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Viewing 1 to 30 of 11101
2017-08-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9001
Hermann Ferschitz, Michael Wannemacher, Otto Bucek, Florian Knöbel, Wolfgang Breitfuß
Abstract RTA Rail Tec Arsenal Fahrzeugversuchsanlage GmbH has focused on the simulation of in-flight icing conditions since 2012. Following the successful implementation of the icing conditions specified in EASA CS-25 Appendix C, it was expected that the facility could also be used to simulate the SLD conditions required by EASA CS-25 Appendix O. This paper sets forth theoretical considerations concerning the selection of suitable nozzles and their operation in the existing facility. The transport of large droplets through the contraction nozzle was simulated using a CFD program. The results then served as a basis for deriving secondary droplet breakup. The validations carried out confirm the theoretical considerations and identify potential limits and open research questions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1932
Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Abstract Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1923
Satish Mudavath, Ganesh Dharmar, Shyam Somani
Abstract Digital human models (DHM) have greatly enhanced design for the automotive environment. The major advantage of the DHMs today is their ability to quickly test a broad range of the population within specific design parameters. The need to create expensive prototypes and run time consuming clinics can be significantly reduced. However, while the anthropometric databases within these models are comprehensive, the ability to position the manikin’s posture is limited and needs lot of optimization. This study enhances the occupant postures and their seating positions, in all instances the occupant was instructed to adjust to the vehicle parameters so they were in their most comfortable position. While all the Occupants are accommodated to their respective positions which finally can be stacked up for space assessments. This paper aims at simulating those scenarios for different percentiles / population which will further aid in decision making for critical parameters.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1762
Michael Roan, M. Lucas Neurauter, Douglas Moore, Dan Glaser
Abstract Hybrid and electric vehicles (HVs and EVs) have demonstrated low noise levels relative to their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts, particularly at low speeds. As the number of HVs/EVs on the road increases, so does the need for data quantifying auditory detectability by pedestrians; in particular, those who are vision impaired. Manufacturers have started implementing additive noise solutions designed to increase vehicle detectability while in electric mode and/or when traveling below a certain speed. A detailed description of the real-time acoustic measurement system, the corresponding vehicular data, development of an immersive noise field, and experimental methods pertaining to a recent evaluation of candidate vehicles is provided herein. Listener testing was completed by 24 legally blind test subjects for four vehicle types: an EV and HV with different additive noise approaches, an EV with no additive noise, and a traditional ICE vehicle.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1778
Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Mauro Velardocchia, Alessandro Vigliani
Abstract This paper explores the potentiality of reducing noise and vibration of a vehicle transmission thanks to powertrain control integration with active braking. Due to external disturbances, coming from the driver, e.g. during tip-in / tip-out maneuvers, or from the road, e.g. crossing a speed bump or driving on a rough road, the torsional backlashes between transmission rotating components (gears, synchronizers, splines, CV joints), may lead to NVH issues known as clonk. This study initially focuses on the positive effect on transmission NVH performance of a concurrent application of a braking torque at the driving wheels and of an engine torque increase during these maneuvers; then a powertrain/brake integrated control strategy is proposed. The braking system is activated in advance with respect to the perturbation and it is deactivated immediately after to minimize losses.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1889
Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Georg Eisele, Christoph Steffens, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles do not typically utilize IC engines for low-speed operation. Under these low-speed operating conditions, the vehicles are much quieter than conventional IC engine-powered vehicles, making their approach difficult to detect by pedestrians. To mitigate this safety concern, many manufacturers have synthesized noise (using exterior speakers) to increase detection distance. Further, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has provided recommendations pursuant to the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 for such exterior noise signatures to ensure detectability.
2017-05-30
Technical Paper
2017-01-5002
James Bradley Skarie
Abstract Antilock braking systems (ABS) are inherently limited by the static coefficient of friction (µ) between a vehicle’s tires and the road surface. This paper explores a unique active safety concept, Integrated Coefficient Enhancement (ICE), which works to improve ABS well beyond their present limits. The ICE concept was developed using a basic physics principle: to change µ between two surfaces, at least one of the surfaces must be altered in some way. By quickly deploying a specially designed tractive medium (TM) to aid in directional stability and braking, hazardous situations can be greatly mitigated. This paper describes the features and testing results of this TM and its aerodynamic-mechanical-electronic deployment apparatus. Under all slippery road conditions tested, the developed TM mitigated skidding, with improvements that ranged from 20% to several hundred percent, depending on conditions and deployment rates.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1921
Ron Borsboom
This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities in the truck industry and especially the efforts of DAF Trucks N.V. in improving traffic safety and the environmental impact related to trucks. Proposals regarding legislation, new technologies and the approach to be followed, in order to reach the desired goals, are presented. Various new technologies investigated in DAF Trucks N.V., like platooning are explained, to show the open perspective of the company towards finding solutions and the commitment to invest in this effort. As a significant message this paper wants to convey, is the need for all the stakeholders to work together in an joint effort to achieve the best possible results.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1922
Wolfgang Burget
Highly diversified market needs, non-harmonized regulations and new technological trends in future construction machinery industry will challenge OEMs in defining their appropriate development strategies. Main trends like “efficiency”, “safety/security” as well as “connectivity” are considered as important driving forces in future product - and customer service - developments. Some examples are given for the above mentioned trends. Chances and related risks of such development trends are considered as well.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9451
Marouen Hamdi, Drew Manica, Hung-Jue Sue
Abstract Brightness, transparency, and color impact critically the aesthetics of polymeric surfaces. They can significantly change the perception of common damages such as scratch and mar. Particularly, subtle mar damage is more dependent on surface perceptual properties. In this study, we investigate the impact of these attributes on scratch and mar visibility resistance of commercialized polymeric model systems frequently used in automotive industry. Twenty subjects were involved in a psychophysical test based on pairwise comparison, and results were treated using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. A tied ordinal weighted Euclidian MDS model was used to visualize the relational structures of mar perception space. Results show that scratch visibility resistance tends to decrease with dark, more transparent, and green surfaces. Mar perception was reasonably conceptualized by a two-dimensional MDS space.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0716
Randy Hessel, Zongyu Yue, Rolf Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
Abstract One way to develop an understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes that occur during direct injection and combustion in an internal combustion engine is to image the natural luminosity from soot over time. Imaging is possible when there is optical access to the combustion chamber. After the images are acquired, the next challenge is to properly interpret the luminous distributions that have been captured on the images. A major focus of this paper is to provide guidance on interpretation of experimental images of soot luminosity by explaining how radiation from soot is predicted to change as it is transmitted through the combustion chamber and to the imaging. The interpretations are only limited by the scope of the models that have been developed for this purpose. The end-goal of imaging radiation from soot is to estimate the amount of soot that is present.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1474
Raed E. El-Jawahri, Agnes Kim, Dean Jaradi, Rich Ruthinowski, Kevin Siasoco, Cortney Stancato, Para Weerappuli
Abstract Sled tests simulating full-frontal rigid barrier impact were conducted using the Hybrid III 5th female and the 50th male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). The ATDs were positioned in the outboard rear seat of a generic small car environment. Two belt configurations were used: 1) a standard belt with no load limiter or pre-tensioner and 2) a seatbelt with a 4.5 kN load-limiting retractor with a stop function and a retractor pre-tensioner (LL-PT). In the current study, the LL-PT belt system reduced the peak responses of both ATDs. Probabilities of serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS3+), based on the ATDs peak responses, were calculated using the risk curves in NHTSA’s December 2015 Request for Comments (RFC) proposing changes to the United States New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). Those probabilities were compared to the injury rates (IRs) observed in the field on point estimate basis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1473
Ling Zheng, Yinan Gao, Zhenfei Zhan, Yinong Li
Abstract Several surrogate models such as response surface model and radial basis function and Kriging models are developed to speed the optimization design of vehicle body and improve the vehicle crashworthiness. The error analysis is used to investigate the accuracy of different surrogate models. Furthermore, the Kriging model is used to fit the model of B-pillar acceleration and foot well intrusion. The response surface model is used to fit the model of the entire vehicle mass. These models are further used to calculate the acceleration response in B-pillar, foot well intrusion and vehicle mass instead of the finite element model in the optimization design of vehicle crashworthiness. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated in order to improve vehicle safety performance and keep its light weight. The particle swarm method is used to solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1475
Saeed Barbat, Xiaowei Li
Abstract On December 2015, The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published its proposal to implement U.S New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) changes covering three categories of crashworthiness, crash avoidance and pedestrian protection, beginning with the 2019 model year. The crashworthiness category included a new frontal oblique impact (OI) test protocol. The test compromises of a new Oblique Moving Deformable Barrier (OMDB), new THOR 50th percentile male (THOR-50M) anthropomorphic test device (ATD), and a new test configuration. An OMDB of 2,486 kg (5,480 lb) impacts a stationary target vehicle at a speed of 90 kph (56 mph) at an angle of 15 degrees with a 35% barrier overlap with the front end of the target vehicle. In vehicle-to-vehicle collisions, the lighter weight vehicle experience higher velocity change and higher acceleration levels, thereby, occupants in the lighter vehicle experience higher injury risk.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1468
Do Hoi KIm
Previous work identified a relationship between vehicle drop and dummy injury under the high-speed frontal impact condition [1]. The results showed that vehicle drop greater than 60mm made the dummy injury worse. Moreover, that work identified the front side member as the crucial part affecting the vehicle drop. In this study, the body structure mechanism was studied to reduce vehicle drop by controlling the front side member, shotgun, and A-pillar. By analyzing full vehicles, it was recognized that the arch shape of the front side member was very important. Furthermore, if the top of the arch shape of front side member, shotgun, and A-pillar were connected well, then the body deformation energy could lift the lower part of A-pillar, effectively reducing vehicle drop. This structure design concept is named “Body Lift Structure” (BLS). The BLS was applied to B and C segment platforms. Additionally, a “Ring” shape was defined by the front side member, dash panel, and A-pillar.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1472
Niels Pasligh, Robert Schilling, Marian Bulla
Abstract Rivets, especially self-piercing rivets (SPR), are a primary joining technology used in aluminum bodied vehicles. SPR are mechanical joining elements used to connect sheets to create a body in white (BiW) structure. To ensure the structural performance of a vehicle in crash load cases it is necessary to describe physical occurring failure modes under overloading conditions in simulations. One failure mode which needs to be predicted precisely by a crash simulation is joint separation. Within crash simulations a detailed analysis of a SPR joint would require a very high computational effort. The conflict between a detailed SPR joint and a macroscopic vehicle model needs to be solved by developing an approach that can handle an accurate macroscopic prediction of SPR behavior with a defined strength level with less computational effort. One approach is using a cohesive material model for a SPR connection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1471
Xiao Luo, Wenjing Du, Hao Li, Peiyu LI, Chunsheng Ma, Shucai Xu, Jinhuan Zhang
Abstract Occupant restraint systems are developed based on some baseline experiments. While these experiments can only represent small part of various accident modes, the current procedure for utilizing the restraint systems may not provide the optimum protection in the majority of accident modes. This study presents an approach to predict occupant injury responses before the collision happens, so that the occupant restraint system, equipped with a motorized pretensioner, can be adjusted to the optimal parameters aiming at the imminent vehicle-to-vehicle frontal crash. The approach in this study takes advantage of the information from pre-crash systems, such as the time to collision, the relative velocity, the frontal overlap, the size of the vehicle in the front and so on. In this paper, the vehicle containing these pre-crash features will be referred to as ego vehicle. The information acquired and the basic crash test results can be integrated to predict a simplified crash pulse.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1463
Xianping Du, Feng Zhu, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract A new design methodology based on data mining theory has been proposed and used in the vehicle crashworthiness design. The method allows exploring the big dataset of crash simulations to discover the underlying complicated relationships between response and design variables, and derive design rules based on the structural response to make decisions towards the component design. An S-shaped beam is used as an example to demonstrate the performance of this method. A large amount of simulations are conducted and the results form a big dataset. The dataset is then mined to build a decision tree. Based on the decision tree, the interrelationship among the geometric design variables are revealed, and then the design rules are derived to produce the design cases with good energy absorbing capacity. The accuracy of this method is verified by comparing the data mining model prediction and simulation data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1462
Haiyan Li, Xin Jin, Hongfei Zhao, Shihai Cui, Binhui Jiang, King H. Yang
Abstract Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1466
Claudia De La Torre, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero, Andreas Sprick
Abstract Studies in the EU and the USA found higher deformation and occupant injuries in frontal crashes when the vehicle was loaded outboard (frontal crashes with a small overlap). Due to that, in 2012 the IIHS began to evaluate the small overlap front crashworthiness in order to solve this problem.A set of small overlap tests were carried out at IDIADA’s (Institute of Applied Automotive Research ) passive safety laboratory and the importance of identifying the forces applied in each structural element involved in small overlap crash were determined. One of the most important structural elements in the small overlap test is the wheel. Its interaction in a small overlap crash can modify the vehicle interaction at the crash, which at the laboratory the interaction is with a barrier. That interaction has a big influence at the vehicle development and design strategy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1465
William R. Bussone, Joseph Olberding, Michael Prange
Abstract SAE J211 provides no definitive specification as to the appropriate procedures for filtering angular rate sensor data prior to differentiation into angular acceleration data, especially for impact data. Accordingly, a 3-2-2-2 array (nine-accelerometer-package or NAP) of linear accelerometers and a triaxial angular rate sensor were mounted into a Hybrid III 50th-percentile-male ATD headform and compared in a variety of impact events and multibody simulations. Appropriate low-pass digital filter cutoff frequencies for differentiating the angular rate sensor data into angular accelerations were sought via residual analysis in accordance with current SAE J211 guidelines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1730
Gridsada Phanomchoeng, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana
Abstract Nowadays, the tendency of people using bicycles as the way of transportation has increased as well as the tendency of the bicycle accidents. According to the research of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), National Survey on Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitude and Behavior, the major root causes of bicycle accidents are from the road surface condition. Thus, this work has developed the system to detect the road surface condition. The system utilizes the laser and camera to measure the height of road. Then, with the information of the road height and bicycle speed, the road surface condition can be classified into 3 categories due to severe condition of the road. For the secure road, cyclists could safely ride on it. For the warning road, cyclists need to slow down the speed. Lastly, for the dangerous road, cyclists have to stop their bicycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1728
Nitin Singh, Aayoush Sharma, Sameer Shah, Balakumar Gardampaali
Abstract In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road. This input is given to a Local Control Unit (LCU) which is integrated on every road. Several such LCUs are connected to a Main Control Unit (MCU) which is located at the nearest police station. A single MCU covers the area administered by that police station. Additional CCTV cameras are present to give graphical view of accident.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1516
Daniel B. Honeycutt, Mesbah Uddin
Abstract Although, the implementation of lift-off prevention devices such as the NASCAR roof flaps have greatly reduced the frequency and severity of race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents, airborne incidents still occur occasionally in motorsports. The effectiveness of existing lift-off prevention measures and future trends in lift-off prevention are addressed in this paper. The results and analysis presented in this paper will be of paramount interest to race vehicle designers and sanctioning bodies because the effects of aerodynamics on vehicle lift-off need to be comprehended, but there exists a scarcity of reliable data in this area.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1561
Anton A. Tkachev, Nong Zhang
Abstract Rollover prevention is one of the prominent priorities in vehicle safety and handling control. A promising alternative for roll angle cancellation is the active hydraulically interconnected suspension. This paper represents the analytical model of a closed circuit active hydraulically interconnected suspension system followed by the simulation. Passive hydraulically interconnected suspension systems have been widely discussed and studied up to now. This work specifically focuses on the active hydraulically interconnected suspension system. Equations of motion of the system are formalized first. The system consists of two separate subsystems that can be modeled independently and further combined for simulation. One of the two subsystems is 4 degrees of freedom half-car model which simulates vehicle lateral dynamics and vehicle roll angle response to lateral acceleration in particular.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1380
Richard Young
Abstract Dingus and colleagues recently estimated the crash odds ratios (ORs) for secondary tasks in the Strategic Highway Research Program Phase 2 (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study. Their OR estimate for hand-held cell phone conversation (Talk) was 2.2, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.6 to 3.1. This Talk OR estimate is above 1, contrary to previous estimates below 1. A replication discovered two upward biases in their analysis methods. First, for video clips with exposure to a particular secondary task, Dingus and colleagues selected clips not only with exposure to that task, but often with concurrent exposure to other secondary tasks. However, for video clips without exposure to that task, Dingus and colleagues selected video clips without other secondary tasks. Hence, the OR estimate was elevated simply because of an imbalanced selection of video clips, not because of risk from a particular secondary task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0379
Tau Tyan, Leonard Shaner, Matt Niesluchowski, Nand Kochhar, Dilip Bhalsod, Jason Wang
Three computational gas and fluid dynamic methods, CV/UP (Control Volume/Uniform Pressure), CPM (Corpuscular Particle Method), and ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian), were investigated in this research in an attempt to predict the responses of side crash pressure sensors. Acceleration-based crash sensors have been used extensively in the automotive industry to determine the restraint system firing time in the event of a vehicle crash. The prediction of acceleration-based crash pulses by using computer simulations has been very challenging due to the high frequency and noisy responses obtained from the sensors, especially those installed in crush zones. As a result, the sensor algorithm developments for acceleration-based sensors are largely based on prototype testing. With the latest advancement in the crash sensor technology, side crash pressure sensors have emerged recently and are gradually replacing acceleration-based sensor for side crash applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0476
Seiji Furusako, Masatoshi Tokunaga, Masanori Yasuyama
Abstract To reduce the weight of automobile bodies, application of high-strength steel sheets is expanding. Furthermore, middle and high carbon steels are expected to be used to lower the environmental impact and cost in the automobile steel sheet industry. However, it is necessary to enhance the joint strength of the steel sheets. In this study, hat-shaped components were made using resistance spot (RS) welding or arc spot (AS) welding on S45C steel sheets (including 0.44% carbon), 1.4 mm thickness and strength of 1180 MPa grade. A dynamic three-point bending test was conducted on the components and their crashworthiness was compared. Some RS welds fractured (separated) during the three-point bending test even though the diameter of the weld metal was increased to 5√t (t means thickness of the sheet); however, AS welds did not fracture.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 11101