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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17251
2017-04-11
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This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1363
James F. Krier, Paul Weindorf
Modern automotive cockpit design trends have increased the number of displays and the locations and manner in how they are packaged. One theme in particular is the packaging of the displays in novel locations that may be marginal in terms of dynamic stability during road load vibrations. Examples of this include mirror or deployable displays that adjust their position in the vehicle. The image of the display may be partially or fully blurred during vibration events which can produce a poor HMI experience. This paper will present the results of a HMI study that that evaluated the readability of different sizes and contrast ratios of TFT color display graphics via jury evaluation during varying vibration acceleration and frequency levels in a controlled lab environment. The result of this study was identification of minimum natural frequencies and maximum acceleration levels for the display mounting structure as a function of display graphics size and contrast ratios.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0112
Mingming Zhao, Hongyan Wang, Xiao Xu, Yutong He
Rear-end accident is one of the most important collision modes in China, which often leads to severe accident consequences due to the high collision velocity. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) System could perform emergency brake automatically in dangerous situation and mitigate the consequence. This study focused on the analysis of the rear-end accidents in China in order to discuss about the parameters of Time-to-Collision (TTC) of AEB and the potential effectiveness. A sample of 84 accidents was in-depth investigated and reconstructed, providing a comprehensive set of data describing the pre-crash matrix. Each accident in this sample is reconstructed and modeled numerically by the simulation tool PC-Crash. In parallel, a model representing the function of an AEB system has been established. This AEB system applies partial braking when the TTC ≤ TTC1 and full braking when the TTC ≤ TTC2.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1411
Gary A. Davis
For at least 15 years it has been recognized that pre-crash data captured by event data recorders (EDR) might help illuminate the actions taken by drivers prior to a crash. In left-turning crashes where pre-crash data are available from both vehicles it should be possible to estimate features such as the location and speed of the opposing vehicle at the time of turn initiation and the reaction time of the opposing driver. Difficulties arise however from measurement errors in pre-crash speed data and because the EDR data from the two vehicles are not synchronized; the resulting uncertainties should be accounted for. This paper describes a method for accomplishing this using Markov Chain Monte Carlo computation. First, planar impact methods are used to estimate the speeds at impact of the involved vehicles. Next, the impact speeds and pre-crash EDR data are used to reconstruct the vehicles’ trajectories during the approximately 5 seconds preceding the crash.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1366
Jeffrey Muttart, Swaroop Dinakar, Jeffrey Suway, Michael Kuzel, Timothy Maloney, Wayne Biever, Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, David Cavanaugh, T.J. Harms
More than half all pedestrian fatalities occur at night. To address this problem, in the 1950s through 1970s Blackwell conducted considerable research that showed that a way to account for the limitations related to drivers’ expectancies at night would be to limit a driver’s time to view the forward roadway. The reduced information during the limited exposure time became a surrogate for the limited information available to on-road drivers at night. With the release of the SHRP-2 naturalistic database, we are able to see how drivers responded to in-road obstacles at night such as animals, bicyclists, pedestrians, and tree limbs. Using the naturalistic response data as a baseline, safe closed road recognition methodology was developed. The closed road study built upon the early nighttime recognition work by Blackwell, the observers were allowed to view the forward roadway for 1 or ¼ second.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0031
Mohamed Benmimoun
In the last years various advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been introduced in the market. More highly advanced functions up to automated driving functions are currently under research. By means of these functions partly automated driving in specific situations is already or will be soon realized, e.g. traffic jam assist. Besides the technical challenges to develop such automated driving functions for complex situations, e.g. construction or intersection areas, new approaches for the evaluation of these functions under different driving conditions are necessary, in order to assess the benefits and identify potential weaknesses. Classical approaches for evaluation and market sign off will require an extensive testing, which results in high costs and time demands. Therefore the classical approaches are hardly feasible taking into account higher levels of support and automation. Today the final sign-off requires a high amount of real world tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0051
Jean GODOT, Adil ALIF, Sébastien Saudrais, Bertrand BARBEDETTE, Cherif LAROUCI
The assessment of the safety and the reliability for embedded systems is mainly performed early in the design cycle, at system level. The objective is to detect the potential failures which could lead to an undesirable event. Given the increasing critical aspect of the functions executed by the software in automotive and aeronautics, it becomes necessary to perform safety analysis at lower level of the design cycle such as at implementation stage. But, software models at this stage are complex and heterogeneous so the analysis are often manually realized. As the software models are also very large (thousands of basic software components), the analysis is labor-intensive and error-prone so it is not obvious to obtain relevant results. Therefore, the analysis on software models at implementation stage is often neglected.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0056
Naveen Mohan, Martin Törngren, Sagar Behere
With the advent of the ISO 26262 there is an increased emphasis on top-down design in the automotive industry. While the standard delivers an ideal framework for safety design, it lacks detailed requirements for the various stages themselves. The lack of structure becomes evident in the reuse of legacy components and subsystems, a common scenario in the cost-sensitive automotive domain. This poses particular challenges in the context of automated driving where multiple subsystems both new and legacy need to coordinate to realize a function, leaving vehicle architects and safety designers to rely on experience for their decisions. This paper introduces a method to support consistent design of the Functional Safety Concept(FSC) as required by the ISO 26262. The method arises from and addresses need within the industry for systematic architectural analysis and rationale management and reuse of legacy subsystems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0064
Agish George, Jody Nelson
The ISO 26262 standard for functional safety was first released in 2011 and has been widely incorporated by most OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. The design and conformance of the product to functional safety standards is strongly intertwined with the product development cycle and needs to be carefully managed. The consideration for functional safety needs to begin right from the product’s concept phase through engineering and production and finally decommissioning. The application of the standard in a project can bring significant challenges especially to managers who are relatively new to the standard. This paper provides some guidelines on the key tasks involved in managing ISO26262 in projects and some ways to approach them. The paper is expected to help managers manage ISO26262 compliant projects especially organizations that have just started their ISO26262 journey.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0061
Sultan A.M Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Seisuke Nishimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu
Lightning strikes on automobiles are usually deemed rare, though they can be fatal to occupants and hazardous to electronic control systems. Vehicle's metal bodies are normally considered to be an effective shield against lightning. Modern body designs, however, have wide opening of windows, and plastic body parts are becoming popular. Lightning can run into the cabin of vehicles through radio antennas and hit the driver, as it happened in Japan last year. As the shark-fin antenna, which has wiring above the heads of occupants, becomes more popular, it may pose an increased risk of lightning attack to the passengers. In the near future, automobiles may be integrated into the electric power grid as people ponder about the smart grid and vehicle to grid (V2G) concepts. Even today electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are being charged at home or in parking lots.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1379
Yilu Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar, Yongquan Xie, Benjamin Pollatz, Rahul Kulkarni, Yifu Liu, Paul Watta
Drivers often engage in secondary in-vehicle activity that is not related to vehicle control because they believe they can do so safely. Often, it may be to relieve the monotony of driving. Interest is growing to understand and measure a driver’s workload, and design vehicle functionality to accommodate a driver’s perceived, rather than actual, workload. An accurate and real-time variant measure of driver workload that is personalized to an individual driver could be useful in the design of vehicle functionality that can be invoked and brought to the foreground when necessary, or placed in the background when not necessary. In autonomous vehicles where a driver is present as part of the HMI (human-machine interface), this structure could be helpful to better understand the transition from automated to manual driving mode, and vice versa. In this study, the measurement of perceived workload, and its inherent ‘personalized’ connotation was investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1418
Wesley D. Grimes, Thomas Vadnais, Gregory A. Wilcoxson
The time/distance relationship for a heavy truck accelerating from a stop is often needed to accurately assess the events leading up to a collision. Several series of tests were conducted to document the low speed acceleration performance of a 2016 Kenworth T680 truck tractor equipped with an automated manual transmission in Auto Mode. Unlike the tests in previous papers, the driver never manually shifted gears. These tests included three trailer load configurations and two different acceleration rates. Data were gathered with both a VBOX and with the Cummins Insite software. Results from both data acquisition systems were compared.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1405
Tzu-Sung Wu, Min-Shiu hsieh PhD, Po-Hsiang Liao, Ping-Min Hsu
Autonomous Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS) usually contain radar, (stereo) camera and/or LiDAR-based technology to identify potential collision partners ahead of the car, such that to warn the driver or automatically brake to avoid or mitigate a crash. The advantage of camera is less cost: however, is inevitable to face the defects of cameras in AEBS, that is, the image recognition cannot perform good accuracy in the poor or over-exposure light condition. Therefore, the compensation of other sensors is of importance. Motivated by the improvement of false detection, we propose a Pedestrian-and-Vehicle Recognition (PVR) algorithm based on radar to apply to AEBS. The PVR employs the radar cross section (RCS) and standard deviation of width of obstacle to determine whether a threshold value of RCS and standard deviation of width of the pedestrian and vehicle is crossed, and to identity that the objective is a pedestrian or vehicle, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1401
Trong-Duy Nguyen, Joseph Lull, Satish Vaishnav
In this paper, a method of improving automated vehicle’s perception using a multi-pose camera system (MPCS) is presented. The proposed MPCS is composed of two identical colored and high frame-rate cameras: one installed in driver side and the other in passenger side. Perspective of MPCS varies depending on the width of vehicle type in which MPCS is installed. To increase perspective, we use maximum width of the host vehicle as camera to camera distance for the MPCS. In addition, angular positions of the two cameras in MPCS are controlled by two separate electric motor-based actuators. Steering wheel angle, which is available from vehicle Controller Area Network (CAN) messages, is used to supply information to the actuators to synchronize MPCS camera positions with the host vehicle steering wheel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1307
Puneet Bahri, Praveen Balaj Balakrishnan, Ravi Purnoo Munuswamy
The change in thickness and work hardening that arise during the forming process are generally ignored in quasi-static analysis for Seat belt pull when performed on vehicle body. However, it is a well-known effect that the physical properties of steel can alter significantly during the manufacturing process. This comprises an increase of material stiffness due to plastic deformation as well as gage changes. Generally, these changes are of very local nature and in the past, crash software tools didn't support the introduction of these local effects, so that they couldn't be taken into account. In the meanwhile LS-DYNA has the capability to import information provided by stamping tools. Thereby a very important part of the material properties can be introduced into the quasi-static simulation models, leading to a significantly increased correlation to test results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1357
Stefan G. Groetsch, Rainer Huber, Alexander Guenther, Ralf Staub
Osrams new high luminance chip technology (200 Mcd/m²)also offers new opportunities also in new SMT Concepts. Two of this new high performance SMT devices with 4 and 2 chips per unit enable a very compact headlamp prototype design. It is also combined with light guides for daytime running light and turn indicator. Emphasis in this paper lies also on the thermal design & solution ranging from selected PCB technology towards tuned air flow management.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1447
Pardeep K. Jindal, Rahul Makwana, Djamal Midoun, Edward Abramoski, Matthew Makowski, Ravi Kodwani
In 2012, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) added a new frontal impact test to its vehicle crashworthiness rating protocol, often referred to as the “Small Overlap Rigid Barrier” (SORB) test. The objective of the present numerical study was to develop an innovative driver knee airbag (KAB) to address anthropomorphic test device (ATD) Knee-Thigh-Hip (KTH) response relative to the IIHS’s rating system of “Good, Acceptable, Marginal or Poor”. The approach used in this study utilized advanced morphing techniques in a sophisticated finite element (FE) model of a vehicle with an ATD and a restraint system. The key challenge in the study was to manage vehicle deformation with minimal changes to the KAB inflator and volume. Several KAB designs in terms of (width, height and depth) were simulated until a design resulted in changing the KTH rating from “Poor” to “Good”.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1456
Shailesh Pawar, Sandeep Sharma, Manoj sharma
The heavy and light commercial vehicles are equipped with protection devices to enhance the safety of occupants in small vehicles in the event of under run and to reduce the degree of intrusions. These protection devices are SUPD (side under run protection devices), RUPD (rear under run protection devices), FUPD (front under run protection devices). Any passenger vehicles can impact with the heavy vehicles either from rear, front or side and meet the sever accident. During these types of impacts, there is a possibility that the passenger vehicle will go under the front, rear or side part of the truck and bus and cause serious injuries to the occupants. Side underrun protection device is one of the important system implemented in Vehicles as a regulatory requirement (as per IS 14682: 1999) for passive safety of N2 and N3 category vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1457
Jingwen Hu, Nichole Ritchie Orton, Rebekah Gruber, Ryan Hoover, Kevin Tribbett, Jonathan Rupp, Dave Clark, Risa Scherer, Matthew Reed
Among all the vehicle rollover test procedures (SAE J2114 dolly, curb-trip, corkscrew ramp, ditch/embankment, soil trip, etc.), the dolly rollover test is the most widely used. However, it requires the test vehicle to be seated on a dolly with a 23° initial angle, which prevents a vehicle over 5,000 kg to be tested, and repeatability is often a concern. In the current study, we developed and implemented a new dynamic rollover test methodology focused on evaluating crashworthiness and occupant protection that does not require an initial vehicle angle. To do that, a custom cart was designed to carry the test vehicle laterally down a track. The cart incorporates two ramps under the testing vehicle’s trailing-side tires. In a test, the cart with the vehicle travels at the desired test speed and is stopped by a track-mounted curb. The cart stopping pulse is modulated using two honeycomb blocks.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1471
Xiao Luo, Wenjing Du, Hao Li, Peiyu LI, Chunsheng Ma, Shucai Xu, Jinhuan Zhang
Occupant restraint systems are developed based on some baseline experiments, while these experiments can only represent a small part of various accidents, so the current design of occupant restraint systems cannot provide the optimum protection effects for occupants during the majority of accidents. This study presents an approach to predict occupant injury before the collision happens, so that the occupant restraint system can be adjusted to the optimum parameters aiming at the imminent vehicle-to-vehicle frontal crash. The approach in this study takes advantages of the information from pre-crash systems, such as the time to collision, the relative velocity, the frontal overlap of the ego vehicle during the collision, the size of the vehicle in the front and so on. The information acquired and the basic crash test results can be integrated to predict a simplified crash pulse, and the injury of the occupant in the ego vehicle can thus be predicted using this crash pulse.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1472
Niels Pasligh, Robert Schilling, Marian Bulla
Rivets, especially self-piercing rivets (SPR), are one primary joining technology for vehicles using aluminum. SPR are mechanical joining elements that are used to connect sheets to create a structure to build a body in white (BiW). To ensure the structural performance of a vehicle in crash load cases it is necessary to describe physical occurring failure modes under overloading conditions in simulations. One failure mode is joint separation which need to be precisely predicted by a crash simulation. Within crash simulations a detailed analysis of a SPR joint and its process history would require a very high computational effort. The conflict between a detailed SPR joint and a macroscopic vehicle model need to solved by developing an approach that can handle an accurate macroscopic prediction of SPR behavior with a defined strength level with less computational effort. One approach is using a cohesive material model for a SPR connection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1474
Raed E. El-Jawahri, Agnes Kim, Dean Jaradi, Rich Ruthinowski, Kevin Siasoco, Cortney Stancato, Para Weerappuli
Sled testing simulating a full-frontal rigid barrier impacts were conducted using the Hybrid III 5th female and the 50th male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). The ATDs were positioned in the outboard rear seat of a generic small car environment. Two belt configurations were used: 1) a standard belt with no load limiter or pre-tensioner and 2) a seatbelt with a 4.5 kN load-limiting retractor with a stop function and a retractor pre-tensioner (LL-PT). In the current study, the LL-PT belt system reduced the peak responses of both ATDs. Probabilities of serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS3+), based on the ATDs peak responses, were calculated using the risk curves in NHTSA’s December 2015 Request for Comments (RFC) proposing changes to the United States New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). Those probabilities were compared to the injury rates (IRs) observed in the field on aggregate and point estimate bases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1473
Ling zheng, Yinan Gao, Zhenfei Zhan, Yinong Li
Several surrogate models such as radial basis function and Kriging models are developed to speed the optimization design of vehicle body and improve the vehicle crashworthiness. The error analysis is used to investigate the accuracy of different surrogate models. Furthermore, the Kriging model is used to fit the model of B-pillar acceleration and foot well intrusion. The multiquadric radial basis function is used to fit the model of the entire vehicle mass. These models are further used to calculate the acceleration response in B-pillar, foot well intrusion and vehicle mass instead of the finite element model in the optimization design of vehicle crashworthiness. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated in order to improve vehicle safety performance and keep its light weight. The particle swarm method is used to solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1461
Sanketh Gowda, Anindya Deb, Goutham kurnool, Clifford Chou
Adhesively bonded steel hat section components have been experimentally studied in the past as a potential alternative to traditional hat section components with spot-welded flanges. One of the concerns with such components has been their performance under axial impact loading as adhesive is far more brittle as compared to a spot weld. However, recent drop-weight impact tests have shown that the energy absorption capabilities of adhesively bonded steel hat sections are competitive with respect to geometrically similar spot-welded specimens. Although flange separation may take place in the case of a specimen employing a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive, the failure would have taken place post progressive buckling and absorption of impact energy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0113
Vaclav Jirovsky
Today's vehicles are being more often equipped with systems, which are autonomously influencing the vehicle behavior. The close future is awaiting more systems of the kind and even significant penetration of fully autonomous vehicles in regular traffic is expected by OEMs in Europe around year 2025. The driving is highly multitasking activity and human errors emerge in situations, when he is not able to process and understand the essential amount of information. Future autonomous systems very often rely on some type of inter-vehicular communication. This shall provide the vehicle with similar or higher amount of information, than driver uses in his decision making process. Therefore, currently used, and debatable, 1-D quantity TTC (time-to-collision) will definitely become inadequate. Regardless the vehicle is driven by human or robot, it’s always necessary to know, whether and which reaction is necessary to perform.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1438
Felix Lee, Peter Xing, Mike Yang, Janice Lee, Craig Wilkinson, Gunter Siegmund
The accuracy and repeatability of crash data recorded by Generation 1, 2 and 3 Toyota Event Data Recorders (EDRs) in low-severity events were previously studied. The Toyota airbag control modules (ACMs) were subject to haversine acceleration pulses, and then the sensitivity of ACM response to characteristics of the crash pulse, EDR generation, and vehicle model was assessed. Linear regression models were created to accurately predict the reference speed change with a known ACM-reported speed change, pulse duration, peak acceleration, and vehicle model. The objectives of the present study are (i) to determine if accuracy trends in low-severity crashes can be applied to mid-severity collisions and (ii) to confirm our hypothesis that the ACMs function similarly on a sled as they did in a car, by comparing the response of ACMs subject to haversine, vehicle-to-vehicle, and vehicle-to-barrier collision pulses.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1354
Timothy Morse, Michael Cundy, Harri Kytomaa
One potential fire ignition source in a motor vehicle is the hot surfaces of the engine exhaust system. These hot surfaces can come into contact with combustible liquids (such as engine oil, transmission fluid, brake fluid, gasoline, or diesel fuel) due to a fluid leak, or during a vehicle collision. If the surface temperature is higher than the hot surface ignition temperature of the combustible liquid in a given geometry, a fire can ignite and potentially propagate. In addition to automotive fluids, another potential fuel in post-collision vehicle fires is grass, leaves, or other vegetation. Studies of hot surface ignition of dried vegetation have found that ignition depends on the type of vegetation, surface temperature, and on the duration of contact. Ignition can occur at surface temperatures as low as 300 °C, if the vegetation is in contact with the surface for 10 minutes or longer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1367
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Jeffrey Muttart
Evaluating luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Currently, a common way to determine the actual luminance of an object is to locate the object on the subject roadway, at a substantially similar position, orientation and illuminance level and then measure the object with a luminance meter. This process can be extremely time consuming and could possibly require the roadway to be closed for safety purposes. Alternatively, the luminance can be calculated by measuring the reflectance of the subject surface and measuring the illuminance incident to the surface. After measuring the reflectance, it can then be used with any known illuminance to calculate the luminance of the object. This allows for an equivalently accurate measurement of luminance that is easier and quicker to make and could result in safer scene and vehicle inspections.
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