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Viewing 1081 to 1110 of 11127
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1027
Kei Oshida, Haruhiko Nishiguchi
This paper explains the effectiveness of camera images in reducing accidents when changing lanes. A Side View Camera shows images rearward and to the side that include the blind spots of side-view mirrors on an onboard display. The effectiveness of a rear-view camera for parking at low speed is well-known, but little has been verified on the effectiveness of the camera for changing lanes at high speed on a freeway. We used a driving simulator to verify the effectiveness of camera images to assist the driver to confirm safety. The simulator reproduces various dangerous scenes a driver may encounter when changing lanes in a freeway environment. The accident rate when drivers change lanes using common methods, such as the driver looking over his or her shoulder and checking the side-view mirror, were compared with the addition of images from the Side View Camera that offered the same view as the side-view mirror plus the blind spot displayed on an in-vehicle monitor.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1340
Shikher Saluja, Komal Agrawal, K KSivasankaran, Lakshmi Bandlamudi, Chandrakantha Ursu
With the advent of active safety technologies in the automotive industry, a need to record and replay the actual on-road vehicular scenario has risen, especially in systems involving camera-based vision. The primary objective of the paper is to propose a design of a system for real-time video acquisition. Hence, a design for a Camera Hardware simulator has been proposed in this paper. The system involves a camera that captures visual information through its image sensor. The system is designed such that it can do direct display; that is, it can generate vertical and horizontal synchronization signals, as per the specification of the camera and it can buffer the pixel clock coming from the camera and send it to another system that uses the video information being received such as an in-vehicle display to display it. It also includes the ability to record the incoming data stream in a computer for offline processing.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1162
Mauro Velardocchia, Michiel Unger, Alessandro Vigliani, Nicola Leone, Kajetan Kietlinski, Enrico Galvagno
The paper presents a simulation methodology created to support an integrated safety system development process which was tested for the side impact collision load case. The methodology is based on the coupled and complementary use of two software packages: PreScan and Madymo. PreScan was utilized for designing two traffic scenarios and the sensing and control systems for the side collision recognition, while Madymo was utilized for assessing the effects of pre-crash deployment of thorax airbag. The collision conditions from the scenarios were used as input to define a Madymo side collision model of the host vehicle and to investigate and optimize several airbag deployment parameters: pre-crash deployment time, airbag permeability, vent hole size and vent hole opening time.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1160
Libo Cao, Ruifeng Zhang, Huiqin Chen, Xianyang Zhao
Child Restraint Systems (CRS), when used properly, can effectively avoid or reduce injury for children in motor vehicle crashes. To deal with the problems of the high rate of misuse of the CRS and submarining in frontal crashes when child occupants using traditional vehicle seat belts, a novel integrated child safety seat (ICSS) with a four-point seat belt and a ring-shaped lap belt was developed in this study. It is easy to operate and has lower rate of misuse. To study the protection performance of the newly developed ICSS in frontal crashes, a sled test and a series of simulations were conducted. The frontal impact sled test was conducted according to the European regulation ECE R44, which includes a Q6 anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and the impact velocity is 50 km/h. The simulation model included the ICSS model and the Q6 ATD model was developed in the MADYMO software, and the simulation model was validated by the sled test.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1159
Paul R. Weber, William Van Arsdell, Charles J. Stankewich, Brian Larson
The performance of two types of forward facing child restraint systems (CRSs), belt-positioning boosters (BPBs) and CRSs with an integral 5-point harness were compared in frontal and side-impact testing. Performance criteria in frontal impacts (head injury criteria (HIC), chest acceleration, head excursion and knee excursion) was evaluated by comparing a large set of NHTSA-run FMVSS 213 compliance test data generated with the 3-year-old-sized anthropomorphic dummy (ATD). Side-impact performance was evaluated by conducting a series of sled tests and comparing the relative head excursion of a 3-year-old-sized ATD. FMVSS 213 compliance test data shows that the average HIC, chest acceleration, and head and knee excursions are comparable for BPBs and harness CRSs. ATDs in BPBs experienced a slightly higher average HIC, and a slightly lower average head excursion than ATDs in harness CRSs without a tether.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1158
Alain Tramecon, Joerg Kuhnert PhD
Models to represent in position situations based upon uniform pressure assumptions are well established and have been used extensively in the automotive industry for more than 15 years. More recently, in the beginning of the year 2000, advanced simulation techniques with Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) approaches, such as VPS-PAMCRASH/FPM (Finite Point Method) have been introduced in the development of airbag restraint systems. Their main fields of application are Out Of Position (OOP) situations, where the occupant is close to the airbag casing. For these load cases the deployment kinematics of the airbag and local associated pressures play a major role and require modeling precisely the gas flow. Similarly these techniques are used for side airbags like curtain airbags or knee bags where the deployment kinematics are highly dependent upon local pressures on the membrane of the airbag. The turbulence and viscous flow effects cannot be neglected for curtain bags.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1157
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Seat belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant protection. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 210 specifies requirements for the layout of the anchorages relative to the seating reference point and seat back angle established by the SAE J826 H-point manikin. Sled testing and computational simulation has established that belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant kinematics, particularly for child occupants using the belt as their primary restraint. As part of a larger study of vehicle geometry, the locations of the anchorage points in the second-row, outboard seating positions of 83 passenger cars and light trucks with a median model year of 2005 were measured. The lower anchorage locations spanned the entire range of lap belt angles permissible under FMVSS 210 and the upper anchorages (D-ring locations) were distributed widely as well.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1156
Scott D. Thomas, Richard A. Wiik, Jacqueline E. Brown
General Motors and the Takata Corporation have worked together to bring to production a new, industry first technology called the Front Center Airbag which is being implemented on General Motors' 2013 Midsize Crossover Vehicles. This paper reviews field data, describes the hardware, and presents occupant test data to demonstrate in-position performance in far side impacts. The Front Center Airbag is an airbag that mounts to the inboard side of the driver front seat. It has a tubular cushion structure, and it deploys between the front seating positions in far side impacts, near side impacts and rollovers, with the cushion positioning itself adjacent the driver occupant's head and torso. This paper includes pictures of the technology along with a basic description of the design. In-position occupant performance is also described and illustrated with several examples. Single occupant and two front occupant far side impact test data are included, both with and without the airbag present.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1155
Kathleen D. Klinich, Miriam Manary, Carol Flannagan, Jamie Moore, Jessica Jermakian
This project assessed current or proposed protocols for improving the usability of LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children). LATCH hardware in the left second-row position of 98 2011 or 2010 model-year vehicles was evaluated using ISO and SAE LATCH usability rating guidelines. Child restraint/vehicle interaction was assessed using ISO and NHTSA proposed procedures. ISO ratings of vehicle LATCH usability ranged from 41% to 78%, while vehicles assessed using the SAE draft recommended practice met between 2 and all 10 of the recommendations that apply to all vehicles. There was a weak relationship between vehicle ISO usability ratings and the number of SAE recommended practices met by a vehicle. Twenty vehicles with a range of vehicle features were assessed using the ISO vehicle-child restraint form and 7 child restraints; ISO vehicle-child restraint interaction scores ranged from 14% to 86%.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0403
Jin Seo Park, Il hong Suh, Chang Yul Choe, Minho Ro, Simon P. Brewerton
The recent adoption of the ISO26262 Functional Safety Standard has lead to the need for a greater degree of rigor in the technical, organizational and process aspects of electronic ECU engineering. One new facet of this standard also covers (in part 9.7) the analysis of dependent failures at manufacturing time, not only the microcontroller, but also for the plethora of connected system ASICs, input circuits, output drivers and communication devices in the PCB of the ECU. This paper will describe the CAN based end of line ECU self test system that was implemented at a major tier 1 supplier to address the issues of efficiently gaining a high degree of diagnostic coverage of single point faults and latent faults in highly integrated automotive ECUs.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0456
Binhui Jiang, Haojie Mao, Libo Cao, King H. Yang
Previously, a 10-year-old (YO) pediatric thorax finite element model (FEM) was developed and verified against child chest stiffness data measured from clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the CPR experiments were performed at relatively low speeds, with a maximum loading rate of 250 mm/s. Studies showed that the biomechanical responses of human thorax exhibited rate sensitive characteristics. As such, the studies of dynamic responses of the pediatric thorax FEM are needed. Experimental pediatric cadaver data in frontal pendulum impacts and diagonal belt dynamic loading tests were used for dynamic validation. Thoracic force-deflection curves between test and simulation were compared. Strains predicted by the FEM and the injuries observed in the cadaver tests were also compared for injury assessment and analysis. This study helped to further improve the 10 YO pediatric thorax FEM.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0446
Jeya Padmanaban, Matthew Fitzgerald, Joseph Marsh
Pedal misapplication events were examined using police-reported crash data to determine crash characteristics and other contributing factors. The study used police-reported crash data narratives from North Carolina (1994-2009) and included detailed manual review of each selected police report to identify possible pedal misapplication events. A comprehensive keyword search of all the records in the North Carolina data was performed to identify crashes most likely to be associated with pedal misapplications. The identified records were reviewed by engineers and classified as either “Yes,” “Possible,” or “No” pedal misapplication. For the “Yes” and “Possible” records, examination was made of the sequence of events leading up to the possible pedal misapplication. Findings show that the most frequently reported pedal misapplication events include: parking, slowing, stopped, starting, and backing, which are all low-speed events.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0466
Yibing Shi, Guy Nusholtz
Regression models are used to understand the relative fatality risk for drivers in front-front and front-left crashes. The field accident data used for the regressions were extracted by NHTSA from the FARS database for model years 2000-2007 vehicles in calendar years 2002-2008. Multiple logistic regressions are structured and carried out to model a log-linear relationship between risk ratio and the independent vehicle and driver parameters. For front-front crashes, the regression identifies mass ratio, belt use, and driver age as statistically significant parameters (p-values less than 1%) associated with the risk ratio. The vehicle type and presence of the ESC are found to be related with less statistical significance (p-values between 1% and 5%). For front-left crashes the driver risk ratio is also found to have a log-log linear relationship with vehicle mass ratio.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0459
Tatsuya Fukushima, Masafumi Shitamichi, Toshikazu Torigaki, Hidetoshi Sokusai, Masato Nishi, Takahiko Miyachi
FMVSS 226 will become effective on September 1, 2013 with the purpose of mitigating occupant ejections through the vehicle side windows. In order to use deployable counter measures to mitigate ejection, vehicle rollover tests are needed to design deployment algorithms for rollover condtions. Vehicle manufacturers have to define their own test procedures, because FMVSS 226 does not define any rollover test methods. The soil trip rollover test is a vehicle rollover test method in which a vehicle is propelled into a soil pool to measure its rollover characteristics. Some of difficulties in soil trip rollover tests include proper maintenance of soil, for example, under fluctuating humidity and homogeneity of soil in the pool, so as to ensure stable repeatability of test results. Protection of onboard measurement equipment in a test vehicle from soil incursion when the vehicle rolls over can also be a challenge.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0460
Sean Haight, Randa Radwan Samaha, David Biss
The objective of this study was to analyze the position of the shoulder belt and adjustable upper anchorage (AUA) relative to the occupant in recent (2011-2012) NHTSA NCAP frontal crash tests. Since 2011, certain changes have been made in the NCAP test procedure. These changes include different Hybrid III occupant sizes as well as variations in the methods for calculating injury risk. One of the most significant changes has to do with thoracic injury risk calculation which was previously associated with chest acceleration and is now based on chest deflection as the measurable parameter. Using the NHTSA NCAP database, as well as other crash test data sources, a comparison was made between the designated upper anchorage position prior to a crash test and the actual position of the belt webbing with respect to the chest deflection measurement potentiometer sub-assembly of the Hybrid III.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0458
Bisheshwar Haorongbam, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
Hat sections, single and double, made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components such as front rails, B-Pillar, and rockers of unitized-body cars. These components can play a significant role in terms of impact energy absorption during collisions thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. Modern vehicle safety design relies heavily on computer-aided engineering particularly in the form of explicit finite element analysis tools such as LS-DYNA for virtual assessment of crash performance of a vehicle body structure. There is a great need for the analysis-based predictions to yield close correlation with test results which in turn requires well-proven modeling procedures for nonlinear material modeling with strain rate dependence, effective representation of spot welds, sufficiently refined finite element mesh, etc.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0472
Chad Hovey, Elizabeth Raphael, Henry Xu
In 2008, Hovey et al. [1] published a mathematical analysis that, for the first time, incorporated yaw data into the trajectory analysis, yielding occupant ejection results that are three-dimensional. We extend on that work to investigate the ability of the mathematical model to predict outcomes of the Ford Expedition dolly rollover test, details of which have been published in Carter et al. [2], Exponent [3], and Luepke et al. [4]. This research validates our occupant trajectory model with the Expedition dolly rollover experimental test data. Previous research had modeled the Expedition rollover test as a two-dimensional, straight-line, roll-only configuration, assuming yaw effects were negligible [17]. We incorporated the longitudinal and lateral components of the vehicle trajectory, eliminating the straight-line limitation. Moreover, we included yaw in addition to roll. Both enhancements resulted in a higher fidelity occupant ejection description.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0470
Jack Lockerby, Jason Kerrigan, Jeremy Seppi, Jeff Crandall
The goals of this study were to examine the dynamic force-deformation and kinematic response of a late model van subjected to an inverted drop test and to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional multi-point roof deformation measurements made by an optical system mounted inside the vehicle. The inverted drop test was performed using a dynamic rollover test system (Kerrigan et al., 2011 SAE) with an initial vehicle pitch of −5 degrees, a roll of +155 degrees and a vertical velocity of 2.7 m/s at initial contact. Measurements from the optical system, which was composed of two high speed imagers and a commercial optical processing software were compared to deformation measurements made by two sets of three string potentiometers. The optical and potentiometer measurements reported similar deformations: peak resultant deformations varied by 0.7 mm and 3 ms at the top of the A-pillar, and 1.7 mm and 2 ms at the top of the B-pillar.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0469
Nancy C. Evans, Michael J. Leigh
In January 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a final rule establishing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 226 Ejection Mitigation, with the intent of reducing the occurrence of complete and partial ejections of vehicle occupants during crashes, especially rollover events. FMVSS 226 requires component-level tests to be conducted on ejection mitigation countermeasures (e.g., rollover-activated side curtain airbags). A guided, linear impactor is used to propel a headform into a rollover-activated countermeasure at up to four locations for each side daylight opening in the vehicle, for up to three seating rows. The impact tests are conducted at two energy levels (speeds) and associated impact times: 278 J (20 km/h) at 1.5 s after curtain activation and 178 J (16 km/h) at 6 s. The FMVSSS 226 compliance criterion is that the headform cannot travel more than 100 mm past the inside surface of the side window plane.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0468
Jason R. Kerrigan, Jeremy Seppi, Jack Lockerby, Patrick Foltz, Brian Overby, Jim Bolton, Taewung Kim, Nate J. Dennis, Jeff Crandall
The goal of this study is to present the methods employed and results obtained during the first six tests performed with a new dynamic rollover test system. The tests were performed to develop and refine test methodology and instrumentation methods, examine the potential for variation in test parameters, evaluate how accurately actual touchdown test parameters could be specified, and identify problems or limitations of the test fixture. Five vehicles ranging in size and inertia from a 2011 Toyota Yaris (1174 kg, 379 kg m₂) to a 2002 Ford Explorer (2408 kg, 800 kg m₂) were tested. Vehicle kinematic parameters at the instant of vehicle-to-road contact varied across the tests: roll rates of 211-268 deg/s, roll angles of 133-199 deg, pitch angles of -12 deg to 0 deg, vertical impact velocities of 1.7 to 2.7 m/s, and road velocities of 3.0-8.8 m/s.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0467
Robert Rucoba, Robert Liebbe, Amanda Duran, Lee Carr
Tire failures, including tread belt detachments, have been associated with loss of control crashes including rollovers. Numerous reasons exist for control loss including forces created by the failed or failing tire, cornering capacity diminishment for the detreaded tire combined with control demands beyond the remaining capacity of the vehicle and inappropriate driver demands including excessive steering. Extensive studies have been completed to define the various causes of control loss and to identify risk-reducing countermeasures. These studies have included reconstructions of crashes and tests of real vehicles in test track environments with tires purposely caused to fail.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0492
Yiannis A. Levendis
Alternative automotive engine oil filtration devices are described herein, aiming at alleviating the environmental issues caused by conventional one-piece, spin-on, throwaway filters. The spin-on feature has been retained in these novel filters, to facilitate retrofitting, however provisions to dismantle the filter have been incorporated to allow for periodic replacement of the filter element (cartridge). The filter element is made of ceramic powder and, upon replacement, it may be treated and reused as such, or it may be crushed, treated and remanufactured from the recycled powder. In the process, the entirety of the used motor oil may be retrieved, treated and reused, thus conserving energy and resources, minimizing waste streams and, most importantly, preventing environmental ground-water contamination.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0493
Ruth Hinrichs, Marcos A.Z. Vasconcellos
Asbestos has been banned in many countries as industrial material, however the utilization of those fibers in brake linings results in friction properties that are so convenient, that linings containing them are still commercially available. To replace asbestos a large number of mineral phases is utilized in the formulation of polymer based friction material, and it is sometimes difficult to establish if they are present or not in finished brake pads and linings. Several clay minerals have been mistaken for asbestos because they present X-ray diffraction peaks that overlap with the diagnostic asbestos peak. A method to distinguish between the presence of regulated fiber minerals and allowed clay minerals in brake linings is presented using X-ray diffraction in association with a thermal treatment.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0261
Axel Berndorfer, Stephan Breuer, Walter Piock, Paul Von Bacho
Particulate matter emissions are no longer only a concern in the development of Diesel engine powertrains. In addition to particulate mass requirements, the new European legislation for Euro 6 includes a proposed particulate number requirement for all vehicles with gasoline direct injection engines. Euro 6b will establish the first requirement in 2014 which will then be significantly reduced with the implementation of Euro 6c in 2017. This might coincide with the introduction of the World Light Duty Testing Procedure vehicle drive cycle test, raising the bar even higher to reach compliance to the particulate number legislative requirements. Several different investigations revealed that the particulate number emission will become very challenging while the limit for particulate mass can already be met with today's applications.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0259
Mohammad Fatouraie, Margaret Wooldridge, Steven Wooldridge
A single-cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access was used to investigate the effects of ethanol/gasoline blends on in-cylinder formation of particulate matter (PM) and fuel spray characteristics. Indolene was used as a baseline fuel and two blends of 50% and 85% ethanol (by volume, balance indolene) were investigated. Time resolved thermal radiation (incandescence/natural luminosity) of soot particles and fuel spray characteristics were recorded using a high speed camera. The images were analyzed to quantify soot formation in units of relative image intensity as a function of important engine operating conditions, including ethanol concentration in the fuel, fuel injection timing (250, 300 and 320° bTDC), and coolant temperature (25°C and 90°C). Spatially-integrated incandescence was used as a metric to quantify the level of in-cylinder PM formed at the different operating conditions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0222
Steven Rundell, Allison Guiang, Brian Weaver, Eric G. Meyer
Injury potential to the neck has been studied extensively for rear-end impacts. The capacity for injury to other body regions, such as the lower extremities, has not been previously explored. The objective of the current study was to characterize the forces and motions experienced in the lower extremities during moderate-to-high speed rear-end impacts. The current study utilized publicly available rear-end crash tests. Forty-two 50 km/hour, 20% offset, 180° barrier rear-end impacts were used. The occupant lower extremity behavior was analyzed for 63 ATDs, and included 42 driver's seats, 8 front passenger seats, and 13 right-rear seat scenarios. Three consistent events were identified during each test, in the following sequence; 1. initial compressive femur force, 2. secondary tensile femur force, and 3. rearward pelvis acceleration peak.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0221
Nicholas Yang, Tack Lam, David Dainty, Edmund Lau
Volunteer subject studies in low-speed rear impacts have shown that significant lumbar spine injuries are unlikely in such collisions. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATD) used in low to medium speed rear impact simulations have similarly revealed an unlikely mechanism to cause lumbar spine injuries. However, low back complaints after rear impacts are common in clinical practice. We attempt here to determine the incidence of lumbar spine injuries from actual field data which may provide an insight into the apparent paradox between experimental data and clinical practice. We examined the incidence of all spine injuries in the NASSCDS (National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System) database from 1993 to 2009. We limited the data to only look at rear-end crashes involving two vehicles.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0223
Jack Leifer
The National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) is a well-known digital repository containing statistics on hundreds of thousands of vehicle crashes that occurred over the past 30 years. Many of the NASS crashes contain estimates of Delta-v calculated using WinSMASH, a common software reconstruction package. Recent work indicates that WinSMASH typically underestimates Delta-v in frontal impacts, and that inclusion of restitution significantly improves the estimate of Delta-v to within 1% of the value recorded on EDR-equipped vehicles [1]. Prior experiments have shown that in front-to-rear collisions, restitution is a strong inverse function of closing velocity (the difference between the respective pre-impact speeds in the bullet and target vehicles) [2], with calculated restitutions ranging from 0.265 down to 0.0 for closing speeds varying from 11.4 mph to as high as 36 mph.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0211
Yohsuke Tamura, Takeuchi Masayuki, Kenji Sato
Appropriate emergency response information is required for first responder before hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become widespread. This paper investigates experimentally the hydrogen dispersion in the vicinity of a vehicle which accidentally releases hydrogen horizontally with a single volumetric flow of 2000 NL/min in the under-floor section while varying cross and frontal wind effects. This hydrogen flow rate represents normally a full throttle power condition. Forced wind was about maximum 2 m/s. The results indicated that the windward side of the vehicle was safe but that there were chiefly two areas posing risks of fire by hydrogen ignition. One was the leeward side of the vehicle's underbody where a larger region of flammable hydrogen dispersion existed in light wind than in windless conditions. The other was the area around the hydrogen leakage point where most of the leaked hydrogen remained undiffused in an environment with a wind of no stronger than 2 m/s.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0212
Aaron Jones, Nicole Schimpf, Normand Dube
Buses often combine high occupancy loads, limited pathways for egress, and the involvement of passengers with limited mobility. In the event of a fire, the potential for passenger injury and loss of life is significant. Additionally, there can be substantial financial losses due to equipment loss and service interruption. In order to prevent future occurrences, it is critical to thoroughly investigate bus fires and develop an understanding of their causes. The causes of non-arson bus fires typically can be categorized as electrical, friction at the wheel level, or engine component failures. This paper examines actual fire occurrences, their root cause investigation, and the measures that were taken to prevent future incidents.
Viewing 1081 to 1110 of 11127