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Viewing 1 to 30 of 11096
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9451
Marouen Hamdi, Drew Manica, Hung-Jue Sue
Abstract Brightness, transparency, and color impact critically the aesthetics of polymeric surfaces. They can significantly change the perception of common damages such as scratch and mar. Particularly, subtle mar damage is more dependent on surface perceptual properties. In this study, we investigate the impact of these attributes on scratch and mar visibility resistance of commercialized polymeric model systems frequently used in automotive industry. Twenty subjects were involved in a psychophysical test based on pairwise comparison, and results were treated using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. A tied ordinal weighted Euclidian MDS model was used to visualize the relational structures of mar perception space. Results show that scratch visibility resistance tends to decrease with dark, more transparent, and green surfaces. Mar perception was reasonably conceptualized by a two-dimensional MDS space.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0060
Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be interpreted for model-based development. The second edition of the ISO 26262 is about to be released. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0045
Guirong Zhuo, Cheng Wu, Fengbo Zhang
Vehicle active collision avoidance includes collision avoidance by braking and by steering, however both of these two methods have their limitations. When the vehicle’s speed is high or road adhesion coefficient is small, critical braking distance is long by braking to avoid collision, and collision avoidance by steering is restricted to the vehicle driving condition on the side lane. Therefore, it is significant to establish the feasible region of active collision avoidance to choose the optimal way to avoid traffic accidents. Model predictive control (MPC), as an optimized method, not only makes the control input of current time to achieve the best, but also can achieve the optimal control input in a future time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0050
Mario Berk, Hans-Martin Kroll, Olaf Schubert, Boris Buschardt, Daniel Straub
With increasing levels of driving automation, the information provided by automotive environment sensors becomes highly safety relevant. A correct assessment of the sensor’s reliability is therefore crucial for ensuring the safety of the customer functions. There are currently no standardized procedures or guidelines for demonstrating the reliability of the sensor information. Engineers are faced with setting up test procedures and estimating efforts. Statistical hypothesis tests are commonly employed in this context. In this contribution, we present an alternative method based on Bayesian parameter inference, which is easy to implement and whose interpretation is more intuitive for engineers without a profound statistical education. It also enables a more realistic representation of dependencies among errors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0363
Karthik Ramaswamy, Vinay L. Virupaksha, Jeanne Polan, Biswajit Tripathy
EPP foams are most commonly used in automotive applications for pedestrian protection and to meet low speed bumper regulatory requirements. In today’s automotive world the design of vehicles are predominantly driven by CAE. This makes it necessary to have validated material model for EPP foams in order to simulate and predict performance under various loading conditions. Since most of the automotive OEMs depend on local material suppliers for their global vehicle applications it is necessary to understand the variation in mechanical properties of the EPP foams and their effect on performance predictions. In this paper, EPP foams from three suppliers across global regions are characterized to study the inter-supplier variation in mechanical properties. In order to understand the effect of inter-supplier variation on vehicle performance, LSDYNA rate dependent material model is developed and validated for low speed and pedestrian protection load cases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0373
Fabian Jorg Uwe Koark, Christian Beul
Motivation – Achieving functional safety in mechatronic systems with growing product functionality is a major challenge in systems engineering. Following the current discussion, this challenge is mostly allocated to electronics and software development. For most of the scenarios this focus is feasible. Product design – the construction of the product – defines the properties and the appearance of the product by shape, material and assembly. So, the product design is often not under control of the safety management system. A hazardous deviation of part shape can be easily identified after the parts product or at least at its mounting. A wrong assembly is controlled by assembly documentation or data (e.g. screw torques) and identified at end of assembly line checks. The identification of a hazardous material choice depend on the product material class. Product materials can be separated into two classes: passive or active materials.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0107
Arvind Jayaraman, Ashley Micks, Ethan Gross
Recreating traffic scenarios for testing autonomous driving in the real world requires significant time, resources and expense, and can present a safety risk if hazardous scenarios are to be tested. Having a 3D virtual environment to enable testing many of these traffic scenarios on the desktop or on a cluster reduces the amount of required road tests significantly. In order to facilitate the development of perception and control algorithms for level 4 autonomy, with potential applications to level 2 active safety systems as well, a shared memory interface between MATLAB/Simulink and Unreal Engine 4, such that perception and/or control algorithms running within or interfacing with MATLAB/Simulink can receive virtual sensor data generated in an Unreal Engine 3D virtual environment, and send information such as vehicle control signals back to the virtual environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0096
Valentin Soloiu, Bernard Ibru, Thomas Beyerl, Tyler Naes, Charvi Popat, Cassandra Sommer, Brittany Williams
An important aspect of an autonomous vehicle system, aside from the crucial features of path following and obstacle detection, is the ability to accurately and effectively recognize visual cues present on the roads, such as traffic lanes, signs and lights. This ability is important because very few vehicles on the road are autonomously driven and must integrate with conventionally operated vehicles. An enhanced infrastructure has yet to be available solely for autonomous vehicles to more easily navigate lanes and intersections non-visually. Recognizing these cues efficiently can be a complicated task as it not only involves constantly gathering visual information from the vehicle’s surroundings but also requires accurate processing. Ambiguity of traffic control signals challenges even the most advanced computer decision making algorithms. The vehicle then must keep a predetermined position within its travel lane based on its interpretation of its surroundings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1561
Anton A. Tkachev, Nong Zhang
Rollover prevention is one of the prominent priorities in vehicle safety and handling control. A promising alternative for roll angle cancellation is the active hydraulically interconnected suspension. This paper represents the analytical model of active hydraulically interconnected suspension system followed by the general simulation. Passive hydraulically interconnected suspension systems have been widely discussed and studied up to now. This work specifically focuses on the active hydraulically interconnected suspension system. Equations of motion of the system are formalised first. The entire system consists of two separate systems that can be modelled independently and further combined together for simulation. One of the two systems is 4 degrees of freedom half-car model which simulates vehicle lateral dynamics and vehicle roll angle response to lateral acceleration in particular.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1675
Genís Mensa, Núria Parera, Alba Fornells
Nowadays, the use of high-speed digital cameras to acquire relevant information is a standard for all laboratories and facilities working in passive safety crash testing. The recorded information from the cameras is used to develop and improve the design of vehicles in order to make them safer. Measurements such as velocities, accelerations and distances are computed from high-speed images captured during the tests and represent remarkable data for the post-crash analysis. Therefore, having the exact same position of the cameras is a key factor to be able to compare all of the values that are extracted from the images of the tests carried out within a long-term passive safety project. However, since working with several customers involves a large amount of different cars and tests, facilities have to readapt for every test mode making it difficult for them to reproduce the correct and precise position of the high-speed cameras throughout the same project.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0059
Barbaros Serter, Christian Beul, Manuela Lang, Wiebke Schmidt
Today, highly automated driving is paving the road for full autonomy. From basic cruise control to complex automated systems, there is a wide range of technology on the road and more highly automated systems are being rigorously tested that are soon going to be available to consumers. Highly automated vehicles can monitor the environment and make decisions more accurately and faster than humans to create safer driving conditions while ultimately achieving full automation to relieve the driver completely from participating in driving. As much as this transition from advanced driving assistance systems to fully automated driving will create frontiers for re-designing the in-vehicle experience for customers, it will continue to pose significant challenges for the industry as it did in the past and does so today.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0061
Sultan A.M Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Seisuke Nishimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu
Lightning strikes on automobiles are usually deemed rare, though they can be fatal to occupants and hazardous to electronic control systems. Vehicle's metal bodies are normally considered to be an effective shield against lightning. Modern body designs, however, have wide opening of windows, and plastic body parts are becoming popular. Lightning can run into the cabin of vehicles through radio antennas and hit the driver, as it happened in Japan last year. As the shark-fin antenna, which has wiring above the heads of occupants, becomes more popular, it may pose an increased risk of lightning attack to the passengers. In the near future, automobiles may be integrated into the electric power grid as people ponder about the smart grid and vehicle to grid (V2G) concepts. Even today electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are being charged at home or in parking lots.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0064
Agish George, Jody Nelson
The ISO 26262 standard for functional safety was first released in 2011 and has been widely incorporated by most OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. The design and conformance of the product to functional safety standards is strongly intertwined with the product development cycle and needs to be carefully managed. The consideration for functional safety needs to begin right from the product’s concept phase through engineering and production and finally decommissioning. The application of the standard in a project can bring significant challenges especially to managers who are relatively new to the standard. This paper provides some guidelines on the key tasks involved in managing ISO26262 in projects and some ways to approach them. The paper is expected to help managers manage ISO26262 compliant projects especially organizations that have just started their ISO26262 journey.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0264
Venkatesh Babu, Ravi Thyagarajan, Jaisankar Ramalingam
In this paper, the capability of three methods of modelling detonation of high explosives (HE) buried in soil viz., (1) coupled discrete element & particle gas methods (DEM-PGM) (2) Structured - Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (S-ALE), and (3) Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE),are investigated. The ALE method of modeling the effects of buried charges in soil is well known and widely used in blast simulations today Due to high computational costs, inconsistent robustness and long run times, alternate modeling methods such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and DEM are gaining more traction. In all these methods, accuracy of the analysis relies not only on the fidelity of the soil and high explosive models but also on the robustness of fluid-structure interaction. These high-fidelity models are also useful in generating fast running models (FRM) useful for rapid generation of blast simulation results of acceptable accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0084
Jiantao Wang, Bo Yang, Jialiang Liu, Kangping Ji, Qilu Wang
Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system.The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1354
Timothy Morse, Michael Cundy, Harri Kytomaa
One potential fire ignition source in a motor vehicle is the hot surfaces of the engine exhaust system. These hot surfaces can come into contact with combustible liquids (such as engine oil, transmission fluid, brake fluid, gasoline, or diesel fuel) due to a fluid leak, or during a vehicle collision. If the surface temperature is higher than the hot surface ignition temperature of the combustible liquid in a given geometry, a fire can ignite and potentially propagate. In addition to automotive fluids, another potential fuel in post-collision vehicle fires is grass, leaves, or other vegetation. Studies of hot surface ignition of dried vegetation have found that ignition depends on the type of vegetation, surface temperature, and on the duration of contact. Ignition can occur at surface temperatures as low as 300 °C, if the vegetation is in contact with the surface for 10 minutes or longer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0116
Ankit Goila, Ambarish Desai, Feng Dang, Jian Dong, Rahul Shetty, Rakesh Babu Kailasa, Mahdi Heydari, Yang Wang, Yue Sun, Manikanta Jonnalagadda, Mohammed Alhasan, Hanlong Yang, Katherine R. Lastoskie
ADAS features development involve multidisciplinary technical fields, as well as extensive variety of different sensors and actuators, therefore the early design process requires much more resources and time to collaborate and implement. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative way of developing ADAS features by using RC car with low cost hobby type of controllers, such as Arduino Due and Raspberry Pi. Camera and one-beam type of Lidar are used together with Raspberry Pi. OpenCV free software is also used for developing lane detection and object recognition. In this paper, we demonstrate the high level concept algorithm architecture, development and potential operation as well as high level testing of various features and functionalities. The developed vehicle can be used as a prototype of the early design phase as well as functional safety testing bench.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1406
Changliu Liu, Jianyu Chen, Trong-Duy Nguyen, Masayoshi Tomizuka
Road safety is one of the major concerns for automated vehicles. In order for these vehicles to interact safely and efficiently with the other road participants, the behavior of the automated vehicles should be carefully designed. Liu and Tomizuka proposed the Robustly-safe Automated Driving system (ROAD) which prevents or minimizes occurrences of collisions of the automated vehicle with other road participants while maintaining efficiency. In this paper, a set of design principles are elaborated as an extension of the previous work, including robust perception and cognition algorithms for environment monitoring and high level decision making and low level control algorithms for safe maneuvering of the automated vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0113
Vaclav Jirovsky
Today's vehicles are being more often equipped with systems, which are autonomously influencing the vehicle behavior. The close future is awaiting more systems of the kind and even significant penetration of fully autonomous vehicles in regular traffic is expected by OEMs in Europe around year 2025. The driving is highly multitasking activity and human errors emerge in situations, when he is not able to process and understand the essential amount of information. Future autonomous systems very often rely on some type of inter-vehicular communication. This shall provide the vehicle with similar or higher amount of information, than driver uses in his decision making process. Therefore, currently used, and debatable, 1-D quantity TTC (time-to-collision) will definitely become inadequate. Regardless the vehicle is driven by human or robot, it’s always necessary to know, whether and which reaction is necessary to perform.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1393
Georges Beurier, Michelle Cardoso, Xuguang Wang
A new experimental seat was designed to investigate sitting biomechanics. Previous literature suggested links between sitting discomfort and shear forces, however, research on this topic is limited. The evaluation of sitting discomfort derived from past research has been primarily associated with seat pressure distribution. The key innovative feature of the experimental seat is not only pressure distribution evaluation but shear forces as well. The seat pan of the experimental seat compromises of a matrix of 52 cylinders, each equipped with a tri-axial force sensor, enabling us to measure both normal and shear forces. The position of each cylinder is also adjustable permitting a uniform pressure distribution underneath the soft tissue of the buttocks and thighs. Backrest, armrests, seat pan and flooring are highly adjustable and equipped with forces sensors to measure contact forces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1422
Toby Terpstra, Seth Miller, Alireza Hashemian
Photogrammetry and the accuracy of a photogrammetric solution is reliant on the quality of photographs and the accuracy of pixel location within the photographs. A photograph with lens distortion can create inaccuracies within a photogrammetric solution. Due to the curved nature of a camera’s lens(s), the light coming through the lens and onto the image sensor can have varying degrees of distortion. There are commercially available software titles that rely on a library of known cameras, lenses, and configurations for removing lens distortion. However, to use these software titles the camera manufacturer, model, lens and focal length must be known. This paper presents two methodologies for removing lens distortion when camera and lens specific information is not available. The first methodology uses linear objects within the photograph to determine the amount of lens distortion present. This method will be referred to as the straight-line method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1411
Gary A. Davis
For at least 15 years it has been recognized that pre-crash data captured by event data recorders (EDR) might help illuminate the actions taken by drivers prior to a crash. In left-turning crashes where pre-crash data are available from both vehicles it should be possible to estimate features such as the location and speed of the opposing vehicle at the time of turn initiation and the reaction time of the opposing driver. Difficulties arise however from measurement errors in pre-crash speed data and because the EDR data from the two vehicles are not synchronized; the resulting uncertainties should be accounted for. This paper describes a method for accomplishing this using Markov Chain Monte Carlo computation. First, planar impact methods are used to estimate the speeds at impact of the involved vehicles. Next, the impact speeds and pre-crash EDR data are used to reconstruct the vehicles’ trajectories during the approximately 5 seconds preceding the crash.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1425
Brian Jones, Michael Calabro, Justin Brink, Scott Swinford
In minor inline rear-end accidents, vehicle damage is the primary tangible indicator of impact severity or vehicle change in velocity (V). Correspondingly, a technique for calculating change in velocity based on vehicle damage involves application of the Momentum Energy Restitution (MER) method. Offset inline rear-end testing, wherein minimal vehicle bumper or contact surface engagement occurs, has not been readily published to date. Thus, instrumented offset inline rear-end impacts were performed utilizing a 1997 Ford F-150 Pickup, 1996 Kia Sephia, and 1995 Chrysler LeBaron GTC. Vehicle engagement involved approximately 30.5 cm (12 in.) and 40.6 cm (16 in.) of lateral overlap with impact speeds ranging between 1.3 m/s (3 mph) to 4 m/s (9 mph). Test results indicated that a 30.5 cm (12 in.) or less lateral overlap between vehicle impacting surfaces promoted sideswipe impacts or an incomplete transfer of momentum relative to the bullet vehicle’s impact speed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0476
Seiji Furusako, Masatoshi Tokunaga, Masanori Yasuyama
In order to reduce the weight of automobile body, application of high strength steel sheets is expanding. And also a middle and high carbon steel is expected to be used to lower the environmental impact and cost in the field of automobile steel sheet. However, it is necesarry for its realization to enhance the joint strengh of the steel sheets. In this study, hat-shape components were made by resistance spot welding or arc-spot welding using S45C steel sheet of 1.4mm in thick with strength of 1200MPa grade . Then dynamice three-point bending test was carried out on the components and crashworthiness of them was compared. Absorbed energy of the arc-spot welded component was higher than that of the resistance spot-welded one by 30%. Some spot welds fractured (separated) during the three-point bending test but arc-spot welds did NOT fractured. Arc-spot welding is therefore seemed to be effective to improve strength and toughness of weld for a middle and high carbon steel sheet.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1429
Sung Rae kim, Inju Lee, Hyung joo Kim
In motor-vehicle frontal crashes, occupants often suffer from the abdominal injuries when the lap belt excurses over the pelvic bone, commonly referred to as submarining. Especially, it is well known that the obese occupants frequently get injured caused by submarining due to out-of-position belt fittings. This paper aims to investigate the interaction between the pelvis and the lap belt during a frontal crash event. For this purpose, twelve sled tests on four obese female Post-Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) and four sled tests on the Hybrid III 50th dummy were carried out. In each test, a 3D motion capture system was installed to track the movement of the pelvis and the lap belt. Moreover, the validated subject specific FE model scaled from the 50th percentile male GHBMC model to fit to obese female PMHS in prior study was also simulated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct accidents for years. Recently, a system has been introduced that will allow crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain navigation data in the form of tracklogs that provide a time history of vehicle geolocation that may be useful in reconstructing a crash. This paper presents testing in which the GPS navigation data imaged from the vehicle is compared to independent GPS instrumentation to analyze the accuracy of the retrieved navigation data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1414
William Bortles, David Hessel, William Neale
When the steer axle of a vehicle with protruding wheel studs makes contact with another vehicle or object in a sideswipe configuration, the tires and wheel studs of the vehicle can deposit distinct geometrical patterns onto the surfaces it contacts. Prior research has demonstrated how relative speeds between the two vehicles and surfaces can be calculated through analysis of the distinct patterns. This paper presents a methodology for performing this analysis by visually modeling the interaction between wheel studs and various surfaces, and presents a method for automating the calculations of relative speed between vehicles. This methodology also augments prior research by demonstrating how the visual modeling and simulation of the wheel stud contact can extend to almost any surface interaction that may not have any previous prior published tests, or test methods that would be difficult to setup in real life.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1430
Tony R. Laituri, Scott G. Henry
To consider injury trends and to establish bases for potential future risk analyses, we categorized head injuries in real-world frontal crashes as being "brain-related," "bone-related," and/or "otherwiserelated." Specifically, we studied adult drivers in towaway, 11-1 o'clock, full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, 1995-2012 calendar years, 1985-2012 model-year light passenger vehicles). Those data were considered subject to three levels injury (AIS1+, AIS2+, AIS3+) , two levels of restraint (properly-belted, unbelted), and two eras of technology, based on driverairbag fitment (Older Vehicles, Newer Vehicles). For each injury level, 88 possible bins of data were formed to quantify injury rates for the various head-injury categories, eras, restraint levels, speed changes, and crash severities.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0041
Shengguang Xiong, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Longjie Xiao
Automotive Front Lighting System (AFS) can receive the steering signal and the vehicle speed signal to automatically adjust the position of the headlamps light's body. AFS will provide drivers more information of the front road to protect drivers safe when driving at night. AFS works when there is a steering signal input. However, drivers often need the front road's information before they turn the steering wheel when vehicles are going to go round a sharp corner, AFS will not work in such a situation. In order to solve this problem, this paper studied how to foresight the front road and optimize the working time of AFS based on GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS (Geographic Information System). This paper built the model of the vehicle steering characteristics with the relationship between the headlamp steering lighting and the angle of the steering wheel based on the follow-up steering law of headlamps of AFS.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0056
Naveen Mohan, Martin Törngren, Sagar Behere
With the advent of ISO 26262 there is an increased emphasis on top-down design in the automotive industry. While the standard delivers a best practice framework and a reference safety lifecycle, it lacks detailed requirements for its various constituent phases. The lack of guidance becomes especially evident for the reuse of legacy components and subsystems, the most common scenario in the cost-sensitive automotive domain, leaving vehicle architects and safety engineers to rely on experience without methodological support for their decisions. This poses particular challenges in the industry which is currently undergoing many significant changes due to new features like connectivity, servitization, electrification and automation. In this paper we focus on automated driving where multiple subsystems, both new and legacy, need to coordinate to realize a safety-critical function.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 11096