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Viewing 61 to 90 of 11117
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1355
Paul H. DeMarois, Bill Pappas, William G. Ballard, Jeffrey R. Williams, Gregory West
Abstract Four full scale burn tests on aluminum body Ford F-150’s were conducted with four unique origins. The purpose of these burn tests was to determine if the origin of the fire could be accurately identified after the vehicle fires progressed to near complete burn (with near absence of the aluminum body panels). The points of origin for the four burn tests were: 1) Engine Compartment - driver’s side front of engine compartment, 2) Passenger Compartment - Instrument panel, driver’s side near the headlamp switch, 3) Passenger Compartment - passenger side rear seat, 4) Outside of Vehicle - passenger side front tire. Photographic, video, and temperature data was recorded to document the burn process from initiation to extinguishment. Post-fire analysis was conducted in an attempt to determine the origin of the fire based solely on the burn damage.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1354
Timothy Morse, Michael Cundy, Harri Kytomaa
Abstract One potential fire ignition source in a motor vehicle is the hot surfaces on the engine exhaust system. These hot surfaces can come into contact with combustible and flammable liquids (such as engine oil, transmission fluid, brake fluid, gasoline, or Diesel fuel) due to a fluid leak, or during a vehicle collision. If the surface temperature is higher than the hot surface ignition temperature of the combustible or flammable liquid in a given geometry, a fire can potentially ignite and propagate. In addition to automotive fluids, another potential fuel in post-collision vehicle fires is grass, leaves, or other vegetation. Studies of hot surface ignition of dried vegetation have found that ignition depends on the type of vegetation, surface temperature, duration of contact, and ambient conditions such as temperature and wind speed. Ignition can occur at surface temperatures as low as 300 °C, if the vegetation is in contact with the surface for 10 minutes or longer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1414
William Bortles, David Hessel, William Neale
Abstract When a vehicle with protruding wheel studs makes contact with another vehicle or object in a sideswipe configuration, the tire sidewall, rim and wheel studs of that vehicle can deposit distinct geometrical damage patterns onto the surfaces it contacts. Prior research has demonstrated how relative speeds between the two vehicles or surfaces can be calculated through analysis of the distinct contact patterns. This paper presents a methodology for performing this analysis by visually modeling the interaction between wheel studs and various surfaces, and presents a method for automating the calculations of relative speed between vehicles. This methodology also augments prior research by demonstrating how the visual modeling and simulation of the wheel stud contact can extend to almost any surface interaction that may not have any previous prior published tests, or test methods that would be difficult to setup in real life.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1419
Smruti Panigrahi, Jianbo Lu, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1406
Changliu Liu, Jianyu Chen, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Abstract Road safety is one of the major concerns for automated vehicles. In order for these vehicles to interact safely and efficiently with the other road participants, the behavior of the automated vehicles should be carefully designed. Liu and Tomizuka proposed the Robustly-safe Automated Driving system (ROAD) which prevents or minimizes occurrences of collisions of the automated vehicle with other road participants while maintaining efficiency. In this paper, a set of design principles are elaborated as an extension of the previous work, including robust perception and cognition algorithms for environment monitoring and high level decision making and low level control algorithms for safe maneuvering of the automated vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1407
Helene G. Moorman, Andrea Niles, Caroline Crump, Audra Krake, Benjamin Lester, Laurene Milan, Christy Cloninger, David Cades, Douglas Young
Abstract Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems, along with other types of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), are becoming more common in passenger vehicles, with the general aim of improving driver safety through automation of various aspects of the driving task. Drivers have generally reported satisfaction with ADAS with the exception of LDW systems, which are often rated poorly or even deactivated by drivers. One potential contributor to this negative response may be an increase in the cognitive load associated with lane-keeping when LDW is in use. The present study sought to examine the relationship between LDW, lane-keeping behavior, and concurrent cognitive load, as measured by performance on a secondary task. Participants drove a vehicle equipped with LDW in a demarcated lane on a closed-course test track with and without the LDW system in use over multiple sessions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1408
Satoshi Kozai, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Akihiro Kida, Takayuki Hiromitsu, Shinji Kitaura, Sadamasa Sawada, Gladys Acervo, Marius Ichim
Abstract A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1411
Gary A. Davis
Abstract For at least 15 years it has been recognized that pre-crash data captured by event data recorders might help illuminate the actions of drivers prior to crashes. In left-turning crashes where pre-crash data are available from both vehicles it should be possible to estimate features such as the location and speed of the opposing vehicle at the time of turn initiation and the reaction time of the opposing driver. Difficulties arise however from measurement errors in pre-crash data and because the EDR data from the two vehicles are not synchronized so the resulting uncertainties should be accounted for. This paper describes a method for accomplishing this using Markov Chain Monte Carlo computation. First, planar impact methods are used to estimate the speeds at impact of the involved vehicles. Next, the impact speeds and pre-crash EDR data are used to reconstruct the vehicles’ trajectories during approximately 5 seconds preceding the crash.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1413
Nathan A. Rose, Neal Carter, David Pentecost, Alireza Hashemian
Abstract This paper investigates the dynamics of four motorcycle crashes that occurred on or near a curve (Edwards Corner) on a section of the Mulholland Highway called “The Snake.” This section of highway is located in the Santa Monica Mountains of California. All four accidents were captured on video and they each involved a high-side fall of the motorcycle and rider. This article reports a technical description and analysis of these videos in which the motion of the motorcycles and riders is quantified. To aid in the analysis, the authors mapped Edwards Corner using both a Sokkia total station and a Faro laser scanner. This mapping data enabled analysis of the videos to determine the initial speed of the motorcycles, to identify where in the curve particular rider actions occurred, to quantify the motion of the motorcycles and riders, and to characterize the roadway radius and superelevation throughout the curve.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1397
Alba Fornells, Núria Parera, Adria Ferrer, Anita Fiorentino
Abstract While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1400
Keyu Qian, Gangfeng Tan, Renjie Zhou, Binyu Mei, Wanyang XIA
Abstract Downhill mountain roads are the accident prone sections because of their complexity and variety. Drivers rely more on driving experience and it is very easy to cause traffic accidents due to the negligence or the judgment failure. Traditional active safety systems, such as ABS, having subjecting to the driver's visual feedback, can’t fully guarantee the downhill driving safety in complex terrain environments. To enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill, this study combines the characteristics of vehicle dynamics and the geographic information. Thus, through which the drivers could obtain the safety speed specified for his/her vehicle in the given downhill terrains and operate in advance to reduce traffic accidents due to driver's judgment failure and avoid the brake overheating and enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1399
Bin Wu, Xichan Zhu, Jianping Shen, Xuejun Cang, Lin li
Abstract A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1393
Georges Beurier, Michelle Cardoso, Xuguang Wang
Abstract A new experimental seat was designed to investigate sitting biomechanics. Previous literature suggested links between sitting discomfort and shear force, however, research on this topic is limited. The evaluation of sitting discomfort derived from past research has been primarily associated with seat pressure distribution. The key innovative feature of the experimental seat is not only pressure distribution evaluation but shear forces as well. The seat pan of the experimental seat compromises of a matrix of 52 cylinders, each equipped with a tri-axial force sensor, enabling us to measure both normal and tangential forces. The position of each cylinder is also adjustable permitting a uniform pressure distribution underneath the soft tissue of the buttocks and thighs. Backrest, armrests, seat pan and flooring are highly adjustable and equipped with forces sensors to measure contact forces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1460
Nitesh Jadhav, Linda Zhao, Senthilkumar Mahadevan, Bill Sherwood, Krishnakanth Aekbote, Dilip Bhalsod
Abstract The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1459
HangMook Kim, Jae Kyu Lee, Jin Sang CHUNG
Abstract During a new vehicle development process, there are several requirements for side impact test that should be confirmed. One of the requirements is the prevention of door opening during side impact test. Even though there are many causes for door opening problem, this study deals with inertia effect by impact energy. Until now, there have been two classical methods to prevent car door from opening in side impact. One is the increment of the inertia resistance by increasing the mass of the balance weight and the spring force. The other is the application of the blocking lever. Unfortunately, in spite of our efforts, the door opening problem occurs occasionally. Therefore, to improve the problem fundamentally, this paper proposes a new blocking lever mechanism that work similar to ball-point pen structure. The proposed mechanism fixes the blocking lever when the opening directional inertia force is applied to the door outside handle during side crash.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1453
Sudip Sankar Bhattacharjee, Shahuraj Mane, Harsha Kusnoorkar, Sean Hwang, Matt Niesluchowski
Abstract Pedestrian protection assessment methods require multiple head impact tests on a vehicle’s hood and other front end parts. Hood surfaces are often lifted up by using pyrotechnic devices to create more deformation space prior to pedestrian head impact. Assessment methods for vehicles equipped with pyrotechnic devices must also validate that the hood deployment occurs prior to head impact event. Estimation of pedestrian head impact time, thus, becomes a critical requirement for performance validation of deployable hood systems. In absence of standardized physical pedestrian models, Euro NCAP recommends a list of virtual pedestrian models that could be used by vehicle manufacturers, with vehicle FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models, to predict the potential head impact time along the vehicle front end profile. FEA simulated contact time is used as target for performance validation of sensor and pyrotechnic deployable systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1457
Jingwen Hu, Nichole Ritchie Orton, Rebekah Gruber, Ryan Hoover, Kevin Tribbett, Jonathan Rupp, Dave Clark, Risa Scherer, Matthew Reed
Abstract Among all the vehicle rollover test procedures, the SAE J2114 dolly rollover test is the most widely used. However, it requires the test vehicle to be seated on a dolly with a 23° initial angle, which makes it difficult to test a vehicle over 5,000 kg without a dolly design change, and repeatability is often a concern. In the current study, we developed and implemented a new dynamic rollover test methodology that can be used for evaluating crashworthiness and occupant protection without requiring an initial vehicle angle. To do that, a custom cart was designed to carry the test vehicle laterally down a track. The cart incorporates two ramps under the testing vehicle’s trailing-side tires. In a test, the cart with the vehicle travels at the desired test speed and is stopped by a track-mounted curb.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1451
Jan Vychytil, Jan Spicka, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
Abstract In this paper a novel approach in developing a simplified model of a vehicle front-end is presented. Its surface is segmented to form an MBS model with hundreds of rigid bodies connected via translational joints to a base body. Local stiffness of each joint is calibrated using a headform or a legform impactor corresponding to the EuroNCAP mapping. Hence, the distribution of stiffness of the front-end is taken into account. The model of the front-end is embedded in a whole model of a small car in a simulation of a real accident. The VIRTHUMAN model is scaled in height, weight and age to represent precisely the pedestrian involved. Injury risk predicted by simulation is in correlation with data from real accident. Namely, injuries of head, chest and lower extremities are confirmed. Finally, mechanical response of developed vehicle model is compared to an FE model of the same vehicle in a pedestrian impact scenario.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1448
Kevin Pline, Derek Board, Nirmal Muralidharan, Srinivasan Sundararajan, Eric Eiswerth, Katie Salciccioli
Abstract Ford Motor Company introduced the automotive industry’s first second row inflatable seatbelt system in 2011. The system is currently available in the outboard seating positions of the second row of several Ford and Lincoln models. An important consideration for this system is the interaction with child restraint systems (CRS) when it is used to install a CRS or used in conjunction with belt position booster. A novel test methodology to assess the interaction of CRS with Ford and Lincoln inflatable seatbelts through frontal impact sled tests is explained. Details of test methods including construction of additional fixtures and hardware are highlighted. This procedure is designed to enable test labs capable of running Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 testing to adapt this test method, with minimal fabrication, by utilizing existing test benches.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1439
John C. Steiner, Christopher Armstrong, Tyler Kress, Tom Walli, Ralph J. Gallagher, Justin Ngo, Andres Silva
Abstract The use of the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS) to assist with the management of large commercial fleets using telematics is becoming commonplace. Telematics generally refers to the use of wireless devices to transmit data in real time back to an organization. When tied to the GPS system telematics can be used to track fleet vehicle movements, and other parameters. GPS tracking can assist in developing more efficient and safe operations by refining and streamlining routing and operations. GPS based fleet telematics data is also useful for reducing unnecessary engine idle times and minimizing fuel consumption. Driver performance and policy adherence can be monitored, for example by transmitting data regarding seatbelt usage when there is vehicle movement. Despite the advantages for fleet management, there are limitations in the logged data for position and speed that may affect the utility of the system for analysis and reconstruction of traffic collisions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
Abstract The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct crashes for years. Recently, a third-party system has been introduced that allows crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain information and event data from cellular telephones and other devices connected to the vehicle, vehicle events and navigation data in the form of tracklogs. These tracklogs provide a time history of a vehicle’s geolocation that may be useful in investigating an incident involving an automobile or reconstructing a crash. This paper presents an introduction to the type of data that may be retained and the methods for performing data acquisitions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1431
Ke Dong, Brian Putala, Kristen Ansel
Abstract Driver out-of-position (OOP) tests were developed to evaluate the risk of inflation induced injury when the occupant is close to the airbag module during deployment. The Hybrid III 5th percentile female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) measures both sternum displacement and chest acceleration through a potentiometer and accelerometers, which can be used to calculate sternum compression rate. This paper documents a study evaluating the chest accelerometers to assess punch-out loading of the chest during this test configuration. The study included ATD mechanical loading and instrumentation review. Finite element analysis was conducted using a Hybrid III - 5th percentile female ATD correlated to testing. The correlated restraint model was utilized with a Hybrid III - 50th percentile male ATD. A 50th percentile male Global Human Body Model (HBM) was then applied for enhanced anatomical review.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1430
Tony R. Laituri, Scott G. Henry
Abstract The present study had three objectives: (1) define a reasonable number of categories to bin head injuries, (2) develop an overarching risk function to estimate head-injury probability based on injury probabilities pertaining to those subordinate categories, and (3) assess the fidelity of both the overarching function and approximations to it. To achieve these objectives, we used real-world data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS), pertaining to adult drivers in full-engagement frontal crashes. To provide practical value, we factored the proposed US New Car Assessment Program (US NCAP) and the corresponding Request for Comments from the government. Finally, the NASS data stratifications included three levels of injury (AIS1+, AIS2+, AIS3+), two levels of restraint (properly-belted, unbelted), and two eras based on driver-airbag fitment (Older Vehicles, Newer Vehicles).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1429
Sung Rae kim, Inju Lee, Hyung joo Kim
Abstract This paper aims to evaluate the biofidelity of a human body FE model with abdominal obesity in terms of submarining behavior prediction, during a frontal crash event. In our previous study, a subject-specific FE model scaled from the 50th percentile Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) human model to the average physique of three female post mortem human subjects (PMHSs) with abdominal obesity was developed and tested its biofidelity under lap belt loading conditions ([1]). In this study frontal crash sled simulations of the scaled human model have been performed, and the biofidelity of the model has been evaluated. Crash conditions were given from the previous study ([2]), and included five low-speed and three high-speed sled tests with and without anti-submarining device.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1428
Berkan Guleyupoglu, Ryan Barnard, F. Scott Gayzik
Abstract Computational modeling of the human body is increasingly used to evaluate countermeasure performance during simulated vehicle crashes. Various injury criteria can be calculated from such models and these can either be correlative (HIC, BrIC, etc.) or based on local deformation and loading (strain-based rib fracture, organ damage, etc.). In this study, we present a method based on local deformation to extract failed rib region data. The GHMBC M50-O model was used in a Frontal-NCAP severity sled simulation. Failed Rib Regions (FRRs) in the M50-O model are handled through element deletion once the element surpasses 1.8% effective strain. The algorithm central to the methodology presented extracts FRR data and requires 4-element connectivity to register a failure. Furthermore, the FRRs are localized to anatomical sections (Lateral, Anterior, and Posterior), rib level (1,2,3 etc.) and element strain data is recorded.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1427
Daniel Koch, Gray Beauchamp, David Pentecost
Abstract Tire disablement events can cause a drag force that slows a vehicle. In this study, the magnitude of the deceleration was measured for different phases of 29 high speed tire tread separation and air loss tests. These deceleration rates can assist in reconstructing the speed of a vehicle involved in an accident following a tire disablement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1424
Mark Fabbroni, Jennifer Rovt, Mark Paquette
Abstract Collision reconstruction often involves calculations and computer simulations, which require an estimation of the weights of the involved vehicles. Although weight data is readily available for automobiles and light trucks, there is limited data for heavy vehicles, such as tractor-semitrailers, straight trucks, and the wide variety of trailers and combinations that may be encountered on North American roads. Although manufacturers always provide the gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR) for these vehicles, tare weights are often more difficult to find, and in-service loading levels are often unknown. The resulting large uncertainty in the weight of a given truck can often affect reconstruction results. In Canada, the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario conducted a Commercial Vehicle Survey in 2012 that consisted of weight sampling over 45,000 heavy vehicles of various configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1208
Kristin R. Cooney
Abstract This paper will discuss a compliance demonstration methodology for UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium metal and lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. Many battery safety regulations, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that are clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. A process was created detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among test engineers. As part of this exercise, several tools were created which assist in generating a test plan that complies with the UN38.3 regulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1233
Mohamed A. Elshaer, Allan Gale, Chingchi Chen
Abstract Vehicle safety is of paramount importance when it comes to plugging the vehicle into the electric utility grid. The impact of high voltage ground fault has been neglected or, if not, addressed by guidelines extracted from general practices, written in international standards. The agile accretion in Electric Vehicle (EV) development deems an exhaustive study on safety risks pertaining to fault occurrence. While vehicle electrification offers a vital solution to oil scarcity, it is essential that the fast development of the number of electric vehicles on the road does not compromise safety. Meanwhile, the link between technology and demands of society must be governed by vehicle safety. In this paper, a comprehensive study on high voltage (HV) fault conditions occurring in an EV will be conducted. In the next decade, EVs are expected to be prevalent worldwide. Ground fault characteristics are significantly dependent on the earthing system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1255
Zhihong Wu, Ke lu, Yuan Zhu, Xiaojun Lei, Liqing Duan, Jian_ning Zhao
Abstract Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are widely used in the electric vehicles for their high power density and high energy efficiency. And the motor control system for electric vehicles is one of the most critical safety related systems in electric vehicles, because potential failures of this system can lead to serious harm to humans’ body, so normally a high automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) will be assigned to this system. In this paper, an ASIL-C motor control system based on a multicore microcontroller is presented. At the same time, due to the increasing number of connectivity on the vehicle, secure onboard communication conformed to the AUTOSAR standard is also implemented in the system to prevent external attacks.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 11117