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Viewing 1 to 30 of 9165
2017-10-12
White Paper
WP-0005
Annie Chang, Nicolas Saunier, Aliaksei Laureshyn
To date, the universal metric for road safety has been historical crash data, specifically, crash frequency and severity, which are direct measures of safety. However, there are well-recognized shortcomings of the crash-based approach; its greatest drawback being that it is reactive and requires long observational periods. Surrogate measures of safety, which encompass measures of safety that do not rely on crash data, have been proposed as a proactive approach to road safety analysis. This white paper provides an overview of the concept and evolution of surrogate measures of safety, as well as the emerging and future methods and measures. This is followed by the identification of the standards needs in this discipline as well as the scope of SAE’s Surrogate Measures of Safety Committee.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1964
Xiangkun He, Xuewu Ji, Kaiming Yang, Yulong Liu, Jian WU, Yahui Liu
Abstract Highway traffic safety has been the most serious problem in current society, statistics show that about 70% to 90% of accidents are caused by driver operational errors. The autonomous emergency braking (AEB) is one of important vehicle intelligent safety technologies to avoid or mitigate collision. The AEB system applies the vehicle brakes when a collision is eminent in spite of any reaction by the driver. In some technologies, the system forewarns the driver with an acoustic signal when a collision is still avoidable, but subsequently applies the brakes automatically if the driver fails to respond. This paper presents the development and implementation of a rear-end collision avoidance system based on hierarchical control framework which consists of threat assessment layer, wheel slip ratio control layer and integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (IEHB) actuator control layer.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1975
Wenhui Li, Wenlan Li, Jialun Liu, Yuhao Chen
Abstract Vehicle detection has been a fundamental problem in the research of Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), especially in urban driving environment. Over the past decades, vision-based vehicle detection has got a considerable attention. In addition to the rich appearance information, the stereo vision method also provides depth information, which could achieve higher accuracy and precision. In this paper, a hybrid method for stereo vision-based real-time vehicle detection in urban environment is proposed. Firstly, we extract vehicle features and generate the Region of Interest (ROI). Semi-global Matching (SGM) algorithm is then utilized on the ROIs to generate disparity maps and get the depth information, which could be used to compute the width of each ROI. The noise regions, always with obvious depth variation in the disparity maps are excluded by the clustering approach.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1990
Xiangyu huang, Hao Zhou
Abstract The most important role of V2X technology is to significantly enhance driving safety. This paper proposes an Omni-directional collision warning method based on vehicle to vehicle communication. With the Basic Safety Message (BSM), the driving states of vehicles which communicate with host vehicle can be obtained. The warnings are divided into two categories based on the Lateral Offset calculation: forward collision warning (FCW) for vehicles moving in the same direction and cross collision warning (CCW) for vehicles moving in different directions. For vehicles which moves in the same direction, the lateral offset of the two vehicles, the time to collision (TTC) and time headway (THW) are used to estimate forward collision risk. For vehicles which moves in different directions, time to the closest point approach (TCPA) model and the separating axis theorem (SAT) are used for cross collision detection.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1998
Shun Yang, Weiwen Deng, Zhenyi Liu, Ying Wang
Abstract Intelligent driving, aimed for collision avoidance and self-navigation, is mainly based on environmental sensing via radar, lidar and/or camera. While each of the sensors has its own unique pros and cons, camera is especially good at object detection, recognition and tracking. However, unpredictable environmental illumination can potentially cause misdetection or false detection. To investigate the influence of illumination conditions on detection algorithms, we reproduced various illumination intensities in a photo-realistic virtual world, which leverages recent progress in computer graphics, and verified vehicle detection effect there. In the virtual world, the environmental illumination is controlled precisely from low to high to simulate different illumination conditions in the driving scenarios (with relative luminous intensity from 0.01 to 400). Sedan cars with different colors are modelled in the virtual world and used for detection task.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2009
Kuiyuan Guo, Yan Yan, Juan Shi, Runqing Guo, Yuguang Liu
Abstract In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
2017-09-23
Journal Article
2017-01-1960
Xiaopeng Zong, Guoyan Xu, Guizhen Yu, Hongjie Su, Chaowei Hu
Abstract Obstacle avoidance is an important function in self-driving vehicle control. When the vehicle move from any arbitrary start positions to any target positions in environment, a proper path must avoid both static obstacles and moving obstacles of arbitrary shape. There are many possible scenarios, manually tackling all possible cases will likely yield a too simplistic policy. In this paper reinforcement learning is applied to the problem to form effective strategies. There are two major challenges that make self-driving vehicle different from other robotic tasks. Firstly, in order to control the vehicle precisely, the action space must be continuous which can’t be dealt with by traditional Q-learning. Secondly, self-driving vehicle must satisfy various constraints including vehicle dynamics constraints and traffic rules constraints. Three contributions are made in this paper.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1958
Dongfang Dang
Abstract With the increasing complexity, dynamicity and uncertainty of traffic, motion planning of automatic driving is getting more difficult and challenging. This paper focuses on the real-time motion planning problem of CAVs (connected and automated vehicles) in complex traffic scenarios. To effectively solve this problem, a general driving risk model is presented, which contains the following two essential parts: i) collision risk, i.e., the collision risk between the SV (subject vehicle) and other surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, buildings etc.; ii) non-collision risk, such as violation of traffic regulations, the deviation from the intention of driver, etc. To achieve the real time collision detection, the SV is approximated to a point and its shape is considered by extending the dimension of obstacles considering their relative position and velocity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1978
Yuxiang Feng, Simon Pickering, Edward Chappell, Pejman iravani PhD, Chris Brace
Abstract The major contribution of this paper is to propose a low-cost accurate distance estimation approach. It can potentially be used in driver modelling, accident avoidance and autonomous driving. Based on MATLAB and Python, sensory data from a Continental radar and a monocular dashcam were fused using a Kalman filter. Both sensors were mounted on a Volkswagen Sharan, performing repeated driving on a same route. The established system consists of three components, radar data processing, camera data processing and data fusion using Kalman filter. For radar data processing, raw radar measurements were directly collected from a data logger and analyzed using a Python program. Valid data were extracted and time stamped for further use. Meanwhile, a Nextbase monocular dashcam was used to record corresponding traffic scenarios. In order to measure headway distance from these videos, object depicting the leading vehicle was first located in each frame.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2056
Daniel Aceituna
Abstract The goal behind Functional Safety is to anticipate the potential hazard scenarios (a.k.a. harm sequences) that a system may produce and address those scenarios in such a way as to mitigate or even eliminate them. A major challenge in determining hazard scenarios is trying to assess an adequate amount of scenarios, considering the large size of a hazard space. Typically assessing the entire hazard space is difficult to achieve, resulting in the possibility of overlooking some critical scenarios that can result in harm to either system operators, system by-standers, or both. In this paper we will explore a rule-based approach for concisely describing hazard scenarios, which could potentially enable us to examine the entire hazard space in a short amount of time. Our approach, called Hazard Space Analysis, combines three key activates: determining hazard scenarios, assigning a risk factor to those scenarios, and mapping those hazard scenarios directly to safety rules.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2534
Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado
Summary Considering that the most part of commercial vehicles are equipped with air brakes it is very important assure specific technical requirements for air brake system and its components. In addition, the effects of brake system failure are more critical for commercial vehicles which require more attention on their requirements details. Historically, the development of air brakes technology started on North America and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct resolutions were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE R.13, respectively. For passenger cars were developed the ECER.13H to harmonize North American and European resolutions. However, for commercial vehicles regional applications, culture and implementation time must be considered. These commercial vehicles peculiarities must be understood and their specific requirements harmonized to attend the global marketing growth.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1923
Satish Mudavath, Ganesh Dharmar, Shyam Somani
Abstract Digital human models (DHM) have greatly enhanced design for the automotive environment. The major advantage of the DHMs today is their ability to quickly test a broad range of the population within specific design parameters. The need to create expensive prototypes and run time consuming clinics can be significantly reduced. However, while the anthropometric databases within these models are comprehensive, the ability to position the manikin’s posture is limited and needs lot of optimization. This study enhances the occupant postures and their seating positions, in all instances the occupant was instructed to adjust to the vehicle parameters so they were in their most comfortable position. While all the Occupants are accommodated to their respective positions which finally can be stacked up for space assessments. This paper aims at simulating those scenarios for different percentiles / population which will further aid in decision making for critical parameters.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1932
Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Abstract Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection.
2017-06-22
Technical Paper
2017-36-0045
Juliano Mologni, Jefferson Ribas, Cesareo Siqueira
Abstract We have seen recently in Brazil a significant number of medium and high voltage power cables falling on vehicles causing catastrophic accidents leading to serious injuries and deceases. It is advised that the car works as a shield so passengers inside the vehicle should not open doors and windows, but to the knowledge of the authors no work has presented a quantified study showing details like electromagnetic field intensity and 3D plots to really illustrate this situation. This work uses numerical simulation to replicate a scenario of a high power cable in direct contact with a vehicle and numerous positions of human body models inside and outside of the vehicle. Electromagnetic field is calculated showing the shielding effectiveness of the vehicle chassis. Also, current density are calculated to show the path of the current including the human body models.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1778
Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Mauro Velardocchia, Alessandro Vigliani
Abstract This paper explores the potentiality of reducing noise and vibration of a vehicle transmission thanks to powertrain control integration with active braking. Due to external disturbances, coming from the driver, e.g. during tip-in / tip-out maneuvers, or from the road, e.g. crossing a speed bump or driving on a rough road, the torsional backlashes between transmission rotating components (gears, synchronizers, splines, CV joints), may lead to NVH issues known as clonk. This study initially focuses on the positive effect on transmission NVH performance of a concurrent application of a braking torque at the driving wheels and of an engine torque increase during these maneuvers; then a powertrain/brake integrated control strategy is proposed. The braking system is activated in advance with respect to the perturbation and it is deactivated immediately after to minimize losses.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1889
Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Georg Eisele, Christoph Steffens, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles do not typically utilize IC engines for low-speed operation. Under these low-speed operating conditions, the vehicles are much quieter than conventional IC engine-powered vehicles, making their approach difficult to detect by pedestrians. To mitigate this safety concern, many manufacturers have synthesized noise (using exterior speakers) to increase detection distance. Further, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has provided recommendations pursuant to the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 for such exterior noise signatures to ensure detectability.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1762
Michael Roan, M. Lucas Neurauter, Douglas Moore, Dan Glaser
Abstract Hybrid and electric vehicles (HVs and EVs) have demonstrated low noise levels relative to their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts, particularly at low speeds. As the number of HVs/EVs on the road increases, so does the need for data quantifying auditory detectability by pedestrians; in particular, those who are vision impaired. Manufacturers have started implementing additive noise solutions designed to increase vehicle detectability while in electric mode and/or when traveling below a certain speed. A detailed description of the real-time acoustic measurement system, the corresponding vehicular data, development of an immersive noise field, and experimental methods pertaining to a recent evaluation of candidate vehicles is provided herein. Listener testing was completed by 24 legally blind test subjects for four vehicle types: an EV and HV with different additive noise approaches, an EV with no additive noise, and a traditional ICE vehicle.
2017-05-30
Technical Paper
2017-01-5002
James Bradley Skarie
Abstract Antilock braking systems (ABS) are inherently limited by the static coefficient of friction (µ) between a vehicle’s tires and the road surface. This paper explores a unique active safety concept, Integrated Coefficient Enhancement (ICE), which works to improve ABS well beyond their present limits. The ICE concept was developed using a basic physics principle: to change µ between two surfaces, at least one of the surfaces must be altered in some way. By quickly deploying a specially designed tractive medium (TM) to aid in directional stability and braking, hazardous situations can be greatly mitigated. This paper describes the features and testing results of this TM and its aerodynamic-mechanical-electronic deployment apparatus. Under all slippery road conditions tested, the developed TM mitigated skidding, with improvements that ranged from 20% to several hundred percent, depending on conditions and deployment rates.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9451
Marouen Hamdi, Drew Manica, Hung-Jue Sue
Abstract Brightness, transparency, and color impact critically the aesthetics of polymeric surfaces. They can significantly change the perception of common damages such as scratch and mar. Particularly, subtle mar damage is more dependent on surface perceptual properties. In this study, we investigate the impact of these attributes on scratch and mar visibility resistance of commercialized polymeric model systems frequently used in automotive industry. Twenty subjects were involved in a psychophysical test based on pairwise comparison, and results were treated using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. A tied ordinal weighted Euclidian MDS model was used to visualize the relational structures of mar perception space. Results show that scratch visibility resistance tends to decrease with dark, more transparent, and green surfaces. Mar perception was reasonably conceptualized by a two-dimensional MDS space.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1473
Ling Zheng, Yinan Gao, Zhenfei Zhan, Yinong Li
Abstract Several surrogate models such as response surface model and radial basis function and Kriging models are developed to speed the optimization design of vehicle body and improve the vehicle crashworthiness. The error analysis is used to investigate the accuracy of different surrogate models. Furthermore, the Kriging model is used to fit the model of B-pillar acceleration and foot well intrusion. The response surface model is used to fit the model of the entire vehicle mass. These models are further used to calculate the acceleration response in B-pillar, foot well intrusion and vehicle mass instead of the finite element model in the optimization design of vehicle crashworthiness. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated in order to improve vehicle safety performance and keep its light weight. The particle swarm method is used to solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1468
Do Hoi KIm
Previous work identified a relationship between vehicle drop and dummy injury under the high-speed frontal impact condition [1]. The results showed that vehicle drop greater than 60mm made the dummy injury worse. Moreover, that work identified the front side member as the crucial part affecting the vehicle drop. In this study, the body structure mechanism was studied to reduce vehicle drop by controlling the front side member, shotgun, and A-pillar. By analyzing full vehicles, it was recognized that the arch shape of the front side member was very important. Furthermore, if the top of the arch shape of front side member, shotgun, and A-pillar were connected well, then the body deformation energy could lift the lower part of A-pillar, effectively reducing vehicle drop. This structure design concept is named “Body Lift Structure” (BLS). The BLS was applied to B and C segment platforms. Additionally, a “Ring” shape was defined by the front side member, dash panel, and A-pillar.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1471
Xiao Luo, Wenjing Du, Hao Li, Peiyu LI, Chunsheng Ma, Shucai Xu, Jinhuan Zhang
Abstract Occupant restraint systems are developed based on some baseline experiments. While these experiments can only represent small part of various accident modes, the current procedure for utilizing the restraint systems may not provide the optimum protection in the majority of accident modes. This study presents an approach to predict occupant injury responses before the collision happens, so that the occupant restraint system, equipped with a motorized pretensioner, can be adjusted to the optimal parameters aiming at the imminent vehicle-to-vehicle frontal crash. The approach in this study takes advantage of the information from pre-crash systems, such as the time to collision, the relative velocity, the frontal overlap, the size of the vehicle in the front and so on. In this paper, the vehicle containing these pre-crash features will be referred to as ego vehicle. The information acquired and the basic crash test results can be integrated to predict a simplified crash pulse.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1466
Claudia De La Torre, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero, Andreas Sprick
Abstract Studies in the EU and the USA found higher deformation and occupant injuries in frontal crashes when the vehicle was loaded outboard (frontal crashes with a small overlap). Due to that, in 2012 the IIHS began to evaluate the small overlap front crashworthiness in order to solve this problem.A set of small overlap tests were carried out at IDIADA’s (Institute of Applied Automotive Research ) passive safety laboratory and the importance of identifying the forces applied in each structural element involved in small overlap crash were determined. One of the most important structural elements in the small overlap test is the wheel. Its interaction in a small overlap crash can modify the vehicle interaction at the crash, which at the laboratory the interaction is with a barrier. That interaction has a big influence at the vehicle development and design strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1728
Nitin Singh, Aayoush Sharma, Sameer Shah, Balakumar Gardampaali
Abstract In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road. This input is given to a Local Control Unit (LCU) which is integrated on every road. Several such LCUs are connected to a Main Control Unit (MCU) which is located at the nearest police station. A single MCU covers the area administered by that police station. Additional CCTV cameras are present to give graphical view of accident.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0476
Seiji Furusako, Masatoshi Tokunaga, Masanori Yasuyama
Abstract To reduce the weight of automobile bodies, application of high-strength steel sheets is expanding. Furthermore, middle and high carbon steels are expected to be used to lower the environmental impact and cost in the automobile steel sheet industry. However, it is necessary to enhance the joint strength of the steel sheets. In this study, hat-shaped components were made using resistance spot (RS) welding or arc spot (AS) welding on S45C steel sheets (including 0.44% carbon), 1.4 mm thickness and strength of 1180 MPa grade. A dynamic three-point bending test was conducted on the components and their crashworthiness was compared. Some RS welds fractured (separated) during the three-point bending test even though the diameter of the weld metal was increased to 5√t (t means thickness of the sheet); however, AS welds did not fracture.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0264
Venkatesh Babu, Ravi Thyagarajan, Jaisankar Ramalingam
Abstract In this paper, the capability of three methods of modelling detonation of high explosives (HE) buried in soil viz., (1) coupled discrete element & particle gas methods (DEM-PGM) (2) Structured - Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (S-ALE), and (3) Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), are investigated. The ALE method of modeling the effects of buried charges in soil is well known and widely used in blast simulations today [1]. Due to high computational costs, inconsistent robustness and long run times, alternate modeling methods such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) [2, 9] and DEM are gaining more traction. In all these methods, accuracy of the analysis relies not only on the fidelity of the soil and high explosive models but also on the robustness of fluid-structure interaction. These high-fidelity models are also useful in generating fast running models (FRM) useful for rapid generation of blast simulation results of acceptable accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0091
Songyao Zhou, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Renjie Zhou, Hao Liu
Abstract The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0080
Qilu Wang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Shengguang Xiong, XiaoXiao Zhou
Abstract Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 9165