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Viewing 1 to 30 of 10008
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0016
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs). We demonstrate in this article that it is to reduce the maximum severity in the Correspondence Diagram between Risk and ASIL (CDRA) and to increase the degree of acceptable risks in view of situations specific to motorcycles.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0022
Federico Giovannini, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
Abstract Powered Two-Wheelers (PTW) control is more complex than any other motorized vehicle control, in particular during emergency events, such as panic braking or last second swerving. For standard PTW, a common cause of accident in these situations is the loss of stability due to braking maneuvers. It is worth noting that for PTW the loss of stability means a high probability of fall, especially while cornering. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to propose a fall detection algorithm for PTW performing maneuvers leading to potential instability. The algorithm is composed of a number of parameters, named RISKi, able to detect potential fall events, critical for PTW safety. This fall detection methodology was developed to alert an advanced riding assistance system in order to produce proper counteractions against the imminent fall. The parameters designed for the fall detection process take into account the vehicle destabilization due to the braking intensity and due to heavy oscillations of the vehicle body and the steering bar.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0023
Daniele Barbani, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
Abstract In the study of new solutions for motorcycle passive safety, FE models of full-scale crash tests play a strategic role. The most important issue in the development process of FE models is their reliability to reproduce real crash tests. To help the engineering in the validation phase, a sensitivity analysis of a FE model for motorcycle-car crash tests is carried-out. The aim of this study is to investigate the model response subjected to variations of specific input parameters. The DOE is performed generating a list of simulations (each one composed by a unique combination of 8 parameters) through Latin Hypercube Sampling. The outputs monitored are the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and Neck Injury Criteria (Nij). The analysis of the results is performed using scatter plots and linear regression curves to identify the parameters that have major impact on the outputs and to assess the type of dependency (linear or non-linear).
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2422
Raghuram Krishnamurthy, Rani Mukherjee
Abstract Safety compliance has a new set of difficult questions to address due to the usage of COTS, OSS and externally supplied software code in automotive systems. The use of third-party software component is essential to business as it helps in reduction of cost and development cycle. However, there are many technical risks encountered when incorporating Third-Party Software (TPSW) components into safety related software. Moreover, safety systems conforming to new automotive safety standard ISO 26262 are expected to satisfy criteria for co-existence of TPSW with internal safety related software and legacy code. The purpose is to avoid a potential failure that may be triggered by TPSW which in turn may propagate to cause failure in other software partitions. There are several options available to address the above requirements. We should carefully evaluate the TPSW's functionality and pedigree and apply combination of techniques to assist in supporting the intent of ISO 26262. This paper discusses on the issues concerning insertion of third party software code (OEM supplied code, Tier 2 vendor software) into in-house developed ECU software.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2420
James Chinni, Robert Butler, Shu Yang
Abstract Federal Motor Carrier Safety Requirement (FMCSR) 393.76(h) states that “a motor vehicle manufactured on or after July 1, 1971 and equipped with a sleeper berth must be equipped with a means of preventing ejection of the occupant of the sleeper berth during deceleration of the vehicle.” [1] Furthermore, this standard requires that “the restraint system must be designed, installed and maintained to withstand a minimum total force of 6,000 pounds applied toward the front of the vehicle and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.” [1] Today, sleeper berths are equipped with sleeper restraint systems that function to contain the sleeper occupant inside the sleeper berth during reasonably foreseeable crashes. To assess the effectiveness of sleeper restraint systems, computer simulation models of the sleeper cab environment and these restraint systems were developed, with a simulated supine occupant in the sleeper. The model was evaluated using two different rollover crash scenarios.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2384
Prashant Shinde, Pratik Gore
Abstract This paper is an attempt to address one of the causes of catastrophic failures attributed to incidents of fire and smoke in commercial vehicles during last few years in China and India which have resulted in a considerable number of casualties. Some of the accidents encountered happened because of a crash with fire originating from the fuel tank. This was attributed to fuel leakage and excessive heat produced due to friction of debris with the fuel tank which happened within a few seconds of the crash. A Fuel-Tank Safety ECU for preventing such fire-mishaps shall be designed for spotting this failure and activating prevention methods in order. This ECU shall process the data coming from temperature-sensor and fuel-pressure sensor placed on the fuel tank of the vehicle. This real-time data shall be compared with the previously computed values and then the delta-differentiated value shall be used to conclude the likelihood of a fire-occurrence. This ECU shall then timely activate the fire-preventive agents along with sounding an audio-visual alert to notify the vehicle driver and passengers.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2388
Jeffrey K. Ball, Mark Kittel, Trevor Buss, Greg Weiss
Abstract Trucking fleets are increasingly installing video event recorders in their vehicles. The video event recorder system is usually mounted near the vehicle's rear view mirror, and consists of two cameras: one looking forward and one looking towards the driver. The system also contains accelerometers that record lateral and longitudinal g-loading, and some may record vehicle speed (in mph) based on GPS positions. The unit constantly monitors vehicle acceleration and speed, and also records video. However, the recorded data is only stored when a preset acceleration threshold is met. The primary use of the system is to assist fleets with driver training and education, but the recorded data is also being used as a tool to reconstruct accidents. By integrating the accelerometer data, the vehicle speed and distance traveled during the event can be calculated. However, the calculated speeds and distances from video event recorder data may differ from reconstructions based on data taken from engine control modules (ECM's) or classic reconstruction techniques.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2398
Sanket Pawar
Abstract Off-road commercial vehicles many times have to work at remote areas in poor working conditions like reduced visibility due to fog, snow, inadequate ambient lighting, dust etc. They may not have any access to emergency facilities in such places. Challenging geographical terrains and adverse weather conditions makes the situation worse. The combination of both can further degrade working conditions. The operator may need to either work or guide his vehicle through tight places or in hilly areas having such conditions. That imposes many challenges to operator in terms of efficiency & safety of both operator & vehicle. In an effort to increase productivity and efficiency operator may miss to look at safety aspects consequently, leading to accidents that can incur heavy losses due to damages to vehicle further delaying the work. It can even lead to a life threatening emergency in some cases. On the other hand, decrease in efficiency results in increased cost of operation due to unnecessary wastage of fuel & delays in getting the work done.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2309
Fatih Kosar, Mehmet Burak Yegin, Okan Dogru, Cüneyt Akarsu
Abstract Nowadays, a lightweight component design plays a significant role in both cost of a vehicle and fuel economy in competitive heavy duty truck industry. This paper describes the optimization study of an Anti-Roll Bar (ARB) bracket used in a heavy duty truck. ARB system is used to avoid rolling of a vehicle. In order to measure real forces acting on ARB links, calibration study is performed in laboratory conditions. According to this study, measured strains are correlated with theoretical strain-force curve. After the correlation study, fatigue based topology optimization is made on ARB cast iron bracket according to correlated Road Load Data (RLD) which is performed at Proving Ground. Most of the optimization studies in the literature depend on maximum static loading condition. However, many components or structures in the industry subjected to fluctuating loads when they are in service condition. Small loads in a fluctuating load domain may cause potential danger in the design because there will be damage accumulation on the part when those loads are repeated.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2319
Iman Hazrati Ashtiani, Mehrnoosh Abedi
Abstract Road train vehicles have been applied as one of the common and efficient ways for transportation of goods, specifically hazardous liquid cargos, in different nations. These vehicles have a wide variety of lengths and towing systems such as the fifth wheel or the dolly draw-bar. Based upon specific regulations, they could be authorized to move on specific roads. In order to avoid hazard and danger in case of accidents, safety performance of a B-train vehicle as a specific type of road train vehicles is investigated in this paper. A Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model, which consists of a prime mover and two trailers coupled by fifth wheels, are simulated in the initial phase of the study. The developed dynamic model is capable of simulating required tests as well as the SAE lane change, along with a constant radius turn for the purpose of roll and yaw stability analysis and safety evaluation. The effects of variation of the fluid fill level are considered in this research. The trammel pendulum concept is adopted for simulation of fluid movements, known as sloshing, in two articulated tankers of the model.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2381
Tyson McWha
Abstract Transport Canada, through its ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles program, retained the services of the National Research Council Canada to undertake a test program to examine the operational and human factors considerations concerning the removal of the side mirrors on a Class 8 tractor equipped with a 53 foot dry van semi-trailer. Full scale aerodynamic testing was performed in a 2 m by 3 m wind tunnel on a system component basis to quantify the possible fuel savings associated with the removal of the side mirrors. The mirrors on a Volvo VN780 tractor were removed and replaced with a prototype camera-based indirect vision system consisting of four cameras mounted in the front fender location; two cameras on either side of the vehicle. Four monitors mounted in the vehicle - two mounted on the right A-pillar and two mounted on the left A-pillar - provided indirect vision information to the vehicle operator. Four commercial drivers were asked to perform a series of tests simulating typical driving scenarios on a closed course test track.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2380
Joshua L. Every, M. Kamel Salaani, Frank S. Barickman, Devin H. Elsasser, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger, Sughosh J. Rao
Dynamic Brake Support (DBS) is a safety system that has been applied to various passenger cars and has been shown to be effective at assisting drivers in avoiding or mitigating rear-end collisions. The objective of a DBS system is to ensure that the brake system is applied quickly and at sufficient pressure when a driver responds to a collision imminent situation. DBS is capable of improving braking response due to a passenger car driver's tendency to utilize multi-stage braking. Interest is developing in using DBS on commercial vehicles. In order to evaluate the possible improvement in safety that could be realized through the use of DBS, driver braking behavior must first be analyzed to confirm that improvement is possible and necessary. To determine if this is the case, a study of the response of truck drivers' braking behavior in collision imminent situations is conducted. This paper presents the method of evaluation and results. Data was drawn from a prior NHTSA simulator study and showed that many drivers exhibited multi-stage braking during four different imminent crash scenarios.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2423
James Chinni, Ryan Hoover
Abstract Full-scale vehicle crash testing is an accurate method to reproduce many real-world crash conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. However, the costs involved in performing full-scale crash tests can be prohibitive for some purposes. Dynamic sled testing is a lower cost and widely used method to obtain multiple, useful data sets for development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Wherever possible, dynamic sled tests should use vehicle-specific deceleration pulses determined from full-scale vehicle crash tests. This paper establishes a dynamic sled test protocol based on data collected from eight full-scale heavy vehicle frontal crash tests. The sled test protocol is intended to be utilized as a basis for building a body of knowledge needed to update heavy vehicle frontal impact test recommended practices. These recommended practices provide direction for the development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Additionally, the performance of some frontal crash occupant protection technologies found in heavy vehicles is evaluated.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2131
Rodrigo Felix, John Economou, Kevin Knowles
Abstract Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoiter dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. Unfortunately, these platforms also carry the inherent risk of being built on innately vulnerable cybernetic systems. From software which can be tampered with to either steal data, damage or even outright steal the aircraft, to the data networks used for communications which can be jammed or even eavesdropped on to gain access to sensible information. All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures. With this in mind the present work will describe a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor UAS mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle the specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over the vehicle's data links.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2125
Janice Meraglia, Mitchell Miller
Abstract Counterfeit items can be viewed as the by-product of a supply chain which has been compromised. While many industries are impacted, certain types of products can mean the difference between life and death. Electronics are of special interest, however, mechanical parts can also have dire consequences. The point is that the counterfeiting community is very diverse. The business model is fluid and unrestricted. Electronics today…hardware tomorrow. All of this leads to the need for an authentication platform that is agnostic to product. Most supply chains would benefit from a technical way to have assurance of authenticity - a benefit that could be shared by all. A comprehensive marking program, such as SigNature DNA, offers value to all supply chain participants as outlined below: Manufacturers will have the ability to effectively monitor their legacy components Authorized distributors will have an absolute way to verify and accept returns Defense contractors and agencies will have forensically authentic and traceable inventory at their disposal End users will have the power to authenticate stock to the component level
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2150
Martin Bradish, Obed Sands, Ted Wright, Casey Bakula, Daniel Oldham, William Ivancic, Michael Lewis, Joseph Klebau, Nicholas Tollis, Andrew Jalics
Abstract This paper summarizes the Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This paper covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies' to exchange messages and to perform audio tests of both inbound and outbound channels. This paper describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.
2014-09-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9002
Zachary A. Collier, Steve Walters, Dan DiMase, Jeffrey M. Keisler, Igor Linkov
Counterfeit electronic components entering into critical infrastructure and applications through the global supply chain threaten the economy and national security. In response to the growing threat from counterfeits, the Society of Automotive Engineers G-19 Committee is developing AS6171. This aerospace standard is focused on testing facilities with a goal of standardizing the process of counterfeit detection. An integral part of the standard is a semi-quantitative risk assessment method. This method assigns risk scores to electronic components based on a number of relevant criteria, and places the components into one of five risk tier levels corresponding to an appropriate level of laboratory testing to ensure the authenticity of the component. In this way, the methodology aims at standardizing the risk assessment process and bases the identified risk as guidance for commensurate testing protocols. This paper outlines the risk assessment method contained within AS6171 and briefly explores other complementary efforts and research gaps within the G-19 and electronics community.
2014-05-09
Technical Paper
2014-01-9127
Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
The number of elderly drivers is increasing in Japan and ensuring the safety of elderly drivers is becoming an important issue. The authors previously conducted an analysis of the characteristics of accidents and traffic violations by elderly drivers based on the number of accidents in which they were rear-ended. This method was used in order to exclude the influence of driving frequency. As a result of that analysis, it was found that the likelihood of violations committed by elderly drivers was not particularly higher than in other age groups, while the likelihood of accidents caused by them was higher. The risk of causing an accident was judged to be about two times higher in elderly drivers than in the 35-44 year age group. However, the methodology presupposed that collisions in which a driver is rear-ended are accidents that occur randomly, and that they occur with the same probability in each age group. To verify the results of that study, we attempted a new analytical method that uses the number of stop sign violations, which are considered to occur with the same probability among age groups, as an indicator of driving frequency in place of accidents in which a driver is hit from behind (rear-end collisions).
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0016
Marcos R. Gali, Renan R. M. Ozelo, Argemiro L. A. Costa, José Maria C. Dos Santos
Abstract This paper aims to discuss technically the global trend of labeling legislation and the reflections of governmental programs, such as Inovar Auto, on auto parts industry, in special, about ecolabel intended for tires, focusing advances on rolling resistance analyses and its influence on the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. It will be presented analytical models and theirs respective predicted results to support tire development and researches regarding fuel consumption.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0025
Frederico A. A. Barbieri, Vinicius de Almeida Lima, Leandro Garbin, Joel Boaretto
Abstract Brazil presents a very diverse road and traffic conditions and due to several factors the number of truck accidents is very high. Inside truck accidents group, the one that causes the highest number of losses and fatalities is the rollover crash and understanding rollover dynamics is very important to prevent such events. The diversity of cargo vehicles arrangements requires a detailed study regarding the dynamic behavior these vehicle combinations in order to increase operation safety. The same tractor unit can be used with different types and numbers of trailers and/or semi-trailers, each one with different suspension configurations. These truck combinations have distinct dynamic performances that need evaluation. In this sense, this work presents a first phase study on the dynamic behavior of different types of cargo vehicle configuration. A 6×2 tractor is combined with a two distinct grain semi-trailer with different types of suspension: pneumatic and leaf spring. The study is conducted in order to verify the difference in dynamic behavior and the resulting stability of the two configurations in different conditions of speed and maneuvers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0939
Sanjeev Kumar, Deepak Katyal, Amit Singh
Abstract Recent advancement in numerical solutions and advanced computational power has given a new dimension to the design and development of new products. The current paper focuses on the details of work done in order to improve the vehicle performance in Offset deformable Barrier (ODB) crash as per ECER-94. A Hybrid approach involving the Structural Crash CAE as well as Multi-body Simulation in MADYMO has been adopted. In first phase of the development, CAE results of Structural deformation as well as Occupant injury of the baseline model were correlated with physical test data. The second phase includes the improvement in intrusion and crash energy absorption by structural countermeasures in the vehicle body. In third phase parametric study has been carried out via Madymo simulation in order to decide on the factors which can be controlled in order to mitigate the Occupant injury. Recommendations of Madymo simulation have been confirmed by conducting Physical sled tests. Finally a cost and weight effective countermeasure package which involves the modification in Body structure and Restraint system has been developed in order to comply with the ECE R-94 offset crash regulation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0961
Alan R. Wedgewood, Patrick Granowicz, Zhenyu Zhang
Abstract Materials used in automotive components play a key role in providing crash safety to passengers and pedestrians. DuPont's lightweight hybrid material technology, which combines injection molded fiber reinforced plastics with drape molded woven composite materials, provides safety engineers with stiff energy absorbing alternatives. In an effort to validate the hybrid material's crash performance while avoiding expensive crash testing, numerical tools and methodologies are applied in evaluation of a hybrid composite test beam. Multi-scale material models capturing nonlinear strain-rate dependency, anisotropic characteristics, and failure criteria, are calibrated on a fiber reinforced plastic and a woven fabric. The fiber orientation and warp/weft angles were extracted from injection and drape molding simulation. The material laws and orientation information are coupled in a single finite element analysis to predict the performance of the hybrid composite beam under a dynamic three point bending load.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0859
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Changfu Zong, Jian Wu
Abstract This paper first presents an algorithm to detect tire blowout based on wheel speed sensor signals, which either reduces the cost for a TPMS or provides a backup in case it fails, and a tire blowout model considering different tire pressure is also built based on the UniTire model. The vehicle dynamic model uses commercial software CarSim. After detecting tire blowout, the active braking control, based on a 2DOF reference model, determines an optimal correcting yaw moment and the braking forces that slow down and stop the vehicle, based on a linear quadratic regulator. Then the braking force commands are further translated into target pressure command for each wheel cylinder to ensure the target braking forces are generated. Some simulations are conducted to verify the active control strategy. From the simulation results, it is shown that this active brake control strategy can not only ensure the flat tire vehicle stability, but also slow down the vehicle with a safe speed and for a shorter distance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0857
Erdem Uzunsoy, Emmanuel Bolarinwa, Oluremi Olatunbosun, Rui He
Abstract Sloped medians provide a run-off area for errant vehicles so that they can be safely stopped off-road with or without barriers placed in the sloped median. However, in order to optimize the design of sloped medians and the containment barriers, it is essential to accurately model the behavior of vehicles on such sloped terrain surfaces. In this study, models of a vehicle fleet comprising a small sedan and a pickup truck and sloped terrain surface are developed in CarSim™ to simulate errant vehicle behavior on sloped median. Full-scale crash tests were conducted using the vehicle fleet driven across a 9.754 meters wide median with a 6:1 slope at speeds ranging from 30 to 70 km/h. Measured data such as the lateral accelerations of the vehicle as well as chassis rotations (roll and pitch) were synchronized with the vehicle motion obtained from the video data. The measured responses were compared with responses obtained from simulation in CarSim™ to validate the vehicle and slope terrain models.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0794
Yuanyuan Zhang, Shen Wu, Yuliang Shi, Jingang Tu, Jingguo Hu
Abstract The design of front rail is very important to vehicle safety performance. The test and CAE analysis are commonly used methods for design on the component level. Based on experience of impact test designed to simulate the performance of rail in vehicle rigid wall frontal impact, an inclined test is designed to simulate the performance of rail in vehicle offset deformable barrier impact. Two LS-DYNA computer simulation models are established including the effects of plastic strain rate, spot-weld failure, and stamping hardening. The deformation and mechanical properties are studied. The simulation results are correlated to the component tests very well in both cases. The usual impact test and inclined impact test for component rail can represent the main features of the rail performances in the vehicle frontal impact and offset impact respectively. Both of the simulation method and the component test method can support the early stage design for vehicle crash safety.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0806
Shweta Rawat, Soumya Kanta Das
Abstract With the ever increasing emphasis on vehicle occupant safety, the safety of pedestrians is getting obscured behind the A-pillars that are expanding in order to meet the federal roof crush standards. The serious issue of pillar blind spots poses threats to the pedestrians who easily disappear from driver's field of view. To recognize this blinding danger and design the car around the driver's eye, this paper proposes the implementation of Aluminum Oxynitride marked under name AlON by Surmet Corporation for fabrication of A-pillars that can allow more than 80% visibility through them. AlON is a polycrystalline ceramic with cubic spinel crystal structure and is composed of aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. With hardness more than 85% than sapphire, its applications range from aerospace to defense purposes which qualify it in terms of strength and thus imply that it can be conveniently used as A-pillars in vehicles. Furthermore, it possesses characteristics of being bonded to metals as well.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0819
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, David Good, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony
Abstract According to pedestrian crash data from 2010-2011 the U.S. General Estimates System (GES) and the Fatality Analysis Report System (FARS), more than 39% of pedestrian crash cases occurred at night and poor lighting conditions. The percentage of pedestrian fatalities in night conditions is over 77%. Therefore, evaluating the performance of pedestrian pre-collision systems (PCS) at night is an essential part of the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation. The Transportation Active Safety Institute (TASI) of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) is conducting research for the establishment of PCS test scenarios and procedures in collaboration with Toyota's Collaborative Safety Research Center. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of a reconfigurable road lighting system to support the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation for night road lighting conditions. First, the test conditions of the road lighting (light intensity and uniformity) are generated by combining recommendations from road lighting design standards and the average measured lighting levels at various crash locations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0810
Youmei Zhao
The Hybrid III 50th male dummy is widely used in front impact crash tests in the world to evaluate the vehicle safety performance. The chest impact calibration test should be conducted after certain amount of crash tests to ensure that the dummy has the right performance during the crash tests. The impact velocity in the current chest calibration tests is 6.71 m/s and the chest displacement corridor is 63.5 mm to 72.6 mm, which was based on the cadaver tests carried out in 1970s. After over forty years' development, the vehicle safety has been improved significantly with applications of seat belt and airbag technologies. In the European and China new car assessment program (ENCAP and CNCAP), the higher performance limit for the front impact dummy chest compression is 22mm and the lower performance limit is 50 mm, which is much lower than the dummy chest calibration corridor. In this paper, the dummy rib assembly structure is analyzed and the rib impact FEA simulation was also conducted.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0811
Horst Lanzerath, Niels Pasligh
Abstract Structural adhesives are widely used across the automotive industry for several reasons like scale-up of structural performance and enabling multi-material and lightweight designs. Development engineers know in general about the effects of adding adhesive to a spot-welded structure, but they want to quantify the benefit of adding adhesives on weight reduction or structural performance. A very efficient way is to do that by applying analytical tools. But, in most of the relevant non-linear load cases the classical lightweight theory can only help to get a basic understanding of the mechanics. For more complex load cases like full car crash simulations, the Finite Element Method (FEM) with explicit time integration is being applied to the vehicle development process. In order to understand the benefit of adding adhesives to a body structure upfront, new FEM simulation tools need to be established, which must be predictive and efficient. Therefore new FEM crash methods for structural adhesives have been investigated and validated with the help of test results.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0826
Hang Yin, Weiming Zeng, Guobiao Yang, Songgang Li
Abstract When an object was subjected an impact loading, stress wave was produced in the object. Studying the regularity of stress-wave propagation was significant to the study of objects subjected to impact loading. When stress wave travelled in the object, principal stress on free boundary was useful to theoretical analysis and calculation. In this article, a new kind of dynamic photoelastic apparatus was used. Isochromatic and isoclinic of the object subjected to impact loading could be obtained combining dynamic photoelastic experiment and related test equipment. By analyzing the isoclinic, there would be a conclusion that the angle between the isoclinic and the free boundary was not 0°or 90°. So the values of the two principal stress on the boundary were all not 0. The result obtained from the electrometric method came to the same conclusion. Analysis showed the result of dynamic photoelastic method was compatible with the result of electrometric method. So the method in this article was feasible and accurate.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10008