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Viewing 1 to 30 of 11100
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9451
Marouen Hamdi, Drew Manica, Hung-Jue Sue
Abstract Brightness, transparency, and color impact critically the aesthetics of polymeric surfaces. They can significantly change the perception of common damages such as scratch and mar. Particularly, subtle mar damage is more dependent on surface perceptual properties. In this study, we investigate the impact of these attributes on scratch and mar visibility resistance of commercialized polymeric model systems frequently used in automotive industry. Twenty subjects were involved in a psychophysical test based on pairwise comparison, and results were treated using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. A tied ordinal weighted Euclidian MDS model was used to visualize the relational structures of mar perception space. Results show that scratch visibility resistance tends to decrease with dark, more transparent, and green surfaces. Mar perception was reasonably conceptualized by a two-dimensional MDS space.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1462
Haiyan Li, Xin Jin, Hongfei Zhao, Shihai Cui, Binghui Jiang, King H. Yang
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinetic responds and injury mechanisim. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Patameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, was analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0435
Koundinya Narasimha Kota, Bharath Sivanandham
Abstract Active roll control system offers better solution in improving the vehicle comfort and handling. There are various ways of active roll control system actuation like electrical, hydraulic and electro-hydraulic combination systems etc. For the current work, dual hydraulic actuator based active roll control mechanism is used. In this paper we have used integrated Model-In-Loop (MIL) based simulation approach to validate the active roll control system. Dual linear hydraulic actuators models and control logic for improving the roll dynamics of the vehicle is built using Matlab/Simulink. The desired car characteristics maneuver and road profiles are modeled in IPG Car maker(a Model in Loop based tool). Simulink model is integrated with Car Maker model for validating the performance in extreme cornering maneuvers, such as double steer step, slalom 18m, fishhook.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1360
John D. Bullough
Abstract Nighttime driving cannot be accomplished without vehicle headlighting. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the role of lighting on visual performance and in turn on nightttime driving safety in terms of crashes. Indirect impacts of lighting via comfort or other factors are less well understood, however. A two-part field study using real-world drivers of an instrumented vehicle was conducted to assess the potential role of oncoming headlight glare as a factor in driving behaviors that might be related to increased crash risks. In the first part of the study, drivers' behaviors when navigating through roadway intersections having different levels of crash risk were recorded in order to identify responses that were correlated with the risk level. In the second part, drivers were exposed to different levels of glare from oncoming headlights; several of the same risk-related behaviors identified in the first part of the study were exhibited.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1353
Michael G. Leffert
Abstract This paper compares the material consumption and fire patterns which developed on four nearly identical compact sedans when each was burned for exactly the same amount of time, but with different wind speed and direction during the burns. This paper will also compare the effects of environmental exposure to the fire patterns on the vehicles. The burn demonstrations were completed at an outdoor facility in southeast Michigan on four late model compact sedans. The wind direction was controlled by placing the subject vehicle with either the front facing into the wind, or rear facing into the wind. Two of the burns were conducted when the average observed wind speed was 5-6kph and two of the burns were conducted at an average observed wind speed of 19kph.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1380
Richard Young
Abstract Dingus and colleagues recently estimated the crash odds ratios (ORs) for secondary tasks in the Strategic Highway Research Program Phase 2 (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study. Their OR estimate for hand-held cell phone conversation (Talk) was 2.2, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.6 to 3.1. This Talk OR estimate is above 1, contrary to previous estimates below 1. A replication discovered two upward biases in their analysis methods. First, for video clips with exposure to a particular secondary task, Dingus and colleagues selected clips not only with exposure to that task, but often with concurrent exposure to other secondary tasks. However, for video clips without exposure to that task, Dingus and colleagues selected video clips without other secondary tasks. Hence, the OR estimate was elevated simply because of an imbalanced selection of video clips, not because of risk from a particular secondary task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Abstract Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly scan their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Abstract Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1400
Keyu Qian, Gangfeng Tan, Renjie Zhou, Binyu Mei, Wanyang XIA
Abstract Downhill mountain roads are the accident prone sections because of their complexity and variety. Drivers rely more on driving experience and it is very easy to cause traffic accidents due to the negligence or the judgment failure. Traditional active safety systems, such as ABS, having subjecting to the driver's visual feedback, can’t fully guarantee the downhill driving safety in complex terrain environments. To enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill, this study combines the characteristics of vehicle dynamics and the geographic information. Thus, through which the drivers could obtain the safety speed specified for his/her vehicle in the given downhill terrains and operate in advance to reduce traffic accidents due to driver's judgment failure and avoid the brake overheating and enhance the safety of vehicles in the downhill.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1399
Bin Wu, Xichan Zhu, Jianping Shen, Xuejun Cang, Lin li
Abstract A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1407
Helene G. Moorman, Andrea Niles, Caroline Crump, Audra Krake, Benjamin Lester, Laurene Milan, Christy Cloninger, David Cades, Douglas Young
Abstract Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems, along with other types of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), are becoming more common in passenger vehicles, with the general aim of improving driver safety through automation of various aspects of the driving task. Drivers have generally reported satisfaction with ADAS with the exception of LDW systems, which are often rated poorly or even deactivated by drivers. One potential contributor to this negative response may be an increase in the cognitive load associated with lane-keeping when LDW is in use. The present study sought to examine the relationship between LDW, lane-keeping behavior, and concurrent cognitive load, as measured by performance on a secondary task. Participants drove a vehicle equipped with LDW in a demarcated lane on a closed-course test track with and without the LDW system in use over multiple sessions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0407
Fei Huo, Huyao Wu
Abstract Biomechanics and biodynamics are increasingly focused on the automotive industry to provide comfortable driving environment, reduce driver fatigue, and improve passenger safety. Man-centered conception is a growing emphasis on the open design of automobile. During the long-term driving, occupational drivers are easily exposed to the neck pain, so it is important to reduce the muscle force load and its fatigue, which are not usually considered quantitatively during traditional ergonomics design, so standards related are not well developed to guide the vehicle design; On the other hand, the head-neck models are always built based on the statics theory, these are not sufficient to predict the instantaneous variation of the muscle force. In this paper, a head-neck model with multi DOFs is created based on multibody dynamics. Firstly, a driver-vehicle-road model considering driver multi-rigid body model, vehicle subsystems, and different ranks of pavement is built.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1428
Berkan Guleyupoglu, Ryan Barnard, F. Scott Gayzik
Abstract Computational modeling of the human body is increasingly used to evaluate countermeasure performance during simulated vehicle crashes. Various injury criteria can be calculated from such models and these can either be correlative (HIC, BrIC, etc.) or based on local deformation and loading (strain-based rib fracture, organ damage, etc.). In this study, we present a method based on local deformation to extract failed rib region data. The GHMBC M50-O model was used in a Frontal-NCAP severity sled simulation. Failed Rib Regions (FRRs) in the M50-O model are handled through element deletion once the element surpasses 1.8% effective strain. The algorithm central to the methodology presented extracts FRR data and requires 4-element connectivity to register a failure. Furthermore, the FRRs are localized to anatomical sections (Lateral, Anterior, and Posterior), rib level (1,2,3 etc.) and element strain data is recorded.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1436
Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
Abstract Various electronic control units from Kawasaki Ninja 300 motorcycles were tested in-situ in order to heuristically examine the capabilities and behavior of the event data recorders (EDR). The relevant hexadecimal data was downloaded from the ECU and translated using known and historically proven applications. The hexadecimal translations were then confirmed using data acquisition systems as well as the Kawasaki Diagnostic Software (KDS). Numerous tests were performed to establish the algorithms which cause the EDR to record data. It was determined that the EDR recording “trigger” was caused by the activation of the tip-over sensor, which in turn shuts the engine off. In addition, specific conditions must be met with regards to the rear wheel rotation prior to engine shut-down.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1457
Jingwen Hu, Nichole Ritchie Orton, Rebekah Gruber, Ryan Hoover, Kevin Tribbett, Jonathan Rupp, Dave Clark, Risa Scherer, Matthew Reed
Abstract Among all the vehicle rollover test procedures, the SAE J2114 dolly rollover test is the most widely used. However, it requires the test vehicle to be seated on a dolly with a 23° initial angle, which makes it difficult to test a vehicle over 5,000 kg without a dolly design change, and repeatability is often a concern. In the current study, we developed and implemented a new dynamic rollover test methodology that can be used for evaluating crashworthiness and occupant protection without requiring an initial vehicle angle. To do that, a custom cart was designed to carry the test vehicle laterally down a track. The cart incorporates two ramps under the testing vehicle’s trailing-side tires. In a test, the cart with the vehicle travels at the desired test speed and is stopped by a track-mounted curb.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1453
Sudip Sankar Bhattacharjee, Shahuraj Mane, Harsha Kusnoorkar, Sean Hwang, Matt Niesluchowski
Abstract Pedestrian protection assessment methods require multiple head impact tests on a vehicle’s hood and other front end parts. Hood surfaces are often lifted up by using pyrotechnic devices to create more deformation space prior to pedestrian head impact. Assessment methods for vehicles equipped with pyrotechnic devices must also validate that the hood deployment occurs prior to head impact event. Estimation of pedestrian head impact time, thus, becomes a critical requirement for performance validation of deployable hood systems. In absence of standardized physical pedestrian models, Euro NCAP recommends a list of virtual pedestrian models that could be used by vehicle manufacturers, with vehicle FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models, to predict the potential head impact time along the vehicle front end profile. FEA simulated contact time is used as target for performance validation of sensor and pyrotechnic deployable systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1459
HangMook Kim, Jae Kyu Lee, Jin Sang CHUNG
Abstract During a new vehicle development process, there are several requirements for side impact test that should be confirmed. One of the requirements is the prevention of door opening during side impact test. Even though there are many causes for door opening problem, this study deals with inertia effect by impact energy. Until now, there have been two classical methods to prevent car door from opening in side impact. One is the increment of the inertia resistance by increasing the mass of the balance weight and the spring force. The other is the application of the blocking lever. Unfortunately, in spite of our efforts, the door opening problem occurs occasionally. Therefore, to improve the problem fundamentally, this paper proposes a new blocking lever mechanism that work similar to ball-point pen structure. The proposed mechanism fixes the blocking lever when the opening directional inertia force is applied to the door outside handle during side crash.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1458
Tack Lam, B. Johan Ivarsson
Abstract Disc herniations in the spine are commonly associated with degenerative changes, and the prevalence increases with increasing age. With increasing number of older people on U.S. roads, we can expect an increase in clinical findings of disc herniations in occupants involved in rear impacts. Whether these findings suggest a causal relationship is the subject of this study. We examined the reported occurrence of all spine injuries in the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database from 1993 to 2014. There were over 4,000 occupants that fit the inclusion criteria. The findings in this study showed that, in the weighted data of 2.9 million occupants, the most common spine injury is an acute muscle strain of the neck, followed by strain of the low back. The delta-V of a rear impact is a reliable indicator of the rate of acute cervical strain in occupants exposed to such impacts.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1448
Kevin Pline, Derek Board, Nirmal Muralidharan, Srinivasan Sundararajan, Eric Eiswerth, Katie Salciccioli
Abstract Ford Motor Company introduced the automotive industry’s first second row inflatable seatbelt system in 2011. The system is currently available in the outboard seating positions of the second row of several Ford and Lincoln models. An important consideration for this system is the interaction with child restraint systems (CRS) when it is used to install a CRS or used in conjunction with belt position booster. A novel test methodology to assess the interaction of CRS with Ford and Lincoln inflatable seatbelts through frontal impact sled tests is explained. Details of test methods including construction of additional fixtures and hardware are highlighted. This procedure is designed to enable test labs capable of running Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 testing to adapt this test method, with minimal fabrication, by utilizing existing test benches.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1451
Jan Vychytil, Jan Spicka, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
Abstract In this paper a novel approach in developing a simplified model of a vehicle front-end is presented. Its surface is segmented to form an MBS model with hundreds of rigid bodies connected via translational joints to a base body. Local stiffness of each joint is calibrated using a headform or a legform impactor corresponding to the EuroNCAP mapping. Hence, the distribution of stiffness of the front-end is taken into account. The model of the front-end is embedded in a whole model of a small car in a simulation of a real accident. The VIRTHUMAN model is scaled in height, weight and age to represent precisely the pedestrian involved. Injury risk predicted by simulation is in correlation with data from real accident. Namely, injuries of head, chest and lower extremities are confirmed. Finally, mechanical response of developed vehicle model is compared to an FE model of the same vehicle in a pedestrian impact scenario.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1460
Nitesh Jadhav, Linda Zhao, Senthilkumar Mahadevan, Bill Sherwood, Krishnakanth Aekbote, Dilip Bhalsod
Abstract The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1301
Deepak A. Patil, Hrishikesh Buddhe
Abstract Frontal collisions account for majority of car accidents. Various measures have been taken by the automotive OEMs’ with regards to passive safety. Honeycomb meso-structural inserts in the front bumper have been suggested to enhance the energy absorption of the front structure which is favorable for passive safety. This paper presents the changes in energy absorption capacity of hexagonal honeycomb structures with varying cellular geometries; under frontal impact simulations. Honeycomb cellular metamaterial structure offers many distinct advantages over homogenous materials since their effective material properties depend on both, their constituent material properties and their cell geometric configurations. The effective static mechanical properties such as; the modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio of the honeycomb cellular meso-structures are controlled by variations in their cellular geometry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1355
Paul H. DeMarois, Bill Pappas, William G. Ballard, Jeffrey R. Williams, Gregory West
Abstract Four full scale burn tests on aluminum body Ford F-150’s were conducted with four unique origins. The purpose of these burn tests was to determine if the origin of the fire could be accurately identified after the vehicle fires progressed to near complete burn (with near absence of the aluminum body panels). The points of origin for the four burn tests were: 1) Engine Compartment - driver’s side front of engine compartment, 2) Passenger Compartment - Instrument panel, driver’s side near the headlamp switch, 3) Passenger Compartment - passenger side rear seat, 4) Outside of Vehicle - passenger side front tire. Photographic, video, and temperature data was recorded to document the burn process from initiation to extinguishment. Post-fire analysis was conducted in an attempt to determine the origin of the fire based solely on the burn damage.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1466
Claudia De La Torre, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero, Andreas Sprick
Abstract Studies in the EU and the USA found higher deformation and occupant injuries in frontal crashes when the vehicle was loaded outboard (frontal crashes with a small overlap). Due to that, in 2012 the IIHS began to evaluate the small overlap front crashworthiness in order to solve this problem.A set of small overlap tests were carried out at IDIADA’s (Institute of Applied Automotive Research ) passive safety laboratory and the importance of identifying the forces applied in each structural element involved in small overlap crash were determined. One of the most important structural elements in the small overlap test is the wheel. Its interaction in a small overlap crash can modify the vehicle interaction at the crash, which at the laboratory the interaction is with a barrier. That interaction has a big influence at the vehicle development and design strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1675
Genís Mensa, Núria Parera, Alba Fornells
Abstract Nowadays, the use of high-speed digital cameras to acquire relevant information is a standard for all laboratories and facilities working in passive safety crash testing. The recorded information from the cameras is used to develop and improve the design of vehicles in order to make them safer. Measurements such as velocities, accelerations and distances are computed from high-speed images captured during the tests and represent remarkable data for the post-crash analysis. Therefore, having the exact same position of the cameras is a key factor to be able to compare all the values that are extracted from the images of the tests carried out within a long-term passive safety project. However, since working with several customers involves a large amount of different cars and tests, crash facilities have to readapt for every test mode making it difficult for them to reproduce the correct and precise position of the high-speed cameras throughout the same project.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0051
Jean GODOT, Adil ALIF, Sébastien Saudrais, Bertrand BARBEDETTE, Cherif LAROUCI
The assessment of the safety and the reliability for embedded systems is mainly performed early in the design cycle, at system level. The objective is to detect the potential failures which could lead to an undesirable event. Given the increasing critical aspect of the functions executed by the software in automotive and aeronautics, it becomes necessary to perform safety analysis at lower level of the design cycle such as at implementation stage. But, software models at this stage are complex and heterogeneous so the analysis are often manually realized. As the software models are also very large (thousands of basic software components), the analysis is labor-intensive and error-prone so it is not obvious to obtain relevant results. Therefore, the analysis on software models at implementation stage is often neglected.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for ASIL-D-Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. The ISO 26262 provides the possibility to apply decomposition approach for ASIL-D safety requirements. An appropriate decomposition has the advantage to reduce the ASIL rating of the top events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1195
Masahiro Kimoto
Abstract SAE standards require the function of a Manual Service Disconnect (MSD), when open, to remove any voltage between positive and negative Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) output terminals. Another SAE standard specifies that measured voltage across all external battery terminal sets shall be less than 60 VDC within 5 seconds after the manual disconnect is actuated with the automatic disconnect (e.g., contactors) closed. In this paper, the location of the manual service disconnect is reviewed to meet isolation requirement of the battery pack system (i.e., RESS). Battery architectures with manual service disconnect located at the most positive side, most negative side, and center of the array or the pack were studied. Voltage measurement points and single point failure modes were considered. It was found that MSD location for a single contactor pack is most effective in reducing voltage potential at the terminals when placed on the other side of the contactor.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 11100