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Viewing 1 to 30 of 10048
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0123
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Pornporm Boonporm, Nuksit Noomwongs, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Sanya Klongnaivai, Petch Wuttimanop
The road related accident is major problem around the world and especially in Thailand. Generally, root cause of car accident come from vehicle, road and human factor. Furthermore, the most important part that account the safety of vehicle is human. With experiences and careful driver, the accident could be diminished. The monitor system would help the regulator to manage the driver and improve the safety on the road. Conventionally, the IMU - inertia measurement unit is used. Recently, the satellite navigation system has  more accurate and performance as proofed in earlier investigation for driver behavior detection. In this study, the consumer grade U-blox M8N satellite navigation receivers were tested with Racelogic Velocity Box system within controlled condition tested track. The vehicle dynamic (longitudinal acceleration and lateral acceleration) has evaluated.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0124
Raksit Thitipatanapong, Pornporm Boonporm, Nuksit Noomwongs, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Sanya Klongnaivai, Petch Wuttimanop
The road related accident is major problem around the world and especially in Thailand. Generally, root cause of car accident come from vehicle, road and human factor. Furthermore, the most important part that account the safety of vehicle is human. With experiences and careful driver, the accident could be diminished. In this study, the consumer grade U-blox M8N satellite navigation receivers were tested with Racelogic Video V-Box system within controlled condition tested track. The incidents were virtually reviewed. Furthermore, the incident detection algorithm were proposed and tested alongside with receivers. As results, the vehicle dynamic from both receivers were correlated with virtually count. With incident detection algorithm that cut off at 0.25g in both lateral and longitudinal accelerations were detected and the number of incidents were same as references.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0166
Rakesh Kumar, Aditya Malladi, Sridhar lingan Sr
For the purpose of effective occupant restraint, seat belt anchorage test is required to prevent any failure at anchorage locations during vehicle crash. In India seat belt anchorages (SBA) certification test is mandatory for M and N types of category vehicles with regards to forward and rearward facing seats in the vehicle. During the development phase failure at seat anchorage location was observed in physical test, which resulted in vehicle not meeting the regulatory requirement. This phenomenon of anchorage failure was captured through FE simulations and correlation was done to understand the root cause of failure for future development. CAE based design proposals were developed by considering various parameters which influence the load path and force distribution at seat belt and seat anchorage locations. This paper talks about a detailed study done to estimate effects of variation in design, material and thickness properties at anchorage locations.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0209
Ludek Hyncik, Jan Spicka, Jaroslav Manas, Jan Vychytil
The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety technology by the virtual approach using biomechanical human body models. The goal of the paper is to exploit the previously developed scaling algorithm to create several virtual human bodies of a given age and proportions, to validate them and to assess their stature dependent response. Based on a validated reference model, the previously developed scaling algorithm develops virtual human body models for given height, mass, age and gender. Particular body segments are scaled based on the anthropometrical database concerning the body dimensions taking also percentiles into account. The body stiffness is driven by age dependent flexindex. Several virtual models of human bodies representing particular cadavers were generated via the automatic scaling algorithm. The frontal sled test response of the models was successfully compared to the experimental data.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0167
Thomas Lich, Girikumar Kumaresh, Joerg Moennich
Around one in four deaths that occurs on the road in India involves a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of road transport and highways, Government of India 2012. Nearly 26 % of the fatalities (~ 33 873 people) are from powered two wheelers which constitute the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India. European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver traveling the same route. An investigation conducted by Bosch based on the RASSI accident database (Road Accident Sampling System for India), revels interesting facts of Indian powered two wheeler (PTW) riders behaviour and their braking patterns during the precrash phase of the accident. This research is undertaken to evaluate the benefit of modern vehicle safety systems like a PTW Antilock-Braking System (ABS) which are essential to avoid accidents.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0171
Niraj Singh, Ruhi Thakur, Mathew Cyriac
With the change in the perspective of the Customers towards safer vehicles, most of the Vehicle manufacturers in India are making their vehicles Crash compliant. According to the accidental data collection, Side crashes are second leading cause to death after Frontal crash. Currently sub system level tests are done for evaluating the safety performance of the vehicle. One of such sub system level test is Quasi-static side door intrusion Test. The primary purpose of this testing is to measure the Force-deflection characteristics by intrusion of the impactor into the vehicle. These characteristics are controlled by various door components like door beam, latch & striker, hinge etc. This article studies the relation between Side door intrusion and Side collision, effect of above mentioned components on this relation. A theoretical study is done to study this relationship and it is substantiated with experimental data.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0177
Mandip Goswami, Prashant SAXENA, Shashi Bhushan
Automotive OEMs, the world over, have always given high priority for the luggage area of the vehicle. This area primarily consists of the luggage board or luggage carpet for keeping luggage and various other items. Most OEMs also provide an additional structure known as the parcel shelf or parcel tray. This part has varied usage, depending upon the OEM, ranging from holding light weight items, providing support and even as a part for covering the luggage area which looks aesthetically pleasing. In a country like India, the parcel shelf generally attracts unwanted high load storage. A majority of the solutions to this problem have been in the form of part thickness increase leading to subsequent increase in weight and cost, the two major concern areas for all auto manufacturers. A strong, but light-weight and cost effective solution is, hence, desired through innovation in design, material and manufacturing process.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0186
Mohitkumar R. Chauhan, Girish Kotwal, Abhijeet Majge
Numerical Simulation of Tire and Wheel Assembly Impact Test using Finite Element Method M R Chauhan1 Prof. G N Kotwal2 A S Majage3 1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, VIT, Pune, India 3Finite Four Technologies, Pune, India Abstract: The major concern in design of wheel is their potentiality to bear impact loads. Therefore, wheel impact test is required to fulfill the safety requirement. In this study, there are two objectives; first, the simulation of impact test for wheel is developed according to SAE wheel impact test. Often when vehicle interacts with guardrails, bridge rails and curbs the interaction between roadside hardware and wheel causes wheel damage. The test setup consists of vertically acting striker of mass 480 kg and having prescribed velocity. Energy based approach and total plastic work concept of ductile fracture mechanics is used to predict wheel impact failure.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0162
Hasan M. Naqvi, Geetam Tiwari
Large number of road accidents i.e. 4,90,383 is reported in India during 2012, resulting 1,38,258 persons killed. Out of total accidents, major share of accidents i.e. about 30% and 35.3% number of persons killed are observed on National Highways (NHs), which constitute about 2% of total road network (83,097 km) in India, but carries about 40% of traffic. 45% (37,510 km) of NHs in India comprises of two lanes and more than 65% of NHs are two lane or less. Road accidents being multi-disciplinary in nature involves attention of multiple departments such as Highways Authority, Police, Motor Vehicles, Automobile Manufacturers, NGOs, etc. Majority of the departments in India dealing with road accidents give low priority to tackle them. Owing to these reasons and spurt in growth of motor vehicle population in India, road accidents are not reduced significantly despite improvement in NHs (widening of carriageway and riding quality).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0170
Chaitanya Pendurthi, Sourabh Tiwari, Sujit Chalipat, Ganesh Bhagwant Gadekar
Tyre plays a pivotal role in frontal impact, as it acts as a load path to transfer loads from barrier to side sill or rocker panels. Conventionally, tyres are represented with less modelling detail which can potentially effect CAE prediction. Aim of this study is to improve CAE prediction through more realistic way of representing tyre for crash event. This involves detailed study ranging from coupon level tests to full tyre model. Different tyre components like steel-belts, body plies, steel-beads, tread and sidewall, which influence tyre characterization have been considered for this study. This paper explains in detail about various experimental test and their CAE predictions to arrive at acceptable level of performance. The approach in this study is to have systematic process of rubber tyre characterization which includes quasi-static tensile coupon tests, static compression test on tyre assembly and dynamic impact test with moving trolley.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0241
Maria de Odriozola, Ignacio Lázaro, Adria Ferrer
Safety is one of the main criteria that is taken into account by new vehicle buyers. Therefore, manufacturers must achieve excellent results in all safety requirements to ensure a successful new vehicle model launching. Additionally, the current safety requirements in the European market are more demanding than ever, especially in consumer tests, as new dummies and crash configurations are being introduced. This paper focusses on the new dummy that will be introduced in the new Euro NCAP Side Impact Testing protocol in 2015, the WorldSID. Furthermore, special attention has been paid on the comparison between this dummy and the dummy that is being currently used, the EuroSID II. For many years, all Side Impact Crash Test studies have been put into practice considering the results achieved from the EuroSID II dummy. The introduction of the WorldSID to the crash test world has become a milestone not only for vehicle manufacturers but also for crash test laboratories.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0161
Chandrashekhar Thorbole, Saurabh Deshpande
A Study to Address the Failure Mechanism of the Conventional 3-Point Restraint in Protecting the Far Side Occupant in a Rollover Accident Dr. Chandrashekhar K. Thorbole Thorbole Simulation Technologies LLC, AR, USA Mr. Saurabh R. Deshpande The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune, India Abstract Occupant motion in a vehicle rollover accident is a function of many factors. Some important ones are vehicle kinematics, position of the occupant in the vehicle, occupant size and restraint usage. The far side belted occupants are more vulnerable than the near side occupants in a rollover accident. This outcome is attributable to the inadequate safety performance of the conventional single loop; B-pillar mounted D-ring restraints. Roof crush tends to displace the vehicle’s B-pillar, resulting in D-Ring displacement which causes slack in the lap portion of the restraint.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0006
Ramsundar K Ganesan, Dilip Krishna Natesan, Arjun Raj, Nambiraj Sekar, Nardhini Shanmuga Sundaram
Obstacle detection is a widely studied field in the automotive industry because of the great importance it assumes in preventing passengers from facing any major accidents. This paper presents an image processing approach to detect obstacles on road using a monocular IR camera. Since potholes and speed breakers are the two major obstacles on roads, the proposed method focuses mainly on detecting them. Shadows are the major challenge in image processing because their presence in the image frame may lead to false results. A simple method to compensate shadows has also been proposed. Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV), developed by Intel is used for implementation of the algorithm. The major target application area could be the powered two wheeler segment in emerging markets where potholes and speed humps lead to accidents. Another application can be to upload the pothole information on to a cloud to provide intelligent navigation information via Global Positioning System (GPS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0169
Simhachalam Bade, Lakshmanarao C
There is a growing need for improved conceptual vehicle designs along with alternative materials to reduce the damage to the passengers and structures in aerospace and automotive industries. The energy absorption characteristics of materials play a major role in designing a safe vehicle for transport. In this paper, compression behavior and energy absorption of aluminum alloy AA6061 and AA7005 tubes in T4 and T6 conditions are investigated by experimental and numerical methods. The AA7005 and AA6061 tubes are solution heat treated and then aged to achieve the final strength in T6 condition. Experimental compression test results have shown improved energy absorption of tubes in T6 condition compared to tubes in T4 condition. There is less variation of energy among the tested samples. The mean load is compared with the results obtained from analytical formulas. Tensile properties have been obtained from tensile tests using UTM for both AA6061 and AA7005 tubes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0152
Alok Anand, Pratap Daphal, Pratyush Khare
The vehicle crash signature (here on referred as crash pulse) significantly affects occupant restraints system performance in frontal crash events. Restraints system optimization is usually undertaken in later phase of product development. This leads to sub-optimal configurations and performance, as no opportunity exists to tune vehicle structure and occupant package layouts. In concept phase of development, crash pulse characterization helps to map occupant package environment with available structure crush space and stiffness. The crash pulse slope, peaks, average values at discrete time intervals, can be tuned considering library of restraints parameters. This would help to derive an optimal occupant kinematics and occupant-restraints interaction in crash event time domain. A case study has been explained in this paper to highlight the methodology.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0165
Sivaprasad Koralla, Ganesh Bhagwant Gadekar, V Ramana Pavan Nadella, Susanta Dey
Spot welding is the primary joining method used in automobiles. Spot-weld plays a major role to maintain vehicle structural integrity during impact tests. Robust spot weld failure definitions is critical for accurate predictions of structure performance in safety simulations. Spot welds have a complex metallurgical structure, mainly consisting of fusion and heat affected zones. For accurate material property definitions in simulation models, huge no of inputs from test data is required. Multiple tests, using different spot weld joinery configurations, have to be conducted. In order to accurately represent the spot-weld behavior in CAE, detailed modeling is required using fine mesh. The current challenge in spot-weld failure assessment is developing a methodology having a better trade-off between prediction accuracy, testing efforts and computation time. In view of the above, cohesive zone models have been found to be very effective and accurate.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0155
Amit Kamalakar Pathak, Mayur Rajke, Anupama Madiyan
Globally, road traffic crashes kill about 1.24 million people each year. Pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, and in some countries this is as high as 60%. The capacity to respond to pedestrian safety is an important component of efforts to prevent road traffic injuries. Pedestrian collisions, like other road traffic crashes, should not be accepted as inevitable because they are, in fact, both predictable and preventable. Examination of pedestrian injury distribution reveals that given an impact speed, the probability offatal injuries is substantially greater when the striking vehicle is a pick-up rather than a passenger car. Given their utility areas, pickup vehicles require negotiating rough terrains and are therefore engineered with higher ground clearance and larger approach angle. The challengeis to optimize these design parameters and also style the vehicle for pedestrian safety while maintaining a low design cost at the same time.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0168
Dinesh Munjurulimana, Manish Chaturvedi
With a significant increase in awareness of safety and sustainability among the automobile original equipment manufacturers and end users, every car manufacturer is looking for lightweight, safe and cost-effective solutions for every unit present in their vehicle. The latter gets much more focus in developing countries, where the automobile market is extremely cost sensitive. Further, with implementation of the proposed global technical regulations on pedestrian safety in the near future and low-speed vehicle damageability requirements, demand for a low-cost, lighter and safer bumper system is ever increasing. This paper focuses on development of a unique thermoplastic energy-absorbing device for vehicle bumpers. Conventionally, major energy absorbing members of these bumper systems consist of three separate pieces: energy absorber, bumper beam and crash cans. A hybrid approach based on logical reasoning and topology optimization is used to conceive the design.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0009
Anusha Baskaran, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Driver safety and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is gaining lot of importance these days. In some countries, there are strict regulations in place which mandate the use of certain ADAS features in automobiles. However, as the need for these safety critical systems increases, the challenges associated also increase. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors or due to nature. In countries like India, where one can expect different weather conditions with changing geography, the associated challenges are mainly due to the natural factors like haze, fog, rain and smoke. This poses a challenging problem in terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS; thereby, leading to many fatal road accidents. In this paper, a novel pre-processing technique, which addresses the interesting problem of enhancing the perceptual visibility of an image that is degraded by atmospheric haze, is proposed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0077
Deepak Sharma, Abhishek Atal, Abhay Shah
Abstract In this paper, design methodology of antiroll bar bush is discussed. Typical antiroll bar bushes have slide or slip mechanism, to facilitate the relative motion between ARB and bush. Inherently, this relative motion causes wear and noise of bush. To eliminate stated failure modes, the next generation bushes have been developed, which are using torsion properties instead of slip function. These bushes are already being used in various vehicles. This paper focuses on developing the simple mathematical model, design approach and optimization of ARB bushes. Also, comparison study is presented exploring, the differences and design criteria's between conventional and new generation anti-roll bar bushes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0157
Kedar Madhukar Hendre, Yogesh Purohit
Curtain airbag design offers protection in side crash and it plays a critical role in safety of the vehicle. Curtain airbag provides protection to the occupant in many impact events like frontal offset, side barrier, side pole and rollover condition. For a vehicle to be safe for any side impact condition, the curtain airbag should deploy and take its final shape before any injury happens to the occupant. During deployment, it is important that the airbag chooses a path of minimum resistance and does not get entangled in interior trims. In reality, the trims always do obstruct the path of airbag deployment in some way. Hence, special care has to be taken care for designing areas surrounding curtain like providing hinges, deflector components etc. to avoid being caught. There are about ten different factors on this deployment is dependent upon. This paper discusses these factors and the effect of the factors on the trims and airbag development.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0173
Eloi Boix, Adria Ferrer, Xavier Sellart, Sandra Fernandez
The increasing variety of test configurations and requirements has encouraged the Passive Safety Department to carry out tests of greater complexity. These advanced crash tests usually involve vehicle trajectories which are not straight and cannot be performed with the usual testing system. In order to increase the testing capabilities, a new guiding system was developed to satisfy the abovementioned requirements. Several requirements for the desired system were established: 1. High reliability and robustness: to guarantee repeatability and durability in crashes. 2. In-vehicle system: to avoid the modification of the structure and without interfering in the mass distribution. 3. Electrically compatible: no electrical interference should be added in the vehicle. Based on these requirements a new vehicle guiding system was designed and developed. An in-loop processing of the images filmed by a camera enables the vehicle to follow a path marked on the floor.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0172
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Moennich Joerg
Abstract In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0163
Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, S Prasanth, Sudhir Darekar, Jagadeesan Chellan, K Ashok Kumar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar
A cabin on an agricultural tractor is meant to protect the operator from harsh environment, dust and provide an air conditioned space. As it is an enclosed space, cabin structure should be a crashworthiness structure and should not cause serious injury to operator in case of tractor roll over. There are International standard like OECD Code 4, SAE J2194 which regulates the crashworthiness of this protective structure. The roll-over protective structure (ROPS) is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the operator in case of tractor overturn. None of the cabin parts should enter into the clearance zone for operator safety. In addition to meeting ROPS test criteria, the cabin structural strength should be optimized for the required tractor life. In this paper, simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor cabin structure and its mountings to meet the above requirements.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0164
Eduard Infantes, Marie-Estelle Caspar, Simon Kramer, Swen Schaub, Tobias Langner, André Eggers, Thomas Unselt, Paul Lemmen
The ASSESS project was a European Commission co-funded project that aimed to develop harmonized and standardized assessment procedures for collision mitigation and avoidance systems. ASSESS was one of the first European projects which dealt in depth with the concept of integrated safety, defining methodologies to analyse vehicle safety from a global point of view. As such, the developed procedures included driver behaviour evaluation, pre-crash and crash system performance evaluation and socio-economic assessment. The activities performed for the crash evaluation focussed on the influence of braking manoeuvres in occupant positioning through dynamic braking manoeuvres with real occupants and Madymo and LS-Dyna simulations, and the assessment of the passive safety protection level according to the results of the influence of the active systems through sled testing and full vehicle testing.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0154
Anand Ramalingam, Saravanakumar Thangamani
In the highly competitive automotive industry, safety and robustness become indispensable. Vibration requirements and crash-worthiness of automotive components have become stringent over the years. Therefore designers are facing huge challenges for fulfilling both criteria as these requirements become contradictory in some applications. The Fuel Delivery Module (FDM) comprising flange and swirl pot assembly, is mounted on fuel tank. It pumps fuel from tank to the engine. Flange mounted on fuel tank opening, provides proper sealing. Swirl pot assembly comprises of fuel pump, pump holder and fuel level sensor. It is positioned inside the tank by two axially spring loaded struts connected to the flange. During crash, FDM undergoes sudden deceleration. Due to inertia, swirl pot assembly creates bending moment in the flange-strut interface. At such adverse condition, flange should not exhibit crack on the sealing side, as it might expose fuel in the fuel tank to the atmosphere.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0156
Anil Kumar Jaswal, MV Rajasekhar, J Perumal, Samir Rawte
Vehicle Safety is always been in prime focus for development engineers while introducing newer products in markets for the customers. It is now common to see vehicles catching fire on roads and in parking places leading to destruction of the surroundings as well as hazard to the passengers. Thermal events can take place due to the heat dissipated by the heat emitters such as Engine, Turbo, Alternator, Exhaust System etc. The most critical area where Thermal events can usually take place are under hoods which includes the complete engine compartment and under body area. The extent of fire depends on the fire source, characteristics of the materials used in constructing and furnishing the vehicle. The Performance and life of Electronic parts and parts made of polymeric materials such as rubbers and plastics are also greatly influenced by the temperatures of their surroundings.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0001
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems is depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrades image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low illumination, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement algorithm that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0158
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst for increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In most designs though, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration. Safety of the occupants of the berths in the event of panic braking or collision of the vehicle, has not been given adequate consideration. In this work, design of such berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, has been simulated and resulting critical injury levels have been estimated. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0183
Aditya Malladi, Sridhar lingan Sr, Hari Sudhan
Abstract Crush box in an automotive passenger car has become an integral part of structural design performing various functions like optimizing energy absorption in high speed impacts, replaceable part during low speed impacts etc. Design of crush box for high speed impacts is very important as it is the first major energy absorbing component in the load path and its deformation significantly affects the overall vehicle crash behavior. The present paper explains development of a hydro-formed crush box in the front end of a sports utility vehicle. Hydro-formed components have residual plastic strains and non - uniform thickness variation throughout their length which is difficult to measure from a physical test coupon. It is critical to add hydro-forming effects onto crash FE models as it significantly affects the deformation under high speed impact. But detailed forming simulations need mature design and material data which is not available during early phases of product development.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 10048