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2016-05-19
WIP Standard
AS1426C
This specification is intended to be used as a general standard for industry use for design and construction of air transport galley equipment and inflight food service systems.
2016-05-18
WIP Standard
AMS1424/3
This detail specification AMS1424/3 covers the use of In-Truck Manufacturing of a deicing SAE Type I deicing/anti-icing fluid. This detailed specification contains technical and other requirements that apply for the In-Truck Manufacturing of Type I deicing/anti-icing fluid.
2016-05-17
Magazine
Base-engine value engineering for higher fuel efficiency and enhanced performance Continuous improvement in existing engines can be efficiently achieved with a value engineering approach. The integration of product development with value engineering ensures the achievement of specified targets in a systematic manner and within a defined timeframe. Integrated system engineering for valvetrain design and development of a high-speed diesel engine The lead time for engine development has reduced significantly with the advent of advanced simulation techniques. Cars poised to become 'a thing' Making automobiles part of the Internet of Things brings both risks and rewards. Agility training for cars Chassis component suppliers refine vehicle dynamics at the high end and entry level with four-wheel steering and adaptive damping.
2016-05-17
WIP Standard
ARP1401C
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers a brief discussion of the icing problem in aircraft fuel systems and different means that have been used to test for icing. Fuel preparation procedures and icing tests for aircraft fuel systems and components are proposed herein as a recommended practice to be used in the aircraft industry for fixed wing aircraft and their operational environment only. In the context of this ARP, the engine (and APU) is not considered to be a component of the aircraft fuel system, for the engine fuel system is subjected to icing tests by the engine/APU manufacturer for commercial and specific military applications. This ARP is written mostly to address fuel system level testing. It also provides a means to address the requirements of 14 CFR 23.951(c) and 25.951(c). Some of the methods described in this document can be applied to engine and APU level testing or components of those application domains.
2016-05-17
Standard
AS5681B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS)/Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS) specifies the minimum performance requirements of Remote On-Ground Ice Detection Systems (ROGIDS). These systems are ground-based. They provide information that indicates whether frozen contamination is present on aircraft surfaces. Section 1 provides information required to understand the need for the ROGIDS, ROGIDS characteristics, and tests that are defined in subsequent sections. It describes typical ROGIDS applications and operational objectives and is the basis for the performance criteria stated in Section 3 through Section 5. Section 2 provides reference information, including related documents, abbreviations, and definitions. Section 3 contains general design requirements for the ROGIDS. Section 4 contains the Minimum Operational Performance Requirements for the ROGIDS, which define performance in icing conditions likely to be encountered during ground operations.
2016-05-12
Standard
J586_201605
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for stop lamps intended for use on vehicles of less than 2032 mm in overall width.
2016-05-10
WIP Standard
J2926
Rollover test methods that have been used is provided. Published papers discussing methods used to develop, evaluate, or test components, subsystems, or full vehicles under rollover conditions were reviewed and are described.
2016-05-09
WIP Standard
ARP4902C
This document provides information and guidance material to assist in assessing the need for and feasibility of developing deicing facilities, the planning (size and location) and design of deicing facilities, and assessing environmental considerations and operational considerations associated with de-icing facilities. The document presents relevant information necessary to define the need for a deicing facility and factors influencing its size, location and operation. The determination of the need for deicing facilities rests with Airports. Although this document intends to provide information to airport operator and deicing facility planner/designer, all stakeholders, including deicing service providers, should be involved in the development process.
2016-05-08
WIP Standard
J2052
This methodology can be used for all calculations of HIC, with all test devices having an upper neck triaxial load cell mounted rigidly to the head, and head triaxial accelerometers.
2016-04-28
Standard
J2937_201604
The objective of this document is to enhance the test procedure that is used for ejection mitigation testing per the NHTSA guidelines as mentioned in the FMVSS226 Final Rule document (NHTSA Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0004). The countermeasure for occupant ejection testing is to be tested with an 18kg mass on a guided linear impactor using the featureless headform specifically designed for ejection mitigation testing. SAE does not endorse any particular countermeasure for ejection mitigation testing. However, the document reflects guidelines that should be followed to maintain consistency in the test results. Examples of currently used countermeasures include the Inflatable Curtain airbags and Laminated Glass.
2016-04-19
WIP Standard
AIR4906A
A review of droplet sizing instruments used for icing research is presented. These instruments include the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe, the Optical Array Probe, the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, the Malvern Particule Size Analyzer, the oil slid technique, and the rotating multicylinder. The report focuses on the theory of operation of these instruments and practical considerations when using them in icing facilities.
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1521
Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Takeki Tanoue, Ryosuke Chikazawa
Abstract This paper describes impact kinematics and injury values of Hybrid III AM50, THOR AM50 and THUMS AM50 in simulated oblique frontal impact conditions. A comparison was made among them in driver and passenger seat positions of a midsize sedan car finite element (FE) model. The simulation results indicated that the impact kinematics of THOR was close to that of THUMS compared to that of the Hybrid III. Both THOR and THUMS showed z-axis rotation of the rib cage, while Hybrid III did not. It was considered that the rib cage rotation was due primarily to the oblique impact but was allowed by flexibility of the lumbar spine in THOR and THUMS. Lateral head displacement observed in both THOR and THUMS was mostly induced by that rotation in both driver seat and passenger seat positions. The BrIC, thorax and abdominal injury values were close to each other between THOR and THUMS, while HIC15 and Acetabulum force values were different.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1525
Anil Kalra, Kartik Somasundram, Ming Shen, Vishal Gupta, Clifford C. Chou, Feng Zhu
Abstract Numerical models of Hybrid III had been widely used to study the effect of underbody blast loading on lower extremities. These models had been primarily validated for automotive loading conditions of shorter magnitude in longer time span which are different than typical blast loading conditions of higher magnitude of shorter duration. Therefore, additional strain rate dependent material models were used to validate lower extremity of LSTC Hybrid III model for such loading conditions. Current study focuses on analyzing the mitigating effect of combat boots in injury responses with the help of validated LSTC Hybrid III model. Numerical simulations were run for various impactor speeds using validated LSTC Hybrid III model without any boot (bare foot) and with combat boot.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1534
Rudolf Reichert, Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Daniel Brown
Abstract A detailed finite element model of a 2012 Toyota Camry was developed by reverse engineering. The model consists of 2.25M elements representing the geometry, thicknesses, material characteristics, and connections of relevant structural, suspension, and interior components of the mid-size sedan. This paper describes the level of detail of the simulation model, the validation process, and how it performs in various crash configurations, when compared to full scale test results. Under contract with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Center for Collision Safety and Analysis (CCSA) team at the George Mason University has developed a fleet of vehicle models which has been made publicly available. The updated model presented is the latest finite element vehicle model with a high level of detail using state of the art modeling techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu Vallabhaneni, Munenori Shinada, Kazuto Sato
Abstract Many active safety systems are being developed with the intent of protecting pedestrians namely; pedestrian airbags, active hood, active emergency braking (AEB), etc. Effectiveness of such protection system relies on the efficiency of the sensing systems. The pop-uphood system was developed to help reduce pedestrian head injuries. A pop-up system is expected to make full deployment of the hood before the pedestrian’s head could hit the hood. The system should have the capability to detect most road users ranging from a six year old (6YO) child to a large male. To test the sensing system, an impactor model (PDI-2) was developed. Sensor response varies for vehicles with different front end profile dimensions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1540
Timothy Keon
Abstract The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has performed research investigating the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint 50th male (THOR-50M) response in Oblique crash tests. This research is being expanded to investigate THOR-50M in the driver position in a 56 km/h frontal impact crash. Hybrid III 5th percentile adult female (AF05) anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were used in this testing to evaluate the RibEye Deflection Measurement System. The AF05 ATDs were positioned in the right front passenger and right rear passenger seating positions. For the right front passenger, the New Car Assessment Procedure (NCAP) seating procedure was used, except the seat fore-aft position was set to mid-track. For the right rear passenger, the seating followed the FMVSS No. 214 Side Impact Compliance Test Procedure. The NCAP frontal impact test procedure was followed with additional vehicle instrumentation and pre/post-test measurements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1539
Do Hoi KIm
Abstract Given the importance of vehicle safety, OEMs are focused on ensuring the safety of passengers during car accidents. Injury is related to the passenger’s kinematics and interaction with airbag, seatbelt, and vehicle drop. However, the correlation between vehicle drop (vehicle pitch) and passengers’ injury is the main issue recently being discussed. This paper presents the definition of vehicle drop and analyzes the relationship through a dynamic sled test. This study defines the relationship between individual vehicle systems (body, chassis, tire, etc.) and vehicle drop, and how to control the amount of vehicle drop to minimize the injury of passengers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1492
Ming Shen, Haojie Mao, Binhui Jiang, Feng Zhu, Xin Jin, Liqiang Dong, Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan, Clifford Chou, King Yang
Abstract To help predict the injury responses of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Until now, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) with a standing posture to represent a pedestrian and a seated posture to represent an occupant with sufficient anatomic details. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Most of these studies have been mostly published previously and briefly summarized in this paper. For the current study, focus was put on the late stage model development.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1604
Anton Kabanovs, Max Varney, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0119
Preeti J. Pillai, Veeraganesh Yalla, Kentaro Oguchi
Abstract This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affect the road visibility and the driving easiness. In order to resolve the problem of analyzing the driving complexity of roads at night, a brightness detection module is incorporated in our end-to-end nighttime EoD system, which computes the ‘brightness factor’ (bright or dark) for that given night-time road scene. The brightness factor along with a multi-level machine learning classifier is then used to classify the EoD score for a night-time road scene.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0141
Prasanna Vasudevan, Sreegururaj Jayachander
Abstract Several studies in the field of hedonics using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to explain the complex psychological and chemical processes. Work on the effect of odors in alleviating driver fatigue is limited. The potential to improve road safety through non-pharmacological means such as stimulating odors is the impetus behind this paper. This is especially relevant in developing countries today with burgeoning economies such as India. Longer road trips by commercial transport vehicles with increasingly fatigued drivers and risk of accidents are being fuelled by distant producer - consumer connections. This work describes a two stage comparative study on the effects of different odors typically obtainable in India. The stages involve administration of odorants orthonsally and retronasally after the onset of circadian fatigue in test subjects. This is followed by a small cognitive exercise to evaluate hand-eye coordination.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0221
Roberto Monforte, Fabrizio Mattiello, Andrea Perosino, Fabrizio Porta, Susanna Paz, Pablo Lopez del Rincón
Abstract The adoption of a low-GWP refrigerant gas in MAC systems is mandatory from January 1st, 2017 according to the European Directive 2006/40/EC requirements for all new passenger cars, in order to gain their registration in the EU28 market. Following the work carried out in 2008 to support the FCA choice for the new types development, a further step was accomplished to evaluate the risk involved by the adoption of the low-GWP refrigerant gas R-1234yf in the MAC systems. This paper is focused on the activities held to enhance the 3D CFD method and its validation. In certain concentrations, R-1234yf could present a safety hazard to the vehicle occupants and, according to the ISO Standard Risk Scenario evaluation, 3D CFD tools are adopted to evaluate the ignition event associated with small or large leak in the passenger compartment. The method validation has been supported by both a simplified control volume “dummy cabin compartment” and an actual FCA vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0217
Somnath Sen, Mayur Selokar, Diwakar Nisad, Kamal Kishore
Abstract Adequate visibility through the vehicle windshield over the entire driving period is of paramount practical significance. Thin water film (fog) that forms on the windshield mainly during the winter season would reduce and disturb the driver’s visibility. This water film originates from condensing water vapor on inside surface of the windshield due to low outside temperatures. Primary source of this vapor is the passenger’s breath, which condenses on the windshield. Hot and dry air which impinges at certain velocity and angle relative to the windshield helps to remove the thin water film (defogging) and hence improves driver’s visibility. Hence a well-designed demisting device will help to eliminate this fog layer within very short span of time and brings an accepted level of visibility. An attempt is made here to design and develop a demisting device for a commercial vehicle with the help of numerical and analytical approach and later on validated with experimental results.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0316
Dorin Drignei, Zissimos Mourelatos, Ervisa Kosova, Jingwen Hu, Matthew Reed, Jonathan Rupp, Rebekah Gruber, Risa Scherer
Abstract We have recently obtained experimental data and used them to develop computational models to quantify occupant impact responses and injury risks for military vehicles during frontal crashes. The number of experimental tests and model runs are however, relatively small due to their high cost. While this is true across the auto industry, it is particularly critical for the Army and other government agencies operating under tight budget constraints. In this study we investigate through statistical simulations how the injury risk varies if a large number of experimental tests were conducted. We show that the injury risk distribution is skewed to the right implying that, although most physical tests result in a small injury risk, there are occasional physical tests for which the injury risk is extremely large. We compute the probabilities of such events and use them to identify optimum design conditions to minimize such probabilities.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1454
Libo Dong, Stanley Chien, Jiang-Yu Zheng, Yaobin Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (PAEB) for helping avoiding/mitigating pedestrian crashes has been equipped on some passenger vehicles. Since approximately 70% pedestrian crashes occur in dark conditions, one of the important components in the PAEB evaluation is the development of standard testing at night. The test facility should include representative low-illuminance environment to enable the examination of the sensing and control functions of different PAEB systems. The goal of this research is to characterize and model light source distributions and variations in the low-illuminance environment and determine possible ways to reconstruct such an environment for PAEB evaluation. This paper describes a general method to collect light sources and illuminance information by processing large amount of potential collision locations at night from naturalistic driving video data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
Abstract In China there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. In this paper driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied and pedalcyclists include bicyclist, tricyclist, electric bicyclist and motorcyclist. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1447
Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Chi-Chen Chen, Rini Sherony, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract As part of active safety systems for reducing bicyclist fatalities and injuries, Bicyclist Pre-Collision System (BPCS), also known as Bicyclist Autonomous Emergency Braking System, is being studied currently by several vehicles manufactures. This paper describes the development of a surrogate bicyclist which includes a surrogate bicycle and a surrogate bicycle rider to support the development and evaluation of BPCS. The surrogate bicycle is designed to represent the visual and radar characteristics of real bicyclists in the United States. The size of bicycle surrogate mimics the 26 inch adult bicycle, which is the most popular adult bicycle sold in the US. The radar cross section (RCS) of the surrogate bicycle is designed based on RCS measurement of the real adult sized bicycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1446
Rini Sherony, Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1490
Hans W. Hauschild, Frank Pintar, Dale Halloway, Mark Meyer, Rodney Rudd
Abstract Oblique crashes to the vehicle front corner may not be characteristic of either frontal or side impacts. This research evaluated occupant response in oblique crashes for a driver, rear adult passenger, and a rear child passenger. Occupant responses and injury potential were evaluated for seating positions as either a far-or near-side occupant. Two crash tests were conducted with a subcompact car. The vehicle’s longitudinal axis was oriented 45 degrees to the direction of travel on a moving platform and pulled into a wall at 56 km/h. Dummies utilized for the seating positions were an adult dummy (50th-percentile-HIII and THOR-Alpha) for the front-left (driver) position, 5th-percentile-female-HIII for the right-rear position, and a 3-year-old HIII for the left-rear position.
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