Display:

Results

Viewing 271 to 300 of 17395
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1474
Raed E. El-Jawahri, Agnes Kim, Dean Jaradi, Rich Ruthinowski, Kevin Siasoco, Cortney Stancato, Para Weerappuli
Abstract Sled tests simulating full-frontal rigid barrier impact were conducted using the Hybrid III 5th female and the 50th male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). The ATDs were positioned in the outboard rear seat of a generic small car environment. Two belt configurations were used: 1) a standard belt with no load limiter or pre-tensioner and 2) a seatbelt with a 4.5 kN load-limiting retractor with a stop function and a retractor pre-tensioner (LL-PT). In the current study, the LL-PT belt system reduced the peak responses of both ATDs. Probabilities of serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS3+), based on the ATDs peak responses, were calculated using the risk curves in NHTSA’s December 2015 Request for Comments (RFC) proposing changes to the United States New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). Those probabilities were compared to the injury rates (IRs) observed in the field on point estimate basis.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0367
Yueqian Jia, Yu-wei Wang, Yuanli Bai
Abstract A fully modularized framework was established to combine isotropic, kinematic, and cross hardening behaviors under non-monotonic loading conditions for advanced high strength steels. Experiments under the following types of non-proportional loading conditions were conducted, 1) uniaxial tension-compression-tension/compression-tension-compression full cycle reversal loading, 2) uniaxial reversal loading with multiple cycles, and 3) reversal shear. The calibrated new model is decoupled between isotropic and kinematic hardening behaviors, and independent on both anisotropic yield criterion and fracture model. Nine materials were calibrated using the model, include: DP590, DP600, DP780, TRIP780, DP980LY, QP980, AK Steel DP980, TBF1180, and AK Steel DP1180. Good correlation was observed between experimental and modeled results.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0716
Randy Hessel, Zongyu Yue, Rolf Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
Abstract One way to develop an understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes that occur during direct injection and combustion in an internal combustion engine is to image the natural luminosity from soot over time. Imaging is possible when there is optical access to the combustion chamber. After the images are acquired, the next challenge is to properly interpret the luminous distributions that have been captured on the images. A major focus of this paper is to provide guidance on interpretation of experimental images of soot luminosity by explaining how radiation from soot is predicted to change as it is transmitted through the combustion chamber and to the imaging. The interpretations are only limited by the scope of the models that have been developed for this purpose. The end-goal of imaging radiation from soot is to estimate the amount of soot that is present.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0293
Tina Hull
Abstract Recent advances in technology allow machine safeguarding to shift from a system that completely shuts down the hazardous part of a machine, regardless of the action, to one with a controlled response. This intelligent robotics safeguarding can be based on conditions such as the type of task, how it is performed, entry and exit locations, and the operator’s movement within the hazard zone. Such a strategy could increase production rates by allowing robots to operate at higher speeds within dynamic environments. When used as part of a preventative maintenance program, reliability data can predict component failure rates and reduce the probability that operators will access the hazard zone. Programming techniques, such as function blocks to monitor component usage, can be used to evaluate trends. SQL (Structured Query Language) databases can track access and frequency trends, which can lead to design improvements and indicate changes affecting the system.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0365
Kentaro Sato, Takayuki Futatsuka, Jiro Hiramoto, Kei Nagasaka, Akira Akita, Takeshi Kashiyama
Abstract A simple testing method is proposed in order to investigate ductile fracture in crashed automotive components made from advanced high strength steels. This type of fracture is prone to occur at spot-welded joints and flange edges. It is well known that the heat affected zone (HAZ) is a weak point in high strength steel due to the formation of annealed material around the spot-welded nugget, and the flange edge also has low ductility due to the damage caused by shearing. The proposed method is designed to simulate a ductile fracture which initiates from a spot-welded portion or a sheared edge in automotive components which are deformed in a crash event. Automotive steel sheets with a wide range of tensile strengths from 590MPa to 1470MPa are examined in order to investigate the effect of material strength on fracture behavior. The effects of material cutting methods, namely, machining and shearing, are also investigated.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0368
Ying Zhao, Fangwu Ma, Longfan Yang, Yueqiang Wang, Hongyu Liang
Abstract The conventional hood with single material and stiffener structural form conceals some limitations on pedestrian protection and lightweight, not satisfying the requirements of structural strength, pedestrian protection and lightweight contradictory with each other at the same time. In this paper, a novel type hood is proposed to develop sandwich structure using architected cellular material with negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) configuration based on the decoupling thought of structural strength and energy absorption. Core-layer aluminum alloy material with NPR is used to meet the requirement of impact energy absorption, inner and outer skin using carbon fiber is selected to achieve high structural stiffness needed. This paper starts from the relations between geometric parameters of core-layer architected cellular material and mechanical properties, on this basis, the optimal geometric parameters can be expected using the multiobjective optimization method.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0378
Yuta Imanami, Kunikazu Tomita, Kazuaki Fukuoka, Kimihiro Nishimura
Abstract In order to develop a new carburizing steel material that realizes an intermediate heat treatment-free process in parts manufacturing, the cold forgeability of the as-rolled steel and suppression of abnormal grain growth of austenite were studied. It was shown that adjustment of addition amount of Si, Mn and Cr, suppression of dynamic strain aging during cold forging, and an increase of ferrite fraction by controlled rolling contribute to the reduction of deformation resistance. However, Nb precipitation control by fully utilizing mill manufacturing processes was also necessary for suppression of abnormal grain growth of austenite. A new steel for carburizing was developed by integrating these technologies, making it possible to eliminate annealing before cold forging and normalizing before carburizing simultaneously. Thus, the developed steel is an important innovation in the parts manufacturing process.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0379
Tau Tyan, Leonard Shaner, Matt Niesluchowski, Nand Kochhar, Dilip Bhalsod, Jason Wang
Three computational gas and fluid dynamic methods, CV/UP (Control Volume/Uniform Pressure), CPM (Corpuscular Particle Method), and ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian), were investigated in this research in an attempt to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors. Acceleration-based crash sensors have been used extensively in the automotive industry to determine the restraint system firing time in the event of a vehicle crash. The prediction of acceleration-based crash pulses by using computer simulations has been very challenging due to the high frequency and noisy responses obtained from the sensors, especially those installed in crush zones. As a result, the sensor algorithm developments for acceleration-based sensors are largely based on prototype testing. With the latest advancement in the crash sensor technology, side crash pressure sensors have emerged recently and are gradually replacing acceleration-based sensor for side crash applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1425
Brian Jones, Michael Calabro, Justin Brink, Scott Swinford
In minor inline rear-end accidents, vehicle damage is the primary tangible indicator of impact severity or vehicle change in velocity (ΔV). A technique for calculating change in velocity based on vehicle damage for collinear impacts involves application of the Momentum Energy Restitution (MER) method. Offset inline minor rear-end impact testing, wherein minimal vehicle bumper or contact surface engagement occurs, has not been readily published to date. Thus, instrumented offset inline rear-end impacts were performed utilizing a 1997 Ford F-150 Pickup, 1996 Kia Sephia, and 1995 Chrysler LeBaron GTC to determine if the MER method can accurately calculate a vehicle’s ΔV when collinear contact does not occur. Vehicle engagement involved 5.1 cm to 76.2 cm of overlap with impact speeds ranging between 0.7 m/s and 4 m/s.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1458
Tack Lam, B. Johan Ivarsson
Abstract Disc herniations in the spine are commonly associated with degenerative changes, and the prevalence increases with increasing age. With increasing number of older people on U.S. roads, we can expect an increase in clinical findings of disc herniations in occupants involved in rear impacts. Whether these findings suggest a causal relationship is the subject of this study. We examined the reported occurrence of all spine injuries in the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database from 1993 to 2014. There were over 4,000 occupants that fit the inclusion criteria. The findings in this study showed that, in the weighted data of 2.9 million occupants, the most common spine injury is an acute muscle strain of the neck, followed by strain of the low back. The delta-V of a rear impact is a reliable indicator of the rate of acute cervical strain in occupants exposed to such impacts.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0118
Yang Wang, Ankit Goila, Rahul Shetty, Mahdi Heydari, Ambarish Desai, Hanlong Yang
Regarding safety, obstacle avoidance has been considered as one of the most important features among ADAS systems for ground vehicles. However, the implementation of obstacle avoidance functions to commercial vehicles are still under progress. In this paper, we demonstrate a complete process of obstacle avoidance strategy for unmanned ground vehicle and implement the strategy on the self-developed Arduino based RC Car. In this process, the sensor LIDAR was used to detect the obstacles on the fore-path. Based on the measured LIDAR data, an optimized path is automatically generated with accommodation of current car position, obstacle locations, car operation capability and global environmental restrictions. The path planning is updated in real time while new or changing obstacles being detected. This algorithm is validated by the simulation results with the RC car. The comparison will be discussed at the end of this paper.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0178
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Sam Gullman, David Jacobsson
Abstract Passive sensor (HVAC) manikins have been developed to obtain high-resolution measurements of environmental conditions across a representative human body form. These manikins incorporate numerous sensors that measure air velocity, air temperature, radiant heat flux, and relative humidity. The effect of a vehicle’s climate control system on occupant comfort can be characterized from the data collected by an HVAC manikin. Equivalent homogeneous temperature (EHT) is often used as a first step in a cabin comfort analysis, particularly since it reduces a large data set to a single intuitive number. However, the applicability of the EHT for thermal comfort assessment is limited since it does not account for human homeostasis, i.e., that the human body actively counter-balances heat flow with the environment to maintain a constant core temperature.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0268
Venkatesh Babu, Richard Gerth
Abstract The aim of this analysis was to model the effect of adding stiffening ribs in structural aluminum components by friction stir processing (FSP) Nano material into the aluminum matrix. These stiffening ribs could dampen, redirect, or otherwise alter the transmission of energy waves created from automotive, ballistic, or blast shocks to improve noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) and structural integrity (reduced joint stress) response. Since the ribs are not created by geometry changes they can be space efficient and deflect blast / ballistic energy better than geometry ribbing, resulting in a lighter weight solution. The blast and ballistic performance of different FSP rib patterns in AL 5182 and AL 7075 were simulated and compared to the performance of an equivalent weight of RHA plate FSP helps to increase localized strength and stiffness of the base metal, while achieving light weighting of the base metal.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0418
Gregory McCann, Prashant Khapane
Abstract An increase in data measurement and recording within vehicles has allowed Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) to monitor a vehicle’s dynamic behavior in far more detail. This increased monitoring helps to improve vehicle response in scenarios such as braking whilst cornering and braking on uneven surfaces. The Durability and Robustness (D&R) CAE department within Jaguar Land Rover discovered that the lack of a complex ABS system in virtual vehicle models was contributing to poor lateral and longitudinal loads correlation throughout the suspension and mounting systems. D&R CAE started a project to incorporate Continental’s ABS system, provided by ‘©Continental AG’ for physical JLR vehicles, into SIMPACK virtual vehicles by means of a co-simulation (2017 n.d.). The work involved collaboration between 3 departments in Jaguar Land Rover and ultimately led to implementation of the ABS into the JLR standard automotive virtual database.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1516
Daniel B. Honeycutt, Mesbah Uddin
Abstract Although, the implementation of lift-off prevention devices such as the NASCAR roof flaps have greatly reduced the frequency and severity of race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents, airborne incidents still occur occasionally in motorsports. The effectiveness of existing lift-off prevention measures and future trends in lift-off prevention are addressed in this paper. The results and analysis presented in this paper will be of paramount interest to race vehicle designers and sanctioning bodies because the effects of aerodynamics on vehicle lift-off need to be comprehended, but there exists a scarcity of reliable data in this area.
CURRENT
2017-03-28
Standard
J3102_201703
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the dynamic and static testing procedures required to evaluate the integrity of the ambulance substructure, to support the safe mounting of an SAE J3027 compliant litter retention device or system, when exposed to a frontal, side or rear impact (i.e., a crash impact). Its purpose is to provide manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that to a great extent ensure the ambulance substructure meets the same performance criteria across the industry. Prospective manufacturers or vendors have the option of performing either dynamic testing or static testing. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, test fixture, and performance metrics are included.
2017-03-23
WIP Standard
AS6369
Create a new specification same form and fit as AS4751. This specification will include /1 coupling, /2 sheet metal flange and /3 solid flange. Define new operating, proof and burst pressures. This will have QPL requirement.
2017-03-22
WIP Standard
ARP6389
This ARP provides guidelines for improving the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis process, including alternative or additional methods, for flight critical actuation equipment electronics and software.
CURRENT
2017-03-21
Standard
J2945/9_201703
This document provides recommendations of safety message minimum performance requirements between a Vulnerable Road User (VRU) and a vehicle. It addresses the transmission of Personal Safety Messages (PSM) from road user devices carried by pedestrians, bicycle riders and public safety personnel, to provide driver and vehicle system awareness and potentially offer safety alerts to VRUs. This document includes the recommendation of standards profiles, function descriptions and minimum performance requirements for transmitting the SAE J2735-defined PSM [1] over a Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Wireless communication link as defined in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1609 and the IEEE 802.11 Standards [[1]]-[5]].
2017-03-17
Article
Experts serve cautionary tales for connected cars while discussing potential cyber solutions.
2017-03-17
Article
The data-driven vehicle is re-shaping the supplier landscape.
2017-03-17
Article
The auto industry and other stakeholders have begun digesting the SAE guidebook’s recommended practices,
CURRENT
2017-03-17
Standard
J1698_201703
This recommended practice describes common definitions and operational elements of Event Data Recorders. The SAE J1698 series of documents consists of the following: SAE J1698-1 - Event Data Recorder - Output Data Definition; Provides common data output formats and definitions for a variety of data elements that may be useful for analyzing vehicle crash and crash-like events that meet specified trigger criteria. SAE J1698-2 - Event Data Recorder - Retrieval Tool Protocol; Utilizes existing industry standards to identify a common physical interface and define the protocols necessary to retrieve records stored by light duty vehicle Event Data Recorders (EDRs). SAE J1698-3 - Event Data Recorder - Compliance Assessment; Defines procedures that may be used to validate that relevant EDR output records conform with the reporting requirements specified in Part 563, Table 1 during the course of FMVSS-208, FMVSS-214 and other applicable vehicle level crash testing.
CURRENT
2017-03-15
Standard
ARP6154
This Aerospace Recommended Practice provides general requirements for Electrohydrostatic Module (EHM) that is used in Electrohydrostatic Actuator (EHA) for aerospace applications. This document includes design, performance and test (production and qualification) requirements.
CURRENT
2017-03-15
Standard
AIR6172A
This test method provides stakeholders (runway deicing chemical manufacturers, users, regulators and airport authorities) with relative ice undercutting capacity of runway deicing chemicals, by measuring the area of ice undercut pattern as a function of time. Such runway deicing chemicals are often also used on taxiways and other paved areas. This test method does not quantitatively measure the theoretical or extended time of ice undercutting capability of ready-to-use runway deicing/anti-icing chemicals in liquid or solid form.
CURRENT
2017-03-14
Standard
ARP493B
This recommended practice is intended to recommend the basic shapes and dimensions for knobs used in aircraft. Two basic types of knobs, the bar shape and the round shape, are described, as well as several widely used variations of these two basic shapes.
CURRENT
2017-03-14
Standard
AS36102B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies the testing methods to be used to substantiate performance of air cargo containers, pallets and nets (Unit Load Devices) for airworthiness approval in accordance with NAS 3610 or AS36100.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2017-01-9750
Shawn Harrington, Joseph Teitelman, Erica Rummel, Brendan Morse, Peter Chen, Donald Eisentraut, Daniel McDonough
Abstract With the prevalence of satellite imagery in the analysis of collision events growing in the field of accident reconstruction, this research aims to quantify, refine, and compare the accuracies of measurements obtained utilizing conventional instruments to the measurements obtained using Google Earth Pro software. Researchers documented and obtained 1305 unique measurements from 68 locations in 25 states and provinces in the United States, Canada, and Australia using measuring wheels and tape measures. Measurements of relevant features at each location (crosswalks, curved roadways, off-road features, etc.) were documented and subdivided into three groups: On-Road, Off-Road, and Curved Path measurements. These measurements were compared to the measurements obtained of the same features from current and historical satellite imagery within Google Earth Pro.
2017-03-13
Article
Partnership between Omnitracs and Peloton Technology brings platooning technology to fleet customers.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 17395

Filter