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Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
The International Standard ISO26262 “Road vehicles - Functional safety” was published in 2011. Safety is one of the key issues of future automobile development. System safety is achieved through a number of safety measures, which are implemented in a variety of technologies. ISO26262 provides an automotive-specific risk-based approach and uses ASILs to specify applicable requirements so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk. The International Standard ISO26262 divides the Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASIL) into four stages (from level A to D). In this paper we consider the suitable determination of the Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSIL) when the ISO26262 is applied to motorcycles. We will show that an unreasonable risk area for motorcycles becomes smaller when compared with that of an automobile for the following two reasons. (1) The seating capacity of a motorcycle is less than that of an automobile, and thus the damage from a motorcycle accident is also smaller than those of automobile accidents.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
R Varunprabhu, Himadri Bushan Das, S Jabez Dhinagar
The steering system of a 3-wheeler vehicle comprises a single column steering tube. The steering inclination at handle bar end is converted to wheel slip or inclination by the steering column. A compromise in either ride or handling is considered in the functional requirement of the 3-wheeler vehicle. The three wheeled vehicle under study is designed for ride comfort and the handling levels are compromised. Variants of the vehicle under study are meant for public passenger transport requirements. Drivers’ ride comfort is considered as the primary functional requirement during design and driver’s steering fatigue is not given importance. For the comfort of driver, steering effort has to be less without compromise in handling characteristics. The driver of this type of vehicle drives the vehicle for 15-18 hours a day. Driver’s feedback suggests high steering effort as a human fatigue failure mode and also a cause of shoulder pain. In this project, a DC motor assisted steering mechanism with an electronic control module has been designed.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Daniele Barbani, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
Motorcycle accidents are a serious road safety issue in the European Union (EU). Several projects to increase motorcycle safety were funded by the EU within the FP7 (Seventh Frame Program). Many others are likely to be funded within H2020 (Horizon 2020) as well as by national projects of each member state. In this context, numerical simulations play a strategic role since they can be a powerful tool to simplify, assist and speed up the work of the engineers. During the last years, the authors have presented the development and validation of FE models for complete crash test scenarios (i.e. motorcycle with an anthropometric test dummy that impacts against a car) and their use to evaluate head and neck injuries. During the validation phase the authors observed some variability in the results. While variability of the input parameters is a fact in real world crash test, the extent of the variability in the results has to be estimated and assessed in order to improve the design process of safety devices.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Federico Giovannini, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
The Powered Two-Wheelers (PTWs) control is more complex than any other road vehicle control, due to the implicit instability of those vehicles. Maneuvers such as braking or swerving, require additional driving abilities to prevent the vehicle from falling, in particular during emergency events, such as panic braking or last second swerving. Focusing on emergency braking maneuvers, in those situations the PTW control is very demanding due to the necessity to adjust the braking intensity in the best way. For standard PTWs, a common cause of accident is the loss of adherence and the consequent loss of stability due to emergency braking manoeuvers. It is worth noting that, for a PTW, the loss of stability means a high probability of fall, especially while cornering. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to propose and evaluate a fall detection algorithm for PTWs performing braking manoeuvers, developed to alert an advanced riding assistance system in order to produce proper counteractions against the imminent fall.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). On application to motorcycles of ISO26262 that was intended only for passenger cars, it is considered that it is desirable to estimate the C class by subjective evaluation of expert riders. Expert riders are professional test riders, and they differ from ordinary riders. They can ride safely and evaluate the motorcycle performance stably even if the test condition is at the limit of vehicle performance. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of expert riders and of ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Patrick Falk, Christian Hubmann
KEYWORDS – Driveability, Motorcycle, Measurement, Powertrain, Quality ABSTRACT - Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also know as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Kazuhiro Ito, Yoshitaka Tezuka, Atsushi Hoshino, Keita Sakurada
The frame body of a motorcycle is a core part that receives force from the road via the front and rear suspensions as well as holding heavy objects such as the engine. It is therefore important to finish fundamental design in the early stage of product development. Regarding the strength of frame body, if the load input to the frame body under the hardest condition like on rough roads can be estimated by simulation, an appropriate frame body design in the early stage of development would be possible. Some techniques have been recently introduced to estimate input loads and/or fatigue strength by the full vehicle simulation to analyze the automobile running on rough roads. In motorcycles, meanwhile, there are some cases with making on the test bench of strength and/or durability tests, and conversion of such tests to CAE simulation. However, there are only a few cases with estimating input loads when running on rough roads. One of the reasons is that it is difficult to accurately estimate suspension motions, especially the motions of telescopic front suspension taking into account the motion in the bending direction.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Kenichi Morimoto, Kenichi Tanaka
This study describes methods to explain the relationship between the motorcycle specifications and the shimmy phenomenon. Statistical approaches were used presuming the analysis being based on the multibody dynamics simulation having a high degree of freedom to precisely simulate actual motorcycle. There are a number of past attempts to clarify the relationship between the motorcycle specifications and the shimmy phenomenon. One of such efforts is based on the equation of motion. Although such a method is suitable when simply analyzing motions in a fundamental structure, when the number of degrees of freedom is large, generally a practical method cannot be found because it is extremely difficult to deriver an equation of motion. In the meantime, although the author et al. have analyzed shimmy using such multibody dynamics simulation models, the findings are useful only for simulation of performance difference among a number of motorcycles. In this study, we conducted researches taking three steps; (1) extract factors significantly affecting shimmy from motorcycle specifications, (2) explain how a change of motorcycle specifications affects shimmy, and (3) measure performance of a number of motorcycles having various specification.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Fatih Kosar, Mehmet Burak Yegin, Okan Dogru, Cüneyt Akarsu
Abstract Nowadays, a lightweight component design plays a significant role in both cost of a vehicle and fuel economy in competitive heavy duty truck industry. This paper describes the optimization study of an Anti-Roll Bar (ARB) bracket used in a heavy duty truck. ARB system is used to avoid rolling of a vehicle. In order to measure real forces acting on ARB links, calibration study is performed in laboratory conditions. According to this study, measured strains are correlated with theoretical strain-force curve. After the correlation study, fatigue based topology optimization is made on ARB cast iron bracket according to correlated Road Load Data (RLD) which is performed at Proving Ground. Most of the optimization studies in the literature depend on maximum static loading condition. However, many components or structures in the industry subjected to fluctuating loads when they are in service condition. Small loads in a fluctuating load domain may cause potential danger in the design because there will be damage accumulation on the part when those loads are repeated.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Iman Hazrati Ashtiani, Mehrnoosh Abedi
Abstract Road train vehicles have been applied as one of the common and efficient ways for transportation of goods, specifically hazardous liquid cargos, in different nations. These vehicles have a wide variety of lengths and towing systems such as the fifth wheel or the dolly draw-bar. Based upon specific regulations, they could be authorized to move on specific roads. In order to avoid hazard and danger in case of accidents, safety performance of a B-train vehicle as a specific type of road train vehicles is investigated in this paper. A Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model, which consists of a prime mover and two trailers coupled by fifth wheels, are simulated in the initial phase of the study. The developed dynamic model is capable of simulating required tests as well as the SAE lane change, along with a constant radius turn for the purpose of roll and yaw stability analysis and safety evaluation. The effects of variation of the fluid fill level are considered in this research. The trammel pendulum concept is adopted for simulation of fluid movements, known as sloshing, in two articulated tankers of the model.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Tyson McWha
Abstract Transport Canada, through its ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles program, retained the services of the National Research Council Canada to undertake a test program to examine the operational and human factors considerations concerning the removal of the side mirrors on a Class 8 tractor equipped with a 53 foot dry van semi-trailer. Full scale aerodynamic testing was performed in a 2 m by 3 m wind tunnel on a system component basis to quantify the possible fuel savings associated with the removal of the side mirrors. The mirrors on a Volvo VN780 tractor were removed and replaced with a prototype camera-based indirect vision system consisting of four cameras mounted in the front fender location; two cameras on either side of the vehicle. Four monitors mounted in the vehicle - two mounted on the right A-pillar and two mounted on the left A-pillar - provided indirect vision information to the vehicle operator. Four commercial drivers were asked to perform a series of tests simulating typical driving scenarios on a closed course test track.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Prashant Shinde, Pratik Gore
Abstract This paper is an attempt to address one of the causes of catastrophic failures attributed to incidents of fire and smoke in commercial vehicles during last few years in China and India which have resulted in a considerable number of casualties. Some of the accidents encountered happened because of a crash with fire originating from the fuel tank. This was attributed to fuel leakage and excessive heat produced due to friction of debris with the fuel tank which happened within a few seconds of the crash. A Fuel-Tank Safety ECU for preventing such fire-mishaps shall be designed for spotting this failure and activating prevention methods in order. This ECU shall process the data coming from temperature-sensor and fuel-pressure sensor placed on the fuel tank of the vehicle. This real-time data shall be compared with the previously computed values and then the delta-differentiated value shall be used to conclude the likelihood of a fire-occurrence. This ECU shall then timely activate the fire-preventive agents along with sounding an audio-visual alert to notify the vehicle driver and passengers.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Joshua L. Every, M. Kamel Salaani, Frank S. Barickman, Devin H. Elsasser, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger, Sughosh J. Rao
Dynamic Brake Support (DBS) is a safety system that has been applied to various passenger cars and has been shown to be effective at assisting drivers in avoiding or mitigating rear-end collisions. The objective of a DBS system is to ensure that the brake system is applied quickly and at sufficient pressure when a driver responds to a collision imminent situation. DBS is capable of improving braking response due to a passenger car driver's tendency to utilize multi-stage braking. Interest is developing in using DBS on commercial vehicles. In order to evaluate the possible improvement in safety that could be realized through the use of DBS, driver braking behavior must first be analyzed to confirm that improvement is possible and necessary. To determine if this is the case, a study of the response of truck drivers' braking behavior in collision imminent situations is conducted. This paper presents the method of evaluation and results. Data was drawn from a prior NHTSA simulator study and showed that many drivers exhibited multi-stage braking during four different imminent crash scenarios.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jeffrey K. Ball, Mark Kittel, Trevor Buss, Greg Weiss
Abstract Trucking fleets are increasingly installing video event recorders in their vehicles. The video event recorder system is usually mounted near the vehicle's rear view mirror, and consists of two cameras: one looking forward and one looking towards the driver. The system also contains accelerometers that record lateral and longitudinal g-loading, and some may record vehicle speed (in mph) based on GPS positions. The unit constantly monitors vehicle acceleration and speed, and also records video. However, the recorded data is only stored when a preset acceleration threshold is met. The primary use of the system is to assist fleets with driver training and education, but the recorded data is also being used as a tool to reconstruct accidents. By integrating the accelerometer data, the vehicle speed and distance traveled during the event can be calculated. However, the calculated speeds and distances from video event recorder data may differ from reconstructions based on data taken from engine control modules (ECM's) or classic reconstruction techniques.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sanket Pawar
Abstract Off-road commercial vehicles many times have to work at remote areas in poor working conditions like reduced visibility due to fog, snow, inadequate ambient lighting, dust etc. They may not have any access to emergency facilities in such places. Challenging geographical terrains and adverse weather conditions makes the situation worse. The combination of both can further degrade working conditions. The operator may need to either work or guide his vehicle through tight places or in hilly areas having such conditions. That imposes many challenges to operator in terms of efficiency & safety of both operator & vehicle. In an effort to increase productivity and efficiency operator may miss to look at safety aspects consequently, leading to accidents that can incur heavy losses due to damages to vehicle further delaying the work. It can even lead to a life threatening emergency in some cases. On the other hand, decrease in efficiency results in increased cost of operation due to unnecessary wastage of fuel & delays in getting the work done.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
James Chinni, Robert Butler, Shu Yang
Abstract Federal Motor Carrier Safety Requirement (FMCSR) 393.76(h) states that “a motor vehicle manufactured on or after July 1, 1971 and equipped with a sleeper berth must be equipped with a means of preventing ejection of the occupant of the sleeper berth during deceleration of the vehicle.” [1] Furthermore, this standard requires that “the restraint system must be designed, installed and maintained to withstand a minimum total force of 6,000 pounds applied toward the front of the vehicle and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.” [1] Today, sleeper berths are equipped with sleeper restraint systems that function to contain the sleeper occupant inside the sleeper berth during reasonably foreseeable crashes. To assess the effectiveness of sleeper restraint systems, computer simulation models of the sleeper cab environment and these restraint systems were developed, with a simulated supine occupant in the sleeper. The model was evaluated using two different rollover crash scenarios.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
James Chinni, Ryan Hoover
Abstract Full-scale vehicle crash testing is an accurate method to reproduce many real-world crash conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. However, the costs involved in performing full-scale crash tests can be prohibitive for some purposes. Dynamic sled testing is a lower cost and widely used method to obtain multiple, useful data sets for development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Wherever possible, dynamic sled tests should use vehicle-specific deceleration pulses determined from full-scale vehicle crash tests. This paper establishes a dynamic sled test protocol based on data collected from eight full-scale heavy vehicle frontal crash tests. The sled test protocol is intended to be utilized as a basis for building a body of knowledge needed to update heavy vehicle frontal impact test recommended practices. These recommended practices provide direction for the development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Additionally, the performance of some frontal crash occupant protection technologies found in heavy vehicles is evaluated.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Raghuram Krishnamurthy, Rani Mukherjee
Abstract Safety compliance has a new set of difficult questions to address due to the usage of COTS, OSS and externally supplied software code in automotive systems. The use of third-party software component is essential to business as it helps in reduction of cost and development cycle. However, there are many technical risks encountered when incorporating Third-Party Software (TPSW) components into safety related software. Moreover, safety systems conforming to new automotive safety standard ISO 26262 are expected to satisfy criteria for co-existence of TPSW with internal safety related software and legacy code. The purpose is to avoid a potential failure that may be triggered by TPSW which in turn may propagate to cause failure in other software partitions. There are several options available to address the above requirements. We should carefully evaluate the TPSW's functionality and pedigree and apply combination of techniques to assist in supporting the intent of ISO 26262. This paper discusses on the issues concerning insertion of third party software code (OEM supplied code, Tier 2 vendor software) into in-house developed ECU software.
Article
2014-09-26
With its Connected eHorizon, Continental presented at IAA Commercial Vehicles in Hannover what it believes is one of the key elements on the way to fully automated vehicles. This “networked electronic horizon” uses navigation data more effectively by deploying crowdsourcing technology to extend the underlying topographic maps with information from the sensors of other road users.
Standard
2014-09-24
The purpose of this document is to provide performance requirements for hydrogen dispensing systems used for fueling 35 MPa heavy duty hydrogen transit buses and vehicles (other pressures are optional). This document establishes the boundary conditions for safe heavy duty hydrogen surface vehicle fueling, such as safety limits and performance requirements for gaseous hydrogen fuel dispensers used to fuel hydrogen transit buses. For fueling light-duty vehicles SAE J2601 should be used. SAE J2601-2 is a performance based protocol document that also provides guidance to fueling system builders, manufacturers of gaseous hydrogen powered heavy duty transit buses, and operators of the hydrogen powered vehicle fleet(s). This fueling protocol is suitable for heavy duty vehicles with a combined vehicle CHSS capacity larger than 10 kilograms aiming to support all practical capacities of transit buses. It is non-prescriptive in how to achieve a full fill or 100% state of charge (SOC) in the vehicle tank storage system.
WIP Standard
2014-09-23
Solid chemical oxygen supplies of interest to aircraft operations are 'chlorate candles' and potassium superoxide (KO(sub)2). Chlorate candles are used in passenger oxygen supply units and other emergency oxygen systems, such as submarines and escape devices. Potassium superoxide is not used in aircraft operations but is used in closed-cycle breathing apparatus. Characteristics and applications of both are discussed, with emphasis on chlorate candles.
WIP Standard
2014-09-18
A hydraulic purifier is used in remediation of contaminated fluids by removing air, particulate and water to clean the fluid to within the requirements of the system where the fluid is being used. This standard provides requirements for standard tests to evaluate purifier performance so that users can determine the best purifier for their use.
Standard
2014-09-17
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
WIP Standard
2014-09-16
J3078 provides test methods and criteria for the evaluation of the operator enclosure environment in Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines as defined in J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390 and consists of the following parts: Part 1: Terms and definitions Part 2: Air filter element test method Part 3: Pressurization test method Part 4: Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) test method and performance Part 5: Windscreen defrosting system test method Part 6: Determination of effect of solar heating J3078/1 consists of the terms and definitions which are used in the other parts of J3708.
WIP Standard
2014-09-16
J3078/6 specifies a test method for simulating solar heating in the laboratory and measuring the radiant heat energy from a natural or simulated source. It is applicable to Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines as defined in J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390.
WIP Standard
2014-09-16
J3078/3 specifies a test method which will provide for uniform measurement of the maximum pressurization inside an operator enclosure of an earth-moving machine when equipped with a pressurization system.
WIP Standard
2014-09-16
J3078/2 specifies a uniform test method to determine performance levels of operator enclosure panel-type air filters used to filter the air entering an earth-moving machine operator enclosure with a powered fresh air system.
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