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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16694
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0053
Hisato Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Tatsuo Ichige, Tomoyuki Ishimori, Yoichi Sansho
Owing to the recent developments in sensors with reduced size and weight, it is now possible to install sensors on a body of a motorcycle to monitor its behavior during running. The analysis of maneuverability and stability has been performed based on the data resulted from measurements by these sensors. The tire forces and moments is an important measurement item in maneuverability and stability studies. However, the tire forces and moments is difficult to measure directly, therefore, it is a common practice to measure the force and the moment acting on the center of the wheel. The measuring device is called a wheel forces and moments sensor, and it is widely used for cars. The development of a wheel forces and moments sensor for motorcycles has difficulty particular to motorcycles. First, motorcycles run with their bodies largely banked, which restricts positioning the sensors.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0057
Yuji Arai, Makoto Hasegawa, Takeshi Harigae
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of safety-related electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0051
Keisuke Terada, Takayuki Sano, Kenichi Watanabe, Takashi Kaieda, Kazuhisa Takano
In recent years three-wheel camber vehicles, with two wheels in the front and a single rear wheel, have been growing in popularity due to their excellent stability and motorcycle-like handling. We call this kind of vehicle a “Leaning Multi Wheel category” vehicle (hereinafter referred to as a “LMW vehicle”) and have been pursuing research and development of these vehicles. A LMW vehicle has various characteristics, but one of them stands out in particular. When a LMW vehicle is cornering, if one of the front wheels passes over a section of road surface with a low friction coefficient, there is very little disturbance to the vehicle’s behavior, it remains stable, and can continue to be driven as normal. However, there has been no investigation into why these vehicles have this particular characteristic and so there is a need to clarify this phenomenon theoretically from the standpoint of understanding these vehicles better.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0054
Barath Mohan, KVM Raju, Sai Praveen Velagapudi, Chandramouli Padmanabhan
Tires influence the dynamic performance of the motorcycle and the development of tires to meet these requirements has always been one of the critical and challenging tasks for the motorcycle industry. The tire characteristics and rest of the motorcycle design need to be tuned extensively to achieve the desired performance and this work requires estimating tire force characteristics upfront. The aim of this study is to develop feasible test methods to measure the lateral force characteristics of motorcycle tires. This work is an extension of our previous work on estimating the longitudinal forces of motorcycle tires. In this work, new experimental procedures are developed to estimate the friction ellipse and lateral stiffness characteristics of motorcycle tires. A fairly accurate tire model is developed using the measured lateral force characteristics.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8049
Keith Friedman, Khanh Bui, John Hutchinson, Matthew Stephens, Francisco Gonzalez
Frame rail design advances for the heavy truck industry provide numerous opportunities for enhanced protection of fuel storage systems. One aspect of the advanced frame technology now available is the ability to vary the frame rail separation along the length of the truck, as well as the depth of the frame. The frame technology opens opportunities that are likely to improve crash compatibility, fuel economy, fuel storage system protection. While examples of integrated front, side and rear underride protection systems enabled with this frame design technology, in this study, the effect of incorporating the fuel storage system within the available curved frame rails was evaluated using virtual testing. Fuel system storage for diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) were evaluated under impact conditions. The impact performance was evaluated under a range of horizontal impacts and rollover conditions.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8114
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Pietro Marani, Michele Selvatici
Stationary brake is a very important and safety related function in many machine types. The new transmissions and the X-by wire systems increase the role of stationary brake criticality, as it is also an emergency brake, and it’s often used to hold the vehicle while the transmission is not locking the wheel in all stationary condition and sometimes if it is faulty. As an example, dual clutch and power-shift transmission gear systems, as well as hydrostatic transmissions are often unable to hold the vehicle stopped and the function is provided by the stationary brake. Due to the main need of having the brake actuated when vehicle is stopped, without any hydraulic and electric active power source, the brake configuration is normally a “negative” configuration, but this obviously lead to the brake actuation when de-energized, even in case of fault occurrence.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8155
Devaraj Dasarathan, Jonathan Jilesen, David Croteau, Ray Ayala
Side window clarity and its effect on side mirror visibility plays major role in the driver comfort. Driving in inclement weather conditions such as rain can be stressful. Having optimal visibility under these conditions is ideal. However, extreme conditions can overwhelm exterior water management devices, resulting in rivulets of water flowing over the a-pillar and onto the vehicle’s side glass. Once on the side glass, these rivulets and the pooling of water they feed can significantly impair the driver’s ability to see the side mirror or to see outwardly when in situations such as changing lanes. Designing exterior water management features of a vehicle is a challenging exercise as traditionally, physical testing methods first require a full-scale vehicle for evaluations to be possible. Additionally, common water management devices such as grooves and channels often have undesirable aesthetic, drag, and wind noise implications.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8011
Kevin Grove, Jon Atwood, Myra Blanco, Andrew Krum, Richard Hanowski
The goal of this research was to investigate the reliability of tractor-trailer collision avoidance systems (CASs) and characterize the activations observed in the real world. 150 commercial tractor-trailers were equipped with a data acquisition system (DAS) for up to one year. The DAS recorded video of the roadway, video of the driver and vehicle data whenever the truck was driving. Data was collected between November 2013 and August 2015, and the trucks in the study were equipped with either the Meritor WABCO OnGuardTM or Bendix® Wingman® AdvancedTM products. Seven companies from across the United States participated in the study, and all participating vehicles drove their normal, revenue-producing routes. The study evaluated reliability by classifying activations into three categories, based on whether a valid object was being tracked and whether the driver need to react immediately to the activation.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8142
Jeremy Daily, Rose Gamble, Stephen Moffitt, Connor Raines, Paul Harris, Jannah Miran, Indrakshi Ray, Subhojeet Mukherjee, Hossein Shirazi, James Johnson
Cyber Assurance of heavy trucks is a concern with both new designs as well as supporting legacy systems. Many cyber security experts and analysts are used to working with traditional IT networks and are familiar with a set of technologies, which may not be directly useful in the commercial vehicle sector. To help connect security researchers to heavy trucks, a remotely accessible testbed has been prototyped for experimentation with security methodologies and techniques to evaluate and improve on existing technologies, as well as developing domain-specific technologies. The test bed relies on embedded Linux based node controllers that can simulate the sensor inputs to various heavy vehicle ECMs. The node controller also monitors and affects the flow of network information between the ECM and the vehicle communications backbone.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8098
Satish Jaju, Sahil Pandare
Abstract The regulatory requirement in Economic Commission for Europe (ECE R58) regulation applies to the Rear underrun protection devices which are intended to be fitted to commercial vehicles of N categories. The purpose of this regulation is to offer effective protection against underrunning of vehicles. This paper describes Computer aided engineering (CAE) methodology for testing rear underrun protection devices with loading sequences to be decided by Original equipment manufacturer. A sample model is prepared and analyzed to represent actual test conditions. Constraints and boundary conditions are applied as per test of vehicle. Finite element simulation is carried out using LS DYNA solver. Structural strength and integrity of Rear under protection device assembly is observed for different regulatory load requirement.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2025
Amir Fazeli, Adnan Cepic, Susanne Reber
Abstract Aircraft weight and center of mass are two critical design and operational parameters that have to be within a design envelope to ensure a safe and efficient operation of aircraft. Previous efforts to accurately determine aircraft weight and center of mass before takeoff using landing gear shock strut pressures have failed due to the distortion of measured pressures by shock strut seal friction. Currently, aircraft loading process is controlled with loading sheets and passenger/cargo weight estimation as there are no online measurement systems that can accurately and efficiently estimate aircraft weight and determine the center of mass location before takeoff. However, errors in loading sheets, shifting cargo and errors in weight estimation could lead to incorrect loading of aircraft and, consequently, increase the risk of accidents, particularly in cargo flights.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2040
Satya Swaroop Panda, Uday Kishore Tammiraju
Abstract Most of the real world problems pose practical challenges for making decisions primarily due to availability of limited data. Quantification of risk and assessment of structural reliability becomes difficult in such scenarios. Techniques for performing safety analysis for such problems are discussed in this paper. While complete characterization of a system behavior may be difficult with limited data of its response, statistical models based on extreme value theory provide the basis for making decisions with reasonable confidence. The same may not be true, however, for such structures early in their design cycle due to limited experience of their performance. In such cases response surface methodology can be very useful in determination of risk and suitably making modifications to the design to improve the reliability of the component or system. Applications of these methods for some real world scenarios are demonstrated.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1976
Kiran Thupakula, Adishesha Sivaramasastry, Srikanth Gampa
Abstract Aviation safety is one of the key focus areas of the aerospace industry as it involves safety of passengers, crew, assets etc. Due to advancements in technology, aviation safety has reached to safest levels compared to last few decades. In spite of declining trends in in-air accident rate, ground accidents are increasing due to ever increasing air traffic and human factors in the airport. Majority of the accidents occur during initial and final phases of the flight. Rapid increase in air traffic would pose challenge in ensuring safety and best utilization of Airports, Airspace and assets. In current scenario multiple systems like Runway Debris Monitoring System, Runway Incursion Detection System, Obstacle avoidance system and Traffic Collision Avoidance System are used for collision prediction and alerting in airport environment. However these approaches are standalone in nature and have limitations in coverage, performance and are dependent on onboard equipment.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2043
Richard C. Millar, Thomas Mazzuchi, Haflidi Jonsson
Abstract The SPA-10 project, sponsored by U.S. National Science Foundation, is to acquire and qualify a replacement for the retired T-28 “storm penetration” aircraft previously used to acquire meteorological data to enable understanding and modelling of mid-continent thunderstorms. The National Science Foundation selected the Fairchild A-10 (bailed from the U.S. Air Force) as the platform to be adapted to perform the storm penetration mission to altitudes of eleven kilometers, and funded Naval Postgraduate School’s Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) as prime contractor. An expert panel conducted a review of the SPA-10 project in 2014 and recommended a risk analysis addressing hazards to the aircraft and pilots, such as icing, hail, turbulence and lightning. This paper presents the results of the risk analysis performed in response to this need, including recommended mitigations.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1953
Michael Herbert Putz, Harald Seifert, Maximilian Zach, Jure Peternel
Vienna Engineering (VE) is working since more than eight years on an electro-mechanical brake (EMB) with a special eccentric and highly non-linear actuation mechanism. The principle allows e.g. high brake torque in approx. 50 milliseconds with only approx. 3 A rms actuator current at 12 V. This EMB reached an elaborated state and versions for passenger cars, elevators, railway and commercial vehicles (CVs) were derived. Now, as the EMB is going to road tests, it is necessary to closely fulfill safety requirements. What these safety requirements are and how they can be fulfilled is discussed in this paper: That are properties of the overall system and of the mechanics and electronics of the single brake. The overall brake system for EMBs needs a truly redundant power supply, a safe control bus and a safe brake pedal. The mechanics of a single brake can be required to release when power is off and it must not get mechanically stuck.
2016-09-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9017
Janka Cafolla, Derick Smart, Barry Warner
Abstract The lifting and excavating industry are not as advanced as automotive in the use of modern CAE tools in the early stages of design and development of heavy machinery. There is still a lack of confidence in the integrity of the results from FE simulations and optimisation and this becomes a barrier to the adoption of virtual prototyping for vehicle verification. R&D of Tata Steel has performed tests on two forklift truck overhead guards supplied by a major manufacturer. Based on the international standard for Falling Object Protective Structures (FOPS) as an initial input to the method of testing, the main aim of this study was to generate as much test data as possible to correlate the Finite Element (FE) simulations of two tests - a static and a dynamic test. The static test was developed to deform the overhead guard plastically in a slow controlled manner, so it would be easier to correlate the measured data to FE simulation.
2016-09-14
Journal Article
2016-01-1877
Jun Hu, Wei Liu, Shuai Cheng, Huan Tian, Huai Yuan, Hong Zhao
Abstract The convolutional neural network (CNN) has achieved extraordinary performance in image classification. However, the implementation of such architecture on embedded platforms is a big challenge task due to the computing resource constraint issue. This paper concentrates on optimization of CNN on embedded platforms with a case study of pedestrian detection in ADAS. The main contribution of this proposed CNN is its ability to run pedestrian classification task in real time with high accuracy based on a platform with ARM embedded. The CNN model has been trained with GPU locally and then transformed into an efficient implementation on embedded platforms. The efficient implementation uses dramatically small network scale and a lightweight CNN is obtained. Specifically, parameters of the network are compressed by adopting integer weights to reduce computational complexity. Meanwhile, other optimizations have also been proposed to adapt the general ARM processor architecture.
2016-08-23
Standard
J2956_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting side impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
2016-08-19
Standard
AS6285
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions on the ground. This document does not specify the requirements for particular aircraft models. NOTE: Refer to particular aircraft operator or aircraft manufacturers’ published manuals and procedures. The application of the procedures specified in this document are intended to effectively remove and/or prevent the accumulation of frost, snow, slush or ice contamination which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or the controllability of an aircraft. The principal method of treatment employed is the use of fluids qualified to AMS1424 and AMS1428 (Type I, II, III, and IV fluids). All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents.
2016-08-17
WIP Standard
ARP4553B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to provide design and qualification requirements for self-displacing hydraulic accumulators.

These requirements are intended to be included in the Producrement Specification for the accumulator. Those requirements identified by the use of "shall" are considered to be essential requirements; those requirements identified by the use of "should" are considered to be optional requirements for inclusion in the Specificaiton at the discretion of the Purchaser.

In addition, test methods for production acceptance and qualification purposes are provided.

The accumulator is intended for use in military aerospace hydraulic systems with rated pressures of up to 8000 psi (55,158 kPa) and of the following types as specified in SAE AS 5440: Type I: -65 to +160 °F (-54 to +71 °C) fluid temperature; Type II: -65 to +275 °F (-54 to +135 °C) fluid temperature.

2016-08-17
Standard
J3044_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting rear impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mount testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
2016-08-17
Standard
J2917_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting frontal impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
2016-08-16
WIP Standard
AS4211E
Remove AS85421 performance specification and leave AS85720 performance specification to provide clarification regarding the QPL and associated pressure applications.
2016-08-16
WIP Standard
AS4220D
Remove AS85421 performance specification and leave AS85720 performance specification to provide clarification regarding the QPL and associated pressure applications.
2016-08-16
WIP Standard
AS4210E
Remove AS85421 performance specification and leave AS85720 performance specification to provide clarification regarding the QPL and associated pressure applications.
2016-08-16
WIP Standard
AS4224D
Remove AS85421 performance specification and leave AS85720 performance specification to provide clarification regarding the QPL and associated pressure applications.
2016-08-16
WIP Standard
AS4807D
Remove AS85421 performance specification and leave AS85720 performance specification to provide clarification regarding the QPL and associated pressure applications. Correct the “V” dimension for size 10.
2016-08-16
WIP Standard
AS4221D
Remove AS85421 performance specification and leave AS85720 performance specification to provide clarification regarding the QPL and associated pressure applications.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16694

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