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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0405
Fupin Wei, Li Xu, Chen Cao, Youmei Zhao
Crash Test Dummies are very important tools to evaluatethe vehicle safety performance. In order to ensure dummy performance during the crash tests, the dummy components need to be calibrated. In the neck calibration procedure, the flexion angle is the most important parameter, which is the head rotation respect to the neckbase. To get the flexion angle, couples of rotary potentiometers should be mounted either on the calibration fixture or on the dummies. The flexion angle is then calculated from those angles. There are two potentiometers in the Hybrid III family dummies, three potentiometers in ES2, ES2-RE, SID-IIs, BioRid, and WorldSid dummies. In the calibration certification,maximum flexion angle and time occurred should be within certain range in the Hybrid III family dummies while for the ES2, SID-IIs, BioRid, and WorldSid dummies, not only the flexion angle, but also the otherangles should meet the maximum angle and timeoccurred corridors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realised by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces the application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. The aim is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1474
Edward C. Fatzinger, Tyler L. Shaw, Jon B. Landerville
Six electronic needle-display speedometers from five different manufacturers were tested in order to determine the behavior of the gauge following a power interruption and impact. Subject motorcycles were accelerated to pre-determined speeds, at which point the speedometer wiring harnesses was disconnected. The observed results were that the dial indicator would move slightly up, down, or remain in place depending on the model of the speedometer. The observed change of indicated speed was within +/- 7mph upon power loss. Additionally, the speedometers were subjected to impact testing to further analyze needle movement due to collision forces. Speedometers were attached to a linear drop rail apparatus instrumented with an accelerometer. A minimum acceleration due to impact which could cause needle movement was measured for each speedometer assembly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
In china there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. Driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied in this paper. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis. The results show that driver brake parameters under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist obey log-normal distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
As part of active safety systems, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS) is being studied currently by several vehicle manufactures to help reduce bicyclist fatalities and injuries. This paper describes the development of surrogate bicycle with a bicyclist mannequin on top to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicyclist is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicycles and cyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch mountain bike which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the 10 different adult sized bicycles. The surrogate bicycle is constructed with detachable components with shatter resistant material to prevent structural damage during collision, and matches the look and RCS of a real 26 inch mountain bicycle from all 360 degree angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. Bicyclist PCS (Pre-Collision System) is being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis of the United States national crash databases (FARS and GES) and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of highest occurring test scenarios, and the motion speed and profile of bicycle carrier. The carrier was designed as an autonomous platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system. Each wheel is an independent suspension system to protect motors, gears and reduce the vibrations. The height of carrier was minimized to 78mm to reduce the interference to PCS sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1538
Vaibhav V. Gokhale, Carl Marko, Tanjimul Alam, Prathamesh Chaudhari, Andres Tovar
This work introduces a new Advanced Layered Composite (ALC) design that redirects impact load through the action of a lattice of 3D printed micro-compliant mechanisms. The proposed ALC is composed of three layered phases: (1) outer hard shell, (2) compliant buffer zone, and (3) inner soft core. The outer shell is a layered composite of woven fiber imbibed into high-impact polymer matrix. The compliant buffer zone is made of 3D printed thermoplastic material. The inner core is made of impact arresting material (crushable foam). The compliant buffer zone, comprised by the lattice of micro-compliant mechanism, is designed using topology optimization to dynamically respond by distributing localized impact in the normal direction into a distributed load in the radial direction (perpendicular to the normal direction). The compliant buffer zone depicts large radial deformation in the middle but not on the surface, which only move in the normal direction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0221
Roberto Monforte, Fabrizio Mattiello, Andrea Perosino, Fabrizio Porta, Susanna Paz, Pablo Lopez del Rincón
The adoption of a low-GWP refrigerant gas in MAC systems is mandatory from 2017 according to the European Directive 2006/40/EC requirements for new vehicles registration. The paper will present the activities held by CRF to support the FCA evaluation of the risk involved by the adoption of the low-GWP refrigerant gas R-1234yf in the MAC systems equipping both new types and current programs, which MACs have to be converted in order to exploit the low-GWP refrigerant gas R-1234yf in order to comply with the 2006/40/EC Directive requirements and gain vehicle registrations from January 1st, 2017. In certain concentrations, R-1234yf could present a safety hazard to the vehicle occupants or to a technician required to service the vehicle. Hazard: event which has the potential to cause harm to an individual. Risk: numerical estimate of the probability or likelihood that a given hazard will occur. Risks are estimated via the process of risk assessment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1464
Jorge Martins, Ricardo Ribeiro, Pedro Neves, F. P. Brito
The process for accident reconstruction may be very complex and there are various studies and methodologies to analyse collisions and reconstruct the accident. CRASH 3 is one of such methodologies for accident reconstruction. This program is comprised of two distinct and independent modules, one for the trajectory analysis and the other one for damage analysis. This paper will focus on the latter part, damage analysis. The main interest of the research is the ability to create a database based on crash-test data and use it in an already existing model for damage evaluation. This model calculates the dissipated energy associated to the damaged area of the vehicle during the accident. Various organizations over the world perform crash-tests of vehicles, but the major databases are those kept by the NHTSA (of the USA) and Euro NCAP (of Europe).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1540
Timothy Keon
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has performed prior research investigating THOR 50th male (THOR-50M) response in Oblique crash tests. This research is being expanded to investigate THOR-50M in the driver position in a 56 kph frontal rigid barrier crash event. In addition, Hybrid III 5th adult female (AF05) ATDs are used in this testing to evaluate the RibEye Deflection Measurement System. The AF05 ATDs are positioned in the right front passenger and right rear passenger seating positions. For the right front position, the NCAP seating procedure was used with the seat fore-aft position set to mid-track. For the right rear position, the seating procedure used was from the FMVSS 214 Side Impact TP. The NCAP Frontal Impact Testing test procedure was followed for test setup and execution. Some additional instrumentation on the vehicle as well as some additional measurements was added to this test setup.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1417
Toshinao Fukui, Kazuhiko Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Satake
Recently, head up displays (HUD) have become a common visual feedback device of advanced technologies as the HUD can display feedback to the driver in a highly visible area. However, a reflection to front windshield is often caused by the outline (mikiri line) of the HUD unit on the dash board when the dash board is in direct sun light. The reflection can lead to driver annoyance on an asphalt road as well as dark view in front of windshield. In certain conditions of the front view, location and thickness, and contrast of the outlines were considered as factors impacting annoyance. These factors were considered to contribute to the visibility of stripe pattern (a contrast sensitivity function). In addition, since the reflection of the outlines can be enhanced by bright sunlight coming to the dash board, the present study considered high illuminance on the dash board as an environmental factor. This additional factor was not considered in the past study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1486
Qi Zhang, Bronislaw Gepner, Jacek Toczyski, Jason Kerrigan
While over 30% of US occupant fatalities occur in rollover crashes, no dummy has been developed for such a condition. Currently, an efficient, cost-effective methodology is being implemented to develop a biofidelic rollover dummy. Instead of designing a rollover dummy from scratch, this methodology identifies a baseline dummy and modifies it to improve its response in rollover. Using computational models of the baseline dummy (both multibody and FE), the dummy’s structure was continually modified until its response was aligned (using BioRank metric) with biofidelity targets. A previous study (Part I) identified the THOR dummy as a suitable baseline dummy by comparing the kinematic responses of six existing dummies with PMHS response corridors through laboratory rollover testing. In this study (Part II), the whole-body kinematic response of THOR multibody and FE models were validated with responses of the physical THOR dummy in experiments that simulated rollover conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1420
Shinichi Kojima, Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka PhD, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada PhD, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
The purpose of this study is to develop the projection pattern which is capable to shorten the driver’s perception time to night pedestrian than illuminating only high beam. Our approach is based on spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. Visual contrast sensitivity is dependent on spatio-temporal frequency, and maximum contrast sensitivity frequency is adapted by environmental luminance. Conventionally, there are some applications of spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision such as NTSC television format. These were applied the low sensitivity of visual characteristics. By contrast, our approach applies the high sensitivity of visual characteristics. On the assumption that higher contrast sensitivity of spatio-temporal frequency is correlated with shorter perception time, we conducted an experiment to determine the frequency of maximum contrast sensitivity under lighting conditions that simulate night time light levels.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Approximately 20% of traffic deaths in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using Rollover Buck test system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. This paper describes results of occupant kinematics of 95th percentile male (AM95), 50th percentile male (AM50), and 5th percentile female (AF05), simulated using THUMS, when a rolling condition was added to Rollover Buck FE model that include the cases using a rigid mock-up seat and a vehicle seat. Main results were as follows: Lateral head displacement of AM95 case on the right side seat was the largest among all cases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu vallabhaneni, Munenori shinada, Kazuto Sato
Active hood system helps in increasing the space between the hood inner and the engine compartment by pushing the hood upwards during a pedestrian impact. Such systems should detect all the pedestrian impacts ranging from 6YO-child to 95th%-male. To carry out rational sensor evaluation tests, a pedestrian detection impactor (PDI-2) was developed to represent the hard to detect pedestrian. To shorten the time of total experimental verification cycle and to increase the efficiency of the sensor simulation logic, a PDI-2 FE model was developed as accurately as possible to match the physical entities such as CG, weight and inertia properties. It is then evaluated with two standard pendulum tests; the results have good correlation with the physical tests. Vehicles with different sensor configurations were impacted with PDI-2 and pedestrian human models of different size & postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0141
Prasanna Vasudevan, Sreegururaj Jayachander
The sense of smell has been strongly linked to taste through direct chemical mechanisms. Its role in affecting human moods is a more complex phenomenon involving both chemical and psychological processes. Several studies using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to throw light on the details of these processes. It is also a well-known fact that a large percentage of the commerce and trade powering global economics is facilitated by logistics through road transport networks. As distant producer – consumer connections are made, the drivers at the helms of the commercial transport vehicles make longer trips. This results in increased fatigue and risk of accidents. Work in the area of the effect of odors on alleviating the driver fatigue is limited. This paper shall describe, in detail and in particular, the effect of different odors typically obtainable in India.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1534
Rudolf Reichert, Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Daniel Brown
A detailed finite element model of a 2012 Toyota Camry was developed by reverse engineering. The model consists of 2.3M elements representing the geometry, thicknesses, material characteristics, and connections of relevant structural, suspension, and interior components of the mid-size sedan. This paper describes the level of detail of the simulation model, the validation process, and how it performs in various crash configurations, when compared to full scale test results. Under contract with the National Highway Safety Administration and the Federal Highway Administration, the Center for Collision Safety at the George Mason University has developed a fleet of vehicle models which have been made publicly available. The updated model presented in this paper is the latest finite element vehicle model with a high level of detail using state of the art modeling techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1494
Peter Xing, Felix Lee, Thomas Flynn, Craig Wilkinson, Gunter Siegmund
The accuracy of the speed change reported by Generation 1 Toyota Corolla Event Data Recorders (EDR) in low-speed front and rear-end collisions has been previously studied. It was found that the EDRs underestimated speed change in frontal collisions and overestimated speed change in rear-end collisions. The source of the uncertainty was modeled using a threshold acceleration and bias model. This study compares the response of Generation 1,2 and 3 Toyota EDRs from Toyota Corolla, Camry and Prius models. A 2005 and a 2006 Toyota Corolla were used for a series of vehicle-to-barrier and vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests. Both vehicles were subjected to frontal and rear impacts. Generation 1,2 and 3 Toyota airbag control modules (ACM’s) from the Corolla, Camry and Prius models were then mounted on a linear sled. The ACM’s were subjected to replications of the collision pulses from the in-vehicle tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1458
Ryuta Ono, Wataru Ike, Yuki Fukaya
We have developed for packaged safety system called Toyota Safety Sense P to deal with various type of accident based on accident analysis. Based on accident analysis, we developed five functions which are Pre-collision system (PCS) to deal with rear-end collision, pedestrian PCS to deal with pedestrian accident included under crossing, Lane Departure Alert(LDA) to assist deviating accident on a road, Automatic high beam(AHB) to assist ensuring the forward visibility, Adaptive Cruise Control(ACC) to reduce drivers operating load. “Toyota Safety Sense P” has been developed and formed as one package. These functions have been equipped optionally so far, however we aim TSS P to spread extensively by packaging five functions with a set. It is very important a technology to detect a danger of accident in this safety system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1490
Hans W. Hauschild, Frank Pintar, Dale Halloway, Mark Meyer, Rodney Rudd
Oblique crashes to one corner of the vehicle may not be characteristic of either frontal or side impacts. This research objective was to evaluate occupant response in oblique crashes for a driver, rear adult passenger, and a rear child passenger. Occupant responses and injury potential were evaluated for seating positions as either a far- or near-side occupant. Two crash tests were conducted with a subcompact car. The vehicle’s longitudinal axis was oriented 45 degrees to the direction of travel on a moving platform and pulled into a wall at 56-km/h. The initial point of contact was the right front corner in one test and the left front corner in the other test. Dummies utilized for the seating positions were an adult dummy (50th percentile male HIII and THOR) for the driver position, 5th percentile female HIII for the right-rear position, and a 3-year-old HIII for the left-rear position.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0095
Qiao Fengying, Vincenzo Sacco, Gilles Delorme, Yevheniy Soloshenko
Over the last decades, the industry has provided a steady improvement in the safety of automobiles. Advances in modern electronics have accelerated the number and features of safety systems. Semiconductor devices, sensors, actuators and computer controlled systems with complex software are integral to these system designs. This increasing complexity drives the need for a systematic process for safety systems development and engineering to achieve their full operation potential. ISO-26262 "Road vehicles — Functional Safety" provides appropriate standardized requirements, processes and an automotive-specific risk-based approach to determine integrity levels, also known as Automotive Safety Integrity Levels or ASILs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1496
Richard R. Ruth, Brad Muir
Earlier research suggests there may be some positive offset in the longitudinal G sensor in Toyota Gen 1 & 2 vehicles. For this research a series of low speed forward and rearward collisions into a stationary vehicle were conducted on a 2007 Toyota Yaris. In addition to the installed vehicle ACM, additional identical "ride along" ACM's were installed back to back, one forward facing and one rearward facing. The vehicle was also instrumented with a video VBOX to record speed at impact and with the high precision "IST" accelerometer reference instrumentation. In all frontal collisions, the forward facing ACM's under-reported the negative longitudinal Delta V, and after the initial impact was over, had a positive slope indicating a G sensor bias and at the end of the 200ms recording were reporting a positive net Delta V.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1492
Ming Shen, Haojie Mao, Binhui Jiang, Feng Zhu, Xin Jin, Liqiang Dong, Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan, Clifford Chou, King Yang
To predict the injuries of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Currently, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) representing a pedestrian and an occupant postures with sufficient anatomic details and reasonable biofidelity. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). After the integration of the sub-models, the whole-body pedestrian model (standing) was assembled and a positioning procedure was then conducted to transform it into the occupant model (seated). The two FE models have shown reasonable responses in whole-body impact simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1604
Anton Kabanovs, Max Varney, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle soiling arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, soiling, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely soiling patterns it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents experimental and CFD results of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates soiling using controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using the generic ‘Windsor’ hatchback body. The soiling is produced by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle. The aim is to investigate the fundamentals of soiling in a case where both flow field and soiling patterns can be measured, and also to provide validation of modelling techniques in a case where flow and spray conditions are known.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1471
Anthony Timpanaro, Charles Moody, Wesley Richardson, Bradley Reckamp, Orion Keifer
It is well known that older vehicles’ headlight assemblies degrade with exposure to the elements and can become cloudy. It is also known that the degradation, decreases the amount of useful light projected forward, which can drastically reduce night time visibility and can be a significant factor in dark object visibility. Testing has been performed to measure the available light on a dark object with old degraded headlamp assemblies and new replacement assemblies to quantify the decrease in available light on a dark object caused by the degradation. The work has been extended to quantify the improvement in available light when the degraded lenses are treated with commercially available restoration products. Five different headlamp configurations representing four different manufacturers were tested measuring the illumination at a given distance with an Extech™ illuminance meter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1513
Bronislaw D. Gepner, Jack Cochran, Patrick Foltz, Carolyn Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Qi Zhang, Matthew Taracko, Jacob Borth, Robert Wilson, Adam Upah, Jason Kerrigan
Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle (ROV), since their introduction onto the market in the mid-1990s, have been related to over 400 fatalities with the majority of casualties occulting in vehicle rollover. In recent years several agencies made attempts to improve ROV safety (ROHVA 2014, CPSC, 2014). This paper is intended to evaluate ejection mitigation measures considered by the ROV manufacturers. Evaluated countermeasures include two types of occupant restraints and two structural barriers (torso bar, door with net). The Rollover protection structure (ROPS) structure provided by the manufacturer was attached to a dynamic rollover test system (DRoTS), and a full factorial series of roll/drop/catch tests was performed. The ROV buck was equipped with two Hybrid III dummies, a 5th percentile female and a 95th percentile male. Additionally occupant and vehicle kinematics were recorded using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric cameras (VICON).
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0174
Pankaj Kumar Singh, Naman Taneja, Alok Nath Sharma, Adarsh Gaurav
Abstract In today’s fast moving vehicle scenario, road safety is of utmost importance. Many people have lost their lives while travelling, due to a road accident. So we should mitigate such accidents if we wish to travel safely. To cater this cause, we propose an adaptive steering controlled headlight setup. The system can be adopted in any type of four wheel vehicles/trucks or trailers etc. without being an economic burden on the end user. The notion of steering controlled headlight is not new, but its adaptability according to the steering turning angle is its novel part. A lot of companies have developed technologies that incorporate turn able headlight to better illuminate the path, but these technologies are quite expensive and continue to be distant from the majority of car owners. So we felt the need of developing a mechanism that incorporates few simple components like gears, linkages etc. and can be readily fitted onto any steering column without much of a design variations.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0182
Indrakaran Reddy, Niraj Kumar Singh, Sonu Kumar Singh
Abstract In laboratory car crash tests, Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) are equipped with piezoresistive and resistive sensors for occupant injury assessment. Accelerometers are inertial transducers that convert acceleration into electrical output which can be easily recorded by a Data Acquisition System (DAS). For an accelerometer, this electrical output mainly depends upon subjected acceleration, sensitivity of the accelerometer, excitation voltage and gain provided. Before use in testing, accelerometers are calibrated at a standard excitation (manufacturer decided) voltage to determine characteristics like Sensitivity, Sensitivity per unit excitation voltage, Zero Measurand Output (ZMO), Transverse Sensitivity etc. It is observed that these characteristics are highly dependent on the excitation voltage. In testing, due to limitations of DAS and/or other unwanted noise in the excitation voltage, these accelerometers are sometimes used at a different excitation voltage.
2016-01-26
WIP Standard
J1981
The test is designed to evaluate the frontal impact resistance of wheel and tire assemblies used with passenger cars, light trucks and multi-purpose vehicles. The test is specifically related to vehicle pothole tests that are undertaken by most vehicle manufacturers. The scope has been expanded to allow the use of a striker that can be angled to preferentially impact the inboard and outboard wheel flange. For side impact of the outboard rim flange only, please refer to SAE J175. This SAE Recommended Practice provides a procedure to test a wheel or a tire and the test failure critiera. The specific test for a vehicle requires input from a pothole test on that vehicle to establish the drop height of the striker used in this test.
2016-01-20
Standard
J1432_201601
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for high-mounted stop lamps and high-mounted turn signal lamps intended for use on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. This document applies to trucks, motor coaches, van type trailers, and other vehicles with permanent structure greater than 2800 mm high. This document does not apply to school buses, truck tractors, pole trailers, flat-bed trailers, pick-up truck with dual wheels and trailer converter dollies. The purpose of the high-mounted stop lamp(s) and high-mounted turn signal lamp(s) is to provide a signal over intervening vehicles to the driver of following vehicles.
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