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Viewing 11071 to 11100 of 11101
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350002
Kalman J. DeJuhasz
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350061
James J. Shanley
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350080
J. M. Orr
SOUND transportation and safety engineering are being successfully applied to accident control, Mr. Orr states, which involves human engineering to a greater degree than in any other phase of fleet management and operation. After stating accident facts and costs, Mr. Orr presents selected quotations from representative fleet operators and other authorities regarding operating practices, relations with the general public, accident control, future design of highways, driver evaluation, accident-proneness and the like, together with an illustrated description of a portable testing-laboratory for making tests of drivers. Accident trends in commercial fleets are analyzed, as well as accident aspects in various types of fleets. Other authorities are quoted on various matters relating to training, methods and practices.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350008
John H. Geisse
1934-01-01
Technical Paper
340069
Wm. K. Creson
1934-01-01
Technical Paper
340082
Walter A. Olen
AFTER submitting evidence to show the number and character of highway accidents involving motor vehicles, Mr. Olen points out that there are many factors that affect the front-axle stability of a vehicle and goes on to discuss the relation of these factors to public safety on the highways. He presents the results of tests comparing the effort required on a four-wheel-drive and a two-wheel-drive truck to hold the steering wheel at a given angle when turning circles on a smooth, dry pavement, as well as test data bearing on various other phases of front-axle stability.
1934-01-01
Technical Paper
340054
Clarence P. Taylor
ABSTRACT
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320052
Hubert Walker
REASONS for designing an engine with 12 cylinders for fire apparatus, motor-trucks and motor-coaches are set forth by the author. Among them were the requirement for 225 hp., a speed range of 200 to 3000 r.p.m. with little torsional vibration and torque-reaction effect, and economy of space. The design adopted has its cylinders in two rows of six each, disposed at an included angle of 30 deg. The statement is made that it can be installed in the space occupied by a 150-hp. six-cylinder engine. Advantages claimed for setting the cylinders at this angle are that the engine can be made narrow, so that all cylinders and the crankcase can be cast in one block; that the accessories can conveniently be placed outside; and that the synchronism of impulses that causes torsional vibration can be avoided. Vertical valves are operated from a central over-head camshaft by rocker arms that carry rollers at one end and are split horizontally at the other end.
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320061
James Craig
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320004
H. C. Dickinson, H. H. Allen
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320056
Maxwell N. Halsey
DISPARITY between the factors of automobile and highway design that are far advanced and the factors that lag far behind constitutes the cause of many of our transportation difficulties, according to the author. The paper therefore aims to show the demand for safety and its economic advantage to the automotive industry and to indicate some of the principles necessary for its accomplishment. After stating that the automobile manufacturers should take a far-sighted view of the situation, take positive steps toward safety and cash in on the demand that is growing and that cannot be stopped by denying its existence, the author considers and comments upon some of the characteristics of automobiles that undoubtedly are partly responsible for accident potentialities. Visibility from the driver's seat is considered in detail, together with devices that assist visibility. The other driver's viewpoint also is considered.
1930-01-01
Technical Paper
300030
T. P. Wright
ABSTRACT
1929-01-01
Technical Paper
290051
HERACLIO ALFARO
WHAT can be done to increase safety, efficiency and comfort in flight of aircraft now in use? In answer, the author describes several devices designed to bring about this result and supplements this with the results of wind-tunnel research. Detailed descriptions of the particular devices mentioned are not included, the object of this paper being to show the great possibilities of their use and the resulting improvement in performance.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270055
H. L. Miner
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260053
K. D. CHAMBERS
The complementary-color headlighting system is based upon the use of differentiated light, that is, light having different wave-lengths. Each head-lamp is oval and contains two paraboloid reflectors, one emitting light through an orange glass filter, the other through one of blue glass. While driving at night, the driver looks through a viewing-filter of transparent glass of the same color as that of the headlight which is in use. The viewing-filters are arranged so that whenever one is used, the headlight of the same color is automatically turned on. When the headlights are not in use, the filters are held in the filter-box and are out of sight. It is the intention that cars traveling in a general direction, say north and east, shall use the blue light; that those traveling south and west shall use the orange light. Each viewing-filter is transparent to the light that is thrown on the road by the headlights of the same car but is opaque to the lights of approaching cars.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260050
J. A. BUCHANAN
In motor-truck impact-reactions, the unsprung component is generally the major quantity and the force depends on four principal variables: tire equipment, load, speed and road roughness. The tire equipment that utilizes the greater time of duration for the reaction will cause the lower impact-forces. Increases in load, speed and road roughness increase the impact-reaction. Poor tire-equipment on rough roads may cause forces of 35 tons to be borne by both the truck and the road. Pneumatic tires rarely allow reactions greater than twice the static wheel-load. The impact reactions of a six-wheel truck approximate one-half those of an otherwise equivalent four-wheel truck having the same pay-load. Fifty per cent loss in the overall height of the tire multiplies the impact reaction by 2.5. Rolling resistance varies with the speed, the tire equipment and the road surface, and may reach a value of one-sixteenth the wheel-load.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250054
J H HUNT
Two points are cited as illustrating the difficulty of enforcing the present regulations, namely, (a) the variation in the angle of the headlight beam caused by the compression of the springs when the loading of the car is changed from no load to full load and (b) the variation of the tilting of the beam caused by the pitching of the car on an ordinary road, the effect being similar to that produced by flashes of lightning in a pitch-dark night. Denial is made of the author's alleged advocacy of diffused lighting and comparison is made of the distribution-curves obtained with frosted bulbs and those obtained with fairly good lamps conforming to the Society's specifications.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250061
R F THALNER
Evolving gradually since the time when opinion prevailed that accidents are unpreventable, modern safety methods have come into being and successfully organized effort concentrated on their application in industry has accomplished an amazingly effective system of accident prevention. In the automotive industry, effort focused on preventive measures looking toward the elimination or reduction of casualties and fatalities has resulted in greatly increased conservation of life and property; but, as new conditions and new demands continually appear, it is evident that new methods, new means and new modifications must be continually in process and that putting these forces into production requires concentrated scientific study, forethought and executive ability.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250011
ETHELBERT FAVARY
Benefits gained by distributing truck weights and loads among six wheels rather than four, include less liability to cause road destruction, greater carrying capacity and more economical operation. The author classifies the causes of road destruction under headings of excessive loads on tires, impacts between road and tires, traction effects of wheels, and braking effects and says that the remedy is to reduce load or to correct improper weight-distribution. Impacts probably contribute most destructive effects.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240044
JOHN R REYBURN
A bumper is a bar attached transversely in front of or behind a car body to prevent contact between an obstruction and the car body or to cushion the shock of collision between vehicles. The impact-bars have various sectional forms, from flat to round and from tubes to channels, and are composed of steel, wood or rubberized fabric. The attaching devices are sometimes yielding, sometimes rigid. The evolution of the bumper is shown in the records of the Patent Office. Early types had yielding attaching-parts and rigid impact-parts. These were followed by types having a rigid bar connected with the frame by only a spiral spring, by those having channel-steel impact-bars and others having round spring-steel extending from the frame-horns. A strip of rectangular spring-steel was then used by a Western blacksmith, and later a similar non-reinforced bumper appeared which was cut in two in the middle, the ends being overlapped and the overlapped parts clamped together.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220031
J G VINCENT
Grouping the influences that are retarding the development of aviation into five specified divisions, the author, who took a prominent part in the development of the Liberty engine and other wartime aviation activities of the Government, discusses each one, in the order of its importance, in an effort to point out the limitations that exist as differentiated from misconceived non-existent limitations and to indicate remedial measures stimulative to a provident trend and vigorous growth of aviation. The subjects of adequate landing-fields, the real and imaginary dangers of flying, single and multi-engine airplanes, passenger comfort and commercial considerations are treated at some length, prefatory to an outline of the trend of airplane design and an enumeration of powerplant requirements.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220029
E W TEMPLIN
Stating that the means and methods of transporting freight over the highways are governed by six factors, the author enumerates them as being the number of ton-miles of goods to be shipped, the shipping points and destinations, the kinds of highway available, the types of vehicle most suitable, the cost of operation per ton-mile and the rates that should be charged for the service. The purpose of the paper is not to answer these questions but to determine whether present practice is headed in the right direction. The conditions the highway must meet, in addition to the gross load of the vehicles, are the maximum tire load, the pressure per square inch exerted by the tire upon the pavement and the value of any impact blow upon the pavement. The impact blows of pneumatic tires are practically negligible, while solid tires build up the impact to many times the weight of the wheel load; this is proved by impact tests of tires which are described in some detail and illustrated.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210022
RALPH H UPSON
The author gives an outline of the fundamentals and divides the subject into a discussion of what aerial transportation facilities we have at present and what should be considered for the future, stating that the inventors must determine how far they can go in providing equipment. The first question regarding new equipment is, “Will it work?” The next, “Is it safe?” Safety is described as being purely relative, the statement being made that there is no such thing as absolute safety. There is no need to expect danger. We must have both speed and safety and making aerial equipment safe is well worthwhile, no matter at what expense of money and effort. As to whether commercial aviation can be made to pay, economically and so far as society as a whole is concerned, this is a relative question depending upon the length of haul and the cost per mile. Charts are shown and methods of obtaining basic costs described, together with formulas and coefficients so obtained.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210008
A T GOLDBECK
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200059
E B SMITH
In investigating the forces that tend to break up and destroy roads, the most destructive of these being that of impact, the United States Bureau of Public Roads devised a method of receiving the impact of a truck on a small copper cylinder and determining its amount by measuring the deformation of the cylinder. The impact values are largely dependent upon the type and construction of the truck. Unsprung weights have a great influence upon the impact value of the blow on the road surface and a reverse influence upon the body of the truck; these effects are in two different directions. The present aim of the Bureau is to investigate this impact and the effect of the unsprung weight on the road. Most of the tests have been made on solid tires, a few have been made on worn solid tires and some on pneumatic tires. The Bureau intends to elaborate all of these tests, including different types of pneumatic tire, different unsprung weights and special wheels, such as cushion or spring wheels.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200073
A F MASURY
The purpose of the tests described was to subject various models of truck to shocks far in excess of anything likely to be encountered in actual service, to study the effect of different spring and tire equipment on impact and the effect of unsprung weight upon road impact, as well as the effect of varying speed on these impacts. A series of “jumping tests” for motor trucks was conducted and a new system of motion pictures, capable of being afterward slowed down for analysis, was used to record the results. Trucks were run at speeds of from 15 to 18 m.p.h. along a straightaway course and over a sharp incline. The trucks sprang into the air and struck the ground as from a vertical drop of several feet. The apparatus and the five trucks used are described fully, the data obtained and the method of computing results are presented, and the analysis and conclusions which follow are sufficiently detailed to afford much constructive information on this subject.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160019
RUSSELL HUFF
The author has selected fourteen automobiles on which to make a study of the factors of safety used in their design. He considers specifically the front axles, front-wheel spindles, propeller-shafts, clutch-shafts, transmission drive-shafts and rear-axle drive-shafts. The method of calculating the stresses is outlined; compositions of the steels used are given; and complete data are presented showing the factors of safety of the various parts, together with the intermediate figures used in obtaining the factors.
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150038
JOSEPH A. ANGLADA
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150018
H. A. ELLIOTT
Viewing 11071 to 11100 of 11101