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2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1958
Motion Planning of Automatic Driving in Complex Traffic Scenarios With the increasing complexity, dynamicity and uncertainty of traffic, motion planning of automatic driving is getting more difficult and challenging. This paper focuses on the real-time motion planning problem of connected and automated vehicles in complex traffic scenarios. To effectively solve this problem, a general driving risk model is presented, which contains the following two essential parts: i) collision risk, i.e., the collision risk between the subject vehicle and other surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, buildings etc.; ii) non-collision risk, such as violation of traffic regulations, the difference between the actual operation state of the subject vehicle and the intention of driver, etc. In order to achieve the real time collision detection, the subject vehicle is approximated to a dot and its shape is considered by extending the dimension of obstcales considering their relative position and velocity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1960
Xiaopeng Zong, Guoyan Xu, Guizhen Yu, Hongjie Su, Chaowei Hu
Obstacle avoidance is an important function in self-driving vehicle control. When the vehicle move from any arbitrary start positions to any target positions in environment, a proper path must avoid both static obstacles and moving obstacles of arbitrary shape. There are many possible scenarios, manually tackling all possible cases will likely yield a too simplistic policy. In this paper we apply reinforcement learning to the problem of forming effective strategies. We note that there are two major challenges that make self-driving vehicle different from other robotic tasks. First, in order to control the vehicle precisely, the action space must be continuous which means that traditional Q-learning can’t deal with. Second, self-driving vehicle must satisfy various constraints including vehicle dynamics constraints and traffic rules constraints. We make three contributions in our work.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1964
Xiangkun He, Xuewu Ji, Kaiming Yang, Yulong Liu, Jian WU, Yahui Liu
Highway traffic safety has been the most serious problem in current society, statistics show that 70% to 90% of accidents are caused by driver operational errors. The autonomous emergency braking (AEB) is one of important vehicle intelligent safety technology to avoid or mitigate collision. The AEB system applies the vehicle brakes when a collision is eminent in spite of any reaction by the driver. In some technologies, the system forewarns the driver with an acoustic signal when a collision is still avoidable, but subsequently applies the brakes automatically if the driver fails to respond. This paper presents the development and implementation of a rear-end collision avoidance system based on hierarchical control framework which consists of threat assessment layer, wheel slip ratio control layer and integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (IEHB) actuator control layer.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1975
Wenhui Li, Wenlan Li, Jialun Liu, Yuhao Chen
Vehicle detection is a fundamental problem in the research of Intelligent Traffic System (ITS),specially in urban driving environment. Environment perception for intelligent vehicles depends on the on-board sensors, such as laser, radar and cameras. Laser or radars have shown good performance in measuring relative speed and distance in a highway driving environment. However the accuracy of these systems decreases in the urban traffic environment as more confusion occurs due to factors such as parked vehicles, guardrails, poles and motorcycles. Vision-based approach has the characteristics of wide field of view, relative low cost, good portability and multi-perceptual information. With the improvement of hardware performance (e.g., GPU, DSP) and the computer vision technology, vision-based driving environment perception in real-time can be guaranteed. Vision-based sensor for detecting vehicle can be divided into monocular and binocular system.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1978
Yuxiang Feng, Simon Pickering, Edward Chappell, Pejman iravani PhD, Chris Brace
The major contribution of this paper is to propose a low-cost accurate distance estimation approach. It is the first step of a research program aiming to model driving style variance. This paper proposes to fuse long range radar and monocular camera using Kalman filter, and can potentially be used in driver modelling, accident avoidance and autonomous driving. Based on MATLAB and Python, sensory data from a Continental radar and a monocular dashcam were fused using Kalman filter. Both sensors were mounted on a VW Sharan, performing repeated driving on a same route. The established system consists of three components, radar data processing, camera data processing and data fusion using Kalman filter. For radar data processing, raw radar measurements were directly collected from a data logger and analyzed using a Python program. Valid data were extracted and time stamped for further use. Meanwhile, a Nextbase monocular dashcam was used to record corresponding traffic scenarios.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1990
Xiangyu huang, Hao Zhou
The most important role of V2X technology is to significantly enhance driving safety. This paper proposes an omnidirectional collision warning method based on vehicle to vehicle communication. The warnings are divided into two categories: forward collision warning (FCW) for vehicles moving in the same direction and cross collision warning (CCW) for vehicles moving in different directions. With the Basic Safety Message (BSM), the driving states of vehicles which communicate with host vehicle can be obtained. For vehicles which moves in the same direction, the lateral offset of the two vehicles, the time to collision (TTC) and time headway (THW) are used to estimate forward collision risk. For vehicles which moves in different directions, time to the closest point approach (TCPA) model and the separating axis theorem (SAT) are used for cross collision detection.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2009
Kuiyuan Guo, Yan Yan, Juan Shi, Runqing Guo, Yuguang Liu
In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2051
Vasanth Thanigaivelu, Samir Choksi
Testability addresses the extent to which a system or unit supports fault detection and fault isolation in a confident, timely and cost-effective manner. The incorporation of adequate testability, including Built-In Test (BIT), requires early end systematic management attention to testability requirements, design and measurement. Whilst the design of BIT has become a standard design practice for a complex control system, the process to measure the effectiveness of such circuitry (both hardware and software) remains qualitative. The Built-In Test Effectivity Analysis or BEA tries to quantify such analysis at each phase; identifying requirement gaps that help design safer products. The BEA modifies standard reliability programme to use Functional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FFMEA), and a reliability prediction of each functional group to generate a measure of how thoroughly the system can check itself.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2050
Piotr Synaszko, Michal Salacinski, Patryk Ciezak
The work concerns the selection of measurement parameters for selected non destructive testing methods of Mi helicopter rotor blades after repair. Considered repair cases involve metal cracks in the sandwich skin and repair damage of honeycomb structure structure (puncture, dent). In the event of a crack, repair is performed by applying a composite-metal repair package. In case of damage of the core, its broken piece is replaced by a new one and then applied the same metal-composite package as in the case of crack repair. The present work focuses on detecting disbond between skin and core below repair patch and cracks under the repair package. Detecting cracks and assessing their length is important because the repair technology provides the repair package without removing of cracked part of skin. Authors have used laser shearography and C-scan methods for MIA and ET.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2056
Daniel Aceituna
The goal behind Functional Safety is to anticipate the potential hazard scenarios (a.k.a. harm sequences) that a system may produce and address those scenarios in such a way as to mitigate or even eliminate them. A major challenge in determining hazard scenarios is trying to assess an adequate amount of scenarios, considering the large size of a hazard space. Typically assessing the entire hazard space is difficult to achieve, resulting in the possibility of overlooking some critical scenarios that can result in harm to either system operators, system by-standers, or both. In this paper we will present a rule-based approach for concisely describing hazard scenarios, which enables us to examine the entire hazard space in a short amount of time. Our approach combines three key activates: determining hazard scenarios, assigning a risk factor to those scenarios, and mapping those hazard scenarios directly to safety requirements.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2054
K Friedman, G Mattos, K Bui, J Hutchinson, A Jafri, J Paver
Aircraft seating systems are evaluated utilizing a variety of impact conditions and selected injury measures. Injury measures like the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) are evaluated under standardized conditions using anthropometric dummies such as those outlined in 14 CFR part 25. An example would be a dummy seated in an upright position held with a two point belt decelerated from an impact speed and allowed to engage components that are in front of the dummy. Examples of head contact surfaces would include video monitors, a wide range of seat back materials, and airbags from which the HIC and other injury measures can be calculated. Other injury measures, such as Nij, are also of interest and can be measured with the Hybrid III dummy as well. It has been shown that the friction between the head form and contact surfaces can affect the test results obtained in other safety applications.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2052
K Friedman, G Mattos, K Bui, J Hutchinson, A Jafri, J Paver PhD
Aircraft seating systems are evaluated utilizing a variety of impact conditions and selected injury measures. Injury measures like the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) are evaluated under standardized conditions using anthropometric dummies such as those outlined in 14 CFR part 25. An example would be a dummy seated in an upright position held with a two point belt decelerated from an impact speed and allowed to engage components that are in front of the dummy. Examples of head contact surfaces would include video monitors, a wide range of seat back materials, and airbags from which the HIC and other injury measures can be calculated. Other injury measures, such as Nij, are also of interest and can be measured with the Hybrid III dummy as well. A minimum deceleration pulse is defined as part of the regulations for a frontal impact. In this study the effect of variations in decelerations that meet the requirements is considered.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2109
Kiran Thupakula
Airport environment consists of several object movements both in air and on ground. In air objects include aircrafts, UAVs and birds etc. On ground objects include aircrafts, airport structures, ground vehicles and ground personnel etc. Detecting, classifying, identifying and tracking these objects are necessary for avoiding collisions in all environmental situations. Multiple sensors need to be employed for capturing the object shape and position from multiple directions. Data from these sensors are combined and processed for object identification. In current scenario, there is no comprehensive traffic monitoring system that uses multisensor data for monitoring in all the airport areas. In this paper, for explanation purpose, a hypothetical airport traffic monitoring system [1] is presumed that uses multiple sensors for avoiding collisions.
2017-07-24
Article
The new Volvo VNL series is the beneficiary of the truck maker's SuperTruck program, applying lessons learned and advanced technology to achieve an up to 7.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Driver comfort and productivity, active and passive safety systems and enhanced vehicle uptime through over-the-air updates were other high priorities for engineers and designers of the next-generation long-haul tractor.
2017-07-20
Article
With its Ride Assist technology, Honda R&D moves two-wheelers toward autonomous capability.
2017-07-20
WIP Standard
ARP5873B
This document presents minimum criteria for the design and installation of LED passenger reading light assemblies in commercial aircraft. The use of “shall” in this specification expresses provisions that are binding. Non-mandatory provisions use the term “should.”
CURRENT
2017-07-19
Standard
ARP798B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the general requirements and test procedures recommended for use with white incandescent integrally lighted instruments. Its use should provide uniformity of illumination from instrument to instrument and legibility under daylight operation. An appendix is provided to familiarize the designer with some of the techniques used to obtain uniformity of color and illumination in various types of instruments.
2017-07-19
WIP Standard
AS5420G
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the requirements for a flexible, lightweight, low pressure, self-extinguishing, integrally heated silicone hose assembly. The hose has a fully fluorinated fluoropolymer inner liner and is primarily intended for use in aircraft potable water systems with an environmental operating temperature range of -65 °F (-54 °C) to +160 °F (+71 °C).
CURRENT
2017-07-18
Standard
ARP4386D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides the technical terms and nomenclature, together with their definitions and abbreviations/acronyms that are used in aerospace fluid power, actuation and control systems. NOTE: ARP490 and ARP4493 are sources for definitions specifically for electrohydraulic servovalves.
CURRENT
2017-07-14
Standard
ARP1107C
This recommended practice covers the fixed structure, or independent energy absorbing system affixed to the airframe to afford protection to the control surfaces, engine and other portions during ground handling, take-off and landing.
CURRENT
2017-07-14
Standard
AIR5479B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the performance of plating’s and coatings for landing gear that potentially provide environmental compliance benefits versus the current baseline processes. The hazardous systems addressed in this version of the document include cadmium plating, chromated primers, and high VOC (volatile organic compounds) topcoats. The AIR applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms for all types of civil and military aircraft. The potential replacements apply to both Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) hardware and overhaul of in-service landing gears.
2017-07-13
Article
Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory perform statistical analysis based on a large collection of real-world U.S. truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning.
2017-07-12
WIP Standard
J759
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the lighting function identification codes for use on all passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and emergency vehicles.
CURRENT
2017-07-11
Standard
J852_201707
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedures, performance requirements, and guidelines for front cornering lamps intended for use on motor vehicles.
2017-07-10
WIP Standard
J3151
This document defines key terms and concepts for relating effects of driver distraction on driving performance, physiological indicators, subjective assessments, or combinations thereof to effects of driver distraction on crash involvement. These concepts are intended to contribute to methodologies for assessing driver distraction metrics in terms of their reliability, repeatability, bias, and predictive or descriptive validity and distraction evaluation procedures in terms of their real-world representativeness. The actual specification of such a methodology is outside the scope of the present document. While the focus is on driver distraction evaluation for technology evaluations and driver activities, the concepts described herein may be applicable also to other forms of driving performance evaluation. The intended users of the document are practitioners in the industry, academia and other organizations with an interest in driving performance assessment and road safety.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1923
Satish Mudavath, Ganesh Dharmar, Shyam Somani
Abstract Digital human models (DHM) have greatly enhanced design for the automotive environment. The major advantage of the DHMs today is their ability to quickly test a broad range of the population within specific design parameters. The need to create expensive prototypes and run time consuming clinics can be significantly reduced. However, while the anthropometric databases within these models are comprehensive, the ability to position the manikin’s posture is limited and needs lot of optimization. This study enhances the occupant postures and their seating positions, in all instances the occupant was instructed to adjust to the vehicle parameters so they were in their most comfortable position. While all the Occupants are accommodated to their respective positions which finally can be stacked up for space assessments. This paper aims at simulating those scenarios for different percentiles / population which will further aid in decision making for critical parameters.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1932
Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Abstract Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection.
2017-07-07
Article
When cars become capable of self driving, drivers will still have to remain alert and be ready to take control.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 17373

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