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Viewing 1 to 30 of 10002
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
James Chinni, Ryan Hoover
Full-scale vehicle crash testing is an accurate method to reproduce many real-world crash conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. However, the costs involved in performing full-scale crash tests can be prohibitive for some purposes. Dynamic sled testing is a lower cost and widely used method to obtain multiple useful data sets for development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Wherever possible, dynamic sled tests should use vehicle-specific deceleration pulses determined from full-scale vehicle crash tests. This paper establishes a dynamic sled test protocol based on data collected from a small number of full-scale heavy vehicle frontal crash tests. The sled test protocol is intended to be utilized as a basis for building a body of knowledge needed to update heavy vehicle frontal impact test recommended practices. These recommended practices provide direction for the development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
James Chinni, Robert Butler, Shu Yang
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Requirement (FMCSR) 393.76(h) states that “a motor vehicle manufactured on or after July 1, 1971 and equipped with a sleeper berth must be equipped with a means of preventing ejection of the occupant of the sleeper berth during deceleration of the vehicle.” [1] Today, sleeper berths are equipped with sleeper restraint systems that function to contain the sleeper occupant inside the sleeper berth during reasonably foreseeable crashes. To assess the effectiveness of sleeper restraint systems, computer simulation models of the sleeper cab environment and these restraint systems was developed, with a simulated supine occupant in the sleeper. The model was evaluated using two different rollover crash scenarios. The first rollover scenario used measurements from a previously reported tractor-trailer, driver side leading, quarter-turn rollover crash test. The second rollover scenario was based on reconstruction of a very severe crash that occurred on a mountain road, where a tractor-trailer rolled, passenger side leading.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Marc Auger, Larry Plourde, Melissa Trumbore, Terry Manuel
Design of body structures for commercial vehicles differs significantly from automotive due to government, design, usage requirements. Specifically the design of heavy truck doors differ as they are not required to meet side impact requirements due to their height off the ground as compared to automobiles. However, heavy truck doors are subjected to higher loads, longer life and less damage from events. Past aluminum designs relied either on bent extrusions around the periphery of the door or multiple steel and/or aluminum reinforcements joined to the inner in order to provide the necessary structure. Doors using aluminum extrusions for the peripheries were limited to two dimensional bending for the extrusions resulting in a planar door with limited styling features an opportunity for aerodynamic improvements. Doors with stamped reinforcements and door mounted mirrors require joining the inner and outer structure at the lower mirror mount forcing the use of a division bar to split the glass that impedes vision and drives cost for the extra parts.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Raghuram Krishnamurthy, Dr. Rani Mukherjee
Modern vehicles employ dozens of electronic systems.The number of embedded systems in the vehicle is ever increasing and this increases the complexity. According to ISO 26262,an automotive safety standard, an ECU which contains SW with different ASIL ratings should meet the criteria for coexistence of elements. If the embedded software has to implement software components of different ASILs, or safety-related and non-safety-related software components, then all of the embedded software shall be treated in accordance with the highest ASIL, unless the software components meet the criteria for coexistence.However meeting these criteria can be complex and time-consuming. Today’s ECU SW unavoidably has externally developed SW from third party suppliers and integrating them into an existing ASIL SW is always a challenge. This paper explores the challenges and possible strategies for integrating externally developed SW into an ECU.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
Cost reduction in automotive industry becomes a widely-adopted operational strategy not only for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) that take cost leader generic corporation strategy, but also for many OMEs that take differentiation generic corporation strategy. Since differentiation generic strategy requires an organization to provide a product or service above the industry average level, a premium is typically included in the tag price for those products or services. Cost reduction measures could increase risks for the organizations that pursue differentiation strategy. Although manufacturers in automotive industry dramatically improved production efficiency in past ten years, they are still facing up with the pressure of cost control. The big challenge in the cost control for automakers and suppliers is increasing prices of raw materials, energy and labor costs. These costs construct constrains for the traditional economic expansion model. Lean manufacturing and other traditional Six Sigma processes have been widely utilized to reduce waste and improve efficiency further in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Ying Wan, Dong Zhang, Zhao Weiqiang, Changfu Zong, Jongchol Han
The braking system is the most important component of vehicleto ensure the vehicle safety, especially for commercial vehicles which are used to transport goods or passengers. In recent years, electronic braking system(EBS) has developed rapidly. EBS enhances vehicle safety and improves the performance of braking, and pneumatic EBS is getting wide-spread incommercial vehicles. However, the performance of pneumatic EBS is seriously affected by the hysteresis characteristics of pressure responses, which would increase the braking distance and may cause fatal traffic accidents, so many researchers are studying on controlling hysteresis characteristics. Therefore, this paper establishes an EBS simulation platform which can reflect the hysteresis characteristics of the EBS components. The results of the EBS simulation platform are compared with that of a test bed to verify the accuracy of the platform. After that, in order to ensure the feasibility of this simulation platform in developing EBS strategy, it is used in developing a hysteresis compensation control strategy.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Venkatesan C, DeepaLakshmi R
The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide 12(PA12) is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and cost factor is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic copolyester (TEEE) materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly developed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn’t require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time. Also it has got better heat ageing properties and higher burst pressure at elevated temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Dong Zhang, Changfu Zong, Ying Wan, Hongyu Zheng, Wei-qiang Zhao
Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed from ABS to enhance the brake performance. Based on the early study, this paper aims at the development and research on control strategy of Advanced Electronic Braking Systems for commercial vehicle. It mainly includes braking force distribution and multiple targets control strategy. In the study of braking force distribution control strategy, the mass of vehicle and axle loads will be calculated dynamically and distributed the ideal braking. Through braking intention recognition, the brake pad wear control intervenes when braking uncritically and detecting a difference in the pads between the front and rear axles. The brake assistant supports the driver during the full application of the brake and the braking distance is shortened due to the reduction in response time. In the study of stability control algorithms of multiple targets, using the simplified model, a Kalman filter estimator and an Adaptive Kalman filter estimator of heavy duty vehicles are built, by which the estimations about parameters and states are realized successfully.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jeffrey K. Ball, Mark Kittel, Trevor Buss, Greg Weiss
Trucking fleets are increasingly installing DriveCam video event recorders in their vehicles. The DriveCam system is usually mounted near the vehicle’s rear view mirror, and consists of two cameras – one looking forward and one looking towards the driver. The DriveCam system also contains accelerometers that record lateral and longitudinal g-loading, and some may record vehicle speed (in mph) based on GPS positions. The DriveCam unit constantly monitors vehicle acceleration and speed, and also records video. However, the recorded data is only stored when a preset acceleration threshold is met. The stored data is then uploaded to the DriveCam event center, where it can be analyzed to review driver performance as well as the events before and after the triggering event. The primary use of the system is to assist fleets with driver training and education. However, the recorded data is also being used as a tool to reconstruct accidents. By integrating the accelerometer data, the vehicle speed and distance traveled during the event can be calculated.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Carlo Ferraresi, Luca Dariz, Giorgio malaguti MD
The world of electronics is rapidly changing due to the new functional safety regulations, both for Construction Equipments and for Agricultural Machines. From the 2014 the new ISO4254 recalls the ISO25119, applying the functional safety to all Agricultural machines other than Tractors. But Tractors will be involved in new functional safety requirements from 2016, being analyzed under the ISO25119 statements. Functional safety requirements and solutions are more expensive in proportion for small machines: lower cost machines with less power but same functionalities with respect to the big machines. The paper will show a real electronic control unit design of a machine controller, controlling both engine working point, transmission, and other utilities like PTO, 4WD, brakes and Differential Lock; the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) was designed in accordance to ISO 25119 regulation, to meet AgPL = C or even D for some functionalities. The unit is a fully redundant electronic control unit with two CAN networks and some special safe state oriented mechanism, that allow the Performance Level C with less software analysis requirements compared with traditional solutions.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoitre dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. Unfortunately, these platforms also carry the inherent risk of being built on inherently vulnerable cybernetic systems. From software which can be tampered with to either steal data, damage or even outright steal the aircraft, to the data networks used for communications which can be jammed or even eavesdropped on to gain access to sensible information. All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures. With this in mind the present work will describe a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor UAS mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle the specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over the vehicle’s data links.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Zachary A. Collier, Steve Walters, Dan DiMase, Jeffrey M. Keisler, Igor Linkov
Counterfeit electronic components entering into critical infrastructure and applications through the global supply chain threaten the economy and national security. In response to the growing threat from counterfeits, the Society of Automotive Engineers G-19 Committee is developing AS6171. This aerospace standard is focused on testing facilities with a goal of standardizing the process of counterfeit detection. An integral part of the standard is a semi-quantitative risk assessment method. This method assigns risk scores to electronic components based on a number of relevant criteria, and places the components into one of five risk tier levels corresponding to an appropriate level of laboratory testing to ensure the authenticity of the component. In this way, the methodology aims at standardizing the risk assessment process and bases the identified risk as guidance for commensurate testing protocols. This paper outlines the risk assessment method contained within AS6171 and briefly explores other complementary efforts and research gaps within the G-19 and electronics community.
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
The number of elderly drivers is increasing in Japan and ensuring the safety of elderly drivers is becoming an important issue. The authors previously conducted an analysis of the characteristics of accidents and traffic violations by elderly drivers based on the number of accidents in which they were rear-ended. This method was used in order to exclude the influence of driving frequency. As a result of that analysis, it was found that the likelihood of violations committed by elderly drivers was not particularly higher than in other age groups, while the likelihood of accidents caused by them was higher. The risk of causing an accident was judged to be about two times higher in elderly drivers than in the 35-44 year age group. However, the methodology presupposed that collisions in which a driver is rear-ended are accidents that occur randomly, and that they occur with the same probability in each age group. To verify the results of that study, we attempted a new analytical method that uses the number of stop sign violations, which are considered to occur with the same probability among age groups, as an indicator of driving frequency in place of accidents in which a driver is hit from behind (rear-end collisions).
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Marcos R. Gali, Renan R. M. Ozelo, Argemiro L. A. Costa, José Maria C. Dos Santos
Abstract This paper aims to discuss technically the global trend of labeling legislation and the reflections of governmental programs, such as Inovar Auto, on auto parts industry, in special, about ecolabel intended for tires, focusing advances on rolling resistance analyses and its influence on the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. It will be presented analytical models and theirs respective predicted results to support tire development and researches regarding fuel consumption.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Frederico A. A. Barbieri, Vinicius de Almeida Lima, Leandro Garbin, Joel Boaretto
Abstract Brazil presents a very diverse road and traffic conditions and due to several factors the number of truck accidents is very high. Inside truck accidents group, the one that causes the highest number of losses and fatalities is the rollover crash and understanding rollover dynamics is very important to prevent such events. The diversity of cargo vehicles arrangements requires a detailed study regarding the dynamic behavior these vehicle combinations in order to increase operation safety. The same tractor unit can be used with different types and numbers of trailers and/or semi-trailers, each one with different suspension configurations. These truck combinations have distinct dynamic performances that need evaluation. In this sense, this work presents a first phase study on the dynamic behavior of different types of cargo vehicle configuration. A 6×2 tractor is combined with a two distinct grain semi-trailer with different types of suspension: pneumatic and leaf spring. The study is conducted in order to verify the difference in dynamic behavior and the resulting stability of the two configurations in different conditions of speed and maneuvers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Parul Goyal, Feng Liang, Olof Oberg
Abstract The aim of the paper is to describe how Volvo Construction Equipment uses a virtual product development process to analyze potential risks, find root causes and optimize future product development. A model based method is used to analyze a potential risk in the design of Wheel Loader transmissions. The risk was recognized from failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), and a simulation model using AMESim modeling tool was developed to analyze the behavior of the new design. Together with test rig result, it is proved that the model based method gives a considerably accurate prediction of the system behavior. By using the model based approach, lead time for development process is reduced and important feedbacks from simulation model are obtained on early stage of the development. This paper further presents the use of the simulation model as a tool to predict the potential risks in the extreme operating conditions, which are difficult to test on the vehicle test bench.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Juergen Boehme, Tobias Sehnke, Matthias Schultalbers, Torsten Jeinsch
Abstract In this paper an energy management is proposed which is optimal to certain driving scenarios which can be clustered into freeway, rural and urban situations. This strategy is non-predictive but uses information about the current driving situation provided by modern navigation systems to identify the current road type. Based on this information a set of simplified optimal control problems are solved offline via an indirect shooting algorithm. By relaxation of the problem formulation, the solutions of these optimal control problems can be stored into easily implementable maps. The energy management control is then determined from these maps during vehicle operation using the current road type, the vehicle speed and the required wheel-torque. The strategy is implemented in a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and validated on a near mass-production vehicle. The proposed methodology has shown fuel savings on a real world drive cycle. Additionally, robustness aspects have been considered in a MATLAB/Simulink based simulation environment.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Horst Lanzerath, Niels Pasligh
Abstract Structural adhesives are widely used across the automotive industry for several reasons like scale-up of structural performance and enabling multi-material and lightweight designs. Development engineers know in general about the effects of adding adhesive to a spot-welded structure, but they want to quantify the benefit of adding adhesives on weight reduction or structural performance. A very efficient way is to do that by applying analytical tools. But, in most of the relevant non-linear load cases the classical lightweight theory can only help to get a basic understanding of the mechanics. For more complex load cases like full car crash simulations, the Finite Element Method (FEM) with explicit time integration is being applied to the vehicle development process. In order to understand the benefit of adding adhesives to a body structure upfront, new FEM simulation tools need to be established, which must be predictive and efficient. Therefore new FEM crash methods for structural adhesives have been investigated and validated with the help of test results.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Youmei Zhao
The Hybrid III 50th male dummy is widely used in front impact crash tests in the world to evaluate the vehicle safety performance. The chest impact calibration test should be conducted after certain amount of crash tests to ensure that the dummy has the right performance during the crash tests. The impact velocity in the current chest calibration tests is 6.71 m/s and the chest displacement corridor is 63.5 mm to 72.6 mm, which was based on the cadaver tests carried out in 1970s. After over forty years' development, the vehicle safety has been improved significantly with applications of seat belt and airbag technologies. In the European and China new car assessment program (ENCAP and CNCAP), the higher performance limit for the front impact dummy chest compression is 22mm and the lower performance limit is 50 mm, which is much lower than the dummy chest calibration corridor. In this paper, the dummy rib assembly structure is analyzed and the rib impact FEA simulation was also conducted.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shweta Rawat, Soumya Kanta Das
Abstract With the ever increasing emphasis on vehicle occupant safety, the safety of pedestrians is getting obscured behind the A-pillars that are expanding in order to meet the federal roof crush standards. The serious issue of pillar blind spots poses threats to the pedestrians who easily disappear from driver's field of view. To recognize this blinding danger and design the car around the driver's eye, this paper proposes the implementation of Aluminum Oxynitride marked under name AlON by Surmet Corporation for fabrication of A-pillars that can allow more than 80% visibility through them. AlON is a polycrystalline ceramic with cubic spinel crystal structure and is composed of aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. With hardness more than 85% than sapphire, its applications range from aerospace to defense purposes which qualify it in terms of strength and thus imply that it can be conveniently used as A-pillars in vehicles. Furthermore, it possesses characteristics of being bonded to metals as well.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jeong Keun Lee, Byung-Jae Ahn, Ye Ri Hong
Abstract In current inflatable curtain airbag development process, the curtain airbag performance is developed sequentially for the airbag coverage, FMVSS 226, FMVSS 214 and NCAP. Because the FMVSS 226 for the ejection mitigation and the NCAP side impact test require the opposite characteristics in terms of the dynamic stiffness of the inflatable curtain airbag, the sequential development process cannot avoid the iteration for dynamic stiffness optimization. Airbag internal pressure characteristics are can be used to evaluate the airbag performance in early stage of the development process, but they cannot predict dynamic energy absorption capability. In order to meet the opposite requirements for both FMVSS 226 and NCAP side impact test, a test and CAE simulation method for the inflatable curtain airbag was developed. The purpose of this study is to standardize the test setup for comparing the energy absorption capability of inflatable curtain airbag and to make criteria for meeting both FMVSS 226 and NCAP early in the program.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yuanyuan Zhang, Shen Wu, Yuliang Shi, Jingang Tu, Jingguo Hu
Abstract The design of front rail is very important to vehicle safety performance. The test and CAE analysis are commonly used methods for design on the component level. Based on experience of impact test designed to simulate the performance of rail in vehicle rigid wall frontal impact, an inclined test is designed to simulate the performance of rail in vehicle offset deformable barrier impact. Two LS-DYNA computer simulation models are established including the effects of plastic strain rate, spot-weld failure, and stamping hardening. The deformation and mechanical properties are studied. The simulation results are correlated to the component tests very well in both cases. The usual impact test and inclined impact test for component rail can represent the main features of the rail performances in the vehicle frontal impact and offset impact respectively. Both of the simulation method and the component test method can support the early stage design for vehicle crash safety.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Erdem Uzunsoy, Emmanuel Bolarinwa, Oluremi Olatunbosun, Rui He
Abstract Sloped medians provide a run-off area for errant vehicles so that they can be safely stopped off-road with or without barriers placed in the sloped median. However, in order to optimize the design of sloped medians and the containment barriers, it is essential to accurately model the behavior of vehicles on such sloped terrain surfaces. In this study, models of a vehicle fleet comprising a small sedan and a pickup truck and sloped terrain surface are developed in CarSim™ to simulate errant vehicle behavior on sloped median. Full-scale crash tests were conducted using the vehicle fleet driven across a 9.754 meters wide median with a 6:1 slope at speeds ranging from 30 to 70 km/h. Measured data such as the lateral accelerations of the vehicle as well as chassis rotations (roll and pitch) were synchronized with the vehicle motion obtained from the video data. The measured responses were compared with responses obtained from simulation in CarSim™ to validate the vehicle and slope terrain models.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hang Yin, Weiming Zeng, Guobiao Yang, Songgang Li
Abstract When an object was subjected an impact loading, stress wave was produced in the object. Studying the regularity of stress-wave propagation was significant to the study of objects subjected to impact loading. When stress wave travelled in the object, principal stress on free boundary was useful to theoretical analysis and calculation. In this article, a new kind of dynamic photoelastic apparatus was used. Isochromatic and isoclinic of the object subjected to impact loading could be obtained combining dynamic photoelastic experiment and related test equipment. By analyzing the isoclinic, there would be a conclusion that the angle between the isoclinic and the free boundary was not 0°or 90°. So the values of the two principal stress on the boundary were all not 0. The result obtained from the electrometric method came to the same conclusion. Analysis showed the result of dynamic photoelastic method was compatible with the result of electrometric method. So the method in this article was feasible and accurate.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, David Good, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony
Abstract According to pedestrian crash data from 2010-2011 the U.S. General Estimates System (GES) and the Fatality Analysis Report System (FARS), more than 39% of pedestrian crash cases occurred at night and poor lighting conditions. The percentage of pedestrian fatalities in night conditions is over 77%. Therefore, evaluating the performance of pedestrian pre-collision systems (PCS) at night is an essential part of the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation. The Transportation Active Safety Institute (TASI) of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) is conducting research for the establishment of PCS test scenarios and procedures in collaboration with Toyota's Collaborative Safety Research Center. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of a reconfigurable road lighting system to support the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation for night road lighting conditions. First, the test conditions of the road lighting (light intensity and uniformity) are generated by combining recommendations from road lighting design standards and the average measured lighting levels at various crash locations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim, Ahmed A.A. Attia
Abstract The effect of magnetic field has attracted many researchers to investigate the impact of this type of force on different applications such as combustion and water. Different systems supported by many patents were introduced to the market to treat these applications. In the present study, a series of experiments were conducted to explore the impact of magnetic fuel treatment on engine performance. The magnetic field was produced from two different sources based on permanent and electromagnetic coils. Two engines with different configurations were used. Three fuels were tested, gasoline and diesel as liquid fuels and natural gas as a gaseous fuel. Vast numbers of experiments at different operating conditions were conducted on the two engines. Fuel consumption, output power, and exhaust emissions were analyzed under the exposure of magnetic field. Gasoline was the most affected fuel while other fuels showed less or negligible effect. Magnetic field strength was a key parameter to have any impact on engine performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Venkat Pisipati, Srikanth Krishnaraj, Edgar Quinto Campos
Abstract Motor vehicle safety standards are getting to be more demanding with time. For automotive interiors, instrument panel (IP) head impact protection is a key requirement of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201. To ensure compliance of this requirement, head impact tests are conducted at 12 and 15 mph for performance verification. Computer simulation has become more prevalent as the primary development tool due to the significant reduction in time and cost that it offers. LS-DYNA is one of the most commonly used non-linear solvers in the automotive industry, particularly for safety related simulations such as the head impact of automotive interiors. LS-DYNA offers a wide variety of material models, and material type 024 (MAT 024, piecewise linear plasticity) is one of the most popular ones [1]. Although it was initially developed for metals, it is commonly used for polymers as well. LS-DYNA also offers several other material models specifically developed to simulate polymers, such as material types 019, 089, 123, to name a few.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rainer Neumann
Abstract Since 2012, adaptive driving beam (ADB) was homologated first in the ECE world (ECE 123). The idea behind is a camera based lighting system, which enables the driver to achieve at night nearly high beam visibility without glaring oncoming or proceeding vehicles and road users. Once the presence of other vehicles is detected the headlamps change the light pattern and block the light where the oncoming or proceeding vehicles are located. Light sources are typically High Intensity Discharge (HID) bulbs, but today also first LED applications are visible. For SAE, the definition of the parameters and the requested regulation changes to allow such systems are in progress. The paper reports about an extensive study executed in Germany at TU Darmstadt to investigate not only the improvement in visibility for the driver with such systems, but also evaluate the disability and discomfort glare for other road users. The results are demonstrating clearly, that the existing ADB systems do not cause additional glare for the road users and also do not lead to an increased subjective discomfort glare rating.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Flaura Winston, Catherine McDonald, Venk Kandadai, Zachary Winston, Thomas Seacrist
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Yet, few simulator protocols have been validated for their ability to assess driving performance under conditions that result in actual collisions. This paper presents results from a new Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), a 35- to-40-minute simulated assessment delivered on a Real-Time® simulator. The SDA was developed to represent typical scenarios in which teens crash, based on analyses from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). A new metric, failure to brake, was calculated for the 7 potential rear-end scenarios included in the SDA and examined according two constructs: experience and skill. The study included an inexperienced group (n=21): 16-17 year olds with 90 days or fewer of provisional licensure, and an experienced group (n=17): 25-50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mindy Heading, Douglas Stein, Jeff Dix
Abstract Ejection Mitigation testing is now required by the U.S. government through FMVSS 226 [1]. FMVSS 226 contains the requirement of using a linear guided headform in a horizontal impact test into the inflated curtain, or other ejection mitigation countermeasure that deploys in the event of a rollover. The specification provides dimensions for a featureless headform [2] but there are limited specifications for the headform skin surface condition. In the “Response to Petitions” of the 2011 Final Rule for FMVSS 226 [3], the NHTSA declined the option to include a headform cleaning procedure. This research presents a case study to quantify the effect of changes in the friction between the headform and curtain on the measured excursion. The study presented here shows that a change in friction between the headform and curtain can affect excursion values by up to 135 millimeters (mm).
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10002