Abstract ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs). We demonstrate in this article that it is to reduce the maximum severity in the Correspondence Diagram between Risk and ASIL (CDRA) and to increase the degree of acceptable risks in view of situations specific to motorcycles.
This document discusses the work done by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in support of SAE A-5 Committee activity on Aerospace Landing Gear Systems. It is an example of how seemingly unrelated disciplines can be combined effectively for the eventual benefit of the overall aircraft systems, where that system includes the total airfield environment in which the aircraft must operate. In summary, this AIR documents the history of aircraft flotation analysis as it involves WES and the SAE.
Sled Test Development and Occupant Protection Evaluation Based on the Frontal Crash Response of Heavy Trucks
Abstract Full-scale vehicle crash testing is an accurate method to reproduce many real-world crash conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. However, the costs involved in performing full-scale crash tests can be prohibitive for some purposes. Dynamic sled testing is a lower cost and widely used method to obtain multiple, useful data sets for development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Wherever possible, dynamic sled tests should use vehicle-specific deceleration pulses determined from full-scale vehicle crash tests. This paper establishes a dynamic sled test protocol based on data collected from eight full-scale heavy vehicle frontal crash tests. The sled test protocol is intended to be utilized as a basis for building a body of knowledge needed to update heavy vehicle frontal impact test recommended practices. These recommended practices provide direction for the development of frontal crash mitigating technologies, systems and components. Additionally, the performance of some frontal crash occupant protection technologies found in heavy vehicles is evaluated.
Abstract Transport Canada, through its ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles program, retained the services of the National Research Council Canada to undertake a test program to examine the operational and human factors considerations concerning the removal of the side mirrors on a Class 8 tractor equipped with a 53 foot dry van semi-trailer. Full scale aerodynamic testing was performed in a 2 m by 3 m wind tunnel on a system component basis to quantify the possible fuel savings associated with the removal of the side mirrors. The mirrors on a Volvo VN780 tractor were removed and replaced with a prototype camera-based indirect vision system consisting of four cameras mounted in the front fender location; two cameras on either side of the vehicle. Four monitors mounted in the vehicle - two mounted on the right A-pillar and two mounted on the left A-pillar - provided indirect vision information to the vehicle operator. Four commercial drivers were asked to perform a series of tests simulating typical driving scenarios on a closed course test track.
This specification covers natural sand in granular form. This sand has been used typically to improve the frictional properties of runway, taxiway, and ramp surfaces for aircraft braking purposes, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Counterfeit electronic components entering into critical infrastructure and applications through the global supply chain threaten the economy and national security. In response to the growing threat from counterfeits, the Society of Automotive Engineers G-19 Committee is developing AS6171. This aerospace standard is focused on testing facilities with a goal of standardizing the process of counterfeit detection. An integral part of the standard is a semi-quantitative risk assessment method. This method assigns risk scores to electronic components based on a number of relevant criteria, and places the components into one of five risk tier levels corresponding to an appropriate level of laboratory testing to ensure the authenticity of the component. In this way, the methodology aims at standardizing the risk assessment process and bases the identified risk as guidance for commensurate testing protocols. This paper outlines the risk assessment method contained within AS6171 and briefly explores other complementary efforts and research gaps within the G-19 and electronics community.
This Digital Annex (DA) contains the current, full-PDF version of ARP5149B, Training Program Guidelines for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on Ground, as well as .jpeg format files of Appendix D, Application Guidelines Configuration, Critical Component, and Spray Area Diagrams for Aircraft. The .jpeg diagram files may be used by purchasers in accordance with the terms of the included license agreement.
A program, which ensures quality with the relevant standards shall be introduced for all on-line Stations where de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground is either normally carried out, or where local conditions may periodically lead to a requirement for airplcraft to be de-iced/anti-iced. Deficiencies, in regard to a Station's local de-icing/anti-icing procedures, shall be identified and subsequently actioned through this program, thereby ensuring that the required safety standards are maintained.
Laboratory Viscosity Measurement of Thickenend Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing Fluids with the Brookfield LV Viscometer
This AS describes a standard method for viscosity measurements of thickened (AMS1428) anti-icing fluids. Fluid manufacturers may publish alternate methods for their fluids. In case of conflicting results between the two methods, the manufacturer method takes precedence. To compare viscosities, exactly the same measurement elements (including spindle and container size) must have been used to obtain those viscosities.
This SAE Standard establishes performance criteria for towed, semi-mounted, or mounted and arm type rotary mowers with one or more blade assemblies of 77.5 cm blade tip circle diameter or over, mounted on a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kW, intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries, and along roadways and highways. The use of the word “industrial” is not to be confused with “in-plant industrial equipment.” This document does not apply to: a. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption, or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. b. Equipment designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. c. Self-powered or self-propelled mowers or mowing machines.
This SAE Standard covers the relative position and direction of motion of controls which influence the movement of the machine and the operating direction only of equipment controls. There is no intention to eliminate or restrict the use of combination controls, automatic controls, or special operating controls. Purpose This document is intended as a guide for designing uniform operator controls for graders. Graders are defined in SAE J/ISO 6165.
Water Spray and High Humidity Endurance Test Methods for SAE AMS1424 and SAE AMS1428 Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing Fluids
This document establishes the minimum requirements for an environmental test chamber, and test procedures to carry out anti-icing performance tests according to the current materials specification for aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids. The primary purpose for such a test method is to determine the anti icing endurance under controlled laboratory conditions of AMS1424 Type I and AMS1428 Type II, III, and IV fluids.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design guidance and a method for testing thermal performance of airplane in-flight food storage carts. It is noted that thermal performance criteria is not part of AS8056.
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to define criteria of performance for an optical data channel when numerical time and space data are taken from the images to analyze impact test results.
This document recommends contents for Emergency Medical Kits, including medications and instrumentation, intended for use on passenger-carrying aircraft serviced by at least 1 flight attendant. Recommended practices for carriage of, access to, and maintenance of Emergency Medical Kits are also included.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a description of a screening method for use in the field for verifying an AMS 1428 anti-icing fluid is above its minimum low shear viscosity as published with holdover time guidelines. The test will determine if the fluid is (a) satisfactory, (b) unsatisfactory, or (c) borderline needing more advanced viscometry testing. Other field tests may be required to determine if an anti-icing fluid is useable, such as refractive index, appearance or other tests as may be recommended by the fluid manufacturer.
This specification covers a deicing/anti-icing material in the form of a fluid.
The objective of this Minimum Operational Performance Specification is to specify the minimum performance of onboard inflight icing detection systems. Throughout the document, these devices are referred to as Flight Icing Detection Systems (FIDS). These systems are intended to either provide information which indicates the presence of ice accreted in flight on monitored surfaces or indicate the presence of icing conditions in the atmosphere. They may operate the airplane anti-ice/deice systems. Detection of ice accreted on the ground is not considered in this document but can be found in ED-104. This MOPS was written for the use of FIDS on airplanes only, as defined in paragraph 1.5. Use on other aircraft may require additional considerations. Chapter 1 of this document provides information required to understand the need for the equipment characteristics and tests defined in the remaining chapters. It describes typical equipment applications and operational objectives and is the basis for the performance criteria stated in Chapter 2 to Chapter 4.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included. The primary purpose of this document is to document the capabilities of the world''s major icing simulation ground facilities. This report should be very useful for an organization interested in selecting a facility for a particular test. The usual information on facility test section size, speed, cloud parameters, etc. are provided for this purpose, along with a contact person at each facility.
Safety Considerations of Carry-On Baggage Relating to the Emergency Evacuation of Transport Category Aircraft
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides information and recommended guidelines for handling carry-on baggage prior to emergencies and during the emergency evacuation of transport category aircraft. Recommendations are provided on limiting the size, amount, and weight of carry-on baggage brought into the cabin, improved stowage of carry-on baggage to minimize hazards to passengers in flight and during emergency evacuations, and procedures to ensure carry-on baggage is not removed during an emergency evacuation.
This SAE Information Report defines the minimum performance specifications for accelerometers, load cells, and angular position transducers used within Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) when performing impact tests per SAE J211, "Instrumentation for Impact Test". This report does not define methodology and equipment for performing verification tests of the transducers. It is intended that any agency proposing to conduct tests in accordance with SAE J211 should be able to demonstrate that the transducers they use would meet the performance requirements specified in this information report. The purpose of this information report is to provide guidelines for choosing accelerometers, load cells, and angular position transducers for use in impact testing. The aim is to provide uniformity in transducer measurements, and provide a basis for meaningful comparisons of test results from different sources.
To provide minimum performance requirements for non-pressurized fuel tanks used on snowmobiles as defined in SAE J33.
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
This SAE Recommended Practice encompasses the significant factors which determine the effectiveness of a seat system in limiting spinal injury during vertical impacts between the rider and the snowmobile seat system. The document is intended to provide a tool for the development of safer snowmobile seats. It is recognized that the seat is only a portion of the entire vehicle protective suspension system. It is, however, usually required that the seat serve as added protection to the suspension system, since the latter may "bottom out" during a severe impact. The term "seat" refers to the occupant-supporting system not normally considered part of the vehicle suspension or frame system. In some cases, it may include more than the foam cushion. This document provides the minimum requirements for performance of a general seat system, and a description of specific means of evaluating the shock-absorbing characteristics of foam seat cushions using a specific testing procedure and a companion seat evaluation chart.
Improving Offset Crash Performance and Injury Mitigation via Multi-Body Simulation and Structural CAE
Abstract Recent advancement in numerical solutions and advanced computational power has given a new dimension to the design and development of new products. The current paper focuses on the details of work done in order to improve the vehicle performance in Offset deformable Barrier (ODB) crash as per ECER-94. A Hybrid approach involving the Structural Crash CAE as well as Multi-body Simulation in MADYMO has been adopted. In first phase of the development, CAE results of Structural deformation as well as Occupant injury of the baseline model were correlated with physical test data. The second phase includes the improvement in intrusion and crash energy absorption by structural countermeasures in the vehicle body. In third phase parametric study has been carried out via Madymo simulation in order to decide on the factors which can be controlled in order to mitigate the Occupant injury. Recommendations of Madymo simulation have been confirmed by conducting Physical sled tests. Finally a cost and weight effective countermeasure package which involves the modification in Body structure and Restraint system has been developed in order to comply with the ECE R-94 offset crash regulation.
Abstract The design of front rail is very important to vehicle safety performance. The test and CAE analysis are commonly used methods for design on the component level. Based on experience of impact test designed to simulate the performance of rail in vehicle rigid wall frontal impact, an inclined test is designed to simulate the performance of rail in vehicle offset deformable barrier impact. Two LS-DYNA computer simulation models are established including the effects of plastic strain rate, spot-weld failure, and stamping hardening. The deformation and mechanical properties are studied. The simulation results are correlated to the component tests very well in both cases. The usual impact test and inclined impact test for component rail can represent the main features of the rail performances in the vehicle frontal impact and offset impact respectively. Both of the simulation method and the component test method can support the early stage design for vehicle crash safety.
Abstract With the ever increasing emphasis on vehicle occupant safety, the safety of pedestrians is getting obscured behind the A-pillars that are expanding in order to meet the federal roof crush standards. The serious issue of pillar blind spots poses threats to the pedestrians who easily disappear from driver's field of view. To recognize this blinding danger and design the car around the driver's eye, this paper proposes the implementation of Aluminum Oxynitride marked under name AlON by Surmet Corporation for fabrication of A-pillars that can allow more than 80% visibility through them. AlON is a polycrystalline ceramic with cubic spinel crystal structure and is composed of aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. With hardness more than 85% than sapphire, its applications range from aerospace to defense purposes which qualify it in terms of strength and thus imply that it can be conveniently used as A-pillars in vehicles. Furthermore, it possesses characteristics of being bonded to metals as well.
The Hybrid III 50th male dummy is widely used in front impact crash tests in the world to evaluate the vehicle safety performance. The chest impact calibration test should be conducted after certain amount of crash tests to ensure that the dummy has the right performance during the crash tests. The impact velocity in the current chest calibration tests is 6.71 m/s and the chest displacement corridor is 63.5 mm to 72.6 mm, which was based on the cadaver tests carried out in 1970s. After over forty years' development, the vehicle safety has been improved significantly with applications of seat belt and airbag technologies. In the European and China new car assessment program (ENCAP and CNCAP), the higher performance limit for the front impact dummy chest compression is 22mm and the lower performance limit is 50 mm, which is much lower than the dummy chest calibration corridor. In this paper, the dummy rib assembly structure is analyzed and the rib impact FEA simulation was also conducted.
Qualitative Analysis of Principal Stress on Free Boundary under Dynamic Load Based on Dynamic Photoelastic Method
Abstract When an object was subjected an impact loading, stress wave was produced in the object. Studying the regularity of stress-wave propagation was significant to the study of objects subjected to impact loading. When stress wave travelled in the object, principal stress on free boundary was useful to theoretical analysis and calculation. In this article, a new kind of dynamic photoelastic apparatus was used. Isochromatic and isoclinic of the object subjected to impact loading could be obtained combining dynamic photoelastic experiment and related test equipment. By analyzing the isoclinic, there would be a conclusion that the angle between the isoclinic and the free boundary was not 0°or 90°. So the values of the two principal stress on the boundary were all not 0. The result obtained from the electrometric method came to the same conclusion. Analysis showed the result of dynamic photoelastic method was compatible with the result of electrometric method. So the method in this article was feasible and accurate.
Abstract Motor vehicle safety standards are getting to be more demanding with time. For automotive interiors, instrument panel (IP) head impact protection is a key requirement of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201. To ensure compliance of this requirement, head impact tests are conducted at 12 and 15 mph for performance verification. Computer simulation has become more prevalent as the primary development tool due to the significant reduction in time and cost that it offers. LS-DYNA is one of the most commonly used non-linear solvers in the automotive industry, particularly for safety related simulations such as the head impact of automotive interiors. LS-DYNA offers a wide variety of material models, and material type 024 (MAT 024, piecewise linear plasticity) is one of the most popular ones . Although it was initially developed for metals, it is commonly used for polymers as well. LS-DYNA also offers several other material models specifically developed to simulate polymers, such as material types 019, 089, 123, to name a few.