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2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2521
Manimaran Govindarasu, Aditya Ashok
Many critical infrastructures, such as energy and transportation systems, are cyber-enabled physical systems that increasingly rely on smart sensors, communication networks, and control algorithms for their efficient, reliable, and economic operations. Risk modeling is a key component of any comprehensive security solution to protect these infrastructures against cyber attacks. In this paper, we present a quantitative methodology for risk assessment and mitigation for cyber-physical systems and contrast its strengths and weaknesses with respect to qualitative risk assessment methodology that is widely used in industry.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2520
Thabet Kacem, Jeronymo Carvalho, Duminda Wijesekera, Paulo Costa, Márcio Monteiro, Alexandre Barreto
Since its emergence, Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) has been considered as a major contribution to air traffic control (ATC) surveillance. However, despite the several benefits that this promising technology has to offer, it suffers from a major security flaw since ADS-B packets are sent in clear text without enforcing any kind of security property. In this paper, we enhance a security framework, which we describe in a previous paper, aiming at detecting and mitigating attacks targeting ADS-B protocol, with a cognitive engine. First, this would facilitate the physical risk assessment of the ADS-B attacks based on the collected data describing the aircraft and its surrounding. Second, it would be beneficial to the ATC controllers who would have a better idea about the best ways to optimize the aircraft taking off and touching down without any disruptions from possible attacks targeting this technology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2519
Rosa Maria Rodriguez, Javier Garcia, Pedro Taboso
Boeing Research & Technology Europe (BR&T-Europe), a subsidiary of The Boeing Company, is developing an innovative approach to Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) in order to enhance both security and efficiency. Our approach will use the broadband internet connection onboard to securely interchange CNS data between aircraft and ground. On board broadband will allow new technological solutions and applications, not possible with current approaches, in a more secure and cost effective way. It also supports permanent surveillance and virtual event data recorder (black box). This concept is based on the dramatic improvement of broadband services on board. With some internet service providers promising up to 50Mbps per aircraft and global coverage, traditional data links (ACARS and ATN) are becoming obsolete. The solution supports the concept of aircraft always connected to ground servers to delocalize and automatize some CNS features.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2538
Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
With the currently foreseen growth of air traffic globally, the effects of aircraft condensation trails (contrails) are predicted to become significant by 2050. Currently, the physics behind the formation of contrails is relatively well understood. However, research regarding the persistence or dissipation timescales of contrails is still ongoing, with particular focus on their evolution into cirrus clouds, since these clouds have been shown to contribute to global warming. Currently, the formation of cirrus is believed to be affected by the microphysics of contrail formation and possibly by wind shear. In the aviation industry, there is an ongoing progress in the development of an integrated flight management/air traffic management system to account for contrail mitigation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2539
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Matthew Marino, Trevor Kistan
The potential benefits offered by advanced aircraft navigation technologies will be ultimately exploited only through the dynamic allocation of resources in a highly automated airspace. In this respect, the deployment of Four Dimensional Trajectory (4DT) functionalities in an Intent Based Operations (IBO) environment is envisaged as a fundamental enabler of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) services. The 4DT-IBO, in turn, are requiring the introduction of novel Communications, Navigation and Surveillance and ATM (CNS/ATM) systems, enabling the migration from traditional voice communications to data-driven negotiation and validation functions. A novel ground-based 4DT Planning, Negotiation and Validation (4-PNV) system is being developed in conjunction with Next Generation Flight Management Systems (NG-FMS) and Mission Management Systems (NG-MMS) for integration into the future air traffic scenario.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2540
Haochang Deng
Event of the disappearance of MH370 for a prolonged period of time makes the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to have reiterated the need to improve global flight tracking capabilities in the near term. Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) has put forward a road map for using of 1090ES ADS-B to track flight en route. This paper provides the airborne systems solution. The systems are based on Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture, adding 1090ES function on Mode-S transponder and TCAS for ADS-B out function and ADS-B in function, and also using SATCOM system data link to receive and transmit data, such as aircraft position, height, velocity, flight ID, aircraft intents, etc. After ADS-B transmitted data is received by ground data communication center, it can be distributed to air traffic management bureaus and airlines control cementer, for tracking the flight.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2556
Thomas Rousselin, Guillaume Hubert, Didier Regis, Marc Gatti
The changes brought by the increasing integration density and the new technological trends have pushed the reliability at its limit. Safety analysis for critical system such as embedded electronics for avionics systems needs to take into account these changes. In this paper, we present the consequences on the Deep Sub-Micron (DSM) CMOS devices concerning their single event effect (SEE) sensitivity. We also propose a new modeling method in order to address these issues.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2429
Rickard Olsen, Kerstin Johansen, Magnus Engstrom
The diffusion of human and robotics in manufacturing system is one of the next steps in robotics. Since the computer power gets more and more powerful there is more and more possible to achieve safer working environment. This could lead to a possibility to work closer and more direct with a robot. In an EU FW7 funded project called LOCOMACHs (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) there are studies and tests to support a future higher TRL-leveled HMI-cell (Human Machine Interaction). The main object in this paper is to present how different safety system could help the HMI-cell to work properly in an industrial context, this when the operator enters the robot working area and working with a task that needs two hand. Safety defines as when its risk is judged to be acceptable.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2433
Simon Taylor
Within the aerospace domain advisory material and recommended practices exist to support the structured safety assessment in response to certification requirements; specifically 25.1309 for large transport category aircraft. This material provides structured guidance for safety assessment including Common Cause Analysis (CCA) however the approaches are largely dependent upon the experience and competence of the practitioner. In the context of fewer and shorter product development programs, lengthening operational lifetimes, increasing system integration and development complexity, as well as the trend for delegated responsibility to system suppliers there is a need for a more structured approach which supported the preservation of knowledge. This paper summarizes the current state of the art within the aerospace domain from the perspective of CCA and proposes a knowledge centric approach as part of a front loaded development process.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2432
Michael Hanna
One of the most important system development issues facing developing new aerospace systems is how to comply with the complex design requirements and in the same time ensure compliance to the associated safety requirements. There is an increased need to develop complex and critical aerospace systems that depend on high integration between the Hardware and the Software to achieve efficiency and optimization. This level of complexity imposes significant challenge in complying and achieving the required level of safety. This paper addresses the safety challenges that are imposed by developing complex systems to fulfill critical functions with the focus on the common cause errors and the compliance to the Design Assurance Level. The design doesn’t only need to take in consideration assigning proper Design Assurance Level for each function, but also providing immune against common cause errors.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2431
Robert E. Voros
Aerospace Recommended Practice 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), “Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,” is recognized through Advisory Circular 20-174 (AC 20-174) as a way (but not the only way) to provide development assurance for aircraft and systems to minimize the possibility of development errors. ARP4754A and its companion, Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6110, “Contiguous Aircraft/System Development Process Example,” primarily describe development processes for an all new, complex and highly integrated aircraft without strong consideration for reused systems or simple systems. While ARP4754A section 5 mention reuse, similarity, and complexity, and section 6 is intended to cover modification programs, the descriptions in these sections can be unclear and inconsistent. The majority of aircraft projects are normally not completely new products nor are they entirely comprised of complex and highly-integrated systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2437
Simon Taylor
Interconnection systems are passive systems which merely afford the transfer of data and/or power between the items of an active system, thereby supporting the system function. The safety assessment of these interconnection systems may be considered to be fundamentally similar across the different power and data transfer technologies; whether electromagnetic or mechanical interconnection systems. Within the aerospace domain advisory material and recommended practices exist to support safety assessment in response to certification requirements; specifically for large transport category aircraft 25.1309 and 25.1709. This material provides an outline process for interconnection system safety assessment in terms of physical and functional failures.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2436
Anapathur V. Ramesh
Fault-tolerance in commercial aircraft applications is typically achieved by redundancy. Dual or triple redundancy is common, and higher redundancy aircraft systems exist. This is also true for the Military, Defense and Space vehicles. In many cases the backups are provided for safety, and are used only to provide functionality when the primary fails. In such systems the primary component is checked before the start of a flight to see if it operates correctly. The aircraft will not take off unless the primary is functioning. Usually backup components are checked at intervals that span multiple flights. The first backup may be checked more frequently than the second or higher levels. This leads to flights where the system could have latent faults in the backup components. The probability of failure in such cases varies from flight to flight due to the different exposure times for components in the system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2435
Ramakrishnan Murthy
One major problem that any product (say Motor, engines etc) which converts electrical energy into a mechanical energy would have is resonance. It has tendency to damage any material when the products operating frequency matches the resonant frequency. The major consequences of this resonant frequency in Flight at run-time could be catostrophic. Generally it is a practice to avoid running at the resonant frequency. This is done as a fixed method where the systems are designed not to run on resonant frequency, i.e. a subsystem in a system is now being designed for that system alone which will not match the resonant frequency. But the same subsystem may not be suitable for some other system. Hence this requires multiple designs. However this idea is to make a design generic where any subsystem can be used in any system irrespective of its resonant frequency. The technique uses the PID algorithm. This method will be helpful is having a single design for different systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2434
Tian Lirong, Mu Ming
Abstract: Chinese aviation industry is now making great efforts in developing civil aircraft, as a result, more opportunities for Chinese companies to be involved in these programs, but Chinese companies are lack of experience in this area, certification is one of the challenges for them,so they are expected to be more competitive in design and certification. ACTRI (Aeronautical Computing Technique Research Institute) is a airborne computer supplier in China, to be able to develop electronic equipment for civil aircraft, the company has being working on processes improvement including the system process based on ARP4754 since 2008. This paper describes the customized system process in Chinese context.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2438
Robert E. Voros
Aerospace Recommended Practice 4754 Revision A (ARP4754A), “Guidelines for Development of Civil Aircraft and Systems,” and ARP4761, “Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment,” together describe a complex set of intertwining processes which comprehensively prioritize development activities for a product’s systems based on their safety criticality. These processes work at specific levels of detail (aircraft and system) and interact with a set of processes at lower levels of detail (item) defined by Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) standards. The aircraft and system development process (ARP4754A) supplies functions, requirements, and architectural definitions to the system safety process (ARP4761), which in turn supplies Development Assurance Levels back to the development process and on to the RTCA processes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
From the dawn of commercial air travel until 2001, labor costs loomed as the greatest expense in commercial aviation. Though fuel costs have since taken the top spot, labor costs remain a pressing area of concern in the airline industry. Airlines have long sought to reduce the burden of labor to improve the businesses’ bottom line. One of their most frequent appeals has been to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Under-educated on the true failure rates, bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories about pilots becoming ill or falling asleep in the flight deck. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2441
Ahmet Oztekin
Air Traffic Control System (ATCS) provides organizational, operational, and technical infrastructure necessary to maintain air traffic separation and prevent collision between aircraft operating within civil airspace. Current aviation safety research focuses mainly on aircraft and human vs. machine interactions. There is a gap in literature regarding research that explores ATCS’s potential impact on aviation safety. For complex systems, such as ATCS, safety is primarily a product of potential interactions among its various sub-systems. For example, over the phases of flight, separation of air traffic is maintained by different types of air traffic control (ATC) facilities. This paper outlines an analytical framework to perform a data-driven, risk-based assessment of ATC facilities. Safety associated with an ATC facility is modeled as an influence network using a set of risk factors.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2456
Roberto Sabatini, Terry Moore, Chris Hill
The integration of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) integrity augmentation functionalities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) architectures has the potential to provide an integrity-augmented DAA solution suitable for cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios. In this paper, we evaluate the opportunities offered by this integration, proposing a novel approach that maximizes the synergies between Avionics Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) and UAV cooperative/non-cooperative DAA architectures. In the proposed architecture, the risk of collision is evaluated by setting a threshold on the Probability Density Function (PDF) of a Near Mid-Air Collision (NMAC) event over the separation area in both cooperative and non-cooperative cases.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2469
Reece Clothier, Brendan Williams, Achim Washington
One on the primary hazards associated with the operation of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) is the controlled or uncontrolled impact of the UA with terrain or objects on the terrain (e.g., people or structures). National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) have the responsibility of ensuring that the risks associated with this hazard are managed to an acceptable level. The NAA can mandate a range of technical (e.g., design standards) and operational (e.g., restrictions on flight) regulatory requirements. However, work to develop these regulations for UA is ongoing. Underpinning this rule-making process is a safety case showing how the regulatory requirements put in place ensure that the UA operation is acceptably safe for the given application and environment.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2470
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini, Alessandro Gardi
Cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) functions are key enablers for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
2015-07-07
Article
The sealing specialist is currently developing two new materials that reportedly will help aircraft manufacturers save weight and production costs while exceeding fire resistance and fireproof requirements for the engine application.
2015-07-01
Article
The system, to be offered on nearly all Ford SUVs globally by 2020, uses real-time video from 1-megapixel wide-angle-lens cameras mounted in the vehicle’s grill and lift gate to help drivers see around corners.
2015-07-01
Article
Its programs include driver brain wave analysis, heart and respiration monitoring, safer autonomous driving, and added driver support.
2015-06-30
Standard
J2944_201506
This Recommended Practice, Operational Definitions of Driving Performance Measures and Statistics, provides functional definitions of and guidance for performance measures and statistics concerned with driving on roadways. As a consequence, measurements and statistics will be calculated and reported in a consistent manner in SAE and ISO standards, journal articles proceedings papers, technical reports, and presentations so that the procedures and results can be more readily compared. Only measures and statistics pertaining to driver/vehicle responses that affect the lateral and longitudinal positioning of a road vehicle are currently provided in this document. Measures and statistics covering other aspects of driving performance may be included in future editions. For eye glance-related measures and statistics, see SAE J2396 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2007) and ISO 15007-1 (International Standards Organization, 2002).
2015-06-29
WIP Standard
AS6254A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers ULDs utilized in finding submerged aircraft. Such ULDs are installed within the aircraft in a manner that they are unlikely to become separated during crash conditions. The low frequency ULD should be attached to the airframe in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations in order to maximize the underwater detection range.
2015-06-29
WIP Standard
J1555
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all portions of the vehicle, but design efforts should focus on components and systems with the highest contribution to the overall average repair cost (see 3.7). The costs to be minimized include not only insurance premiums, but also out-of-pocket costs incurred by the owner. Damageability, repairability, serviceability and diagnostics are inter-related. Some repairability, serviceability and diagnostics operations may be required for collision or comprehensive loss-related causes only, some operations for non-collision-related causes only (warranty, scheduled maintenance, non-scheduled maintenance, etc.), and some for both causes. The scope of this document deals with only those operations that involve collision and comprehensive insurance loss repairs.
2015-06-25
WIP Standard
ARP6340
This ARP provides recommended practice on the considerations and methodology to demonstrate acceptable performance of the Engine components / fuel system, and APU, whilst operating throughout the flight cycle / engine duty for continuous operation with iced fuel and short duration operation with a snowshower resulting from release of accreted ice from fuel washed surfaces, where no anti-icing additives are present (e.g. Fuel System Icing Inhibitor FSII or alternative). Two scenarios must be considered when demonstrating the capability of Engine components / fuel system, and APU to operate with fuel borne ice to satisfy certification regulations applications in support of FAA Part 23 and Part 25, CFR Part 33, and corresponding EASA CS-E regulations, and equivalent Military application requirements.
2015-06-23
WIP Standard
J2889/1
This SAE Standard is derived from SAE J2805 and specifies an engineering method for measuring the sound emitted by M and N category road vehicles at standstill and low speed operating conditions.. The specifications reproduce the level of sound which is generated by the principal vehicle sound sources consistent with stationary and low speed vehicle operating conditions relevant for pedestrian safety. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. The test method requires an acoustic environment which is only obtained in an extensive open space or in special designed indoor facilities replicating the conditions of an extensive open space. Such conditions usually exist during: Measurements of vehicles for regulatory certification. Measurements at the manufacturing stage. Measurements at official testing stations.
2015-06-22
WIP Standard
AS36100B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the minimum performance requirements and test parameters for air cargo unit load devices requiring approval of airworthiness for installation in an approved aircraft cargo compartment and restraint system that complies with the cargo restraint and occupant protection requirements of Title 14 CFR Part 25, except for the 9.0g forward ultimate inertia force of § 25.561 (b)(3)(ii).
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