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Viewing 1 to 30 of 10304
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2832
Keith Friedman, John Hutchinson, Khahn Bui, Matthew Stephens, Alyssa Schmidt
The incidence of fire in heavy trucks has been shown to be about ten times higher under crash conditions than occurs in passenger vehicles. Fuel tank protection testing defined in J703 was originally issued in 1954. Advanced virtual testing of current and alternative fuel tank designs and locations under example representative impact conditions is reported.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2838
Dharmar Ganesh
In-vehicle displays such as an instrument cluster in a vehicle provide vital information to the user. The information in terms of displays and tell-tales needs to be perceived by the user with minimal glance during driving. Drivers must recognize the condition of the vehicle and the state of its surroundings through primarily visual means. Drivers then process this in the brain, draw on their memory to identify problem situations, decide on a plan of action and execute it in order to avoid an accident. There are visual hindrances seen in real world scenario such as obscuration, reflection and glare on the instrument cluster which prevents the vital information flow from vehicle to the driver. In order to ensure safety while driving, the instrument cluster or driver displays should be placed in an optimized location. This paper deals with how to achieve a visual hindrance free cluster position in a vehicle to protect the important information flow from the vehicle to the driver.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2868
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower
This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness and investigate regulations and industry trends in relation to truck occupant protection. The paper provides analysis of truck driver casualties in crashes to provide a better understanding of injury mechanisms and to review regulatory and industry initiatives concerned with reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit vehicles in the NHTSA Class 7 & 8 weight range. The study used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2869
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep sharma, Umashanker Gupta, Ravi Joshi, shailesh pawar
Buses are one of the main and favorite sources of public transit in India. Thousands of people die or injure severely every year due to Bus accidents. Passenger injury in Bus accidents can be due to high stiff seat structures. Most of the occupants seated in the second row or further back were injured by hitting the seat back in the row in front of them. AIS023 (AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY STANDARDS) is one of the several mandatory standards from CMVR (CENTRAL MOTOR VEHICLES RULES) to ensure the safety during crash. As per AIS-023 passenger seat of bus should not cause injury because of high stiffness, on the other hand seat should also be able to carry the passenger force during accidents. With this mechanism AIS023 specifies minimum and maximum range deformations of seat back to minimize the passenger injury. This study includes the FE (Finite Element) analysis and design of Bus seat as per AIS023 test setup with LS-Dyna explicit tool.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2873
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep sharma, Sanjay Tiwari, Umashanker Gupta
Years ago the main purpose of heavy duty truck is to carrying the loads, in the current scenario cabin comfort and safety is also equally important. With the improved infrastructure quality the average speed of these types of vehicle has also been increased. With the higher average speed, the chances of getting crash have also been increased. In order to provide safety to the driver, all the safety parameters should be considered in advance at the time of design and development of cabin. Sufficient survival space must be present at the time of crash. In order to provide optimum ride comfort, fully suspended cab was designed. The main aim of this study is to develop detailed 3D finite element (FE) model of fully suspended heavy duty truck cabin with detailed suspensions system and simulate crash test scenario presented in regulation ECE-R29 using LS-Dyna explicit solver.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2470
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini, Alessandro Gardi
Cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) functions are key enablers for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2469
Reece Clothier, Brendan Williams, Achim Washington
One on the primary hazards associated with the operation of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) is the controlled or uncontrolled impact of the UA with terrain or objects on the terrain (e.g., people or structures). National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) have the responsibility of ensuring that the risks associated with this hazard are managed to an acceptable level. The NAA can mandate a range of technical (e.g., design standards) and operational (e.g., restrictions on flight) regulatory requirements. However, work to develop these regulations for UA is ongoing. Underpinning this rule-making process is a safety case showing how the regulatory requirements put in place ensure that the UA operation is acceptably safe for the given application and environment.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2471
Alessandro Ceruti, Simone Curatolo, Alessandro Bevilacqua, Piergiovanni Marzocca
The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2443
Nivedita Chanda
Aircrafts use Transponder for transmitting data to Air Traffic Control. Transponders automatically transmit a unique four-digit code when they receive a radio signal sent by radar. Code gives the plane's identity and radar stations establish speed and direction by monitoring successive transmissions. This data is then relayed to air traffic controllers. However, the aircraft mishaps have risen alarmingly in the past few decades resulting in unpredictable losses of human lives, nature, economically along with commotion of systems. This has necessitated active research work to fundamentally design better and effective systems. At present, there is no evident redundant system to transponder unlike in case of Power-Plants, three-fold reliable, safety cum redundant power supply system are present.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
From the dawn of commercial air travel until 2001, labor costs loomed as the greatest expense in commercial aviation. Though fuel costs have since taken the top spot, labor costs remain a pressing area of concern in the airline industry. Airlines have long sought to reduce the burden of labor to improve the businesses’ bottom line. One of their most frequent appeals has been to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Under-educated on the true failure rates, bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories about pilots becoming ill or falling asleep in the flight deck. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2441
Ahmet Oztekin
Air Traffic Control System (ATCS) provides organizational, operational, and technical infrastructure necessary to maintain air traffic separation and prevent collision between aircraft operating within civil airspace. Current aviation safety research focuses mainly on aircraft and human vs. machine interactions. There is a gap in literature regarding research that explores ATCS’s potential impact on aviation safety. For complex systems, such as ATCS, safety is primarily a product of potential interactions among its various sub-systems. For example, over the phases of flight, separation of air traffic is maintained by different types of air traffic control (ATC) facilities. This paper outlines an analytical framework to perform a data-driven, risk-based assessment of ATC facilities. Safety associated with an ATC facility is modeled as an influence network using a set of risk factors.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2478
Tobias Kreitz, Riko Bornholdt, Matthias Krings, Karsten Henning, Frank Thielecke
The paradigm shift to focus on an enhancement of existing aircraft systems raises the question which of the many possible incremental improvements results in an advantageous solution still considering all existing requirements. Hence, new methodologies for aircraft system design are a prerequisite to cope with such huge and complex design spaces. In the case of flight control system optimization, major design variables are the control surface configuration and actuation, as well as their functional allocation. Possible architecture topologies have to be verified i.a. with respect to system safety requirements. In this context, flight dynamic characteristics and handling qualities of the fully operational as well as several degraded system states of each topology have to be evaluated and checked against common specifications. Here, a model-based verification of the requirements is favorable, resulting in a rapid reduction of the design space.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2385
Richard C. Millar
At the Naval Postgraduate School, the faculty & students have exploited the flexibility and cost effectiveness of UAS as experimental flight test platforms, but this has recently been impeded by a ruling that these flights must comply with the NAVAIR interim flight clearance (IFC) process and procedures. The research project described and discussed in this presentation & publication was initiated to rapidly come to grips with this problem, identify mitigations and demonstrate a method to satisfy the need of all parties. The initial phase exposed mismatches in NPS design & analysis capability and the requirements of the contrasting developmental modes and resources, but also highlighted the procedural flexibility of the UAS developmental model. The need for a more effective but suitable process for managing small UAS flight test risks was recognized.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2392
Matthew Marino, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
This paper gives the concepts and mathematically models required for the development of the Multi Objective Trajectory Optimization (MOTO) functionalities to be implemented into the next generation of ATM system. MOTO algorithms are introduced whereby data from various sources are utilized to optimize flight paths for various user defined objectives. The algorithms require digital resources of weather, aircraft data, meteorological maps and air traffic. These will be used in conjunction with various mathematical models to compute trajectories that minimize various objectives such as fuel, emissions and operational cost. The automated 4D trajectory computation algorithms are restricted to single flight level to not violate the current layered vertical air route structure for the cruise phase of flight.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2458
Giuseppe Sirigu, Manuela Battipede, Piero Gili, Mario Cassaro
The revolution of the air traffic system, started with the introduction of the 4-Dimentional Trajectories (4DTs), imposes the development of new class of Flight Management Systems (FMS), capable of solving a constrained non-linear optimization problem to provide the aircraft with real time reference flight parameters, necessary to fly the aircraft through a predefined sequence of waypoints, while minimizing fuel consumption, noise and pollution emissions. The main goal is to guarantee safety operations through the aircraft separation and sequencing while reducing the aircraft environmental impact, according to the international research programs like SESAR, Clean Sky and NextGen. The actual challenge is to meet these requirements with minimum modifications of the avionic systems. This goal is achieved by developing a FMS that uses the existing aircraft autopilot suite in order to follow the calculated reference trajectory.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2520
Thabet Kacem, Jeronymo Carvalho, Duminda Wijesekera, Paulo Costa, Márcio Monteiro, Alexandre Barreto
Since its emergence, Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) has been considered as a major contribution to air traffic control (ATC) surveillance. However, despite the several benefits that this promising technology has to offer, it suffers from a major security flaw since ADS-B packets are sent in clear text without enforcing any kind of security property. In this paper, we enhance a security framework, which we describe in a previous paper, aiming at detecting and mitigating attacks targeting ADS-B protocol, with a cognitive engine. First, this would facilitate the physical risk assessment of the ADS-B attacks based on the collected data describing the aircraft and its surrounding. Second, it would be beneficial to the ATC controllers who would have a better idea about the best ways to optimize the aircraft taking off and touching down without any disruptions from possible attacks targeting this technology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2436
Anapathur V. Ramesh
Fault-tolerance in commercial aircraft applications is typically achieved by redundancy. Dual or triple redundancy is common, and higher redundancy aircraft systems exist. This is also true for the Military, Defense and Space vehicles. In many cases the backups are provided for safety, and are used only to provide functionality when the primary fails. In such systems the primary component is checked before the start of a flight to see if it operates correctly. The aircraft will not take off unless the primary is functioning. Usually backup components are checked at intervals that span multiple flights. The first backup may be checked more frequently than the second or higher levels. This leads to flights where the system could have latent faults in the backup components. The probability of failure in such cases varies from flight to flight due to the different exposure times for components in the system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2536
Rinky Babul Prasad, Vinukonda Siddartha
Recent years have seen a rise in the number of air crashes and on board fatalities. Statistics reveal that human error constitutes upto 56% of these incidents. This can be attributed to the ever growing air traffic and technological advancements in the field of aviation, leading to an increase in the electronic and mechanical controls in the cockpit. Accidents occur when pilots misinterpret gauges, weather conditions, fail to spot mechanical faults or carry out inappropriate actions. Currently, pilots rely on flight manuals (hard copies or an electronic tablet) to respond to an emergency. This is prone to human error or misinterpretation. Also, a considerable amount of time is spent in seeking, reading, interpreting and implementing the corrective action. The proposed head mount assist for the pilot eliminates flight manuals, by virtually guiding the pilot in responding to in-flight necessities.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2538
Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
With the currently foreseen growth of air traffic globally, the effects of aircraft condensation trails (contrails) are predicted to become significant by 2050. Currently, the physics behind the formation of contrails is relatively well understood. However, research regarding the persistence or dissipation timescales of contrails is still ongoing, with particular focus on their evolution into cirrus clouds, since these clouds have been shown to contribute to global warming. Currently, the formation of cirrus is believed to be affected by the microphysics of contrail formation and possibly by wind shear. In the aviation industry, there is an ongoing progress in the development of an integrated flight management/air traffic management system to account for contrail mitigation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2456
Roberto Sabatini, Terry Moore, Chris Hill
The integration of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) integrity augmentation functionalities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) architectures has the potential to provide an integrity-augmented DAA solution suitable for cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios. In this paper, we evaluate the opportunities offered by this integration, proposing a novel approach that maximizes the synergies between Avionics Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) and UAV cooperative/non-cooperative DAA architectures. In the proposed architecture, the risk of collision is evaluated by setting a threshold on the Probability Density Function (PDF) of a Near Mid-Air Collision (NMAC) event over the separation area in both cooperative and non-cooperative cases.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2590
Yufei Lin, Zakwan Skaf, Ian Jennions
In the past few decades aircraft systems have become increasingly more complex, and require continuous monitoring and real-time assessment during operation. Under these conditions, it is obvious that the next generation of airplanes will undergo substantial changes and will make significant technical progress to improve operational safety and efficiency. This vision is entirely consistent with the adoption of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology which uses merging of interdisciplinary trends to carry out safe and effective vehicle operation. Hitherto, IVHM has made much progress in the realm of maintenance, but little on operational safety assessment issue. Current existing operational safety assessment methods commonly work at subsystem level, i.e. without safety information exchange amongst related subsystems, and do not consider environmental factors. This paper therefore discusses the issues around operational safety assessment in aviation industry.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2556
Thomas Rousselin, Guillaume Hubert, Didier Regis, Marc Gatti
The changes brought by the increasing integration density and the new technological trends have pushed the reliability at its limit. Safety analysis for critical system such as embedded electronics for avionics systems needs to take into account these changes. In this paper, we present the consequences on the Deep Sub-Micron (DSM) CMOS devices concerning their single event effect (SEE) sensitivity. We also propose a new modeling method in order to address these issues.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2429
Rickard Olsen, Kerstin Johansen, Magnus Engstrom
The diffusion of human and robotics in manufacturing system is one of the next steps in robotics. Since the computer power gets more and more powerful there is more and more possible to achieve safer working environment. This could lead to a possibility to work closer and more direct with a robot. In an EU FW7 funded project called LOCOMACHs (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) there are studies and tests to support a future higher TRL-leveled HMI-cell (Human Machine Interaction). The main object in this paper is to present how different safety system could help the HMI-cell to work properly in an industrial context, this when the operator enters the robot working area and working with a task that needs two hand. Safety defines as when its risk is judged to be acceptable.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2435
Ramakrishnan Murthy
One major problem that any product (say Motor, engines etc) which converts electrical energy into a mechanical energy would have is resonance. It has tendency to damage any material when the products operating frequency matches the resonant frequency. The major consequences of this resonant frequency in Flight at run-time could be catostrophic. Generally it is a practice to avoid running at the resonant frequency. This is done as a fixed method where the systems are designed not to run on resonant frequency, i.e. a subsystem in a system is now being designed for that system alone which will not match the resonant frequency. But the same subsystem may not be suitable for some other system. Hence this requires multiple designs. However this idea is to make a design generic where any subsystem can be used in any system irrespective of its resonant frequency. The technique uses the PID algorithm. This method will be helpful is having a single design for different systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2539
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Matthew Marino, Trevor Kistan
The potential benefits offered by advanced aircraft navigation technologies will be ultimately exploited only through the dynamic allocation of resources in a highly automated airspace. In this respect, the deployment of Four Dimensional Trajectory (4DT) functionalities in an Intent Based Operations (IBO) environment is envisaged as a fundamental enabler of future Air Traffic Management (ATM) services. The 4DT-IBO, in turn, are requiring the introduction of novel Communications, Navigation and Surveillance and ATM (CNS/ATM) systems, enabling the migration from traditional voice communications to data-driven negotiation and validation functions. A novel ground-based 4DT Planning, Negotiation and Validation (4-PNV) system is being developed in conjunction with Next Generation Flight Management Systems (NG-FMS) and Mission Management Systems (NG-MMS) for integration into the future air traffic scenario.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2544
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini
Novel Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems are currently developed, in line with the roadmap defined by large-scale research initiatives including Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) in Europe, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in US, and other programmes worldwide. The demand for improved safety, integrity and efficiency due to the rapid expansion of global air transport and the growing concern for environmental sustainability issues poses significant challenges on the development of CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems. High-integrity and high-reliability mission- and safety-critical ATM and avionic systems are therefore required in the context of Four Dimensional (4D) Trajectory Based Operations / Intent Based Operations (TBO/IBO).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2621
Douglas Leicht
Aviation regulations requires that engine mounts, and other flight structures located in designated fire zones must be constructed of fireproof material so that they are capable of withstanding the effects of fire. Historically, steel is defined as being inherently fireproof, however, titanium was not. Therefore, a fireproof test was conducted using 6AL-4V titanium structure for the attachment of the propulsion system on a mid-size business jet to satisfy FAA Federal Aviation Requirement 25.865. To determine if the titanium structure would be able to support normal operating loads during the fire event, finite element analysis was performed on the titanium structure simulating the fire test. The fire test simulates a fire on the aircraft from the propulsion system by using a burner with jet fuel exposing the component to a 2000 deg F flame. The 2000 deg F Flame is calibrated based on FAA Advisory Circular AC20-135.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2112
Thomas Schlegl, Michael Moser, Hubert Zangl
Abstract We present a wireless sensor system for temperature measurement and icing detection for the use on aircraft. The sensors are flexible (i.e. bendable), truly wireless, do not require scheduled maintenance, and can be attached easily to almost any point on the aircraft surface (e.g. wings, fuselage, rudder, elevator, etc.). With a sensor thickness of less than two millimeters at the current state of development, they hardly affect the aero dynamical behavior of the structure. In this paper, we report laboratory and field results for temperature measurement and icing detection.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2082
Andreas Tramposch, Wolfgang Hassler, Reinhard F.A. Puffing
Abstract Certain operating modes of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of passenger aircraft are accompanied with significant ice particle accretion in a number of pivotal parts of the system. Icing conditions particularly prevail downstream of the air conditioning packs and, as a consequence, ice particle accretion takes place in the Pack Discharge Duct (PDD) and in the mixing manifold. For a better understanding of these icing processes, numerical simulations using a multiphase model based on a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport model in a generic PDD were performed. The obstruction of the PDD due to ice growth and the resulting change of the flow geometry were treated by deforming the computational mesh during the CFD simulations. In addition to the numerical investigations, a generic and transparent PDD was studied experimentally under several operating conditions in FH JOANNEUM's icing wind tunnel.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2081
Hossein Habibi, Graham Edwards, Liang Cheng, Haitao Zheng, Adam Marks, Vassilios Kappatos, Cem Selcuk, Tat-Hean Gan
Abstract Icing conditions in cold regions of the world may cause problems for wind turbine operations, since accreted ice can reduce the efficiency of power generation and create concerns regarding ice-shedding. This paper covers modelling studies and some experimental development for an ongoing ice protection system that provides both deicing and anti-icing actions for wind turbine blades. The modelling process contained two main sections. The first part involved simulation of vibrations with very short wavelength or ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) on the blade to determine optimal excitation frequency and transducer configuration. This excitation creates horizontal shear stress at the interface between ice and blade and focuses energy at the leading edge for de-bonding ice layers.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10304