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2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0567
Kenji Takada, Kentaro Sato, Ninshu Ma
Abstract In order to reduce automobile body weight and improve crashworthiness, the use of high-strength steels has increased greatly in recent years. An optimal combination of both crash safety performance and lightweight structure has been a major challenge in automobile body engineering. In this study, the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion was applied to predict the fracture of high-strength steels. Marciniak-type biaxial stretching tests for high-strength steels were performed to measure the material constant of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Furthermore, in order to improve the simulation accuracy, local anisotropic parameters based on the plastic strain (strain dependent model of anisotropy) were measured using the digital image grid method and were incorporated into Hill's anisotropic yield condition by the authors. In order to confirm the validity of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion, uniaxial tensile tests were performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1352
Ashish Kumar Sahu, Abhijit Londhe, Suhas Kangde, Vishal Shitole
Abstract Body in White (BIW) is one of the major mass contributors in a full vehicle. Bending stiffness, torsional stiffness, durability, crashworthiness and modal characteristics are the basic performance parameters for which BIW is designed. Usually, to meet these parameters, a great deal of weight is added to BIW. Sensitivity analysis helps to identify the critical panels contributing to the performance while BIW optimization helps to reduce the overall mass of the BIW, without compromising on the basic performances. This paper highlights the optimization study carried out on the BIW of a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) for mass reduction. This optimization was carried out considering all the basic performance parameters. In the initial phase of BIW development, optimization helps to ensure minimum BIW weight rather than carrying out mass reduction post vehicle launch.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1472
Roberto Arienti, Carlo Cantoni, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu, Mario Pennati, Giorgio Previati
Abstract The lightweight seat of a high performance car is designed taking into account a rear impact, i.e. the crash due to an impulse applied from the rear. The basic parameters of the seat structure are derived resorting to simulations of a crash with a test dummy positioned on the seat. The simulations provide the forces acting at the seat structure, in particular the forces applied at the joint between the seat cushion and the seat backrest are taken into account. Such a joint is simulated as a plastic hinge and dissipates some of the crash energy. The simulations are validated by means of indoor tests with satisfactory results. A tool has been developed for the preliminary design of lightweight seats for high performance cars.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1482
Bisheshwar Haorongbam, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
Abstract Hat-sections, single and double, made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components. These components play a significant role in terms of impact energy absorption during vehicle crashes thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. However, with the need for higher fuel economy and for compliance to stringent emission norms, auto manufacturers are looking for means to continually reduce vehicle body weight either by employing lighter materials like aluminum and fiber-reinforced plastics, or by using higher strength steel with reduced gages, or by combinations of these approaches. Unlike steel hat-sections which have been extensively reported in published literature, the axial crushing behavior of hat-sections made of fiber-reinforced composites may not have been adequately probed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1614
Yijung Chen, Derek Board, Omar Faruque, Cortney Stancato, James Cheng, Nikhil Bolar, Sreevidhya Anandavally
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy (DOE) project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while achieving frontal crash test performance comparable to the baseline vehicle. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364 kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0 liter three-cylinder engine, leading to the potential for reduced environmental impact and improved fuel economy.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1433
R. Matthew Brach, Raymond M. Brach, Richard A. Mink
This paper presents a reconstruction technique in which nonlinear optimization is used in combination with an impact model to quickly and efficiently find a solution to a given set of parameters and conditions to reconstruct a collision. These parameters and conditions correspond to known or prescribed collision information (generally from the physical evidence) and can be incorporated into the optimized collision reconstruction technique in a variety of ways including as a prescribed value, through the use of a constraint, as part of a quality function, or possibly as a combination of these means. This reconstruction technique provides a proper, effective, and efficient means to incorporate data collected by Event Data Recorders (EDR) into a crash reconstruction. The technique is presented in this paper using the Planar Impact Mechanics (PIM) collision model in combination with the Solver utility in Microsoft Excel.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1381
Jason P. Huczek, R. Rhoads Stephenson
Abstract The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1386
Devin SJ Caplow-Munro, Helen Loeb, Venk Kandadai, Flaura Winston
Abstract Inadequate situation awareness and response are increasingly recognized as prevalent critical errors that lead to young driver crashes. To identify and assess key indicators of young driver performance (including situation awareness), we previously developed and validated a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) in which drivers are safely and reproducibly exposed to a set of common and potentially serious crash scenarios. Many of the standardized safety measures can be calculated in near real-time from simulator variables. Assessment of situation awareness, however, largely relies on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a near real-time automated method for analyzing general direction and location of driver's gaze in order to assess situation awareness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1406
Mikael Ljung Aust, Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Erik Coelingh
Abstract This paper first discusses the advancement and challenges in the areas of developing Collision Avoidance Systems, or CAS. CAS have been on the market for a decade, and their development has been rapid. Starting with forward collision warning with brake support, targeting vehicles moving in the same direction in front of the car, CAS now cover pedestrians and cyclists in front of the car as well as vehicles standing still and even some situations of approaching vehicles in crossings. This development up to date is described and discussed according to the challenge areas of detection, decision strategy and intervention strategy. Next, the paper discusses assessment of system effects on driving safety. Numerous studies have tried to predict the effect of various CAS, and the real world effect of these systems has been shown to be significant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1428
Shane Richardson, Andreas Moser, Tia Lange Orton, Roger Zou
Abstract Current techniques that can be used to evaluate and analyse lateral impact speeds of vehicle crashes with poles/trees are based on measuring the deformation crush and using lateral crash stiffness data to estimate the impact speed. However, in some cases the stiffness data is based on broad object side impacts rather than pole impacts. Some have argued that broad object side impact tests can be used for analysing narrow object impacts; however previous authors have identified the fallacy of this premise. Publicly available side pole crash test data is evaluated in terms of crush depth impact speed and impact energy for six general vehicle types. A range of simulated pole impact tests at various speeds and impact angles were conducted using LS-Dyna and PC-Crash. Publicly available Finite Element Vehicle models of a 1996 Ford Taurus, a 1994 Chevrolet C2500 and a 1997 Geo Metro (Suzuki Swift) were used, providing relationships among impact speeds, crush depths and impact angles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1418
Shane Richardson, Nikola Josevski, Andreas Sandvik, Tandy Pok, Tia Lange Orton, Blake Winter, Xu Wang
Abstract Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances, the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However, based on investigated pedestrian collisions, the location where the pedestrian has engaged with the vehicle can and does significantly influence the throw distance (and projection) and subsequent impact speed analysis. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at varying speeds and vehicle impact locations, creating pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots. This paper presents the pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of nine vehicle types.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1379
Hideki Matsumura, Shinichiro Itoh, Kenichi Ando
Abstract Lithium-ion cells are being used in an increasing number of electric and hybrid vehicles. Both of these vehicle types contain many cells. Despite various safety measures, however, there are still reports of accidents involving abnormal heat, smoke, and fire caused by thermal runaway in the cells. If thermal runaway in one cell triggers that of another and thus causes thermal runaway propagation, this can lead to rupture of the battery pack, car fire, or other serious accidents. This study is aimed to ensure the safety of vehicles with lithium-ion cells by clarifying such accident risks, and so we investigated the process of thermal runaway propagation. In the experiment, we created a battery module made of seven laminate-type cells tightly stacked one on another. Then, we induced thermal runaway in one of the cells, measured the surface temperatures of the cells, and collected video data as the process developed. As a result, all of the seven cells underwent thermal runaway.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1383
Andrew Blum, Richard Thomas Long
Abstract Fires involving cars, trucks, and other highway vehicles are a common concern for emergency responders. In 2013 alone, there were approximately 188,000 highway vehicle fires. Fire Service personnel are accustomed to responding to conventional vehicle (i.e., internal combustion engine [ICE]) fires, and generally receive training on the hazards associated with those vehicles and their subsystems. However, in light of the recent proliferation of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), a key question for emergency responders is, “what is different with EDVs and what tactical adjustments are required when responding to EDV fires?” The overall goal of this research program was to develop the technical basis for best practices for emergency response procedures for EDV battery incidents, with consideration for suppression methods and agents, personal protective equipment (PPE), and clean-up/overhaul operations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop Parameswaraiah
Abstract 1 Glare is subjective and can either cause disability or discomfort in eyes. Thus glare during driving especially at night is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper presents two promising technologies that help in reducing the oncoming vehicle glare. The system comprises of a vision based identification of glare source. A pixelated transparent film/glass with dynamically controllable transmittance is placed between the driver and source. By changing the transparency locally, glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility. The paper details on lab results and feasibility of two proposed solution i.e. Use of a matrix of electro chromic films such that each element can be individually controlled and use of transparent LCD such that each pixel is controlled for its transparency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1480
Seung Kwon Cha, Jong Heon Lee, Un Ko, Tae Hoon Song, HangChul Ko, YangGi Lee
Abstract Recently, the wagon for European has been developed. The characteristic of this vehicle is to have a capability of large luggage space. Therefore the passenger needs to be protected from injuries by sudden inflow of baggage from luggage room. This is also a requirement of EU regulation (ECE R-17[4]). Barrier Net[1, 2, 3] to small size wagon has been adopted for the first time based on advanced foreign supplier's technology. This reality still gives us the burden of high cost and royalty expenditure. The objective of this study is to overcome these restrictions, especially for patent circumvention and secure the new design concept which is entirely independent of the present system in addition to cost effectiveness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1461
Dietmar Otte
Abstract During most pedestrian-vehicle crashes the car front impacts the pedestrian and the whole body wraps around the front shape of the car. This influences the head impact on the vehicle. Meanwhile the windscreen is a major impact point and tested in NCAP conditions. The severity of injuries is influenced by car impact speed; type of vehicle; stiffness and shape of the vehicle; nature of the front (such as the bumper height, bonnet height and length, windscreen frame); age and body height of the pedestrian; and standing position of the pedestrian relative to the vehicle front. The so called Wrap Around Distance WAD is one of the important measurements for the assessment of protection of pedestrians and of bicyclists as well because the kinematic of bicyclists is similar to that of pedestrians. For this study accidents of GIDAS were used to identify the importance of WAD for the resulting head injury severity of pedestrians and bicyclists.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1432
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Abstract Accident reconstruction experts are often asked to evaluate the visibility and conspicuity of objects in the roadway. It is common for objects placed in or along the roadway, vehicles, and required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 for certain vehicles and trailers, to have red and white DOT-C2 retroreflective tape installed on several locations. Retroreflective tape is designed to reflect light back towards the light source at the same entrance angle. The authors' literature review revealed that there have been no publications quantifying the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape with real world vehicles. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape would perform beyond the minimum federal requirements. In the current research, the performance of white and red DOT-C2 retroreflective tape is quantified.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection focuses on the latest research related to methods and techniques for reconstructing vehicular crashes involving wheeled and tracked vehicles, pedestrians, and roadside features. Emphasis is placed on experimental data and theoretical methods that will enable reconstructionists to identify, interpret and analyze physical evidence from vehicular crashes
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1414
Jitendra Shah, Mohamed Benmimoun
Abstract The focus of this paper is the threat assessment of perceived threat by drivers in collision avoidance situations. The understanding of the decision making process with regards to the initiation of a driver intervention is a crucial step to gain insight into driver's steering and braking behavior in case of an imminent threat (rear-end collision). Hence a study with various test subjects and a test vehicle has been conducted. The study has helped to understand how drivers behave in potential rear-end collision situations arising from the traffic situation (e.g. start of a traffic jam). This information is of major importance for designing autonomous collision avoidance systems and an important step towards autonomous driving. Autonomous driving in vehicles require system interventions to be initiated as early and safely as possible in order to avoid the collision and to avoid unstable vehicle dynamics situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1421
Dennis Turriff, David J. King, James Bertoch
Abstract Vehicle rollovers generate complicated damage patterns as a result of multiple vehicle-to-ground contacts. The goal of this work was to isolate and characterize specific directional features in coarse- and fine-scale scratch damage generated during a rollover crash. Four rollover tests were completed using stock 2001 Chevrolet Trackers. Vehicles were decelerated and launched from a rollover test device to initiate driver's side leading rolls onto concrete and dirt surfaces. Gross vehicle damage and both macroscopic and microscopic features of the scratch damage were documented using standard and macro lenses, a stereomicroscope, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The most evident indicators of scratch direction, and thus roll direction, were accumulations of abraded material found at the termination points of scratch-damaged areas.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0156
Alexandr Murashkin, Luis Silva Azevedo, Jianmei Guo, Edward Zulkoski, Jia Hui Liang, Krzysztof Czarnecki, David Parker
Abstract The number of software-intensive and complex electronic automotive systems is continuously increasing. Many of these systems are safety-critical and pose growing safety-related concerns. ISO 26262 is the automotive functional safety standard developed for the passenger car industry. It provides guidelines to reduce and control the risk associated with safety-critical systems that include electric and (programmable) electronic parts. The standard uses the concept of Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs) to decompose and allocate safety requirements of different stringencies to the elements of a system architecture in a top-down manner: ASILs are assigned to system-level hazards, and then they are iteratively decomposed and allocated to relevant subsystems and components. ASIL decomposition rules may give rise to multiple alternative allocations, leading to an optimization problem of finding the cost-optimal allocations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0285
Ehsan Moradi-Pari, S M Osman Gani, Yaser P. Fallah, Mohammad Naserian, Allan Lewis
Abstract Cooperative collision warning (CCW) systems use communication networks as a main component for creating situational awareness and eventually hazard detection. Simulation and analysis of such systems are generally more complicated due to the system being composed of components from very different domains of communication and vehicle safety. These components are inherently developed and modeled in different domains, as their basic operations are usually defined and engineered by researchers from different disciplines. Creating a simulation tool for CCW systems requires combining simulation models that are developed using different methodologies. As a result, a unified tool for study of such systems is not readily available. In this paper, we describe a co-simulation tool that models both components of communication and hazard prediction in one framework.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0288
Virendra Kumar, William Whyte
Abstract IEEE Standard 1609.2-2013, Security Services for Applications and Management Messages for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), specifies its data structures and encoding using a proprietary language based on that used in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)'s Transport Layer Security (TLS) specification. This approach is believed to allow fast encoding and decoding, but is non-standard, is not proved to be complete, lacks automatic tools for generation of codecs, and is difficult to extend. For these reasons, the 1609 Working Group approved the use of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) for future versions of 1609.2, so long as ASN.1 did not significantly degrade performance. This paper is the first publication of the results of a performance analysis carried out to determine whether ASN.1-based encoding was in fact acceptable.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0319
Reena Kumari Behera, Jiji Gangadharan, Krishnan Kutty, Smita Nair, Vinay Vaidya
Abstract This paper presents a vision based pedestrian detection system. The presented algorithm is a novel method that accurately segments the pedestrian regions in real time. The fact that the pedestrians are always vertically aligned is taken into consideration. As a result, the edge image is scanned from bottom to top and left to right. Both the color and edge data is combined in order to form the segments. The segmentation is highly dependent on the edge map. Even a single pixel dis-connectivity would lead to incorrect segments. To improve this, a novel edge linking method is performed prior to segmentation. The segmentation would consist of foreground and background segments as well. The background clutter is removed based on certain predefined conditions governed by the camera features. A novel edge based head detection method is proposed for increasing the probability of pedestrian detection. The combination of head and leg pattern will determine the presence of pedestrians.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0313
Ugo Rosolia, Francesco Braghin, Andrew Alleyne, Edoardo Sabbioni
Abstract This paper presents a nonlinear control approach to achieve good performances in vehicle path following and collision avoidance when the vehicle is driving under cruise highway conditions. Nonlinear model predictive control (NLMPC) is adopted to achieve online trajectory control based on a simplified vehicle model. GMRES/Continuation algorithm is used to solve the online optimization problem. Simulations show that the proposed controller is capable of tracking the desired path as well as avoiding the obstacles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0206
Jihas Khan
Abstract Security access feature based on seed-key mechanism is widely used in automotive electronics, mainly for flashing ECU software, writing or reading specific parameter values and running diagnostic routines. There exist a number of techniques to decode the algorithm for key generation from a specific seed. Such techniques can put vehicle network at great risks due to an intruder flashing unauthorized version of ECU software, or changing internal parameters of ECU, or changing a VIN number. A lot more similar malicious attacks can be done by getting control over the ECUs. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability to alter the performance from the stock and affect the safety of the passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm to protect the vehicle and ECU from such malicious attacks is explained in this paper. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU to replace the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security guarantying a secure operation of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0267
Ryoichi Inada, Teppei Hirotsu, Yasushi Morita, Takahiro Hata
Abstract The ISO 26262 is a functional safety standard for road vehicles. The standard requires manufacturers to conduct quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of products. The DC is defined as the percentage of failure probability covered by safety mechanisms. However, DC evaluation methods for drift faults, in which the change in element values is not constant, have not been discussed. In this paper, we propose a DC evaluation method for analog circuits with drift faults. With this method, we first parameterize the effect of drift faults onto a bounded region then split the region into safe fault, hazardous detectable fault, and hazardous undetectable fault regions. We evaluate the classification rate distribution by the area ratios of these regions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0739
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Abstract Over the last decade large safety improvements have been made in crash protection for motorsports drivers. It has been well established that in side and rear impacts the driver seat provides the primary source for occupant retention and restraint. Beginning in the 2015 season, NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) Sprint Cup Series will require driver seats which have all seat belt restraint system anchorage locations integrated internally to the seat with a minimum of seven anchorage locations. This paper describes the development of the quasi-static test for the seat integrated seat belt restraint system portion of the NASCAR Seat Submission and Test Protocol Criteria. It reviews the methodology used to develop the testing including the developmental dynamic sled tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0290
Amin Tahmasbi-Sarvestani, Hadi Kazemi, Yaser P. Fallah, Mohammad Naserian, Allan Lewis
Abstract Pedestrians account for a significant ratio of traffic fatalities; as a result, research on methods of reducing vehicle-pedestrian crashes is of importance. In this paper, we describe a system architecture that allows the use of vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication as a means of generating situational awareness and eventually predicting hazards and warning drivers and pedestrians. In contrast, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication for safety applications, V2P has not received much attention. One major reason for this lack of attention had been the unavailability of communication mechanisms between pedestrians and vehicles. Recent advances in enabling Wi-Fi and dedicated short range communication (DSRC) based communication using smart-phones is changing this picture. As a result, V2P communication can be considered as a possible solution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1446
Timothy P. Austin, David P. Plant, Joseph E. LeFevre
Abstract The use of Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (HVEDRs) in collision analysis has been well recognized in past research. Numerous publications have been presented illustrating data accuracy both in normal operating conditions as well as under emergency braking conditions. These data recording devices are generally incorporated into Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) for engines or Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for other vehicular components such as the Anti-Lock Brake System. Other research has looked at after-market recorders, including publically-available Global Positioning System (GPS) devices and fleet management tools such as Qualcomm. In 2009, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) incorporated a Vehicle Data Recorder (VDR) component into their Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus. The purpose of this was to “…capture data that can be used to promote safe driving and riding practices.”
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