The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety technology by the virtual approach using biomechanical human body models. The goal of the paper is to exploit the previously developed scaling algorithm to create several virtual human bodies of a given age and proportions, to validate them and to assess their stature dependent response. Based on a validated reference model, the previously developed scaling algorithm develops virtual human body models for given height, mass, age and gender. Particular body segments are scaled based on the anthropometrical database concerning the body dimensions taking also percentiles into account. The body stiffness is driven by age dependent flexindex. Several virtual models of human bodies representing particular cadavers were generated via the automatic scaling algorithm. The frontal sled test response of the models was successfully compared to the experimental data.
Numerical Simulation of Tire and Wheel Assembly Impact Test using Finite Element Method M R Chauhan1 Prof. G N Kotwal2 A S Majage3 1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, VIT, Pune, India 3Finite Four Technologies, Pune, India Abstract: The major concern in design of wheel is their potentiality to bear impact loads. Therefore, wheel impact test is required to fulfill the safety requirement. In this study, there are two objectives; first, the simulation of impact test for wheel is developed according to SAE wheel impact test. Often when vehicle interacts with guardrails, bridge rails and curbs the interaction between roadside hardware and wheel causes wheel damage. The test setup consists of vertically acting striker of mass 480 kg and having prescribed velocity. Energy based approach and total plastic work concept of ductile fracture mechanics is used to predict wheel impact failure.
Spot welding is the primary joining method used in automobiles. Spot-weld plays a major role to maintain vehicle structural integrity during impact tests. Robust spot weld failure definitions is critical for accurate predictions of structure performance in safety simulations. Spot welds have a complex metallurgical structure, mainly consisting of fusion and heat affected zones. For accurate material property definitions in simulation models, huge no of inputs from test data is required. Multiple tests, using different spot weld joinery configurations, have to be conducted. In order to accurately represent the spot-weld behavior in CAE, detailed modeling is required using fine mesh. The current challenge in spot-weld failure assessment is developing a methodology having a better trade-off between prediction accuracy, testing efforts and computation time. In view of the above, cohesive zone models have been found to be very effective and accurate.
Abstract Driver safety and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is gaining lot of importance these days. In some countries, there are strict regulations in place which mandate the use of certain ADAS features in automobiles. However, as the need for these safety critical systems increases, the challenges associated also increase. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors or due to nature. In countries like India, where one can expect different weather conditions with changing geography, the associated challenges are mainly due to the natural factors like haze, fog, rain and smoke. This poses a challenging problem in terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS; thereby, leading to many fatal road accidents. In this paper, a novel pre-processing technique, which addresses the interesting problem of enhancing the perceptual visibility of an image that is degraded by atmospheric haze, is proposed.
The increasing variety of test configurations and requirements has encouraged the Passive Safety Department to carry out tests of greater complexity. These advanced crash tests usually involve vehicle trajectories which are not straight and cannot be performed with the usual testing system. In order to increase the testing capabilities, a new guiding system was developed to satisfy the abovementioned requirements. Several requirements for the desired system were established: 1. High reliability and robustness: to guarantee repeatability and durability in crashes. 2. In-vehicle system: to avoid the modification of the structure and without interfering in the mass distribution. 3. Electrically compatible: no electrical interference should be added in the vehicle. Based on these requirements a new vehicle guiding system was designed and developed. An in-loop processing of the images filmed by a camera enables the vehicle to follow a path marked on the floor.
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems is depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrades image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low illumination, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement algorithm that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
CAE Based Development of Hydro-Formed Crush Box for High Speed Impacts and its Correlation at Full Vehicle Level
Abstract Crush box in an automotive passenger car has become an integral part of structural design performing various functions like optimizing energy absorption in high speed impacts, replaceable part during low speed impacts etc. Design of crush box for high speed impacts is very important as it is the first major energy absorbing component in the load path and its deformation significantly affects the overall vehicle crash behavior. The present paper explains development of a hydro-formed crush box in the front end of a sports utility vehicle. Hydro-formed components have residual plastic strains and non - uniform thickness variation throughout their length which is difficult to measure from a physical test coupon. It is critical to add hydro-forming effects onto crash FE models as it significantly affects the deformation under high speed impact. But detailed forming simulations need mature design and material data which is not available during early phases of product development.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform laboratory test method to evaluate the strength characteristics of roof systems. The test procedure is intended to provide reliable and repeatable results and to permit numerical comparisons. A test is conducted in which the vehicle roof system is loaded under controlled laboratory conditions. Structural strength measurements are obtained under load application angles chosen to concentrate forces on the forward portions of the roof panel and roof supporting structure.
Fixed rigid barrier collisions can represent severe automotive impacts. Deceleration conditions during fixed rigid barrier collisions are more readily reproducible than those occurring during impacts with yielding barriers. Barrier collision tests are conducted on automotive vehicles to obtain information of value in reducing occupant injuries and in evaluating structural integrity. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish sufficient standardization of barrier collision methods so that results of similar tests conducted at different facilities can be compared. The barrier device may be of almost any configuration, such as flat, round, offset, etc.
Collision tests are conducted on automotive vehicles to obtain information of value in evaluation of structural integrity and in reducing the risk of occupant injuries. The deformation resulting from a moving rigid barrier impact is more severe at a given speed than that produced by using an actual vehicle, but is more readily reproducible than that occurring during vehicle to vehicle impacts. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish sufficient standardization of such moving barriers and moving barrier collision methods so that results of tests conducted at different facilities may be compared.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedres, performance requirements, and guidelines for headlamp cleaners intended for use on motor vehicles. It includes informatino from European regulations and International Standards. It is applicable for all types of headlamp cleaners available and in use.
Abstract ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs).
Abstract In the study of new solutions for motorcycle passive safety, FE models of full-scale crash tests play a strategic role. The most important issue in the development process of FE models is their reliability to reproduce real crash tests. To help the engineering in the validation phase, a sensitivity analysis of a FE model for motorcycle-car crash tests is carried-out. The aim of this study is to investigate the model response subjected to variations of specific input parameters. The DOE is performed generating a list of simulations (each one composed by a unique combination of 8 parameters) through Latin Hypercube Sampling. The outputs monitored are the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and Neck Injury Criteria (Nij). The analysis of the results is performed using scatter plots and linear regression curves to identify the parameters that have major impact on the outputs and to assess the type of dependency (linear or non-linear).
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) includes recommendedground flotation analysis methods for both paved and unpaved airfields. The purpose of this document is to identify the recommended aircraft ground flotation analysis methods that should be used for aircraft landing gear design.
Abstract Transport Canada, through its ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles program, retained the services of the National Research Council Canada to undertake a test program to examine the operational and human factors considerations concerning the removal of the side mirrors on a Class 8 tractor equipped with a 53 foot dry van semi-trailer. Full scale aerodynamic testing was performed in a 2 m by 3 m wind tunnel on a system component basis to quantify the possible fuel savings associated with the removal of the side mirrors. The mirrors on a Volvo VN780 tractor were removed and replaced with a prototype camera-based indirect vision system consisting of four cameras mounted in the front fender location; two cameras on either side of the vehicle. Four monitors mounted in the vehicle - two mounted on the right A-pillar and two mounted on the left A-pillar - provided indirect vision information to the vehicle operator.
Sled Test Development and Occupant Protection Evaluation Based on the Frontal Crash Response of Heavy Trucks
Abstract Full-scale vehicle crash testing is an accurate method to reproduce many real-world crash conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. However, the costs involved in performing full-scale crash tests can be prohibitive for some purposes. Dynamic sled testing is a lower cost and widely used method to obtain multiple, useful data sets for development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Wherever possible, dynamic sled tests should use vehicle-specific deceleration pulses determined from full-scale vehicle crash tests. This paper establishes a dynamic sled test protocol based on data collected from eight full-scale heavy vehicle frontal crash tests. The sled test protocol is intended to be utilized as a basis for building a body of knowledge needed to update heavy vehicle frontal impact test recommended practices. These recommended practices provide direction for the development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components.
This specification covers natural sand in granular form. This sand has been used typically to improve the frictional properties of runway, taxiway, and ramp surfaces for aircraft braking purposes, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Counterfeit electronic components entering into critical infrastructure and applications through the global supply chain threaten the economy and national security. In response to the growing threat from counterfeits, the Society of Automotive Engineers G-19 Committee is developing AS6171. This aerospace standard is focused on testing facilities with a goal of standardizing the process of counterfeit detection. An integral part of the standard is a semi-quantitative risk assessment method. This method assigns risk scores to electronic components based on a number of relevant criteria, and places the components into one of five risk tier levels corresponding to an appropriate level of laboratory testing to ensure the authenticity of the component. In this way, the methodology aims at standardizing the risk assessment process and bases the identified risk as guidance for commensurate testing protocols.
This Digital Annex (DA) contains the current, full-PDF version of ARP5149B, Training Program Guidelines for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on Ground, as well as .jpeg format files of Appendix D, Application Guidelines Configuration, Critical Component, and Spray Area Diagrams for Aircraft. The .jpeg diagram files may be used by purchasers in accordance with the terms of the included license agreement.
A program, which ensures quality with the relevant standards shall be introduced for all on-line Stations where de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground is either normally carried out, or where local conditions may periodically lead to a requirement for airplcraft to be de-iced/anti-iced. Deficiencies, in regard to a Station's local de-icing/anti-icing procedures, shall be identified and subsequently actioned through this program, thereby ensuring that the required safety standards are maintained.
Laboratory Viscosity Measurement of Thickenend Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing Fluids with the Brookfield LV Viscometer
This AS describes a standard method for viscosity measurements of thickened (AMS1428) anti-icing fluids. Fluid manufacturers may publish alternate methods for their fluids. In case of conflicting results between the two methods, the manufacturer method takes precedence. To compare viscosities, exactly the same measurement elements (including spindle and container size) must have been used to obtain those viscosities.
This SAE Standard establishes performance criteria for towed, semi-mounted, or mounted and arm type rotary mowers with one or more blade assemblies of 77.5 cm blade tip circle diameter or over, mounted on a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kW, intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries, and along roadways and highways. The use of the word “industrial” is not to be confused with “in-plant industrial equipment.” This document does not apply to: a. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption, or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. b. Equipment designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. c. Self-powered or self-propelled mowers or mowing machines.
This SAE Standard covers the relative position and direction of motion of controls which influence the movement of the machine and the operating direction only of equipment controls. There is no intention to eliminate or restrict the use of combination controls, automatic controls, or special operating controls. Purpose This document is intended as a guide for designing uniform operator controls for graders. Graders are defined in SAE J/ISO 6165.
Water Spray and High Humidity Endurance Test Methods for SAE AMS1424 and SAE AMS1428 Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing Fluids
This document establishes the minimum requirements for an environmental test chamber, and test procedures to carry out anti-icing performance tests according to the current materials specification for aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids. The primary purpose for such a test method is to determine the anti icing endurance under controlled laboratory conditions of AMS1424 Type I and AMS1428 Type II, III, and IV fluids.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design guidance and a method for testing thermal performance of airplane in-flight food storage carts. It is noted that thermal performance criteria is not part of AS8056.
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to define criteria of performance for an optical data channel when numerical time and space data are taken from the images to analyze impact test results.
This document recommends contents for Emergency Medical Kits, including medications and instrumentation, intended for use on passenger-carrying aircraft serviced by at least 1 flight attendant. Recommended practices for carriage of, access to, and maintenance of Emergency Medical Kits are also included.
This specification covers a deicing/anti-icing material in the form of a fluid.
The objective of this Minimum Operational Performance Specification is to specify the minimum performance of onboard inflight icing detection systems. Throughout the document, these devices are referred to as Flight Icing Detection Systems (FIDS). These systems are intended to either provide information which indicates the presence of ice accreted in flight on monitored surfaces or indicate the presence of icing conditions in the atmosphere. They may operate the airplane anti-ice/deice systems. Detection of ice accreted on the ground is not considered in this document but can be found in ED-104. This MOPS was written for the use of FIDS on airplanes only, as defined in paragraph 1.5. Use on other aircraft may require additional considerations. Chapter 1 of this document provides information required to understand the need for the equipment characteristics and tests defined in the remaining chapters.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included. The primary purpose of this document is to document the capabilities of the world''s major icing simulation ground facilities. This report should be very useful for an organization interested in selecting a facility for a particular test.