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Viewing 211 to 240 of 11101
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1667
Long Chen, Shuwei Zhang, Mingyuan Bian, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li
Abstract As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0123
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Mohamed ElHelw
Abstract The evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS including driver assistance and active safety) has increasing interest from authorities, industry and academia. AsPeCSS active safety project concludes that good results in a laboratory test for active safety system design does not necessarily equate to an effective system in real traffic conditions. Moreover, many ADAS assessment projects and standards require physical testing on test tracks (dummy vehicles, pedestrian mannequins…), which are expensive and limit testing capabilities. This research presents a conceptual framework for on-board evaluation (OBE) of ADAS, which can be used as a cost effective evaluation in real-life traffic conditions. OBE shall monitor, record, analyze and report both internal behavior and external environment (external objects list and video stream) of ADAS under evaluation (ADASUE).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0246
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract Vehicle occupants, unlike building occupants, are exposed to continuously varying, non-uniform solar heat load. Automotive manufacturers use photovoltaic cells based solar sensor to measure intensity and direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Use of the time of the day and the position - latitude and longitude - of a vehicle is also common to calculate direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Two angles - azimuth and elevation - are used to completely define the direction of solar radiation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system. Although the use of solar sensor is common in today’s vehicles, the solar heat load on the occupants, because of their exposure to the direct-beam solar radiation remains the area of in-car subjective evaluation and tuning. Since the solar rays travel in parallel paths, application of the ray tracing method to determine solar insolation of the vehicle occupants is possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0161
Valentin Soloiu, Imani Augusma, Deon Lucien, Mary Thomas, Roccio Alba-Flores
Abstract This study presents the design and development of a vehicle platform with intelligent sensors that has the capabilities to drive independently and cooperatively on roads. An integrated active safety system has been designed to optimize the human senses using ultrasonic infrared sensors and transmitter/receiver modules, to increase the human vision, feel and communication for increased road safety, lower congestion rates, and decrease CO2 emissions. Ultrasonic sensors mounted on the platform, emitted longitudinal 40 kHz waves and received echoes of these sound waves when an object was within its direction. The duration was converted to a distance measurement to detect obstacles as well as using distance measurement threshold values to implement adaptive cruise control. Infrared sensors equipped with an IR LED and a bipolar transistor detected a change in light intensity to identify road lanes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0135
Ji Zhang, Mengjing Shen, Xiangyu Zhu, Qipeng Chen
Abstract Nowadays researches of automotive electromagnetic field mainly focus on the component level and electromagnetic compatibility, while there is a lack of relevant studies on internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicles. With the increasingly complex internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicle, people are increasingly concerned about its potential impact of human health. This article researches on a type of electric vehicle and the occupants and analyses its electromagnetic radiation effects on human health. Firstly, considering the characters of Pro/E, Hypermesh and FEKO, the “Characteristics grouping subdivision” method is used to establish the entire vehicle body FE model. According to the requirement of MOM/FEM method, the entire vehicle model is optimized to be a high quality body model with simple construction and moderate grid size.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1683
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Gullberg
Abstract Presented are results from numerical investigations of buoyancy driven flow in a simplified representation of an engine bay. A main motivation for this study is the necessity for a valid correlation of results from numerical methods and procedures with physical measurements in order to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of the available numerical tools for prediction of natural convection. This analysis is based on previously performed PIV and temperature measurements in a controlled physical setup, which reproduced thermal soak conditions in the engine compartment as they occur for a vehicle parked in a quiescent ambient after sustaining high thermal loads. Thermal soak is an important phenomenon in the engine bay primarily driven by natural convection and radiation after there had been a high power demand on the engine. With the cooling fan turned off and in quiescent environment, buoyancy driven convection and radiation are the dominating modes of heat transfer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1521
Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Takeki Tanoue, Ryosuke Chikazawa
Abstract This paper describes impact kinematics and injury values of Hybrid III AM50, THOR AM50 and THUMS AM50 in simulated oblique frontal impact conditions. A comparison was made among them in driver and passenger seat positions of a midsize sedan car finite element (FE) model. The simulation results indicated that the impact kinematics of THOR was close to that of THUMS compared to that of the Hybrid III. Both THOR and THUMS showed z-axis rotation of the rib cage, while Hybrid III did not. It was considered that the rib cage rotation was due primarily to the oblique impact but was allowed by flexibility of the lumbar spine in THOR and THUMS. Lateral head displacement observed in both THOR and THUMS was mostly induced by that rotation in both driver seat and passenger seat positions. The BrIC, thorax and abdominal injury values were close to each other between THOR and THUMS, while HIC15 and Acetabulum force values were different.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1523
Libo Cao, Changhai Yao, Hequan Wu
Abstract The traditional deterministic optimal design is mostly based on meeting regulatory requirements specified in impact standards, without taking the randomness of the impact velocity and angle at the real world situation into consideration. This often leads to the optimization results that converge to the boundary constraints, thus cannot meet the reliability requirements of the product design. Structure members of B-pillar (e.g. inner panel, outer panel, and the reinforcing plate) play a major role in the side impact safety performance. This paper dealt with optimization of B-pillar by considering its dimensions and materials as the design variables, and the impact velocity and angle from real-world traffic accident conditions as the random variable inputs. Using a combination of design of experiment, response surface models, reliability theory and the reliability of design optimization method, a B-pillar was constructed based on the product quality engineering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1529
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Malhar Kumar
Abstract Periprosthetic fractures refer to the fractures that occur in the vicinity of the implants of joint replacement arthroplasty. Most of the fractures during an automotive frontal collision involve the long bones of the lower limbs (femur and tibia). Since the prevalence of persons living with lower limb joint prostheses is increasing, periprosthetic fractures that occur during vehicular accidents are likely to become a considerable burden on health care systems. It is estimated that approximately 4.0 million adults in the U.S. currently live with Total Knee Replacement (TKR) implants. Therefore, it is essential to study the injury patterns that occur in the long bone of a lower limb containing a total knee prosthesis. The aim of the present study is to develop an advanced finite element model that simulates the possible fracture patterns that are likely during vehicular accidents involving occupants who have knee joint prostheses in situ.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0538
Cynthia Templeman
Abstract Automotive clearcoats have many purposes, from providing a glossy finish to protecting the underlying paint layers from UV radiation. Yellowing of clearcoats is a natural phenomenon during weathering processes, as well as from extreme baking conditions, due to polymer degradation. However, occasionally yellowing may be caused by unexpected chemical reactions occurring in the clearcoat. These reactions may happen very quickly (within hours or days) or take years to manifest, as other chemicals migrate into the clearcoat. We have investigated one family of these unexpected reactions which occur with certain UV absorbers, as well as how to prevent the reactions from occurring. We found that certain benzotriazole UV absorbers react readily with some common metals, including copper and zinc, provided that the UV absorber is not in its excited state.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0333
Pavel Lykov, Rustam Baytimerov, Sergey Vaulin, Evgeny Safonov, Dmitry Zherebtsov
Abstract Due to its unique physical properties (high thermal and electric conductivity) copper is one of the most interesting materials in point of view of additive manufacturing in particular of Selective Laser Melting (SLM). But because of the low laser radiation absorption, low melting point and high thermal conductivity it is difficult to fabricate of copper components without pores. Results of many research have been shown that for successful Selective Laser Melting of copper powder is needed high laser power (more than 300 W) and high laser scanning speed (more than 600 mm/s). However now most SLM machines are equipped with laser plants with output power up to 200 W.In this research, SLM machine with 200 W maximum power CO2 laser has been used. For determination of the influence of SLM process parameters on quality of copper parts cubic specimens have been fabricated. The point distance, exposure time and base plate preheating temperature have been changing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0396
Prasad S. Mehta, Jennifer Solis Ocampo, Andres Tovar, Prathamesh Chaudhari
Abstract Biologically inspired designs have become evident and proved to be innovative and efficacious throughout the history. This paper introduces a bio-inspired design of protective structures that is lightweight and provides outstanding crashworthiness indicators. In the proposed approach, the protective function of the vehicle structure is matched to the protective capabilities of natural structures such as the fruit peel (e.g., pomelo), abdominal armors (e.g., mantis shrimp), bones (e.g., ribcage and woodpecker skull), as well as other natural protective structures with analogous protective functions include skin and cartilage as well as hooves, antlers, and horns, which are tough, resilient, lightweight, and functionally adapted to withstand repetitive high-energy impact loads. This paper illustrates a methodology to integrate designs inspired by nature, Topology optimization, and conventional modeling tools.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Abstract Based on equivalent static loads method (ESL), a nonlinear dynamic topology optimization is carried out to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative legislative crash loads, including frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and rear impact. To meet the crashworthiness performances, two evaluation indexes are defined to convert the practical engineering problems into mathematic optimization problems. The strain energy is treated as the stiffness evaluation index of the BIW and the relative displacement is employed as the compliance index of the components and parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0401
Yucheng Liu
Abstract In this paper, a new beam element is developed for the purpose of capturing thin-walled beam’s collapse mechanisms under dynamic load such as impact load and will be validated in the next phase. Such beam element can be used to create simplified finite element models for crashworthiness analysis and simulation and, therefore, will significantly reduce the modeling effort and computing time. The developed beam element will be implemented into LS-DYNA and validated through crashworthiness analysis and simulation. This paper introduces the approach of deriving the new element formulation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0217
Somnath Sen, Mayur Selokar, Diwakar Nisad, Kamal Kishore
Abstract Adequate visibility through the vehicle windshield over the entire driving period is of paramount practical significance. Thin water film (fog) that forms on the windshield mainly during the winter season would reduce and disturb the driver’s visibility. This water film originates from condensing water vapor on inside surface of the windshield due to low outside temperatures. Primary source of this vapor is the passenger’s breath, which condenses on the windshield. Hot and dry air which impinges at certain velocity and angle relative to the windshield helps to remove the thin water film (defogging) and hence improves driver’s visibility. Hence a well-designed demisting device will help to eliminate this fog layer within very short span of time and brings an accepted level of visibility. An attempt is made here to design and develop a demisting device for a commercial vehicle with the help of numerical and analytical approach and later on validated with experimental results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0725
P.C. Bakker, R.C. Willems, N.J. Dam
Abstract Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is a well-established technique for tracking soot, potentially enabling soot volume fraction determination. To obtain crank angle resolved data from a single cycle, a multi-kHz system should be applied. Such an approach, however, imposes certain challenges in terms of application and interpretation. The present work intends to apply such a high-speed system to an optically-accessible, compression ignition engine. Possible problems with sublimation, local gas heating or other multishot effects have been studied on an atmospheric co-flow burner prior to the engine experiments. It was found that, in this flame, fluences around 0.1 J/cm2 provide the best balance between signal-tobackground ratio, and soot sublimation. This fluence is well below the plateau regime of LII, which poses additional problems with interpretation of the signal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0822
Jongwon Chung, Namho Kim, Hoimyung Choi, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract Due to the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber, particulate emission is a challenge in DISI engines. Specifically, a significant amount of particulate emission is produced under the cold start condition. In this research, the main interest was to investigate particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition because it is one of the significant particulate-emissionproducing stages under the cold start condition. A single-cylinder optically accessible engine was used to investigate the effect of injection strategies on particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition. The split injection strategy was applied during intake stroke with various injection pressures and injection timings. Using luminosity analysis of the soot radiation during combustion, the particulate formation characteristics of each injection strategy were studied.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for helping avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. Since approximately 70% pedestrian crashes occur in dark conditions, one of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. This paper describes a general method to collect light sources and illuminance information by processing large amount of potential collision locations at night from naturalistic driving video data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1453
I-Hsuan Lee, Bi-Cheng Luan
Abstract Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems is one of the functions of the Advanced Driver Assists System to avoid or mitigate vehicle frontal collisions. Most of the previous studies focus on two-car scenario where the host vehicle monitors the distances to the vehicles in front, and automatically applies emergency brake when a collision is imminent. The purpose of this paper is to develop an Advanced-AEB control system that mitigates collisions in a multi-car scenario by measuring the distances to the vehicles in front as well as those to the vehicles behind using the concept of impedance control. A simple gain-scheduling PI controller was designed for the host vehicle to track the reference inputs generated by the impedance control. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AEB is effective in mitigating the collisions in a 3-car following scenario.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
Abstract In China there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. In this paper driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied and pedalcyclists include bicyclist, tricyclist, electric bicyclist and motorcyclist. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract As part of active safety systems for reducing bicyclist fatalities and injuries, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS), also known as Bicyclist Autonomous Emergency Braking System, is being studied currently by several vehicles manufactures. This paper describes the development of a surrogate bicyclist which includes a surrogate bicycle and a surrogate bicycle rider to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicycle is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch adult bicycle, which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the real adult sized bicycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1474
Edward C. Fatzinger, Tyler L. Shaw, Jon B. Landerville
Abstract Six electronic needle-display speedometers from five different manufacturers were tested in order to determine the behavior of the gauges following a power interruption and impact. Subject motorcycles were accelerated to pre-determined speeds, at which point the speedometer wiring harness was disconnected. The observed results were that the dial indicator would move slightly up, down, or remain in place depending on the model of the speedometer. The observed change of indicated speed was within +/- 10 mph upon power loss. Additionally, the speedometers were subjected to impact testing to further analyze needle movement due to collision forces. Speedometers were attached to a linear drop rail apparatus instrumented with an accelerometer. A minimum acceleration due to impact which could cause needle movement was measured for each speedometer assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1472
Dietmar Otte, Martin Urban, Heiko Johannsen
Abstract Estimating the potential benefit of advanced safety systems by simulation has become increasingly important during the last years. All over the world OEMs and suppliers carry out benefit estimations by simulations via computer models. Such simulations should, of course, be based on real world scenario such as the pre-crash phase of real world accidents. Several methodologies for building up accident scenarios have been developed in the past. This paper shows a new method for generating pre-crash scenarios directly from the reconstruction of the accident by using the software PC-Crash1. The new method was developed by the Medical University Hannover (MHH) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation Dresden (Fraunhofer IVI). It is based on transferring all information (participant-, vehicle-, environment- and motion-data) from the reconstruction file into a scenario-database.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1464
Jorge Martins, Ricardo Ribeiro, Pedro Neves, F. P. Brito
Abstract The main source for the estimation of stiffness coefficients to be used in accident reconstruction calculations is a very large database of crash-test related information from NHTSA. However, that database includes only car models sold in the USA. Unfortunately, there is no such information for European-only cars besides the raw video recordings of EuroNCAP crash tests. In the present work a methodology is proposed to estimate the stiffness coefficients of European-only models from video images of EuroNCAP crash tests. However, these images are intricate to assess, because the car front is crushed into a deformable barrier at 40% of the front width and usually the bonnet (hood) hides most of the crash damage. Therefore, the top images could not be used straightforward, so a procedure was envisaged to circumvent this difficulty and still allow to calculate stiffness coefficients for European-only cars.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1424
Yi G. Glaser, Robert E. Llaneras, Daniel S. Glaser, Charles A. Green
Abstract Partially automated driving involves the relinquishment of longitudinal and/or latitudinal control to the vehicle. Partially automated systems, however, are fallible and require driver oversight to avoid all road hazards. Researchers have expressed concern that automation promotes extended eyes-off-road (EOR) behavior that may lead to a loss of situational awareness (SA), degrading a driver’s ability to detect hazards and make necessary overrides. A potential countermeasure to visual inattention is the orientation of the driver’s glances towards potential hazards via cuing. This method is based on the assumption that drivers are able to rapidly identify hazards once their attention is drawn to the area of interest regardless of preceding EOR duration. This work examined this assumption in a simulated automated driving context by projecting hazardous and nonhazardous road scenes to a participant while sitting in a stationary vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Abstract Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
Abstract The paper is focused on both the subjective and the objective ride comfort evaluation of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride comfort level was performed by considering five different drivers. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of a farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective driver feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1491
Eunjoo Hwang, Jason Hallman, Katelyn Klein, Jonathan Rupp, Matthew Reed, Jingwen Hu
Abstract Current finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) generally only represent young and mid-size male occupants and do not account for body shape and composition variations among the population. Because it generally takes several years to build a whole-body HBM, a method to rapidly develop HBMs with a wide range of human attributes (size, age, obesity level, etc.) is critically needed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate skeleton and whole-body HBMs based on statistical geometry targets developed previously. THUMS V4.01 mid-size male model jointly developed by Toyota Motor Corporation and Toyota Central R&D Labs was used in this study as the baseline HBM to be morphed. Radial basis function (RBF) was used to morph the baseline model into the target geometries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1492
Ming Shen, Haojie Mao, Binhui Jiang, Feng Zhu, Xin Jin, Liqiang Dong, Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan, Clifford Chou, King Yang
Abstract To help predict the injury responses of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Until now, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) with a standing posture to represent a pedestrian and a seated posture to represent an occupant with sufficient anatomic details. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Most of these studies have been mostly published previously and briefly summarized in this paper. For the current study, focus was put on the late stage model development.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 11101