for model years 1990 to 2012. Results indicated that all vehicle types demonstrated increases in mean stiffness over the time period considered. SUVs were, on average, the stiffest vehicle type in the front, rear and side.
Magazine
2014-04-01
Methodology developed for safer hood design The methodology enables material selection and design optimization of energy absorbers for pedestrian protection based on a simple laboratory test and FE model, eliminating the need for extensive vehicle testing. Developing a winning formula It's been 20 years since the University of Michigan won a Formula SAE championship. Sick of getting smoked in recent years by top teams from Germany and the U.S., MRacing is going "big aero" for a better crack at the 2014 crown.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vijay Somandepalli, Hubert Biteau
The emergence of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) as a viable means of transportation has been coincident with the development of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology and electronics. These developments have enabled the storage and use of large amounts of energy that were previously only possible with internal combustion engines. However, the safety aspects of using these large energy storage battery packs are a significant challenge to address. In addition, the rapid advances in electrode and electrolyte materials for Li-Ion batteries have made comparisons and ranking of safety parameters difficult because of the substantial variations in cell designs. In this work, we outline a method for quantifying the thermal safety aspects of Li-ion battery technologies using a Cone Calorimeter. The Cone Calorimeter is a suitable tool to measure and quantify critical information such as the heat release rate and total energy released from the combustion of organic material.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jesse Schneider, Graham Meadows, Steven R. Mathison, Michael J. Veenstra, Jihyun Shim, Rainer Immel, Morten Wistoft-Ibsen, Spencer Quong, Manfred Greisel, Timothy McGuire, Peter Potzel
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions. It defines the fueling protocol and operational fueling parameters that ensure both station and vehicle maintain their safety limits (e.g.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jean Razafiarivelo, Youssef Bouri
In the sensitive automotive applications like the safety restraint systems (SRS), twisted lines can be used to link the components of the system because of their property of reduction of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling. Compared to the parallel lines, the twisted lines present the drawback to consume more copper in their manufacturing due to the greater length of their conductors. A parametric study based on the numerical modeling and the measurement of twisted lines is conducted in order to analyze the effect of the twisting pitch and of the untwisted part of these lines on the level of EMI coupling. This study will enable to optimize these two parameters in order to reduce the level of EMI coupling as well as the length of the conductors of the lines.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thang Nguyen, Stuart Wooters
As software (SW) becomes more and more an important aspect of embedded system development, project schedules are requiring the earlier development of software simultaneously with hardware (HW). In addition, verification has increasingly challenged the design of complex mixed-signal SoC products. This is exacerbated for automotive safety critical SoC products with a high number of analogue interfaces (sensors and actuators) to the physical components such as an airbag SoC chipset. Generally, it is widely accepted that verification accounts for around 70% of the total SoC development. Since integration of HW and SW is the most crucial step in embedded system development, the sooner it is done, the sooner verification can begin. As such, any approaches which could allow verification and integration of HW/SW to be deployed earlier in the development process and help to decrease verification effort, (e.g.: accelerate verification runs) are of extreme interest. In the described context, this paper addresses not only the design and verification challenges of such embedded systems but also proposes a new development, verification and validation workflow using an FPGA-based SoC Emulation System with synthesizable analogue functional stubs and a risk minimizing analogue test chip, which emulates and partially implements respective mixed-signal behavior of the ASIC SoC hardware.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tobias Schmidt, Shan Jin, Jens Rogalli, Thorsten Rogier, Hartmut Pohlheim, Ingo Stürmer
Requirements-based functional testing of model-based embedded software is a crucial requirement of the ISO 26262 safety standard for passenger cars [1]. Test assessment of requirements-based test cases is a laborious task and checking test results manually is prone to error. The intent of this paper is as follows: We introduce a method for requirements-based testing, which allows testing and automatic evaluation of single as well as several (grouped) requirements with one test sequence. Within a large-scale industrial project we have already shown that our new approach reduces testing expenditures and susceptibility to errors. Within this paper we shall present a method which facilitates the fulfillment of requirements traceability stipulated by ISO 26262. This method supports automated test case generation from test specifications, which then can be executed and assessed by a test tool automatically. The combination of these two methods in an efficient testing framework results in a significant reduction of testing expenditures and considerable increase in test coverage.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dawid Trawczynski, Janusz Zalewski, Janusz Sosnowski
In the paper we discuss how a single node communication interface failure in a time-triggered system can be used to model a DoS-type attack. More so, we present a design approach based on active detection of common DoS characteristics, which can serve as a template for attack detection. This approach is feasible in time-triggered systems because of the periodic and deterministic characteristics either at the fieldbus communication or application level. We support our discussion with an example case study of a vehicle braking system implementing time-triggered messages disturbed by fault injection.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Armin Wasicek
Intellectual property rights and their protection is a cornerstone of the automotive value chain. The automotive industry is composed by a meshwork of tightly integrated organizations that cooperate and compete in a hierarchical marketplace. Trading know-how and other virtual assets between participants is an essential part of this business. Thereby, software as a medium to transport ideas, innovations, and technologies plays a particular role. Protection of virtual goods and their associated rights is a current issue whose solution will determine how business will be done in the future automotive market. Automotive experts and researchers agree that ICT security technologies are a vital part to implement such a market. In this paper we examine the software life cycle of an automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and discuss potential threats and countermeasures for each stage. In particular, we will look at the following threats: (1) development (leakage of know-how through insiders or industrial espionage), (2) production (leakage through split inventor/producer companies, (3) deployment and service (manipulation of ECUs), and (4) aftersales (combating counterfeit ECUs and spare parts).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Masashi Takahashi, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kiyotaka Maeda, Shouma Nakagawa
Electric vehicles have become more popular and may be involved in fires due to accidents. However, characteristics of fires in electric vehicles are not yet fully understood. The electrolytic solution of lithium-battery vehicles is inflammable, so combustion characteristics and gases generated may differ from those of gasoline cars. Therefore, we conducted fire tests on lithium-ion battery vehicles and gasoline vehicles and investigated the differences in combustion characteristics and gases generated. The fire tests revealed some differences in combustion characteristics. For example, in lithium-ion battery vehicles, the battery temperature remained high after combustion of the body. However, there was almost no difference in the maximum CO concentration measured 0.5 to 1 m above the roof and 1 m from the side of the body. Furthermore, HF was not detected in either type of vehicle when measured at the same positions as for CO. The experiment results did not reveal any reason to treat vehicles with lithium-ion batteries differently from gasoline vehicles with regard to safety measures against harmful gases that may be generated around the burning vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
P. Prasad, D. Dalmotas, A. German
Abstract This paper presents the analysis of a series of frontal crash tests conducted by the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety that are commonly referred to as Small Overlap Impacts (SOI). The occurrence and severity of such frontal impacts in the real world were estimated using two different methods. Both methods used the National Automotive Sampling Scheme (NASS), which is a stratified sample of crashes in the US. The first method utilized an algorithm commonly known as Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The second method was based on comparison of deformation patterns of vehicles involved in frontal crashes in the NASS data files with those produced in tests conducted by the IIHS. FIT analysis of the data indicate that approximately 7.5% of all 11-1 o'clock frontal crashes in NASS are represented by the IIHS SOI test condition and they account for 6.1% of all serious-to-fatal injuries to front seat occupants restrained by seat belts and airbags. Based on the analysis of test and crash front end damage data, it is estimated that the IIHS SOI test mode represents 3% to 8% of all fatal crashes and 4.6 to 9% of all MAIS3+F injury producing frontal crashes.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 15824

Filter

  • Article
    489
  • Book
    105
  • Collection
    42
  • Magazine
    615
  • Technical Paper
    10012
  • Standard
    4561
  • Article
    4561