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Viewing 241 to 185 of 185
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1492
Ming Shen, Haojie Mao, Binhui Jiang, Feng Zhu, Xin Jin, Liqiang Dong, Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan, Clifford Chou, King Yang
Abstract To help predict the injury responses of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Until now, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) with a standing posture to represent a pedestrian and a seated posture to represent an occupant with sufficient anatomic details. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Most of these studies have been mostly published previously and briefly summarized in this paper. For the current study, focus was put on the late stage model development.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1485
Noritoshi Atsumi, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Satoko Hirabayashi, Eiichi Tanaka
Abstract A reduction in brain disorders owing to traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head impacts in traffic accidents is needed. However, the details of the injury mechanism still remain unclear. In past analyses, brain parenchyma of a head finite element (FE) model has generally been modeled using simple isotropic viscoelastic materials. For further understanding of TBI mechanism, in this study we developed a new constitutive model that describes most of the mechanical properties in brain parenchyma such as anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and the characteristic features of the unloading process. Validation of the model was performed against several material test data from the literature with a simple one-element model. The model was also introduced into the human head FE model of THUMS v4.02 and validated against post-mortem human subject (PMHS) test data about brain displacements and intracranial pressures during head impacts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1504
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Abstract Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1266
Shinichi Urabe, Kazutaka Kimura, Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato
Abstract Solar and other green energy technologies are attracting attention as a means of helping to address global warming caused by CO2 and other emission gases. Countries, factories, and individual homes around the world have already introduced photovoltaic energy power sources, a trend that is likely to increase in the future. Electric vehicles powered from photovoltaic energy systems can help decrease the CO2 emmissions caused by vehicles. Unlike vehicles used for solar car racing, it is not easy to equip conventional vehicles with solar modules because the available area for module installation is very small to maintain cabin space, and the body lines of conventional vehicles are also usually slightly rounded. These factors decrease the performance of photovoltaic energy systems and prevent sufficient electric power generation. This research aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a solar module power generating system equipped on a conventional car, the Toyota Prius PHV.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1351
Simhachalam Bade
Abstract Aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and outstanding capability in absorbing energy. In this paper, performance of bumper with crash tubes using aluminum alloy AA7003 materials is compared with that of AA6061 and high strength steel (DP800) using numerical methods. Quasi-static test is simulated using the LS-DYNA implicit finite element program. Bumper and crash tubes are included in the finite element model. Symmetric Holes are provided in the crash tubes to initiate crushing. The energy absorbed by bumper and crash tubes are compared. Dynamic simulation is done using LS-Dyna explicit program. True stress-true plastic strain curves at different strain rates from the literature is used in the dynamic simulation of AA7003 material to study the strain rate effects on impact behavior of tubes. The impact mass is represented by RigidWall Planar Moving Force option in LSDYNA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1158
Toshiaki Watanabe, Masaya Ishida
Abstract Wireless charging systems for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) employing the resonant magnetic coupling method and using induction coils have been intensively studied in recent years. Since this method requires kW class high power to be transmitted using resonant magnetic coupling in the high frequency range, it is necessary to pay attention to the leakage of the magnetic field generated by the coil current, and to its influence on surrounding objects, particularly human bodies. Noting that acceptable values for human body exposure to electromagnetic fields have previously been issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) as guidelines, we have developed a method for predicting product compliance with those guidelines at the basic design development stage.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1211
Hua Tian, WeiGuang Wang, Ge-Qun Shu, Xingyu Liang, Haiqiao Wei
Abstract Power lithium-ion battery is the core component of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs). Thermal management at different operating conditions affects the life, security and stability of lithium-ion battery pack. In this paper, a one-dimensional, multiscale, electrochemical-thermal coupled model was applied and perfected for a flat-plate-battery pack. The model is capable of predicting thermal and electrochemical behaviors of battery. To provide more guidance for the selection of thermal management, temperature evolutions and distributions in the battery pack at various ambient temperatures, discharge rates and thermal radiation coefficients were simulated based on six types of thermal management (adiabatic, natural convection, air cooling, liquid cooling, phase change material cooling, isothermal).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1508
Gernot Pauer, Michal Kriska, Andreas Hirzer
Abstract Active bonnet safety systems are implemented into vehicles, to fulfill pedestrian head impact requirements despite little available deformation space. For such systems it is necessary to consider a variety of aspects already from the very beginning of the vehicle design process and the functionality of the whole system needs to be continually cross-checked throughout the whole design process. Many of these aspects are already supported by finite element (FE) methods from vehicle manufacturers and in this paper it is shown, how the last missing links within the development process, the optimization of pedestrian detection sensor signals can also be efficiently supported by FE simulation. The modeling and validation of a pressure tube based sensor system and so called “misuse objects” are demonstrated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1498
Hironori Wakana, Masuyoshi Yamada, Minoru Sakairi
Abstract The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and must be reduced. This paper reports on a prototype system mounted on a car mock-up and a prototype portable system that enables the checking of the drivers’ sobriety using a breath-alcohol sensor. The sensor unit consists of a water-vapor-sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of the systems’ features is that they can detect water vapor from human-exhaled breath to prevent false detection with fake gases. Each gas concentration was calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the water vapor in exhaled breath, we applied an AC voltage between the two electrodes of the breath-water-vapor sensor and used our alcohol-detection algorithm. The ethanol level was automatically calculated from the three gas sensors as soon as the water vapor was detected.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1499
Willy Klier, Thomas Lich, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Heiko Freienstein, Armin Koehler, Bastian Reckziegel, Zerong Yu
Abstract On the way to automated driving, the installation rate of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior to, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1503
Shotaro Odate, Yukinori Midorikawa, Yuki Yamazaki
Abstract Motorized seatbelt systems that retract seatbelts using motors are being mass-produced by many manufacturers. Scenarios for operation of these systems cover a wide range, including automatic braking for collision avoidance, brake assist and other such pre-crash situations, when the seatbelt is buckled, unbuckled and stored, during sport driving, or under normal conditions. These systems increase the retracting load of the motor using gears, and they can apply a high load in retracting the seatbelt. Previous systems, however, were designed primarily for pre-crash conditions. In previous systems, motor speed rose to higher levels in the normal operating state. The tendency to generate more noise and the application of higher loads on seatbelt retraction therefore became issues. For the present study, these issues were addressed using simulation to optimize the gear ratio.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0113
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Abstract Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0147
Toshiya Hirose, Tomohiro Makino, Masanobu Taniguchi, Hidenobu Kubota
Abstract Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and can use as a safety driving assist for driver. Currently, it is investigated to clarify an appropriate activation timing for collision information, caution and warning in Japan. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information (Provide objective information for safe driving to the driver) on V2V, and investigated an effective activation timing of collision information, and the relationship between the activation timing and the accuracy of the vehicle position. This experiment used Driving Simulator. The experimental scenario is four situations of (1) “Assistance for braking”, (2) “Assistance for accelerating”, (3) “Assistance for right turn” and (4) “Assistance for left turn” in blind intersection. The activation timing of collision information based on TTI (Time To Intersection) and TTC (Time To Collision).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1335
Abhishek Sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. Working on global platform is challenging in order to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and, at the same time, to meet the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper: a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1455
John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz, Susan Chrysler, Pujitha Gunaratne
Abstract In 2010, 32,855 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile crashes, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane departure crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane departure crashes accounted for approximately 9%. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of driver behavior modeling. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior, as well as warning systems that can issue useful alerts to the driver. Several scenario events were designed to fill gaps in previous crash research. For example, previous studies at NADS focused on crash events in which the driver was severely distracted immediately before the event. The events in this study included a sample of undistracted drivers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1457
John M. Scanlon, Kerry Page, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract There are over 4,500 fatal intersection crashes each year in the United States. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are emerging active safety systems designed to detect an imminent intersection crash and either provide a warning or perform an automated evasive maneuver. The performance of an I-ADAS will depend on the ability of the onboard sensors to detect an imminent collision early enough for an I-ADAS to respond in a timely manner. One promising method for determining the earliest detection opportunity is through the reconstruction of real-world intersection crashes. After determining the earliest detection opportunity, the required sensor range, orientation, and field of view can then be determined through the simulation of these crashes as if the vehicles had been equipped with an I-ADAS.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1450
Peter Vertal, Hermann Steffan
Abstract The objective of this work is to test the potential benefit of active pedestrian protection systems. The tests are based on real fatal accidents with passenger cars that were not equipped with active safety systems. Tests have been conducted in order to evaluate what the real benefit of the active safety system would be, and not to gain only a methodological prediction. The testing procedure was the first independent testing in the world which was based on real fatal pedestrian accidents. The aim of the tests is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Volvo pedestrian detection system. The in-depth accident database ZEDATU contains about 300 fatal pedestrian traffic accidents in urban areas. Eighteen cases of pedestrians hit by the front end of a passenger vehicle were extracted from this database. Cases covering an average traffic scenario have been reconstructed to obtain detailed model situations for testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1452
Eiichiro Murata, Tasuku Usui, Kazunori Nogi, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract In order to help avoid or mitigate rear-end collisions a Pre-Collision System (PCS) was developed. The purpose of this study is to clarify the Time-to-Collision (TTC) distribution when approaching a lead vehicle under normal driving condition. To enhance the effectiveness of PCS, warnings and/or automatic brake activation should happen as early as possible, however, if too early there is a high possibility of false warnings or activations, which is not desirable. If the distribution of distance to a lead vehicle under normal driving conditions is quantified, an approach limit can be estimated. In this study, we try to clarify a TTC distribution that is approximated by a log-normal distribution. Then, we investigate the Enhanced Time-to-Collision (ETTC) that is the secondary predictive value of TTC. And, we clarify the log-normal distribution of ETTC is a more stable approximator of normal driving than a log-normal distribution of TTC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1469
Craig Luker
High image quality video surveillance systems have proliferated making it more common to have collision-related video footage that is suitable for detailed analysis. This analysis begins by using variety of methods to reconstruct a series of positions for the vehicle. If the frame rate is known or can be estimated, then the average travel speed between each of those vehicle positions can be found. Unfortunately with video surveillance systems, the frame rates are typically low and the vehicle may be hidden from view for multiple frames. As a result there are often relatively large time steps between known vehicle positions and the average speed between known positions becomes less useful. The method outlined here determines the instantaneous speed and acceleration time history of the vehicle that was required for it to arrive at the known positions, at the known times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1483
Ross Hunter, Ryan Fix, Felix Lee, David King
Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of using high-speed frontal barrier crash tests to predict the impact speed, i.e. equivalent barrier speed (EBS), of a lower-speed frontal barrier crash. Force-displacement (F-D) curves were produced by synchronizing the load cell barrier (LCB) data with the accelerometer data. Our analysis revealed that the F-D curves, including the rebound phase, for the same vehicle model at the same impact speed were generally similar. The test vehicle crush at the time of barrier separation, determined from the F-D curves, was on average 17±16% (N = 150) greater than the reported maximum hand-measured residual crush to the bumper cover. The EBS calculated from the F-D curves was on average 4±4% (N=158) greater than the reported EBS, indicating that using F-D curves derived from LCB data is a reliable method for calculating vehicle approach energy in a crash test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1514
Varun Bollapragada, Taewung Kim, Mark Clauser, Jeff Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
Abstract Some rollover testing methodologies require specification of vehicle kinematic parameters including travel speed, vertical velocity, roll rate, and pitch angle, etc. at the initiation of vehicle to ground contact, which have been referred to as touchdown conditions. The complexity of the vehicle, as well as environmental and driving input characteristics make prediction of realistic touchdown conditions for rollover crashes, and moreover, identification of parameter sensitivities of these characteristics, is difficult and expensive without simulation tools. The goal of this study was to study the sensitivity of driver input on touchdown parameters and the risk of rollover in cases of steering-induced soil-tripped rollovers, which are the most prevalent type of rollover crashes. Knowing the range and variation of touchdown parameters and their sensitivities would help in picking realistic parameters for simulating controlled rollover tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1513
Bronislaw D. Gepner, Jack Cochran, Patrick Foltz, Carolyn Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Qi Zhang, Matthew Taracko, Jacob Borth, Robert Wilson, Adam Upah, Jason Kerrigan
Abstract Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs), since their introduction onto the market in the late-1990s, have been related to over 300 fatalities with the majority occurring in vehicle rollover. In recent years several organizations made attempts to improve ROV safety. This paper is intended to evaluate ejection mitigation measures considered by the ROV manufacturers. Evaluated countermeasures include two types of occupant restraints (three and four point) and two structural barriers (torso bar, door with net). The Rollover protection structure (ROPS) provided by the manufacturer was attached to a Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), and a full factorial series of roll/drop/catch tests was performed. The ROV buck was equipped with two Hybrid III dummies, a 5th percentile female and a 95th percentile male. Additionally, occupant and vehicle kinematics were recorded using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric camera system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1496
Richard R. Ruth, Brad Muir
Abstract Earlier research1 suggests there may be positive offset in the longitudinal G sensor in Toyota Corolla Gen 02 EDR’s. This research tests if a similar offset is present in Toyota Gen 04 EDR’s in the 2007 Yaris. A series of low speed forward and rearward collisions into a stationary vehicle were conducted. In addition to the installed vehicle ACM, additional identical “ride along” ACM’s were installed back to back, one front facing and one rear facing. The vehicle was also instrumented with a video VBOX to record speed at impact, and with the high precision “IST” accelerometer reference instrumentation. ACM’s facing toward the crash under-reported the negative longitudinal Delta V. After the initial impact was over, these forward facing ACM’s had a positive slope and at the end of the 200 ms recording were reporting a positive net Delta V, indicating a G sensor bias. The ACM’s facing away from the crash over reported the positive longitudinal Delta V.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0405
Fupin Wei, Li Xu, Chen Cao, Youmei Zhao
Crash Test Dummies are the very important tools to evaluate the vehicle safety performance. In order to ensure the dummy performance during the crash tests, the dummy components need to be certificated. In the neck certification procedure, the head angle is the most important parameter, which is the head rotation respect to the neck base. To get the head angle, couples of rotary potentiometers should be mounted either on the calibration fixture or on the dummy head. The rotation is then calculated from those potentiometer readings. There are two potentiometers mounted in the Hybrid III family dummies, while three potentiometers mounted in ES2, ES-2re, SID-IIs, and WorldSid 50th dummies. In the certification, maximum head angle and time occurred should be within certain ranges in the Hybrid III family dummies while for the ES2 and WorldSid 50th dummies, not only the maximum head angle, but also the other angles and their timings should meet the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1522
Zhenwen Wang, Brock Watson
Abstract A three dimensional IR-TRACC (Infrared Telescope Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression) was designed for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) in recent years to measure chest deflections. Due to the design intricateness, the deflection calculation from the measurements is sophisticated. An algorithm was developed in this paper to calculate the three dimensional deflections of the chest. The algorithm calculates the compression and also converts the results to the local spine coordinate system so that it can correlate with the Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) measurements for injury calculation. The method was also verified by a finite element calculation for accuracy, comparing the calculation from the corresponding model output and the direct point to point measurements. In addition, the IR-TRACC calibration methods are discussed in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1512
Jeya Padmanaban, Roger Burnett, Andrew Levitt
Abstract This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from seventeen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle model groupings (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the severe injury rate for belted drivers in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1370
Vali Farahani, Salamah Maaita, Aditya Jayanthi
Abstract During the course of automobile Instrument Panel (IP) design development, the occupant head impact CAE simulation on IP are routinely performed to validate FMVSS201 requirements. Based on FMVSS201 requirements, the potential head impact zones on the IP are first identified. Then, the head impact zones are used to locate the various target points that must be impacted on IP. Once the critical target locations on IP are chosen, there are several computational steps that are required to calculate impact angles and head form (HF) center of rotation in reference to target points. Then, CAE engineer performs a repetitive process that involves positioning each individual HF with proper impact angle, assigning initial velocity to HF, and defining surface contacts within the finite element model (FEM). To simplify these lengthy manual steps, a commercially available software HyperMesh® CAE software tool is used to automate these steps.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1412
Takeshi Hamaguchi, Satoshi Inoue, Shigeyuki Kimura, Terumasa Endo
Abstract In driver-focused vehicle development, driver workload is generally evaluated subjectively, with physiological, psychological, and behavioral indexes used to quantify and substantiate the subjective rating. In contrast, a model of driver behavior expresses the driver’s behavioral characteristics which make it possible to estimate how the driver will incorporate information into vehicle operation. Therefore, it is presumed to be capable of estimating the internal state of a driver. Conventionally, a model of driver behavior related to pedal operation has been used for evaluating the driver’s habits and the acceptability of various types of support devices. However, it has not been used for estimating driver workload related to pedal operation. To examine driver workload, this study divided pedal operation magnitude into two components: a learning/judgment component and a correcting component for prediction errors. A method was devised of separating these two components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1532
Kyoungtaek Kwak, Seungwoo Seo, Randi Potekin, Antoine Blanchard, Alexander Vakakis, Donald McFarland, Lawrence Bergman
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop a dynamic model that can accurately predict the motion of the door handle and counterweight during side impact crash tests. The door locking system, mainly composed of the door outside handle and door latch, is theoretically modeled, and it is assumed that the door outer panel can rotate and translate in all three directions during a side impact crash. Additionally, the numerical results are compared with real crash video footage, and satisfactory qualitative agreement is found. Finally, the simplified test rig that efficiently reflects the real crash test is introduced, and its operation is analyzed.
Viewing 241 to 185 of 185