The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) evaluates autonomous emergency braking systems as part of its front crash prevention (FCP) ratings. The evaluation is based on the vehicle’s ability to avoid or mitigate crashes at 20 and 40 km/h. To ensure that the tested vehicle’s brakes are in service condition, IIHS protocol requires each test vehicle accumulate between 200 and 5,000 miles before testing and also complete a brake warm-up with 10 stops from 56 km/h at 5 to 6 m/s2 and three stops from 72 km/h that activate ABS. Other organizations, including automakers, conducting AEB testing follow the brake burnishing procedure described in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 135; Light Vehicle Brake Systems. Before testing compliance with the standard, FMVSS 135 requires test vehicles make 200 stops from 80 km/h at a deceleration of 3.0 m/s2.
CAE Based Development of an Ejection Mitigation (FMVSS 226) SABIC using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate ejection mitigation countermeasures that are intended to help minimize the likelihood of a complete and/or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this new safety ruling is a deployable restraint; specifically a Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an improved simulation response, with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements of a SABIC. The simulated SABIC system is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle.
Diagnostic Coverage Evaluation Method for Analog Circuits to Comply with Functional Safety Standards
ISO 26262 is a standard for functional safety of road vehicles. Automotive manufacturers and suppliers are developing electronic control unit (ECU) that complies with the standard. The standard requires the manufacturers to perform quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of the ECU that is defined as fault rate that is covered by safety mechanisms, and show evidence that the DC is above a specific threshold. We can refer to some generic fault diagnostic methods and their DC value prescribed in the standard. However, it is not practical to claim validity of the DC value if we simply refer to DC in the standard. Also, we have to evaluate the DC value separately, if we introduce a proprietary fault diagnostic method other than the methods described in the standard. In this paper, we propose a novel method for quantitatively evaluating the DC value.
Today, the development of cyber-physical systems - in particular in the automotive domain – faces a variety of challenges, such as the increasing complexity caused by the interconnection and communication of distributed E/E systems in a vehicle, pressure to reduce costs and times to market, the need to handle multidisciplinary automotive systems (electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal disciplines for e.g. automotive battery systems), and the mandate that all these systems comply with functional safety standards such as the ISO 26262 . The approach presented in this paper allows the these challenges to be met in an effective way in order to be competitive on the market. This paper presents a model-based systems safety engineering approach based on SysML for specifying relevant safety artefacts. Through the use of specific diagram types, different views of the available data can be provided that correspond to the specific needs of all stakeholders.
In ISO 26262, the top-level safety goals are derived using the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment. Functional safety requirements (FSR) are then derived from these safety goals in the concept phase (ISO 26262-3:2011). The standard does not call out a specific method to develop these FSRs from safety goals. However, ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6, of the standard does establish requirements to ensure consistent management and correct specification of safety requirements with respect to their attributes and characteristics throughout the safety lifecycle. In a way, there is an expectation on the part of system engineers to bridge this gap. We are proposing an approach and method in this paper which utilizes concepts from process modeling to ensure the completeness of these requirements, eliminate any external inconsistencies between them and improve verifiability – important requirements laid down in the above mentioned ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6.
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 has requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance angles, up to 45 degree. In the author’s preliminary research, all DOT-C2 retroreflective tape on the market is advertised as meeting and exceeding FMVSS No. 108 requirements. The author’s literature review revealed that there have been no peer-reviewed publications measuring the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape would perform, beyond the minimum federal requirements. Therefore, the authors have measured the performance of different types of retroreflective tape with a laboratory grade retroreflectometer. The authors attempted to study a range of popular, commercially available, DOT-C2 retroreflective tape. In this study, 3M 963, 3M 983, Grote, and Trucklite DOT-C2 retoreflective tape was used.
Retroreflective DOT-C2 Tape Performance in Relation to Observation and Entrance Angle – A Real World Study
Accident reconstruction experts are often asked to evaluate the visibility and conspicuity of objects in the roadway. It is common for some of these objects, and required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 for certain vehicles and trailers, to have red and white DOT-C2 retroreflective tape installed on several locations. Retroreflective tape is designed to reflect light back towards the light source, at the same entrance angle. FMVSS No. 108 has performance requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance angles, up to 45 degree. The federal requirement for minimum performance of the retroreflective tape at 45 degrees is significantly less than the federal requirement for minimum performance of the retroreflective tape at 4 degrees. Additionally, the federal requirement for the minimum performance of white retroreflective tape is significantly different than the federal requirement for the minimum performance of red retroreflective tape.
Holistic approach for improved safety including a proposal of new virtual test conditions of small electric vehicles
In the next 20 years the number of small and light-weight full electric vehicles will substantially increase especially in urban areas. These Small Electric Vehicles (SEVs) show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles (e.g. vertical windscreens, outstanding wheels). Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other (mostly heavier) vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. These fundamental changes are not adequately addressed by current vehicle safety evaluation methods and regulations. Furthermore, no assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e class currently. Therefore the final objective of the EC co-financed project SafeEV is the development of a clear and practicable guideline for virtual testing of small electric vehicles. As a basis a virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification.
The number of software-intensive and complex electronic automotive systems is continuously increasing. Many of these systems are safety-critical and pose growing safety-related concerns. ISO 26262 is the automotive functional safety standard developed for the passenger car industry. It provides guidelines to reduce and control the risk associated with safety-critical systems that include electric, electronic, and programmable parts. The standard uses the concept of Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs) to decompose and allocate safety requirements of different stringencies to the elements of a system architecture in a top-down manner. ASILs are assigned to system-level hazards and then iteratively decomposed and allocated to relevant subsystems and components. ASIL decomposition rules may give rise to multiple alternative allocations, leading to an optimization problem of finding cost-optimal allocations.
This valuable resource lists all Aerospace Standards (AS), Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP), Aerospace Information Reports (AIR), and Aerospace Resource Documents (ARD) published by SAE. Each listing includes title, subject, document number, key words, new and revised documents, and DODISS-adopted documents. AMS Index - Now Available!
This SAE Standard references the performance and functional requirements of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and its U.S. member, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). By referring to IEC/ANSI and its standards concerning light source (bulb) sockets, light source (lamp) holders, and gages, this document recognizes the need for harmonized standards world-wide for what are typically commodity items. Additional requirements are noted.
This document provides design guidelines, test procedure references, and performance requirements for omnidirectional and selective coverage optical warning devices used on authorized emergency, maintenance and service vehicles. It is intended to apply to, but is not limited to, surface land vehicles.
Define and develop test parameters, test methods, measurements, and acceptable performance criteria for composite aircraft seat structures.
Abstract ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs).
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues and occupant injury criteria to facilitate certification of oblique facing seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft.
Evaluating Alternate Approaches for Co-Hosting Third Party Software within Safety Critical Applications in ISO 26262 Context
Abstract Safety compliance has a new set of difficult questions to address due to the usage of COTS, OSS and externally supplied software code in automotive systems. The use of third-party software component is essential to business as it helps in reduction of cost and development cycle. However, there are many technical risks encountered when incorporating Third-Party Software (TPSW) components into safety related software. Moreover, safety systems conforming to new automotive safety standard ISO 26262 are expected to satisfy criteria for co-existence of TPSW with internal safety related software and legacy code. The purpose is to avoid a potential failure that may be triggered by TPSW which in turn may propagate to cause failure in other software partitions. There are several options available to address the above requirements. We should carefully evaluate the TPSW's functionality and pedigree and apply combination of techniques to assist in supporting the intent of ISO 26262.
This SAE Standard provides installation requirements, test procedures, design guidelines, and performance requirements for side turn signal lamps for vehicles less than 12 m in length.
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for tail lamps (rear position lamps) intended for use on vehicles of less than 2032 mm in overall width.
Methods will be developed to characterize In Flight Entertainment (IFE) component impact performance separate from seat design. These methods will address both initial seat head impact criterion (HIC) testing and subsequent IFE component changes. Methods will evaluate head blunt trauma, post-impact sharp edges, and egress impediment. Criteria development will involve defining test methods, test parameters, measurements, and acceptance criteria. Particular emphasis on evaluating IFE changes that require coordination and evaluation per SAE ARP 6448, Appendix B.
This document provides informational background, rationale and a technical case to allow consideration of the removal of the magnesium alloy restriction in aircraft seat construction as contained in AS8049B. The foundation of this argument is flammability characterization work performed by the FAA at the William J. Hughes Technical Center (FAATC), Fire Safety Branch in Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA. The rationale and detailed testing results are presented along with flammability reports that have concluded that the use of specific types of magnesium alloys in aircraft seat construction does not increase the hazard level potential in the passenger cabin in a post-crash fire scenario. Further, the FAA has developed a lab scale test method, reference DOT/FAA/TC-13/52, to be used as a certification test, or method of compliance (MOC) to allow acceptability of the use of magnesium in the governing TSO-C127 and TSO-C39C.
Abstract This paper aims to discuss technically the global trend of labeling legislation and the reflections of governmental programs, such as Inovar Auto, on auto parts industry, in special, about ecolabel intended for tires, focusing advances on rolling resistance analyses and its influence on the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. It will be presented analytical models and theirs respective predicted results to support tire development and researches regarding fuel consumption.
LED Light Sources Tests and Requirements Standard - Part 2: LED Lumen and Color Maintenance Measurements
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for the methods of the measurement of lumen maintenance of LED devices (packages, arrays and modules). This document does not provide guidance or make any recommendation regarding predictive estimations or extrapolation for lumen maintenance beyond the limits of the lumen maintenance determined from actual measurements.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides definitions of common terms used in SAE Documents pertaining to motor vehicle lighting. It covers not only basic lighting terms but also terms which identify major segments of technical reports.
This SAE Recommend Practice provides test procedures, performance requirements, design guidelines and installation guidelines for Adaptive Driving Beam systems.
Abstract In current inflatable curtain airbag development process, the curtain airbag performance is developed sequentially for the airbag coverage, FMVSS 226, FMVSS 214 and NCAP. Because the FMVSS 226 for the ejection mitigation and the NCAP side impact test require the opposite characteristics in terms of the dynamic stiffness of the inflatable curtain airbag, the sequential development process cannot avoid the iteration for dynamic stiffness optimization. Airbag internal pressure characteristics are can be used to evaluate the airbag performance in early stage of the development process, but they cannot predict dynamic energy absorption capability. In order to meet the opposite requirements for both FMVSS 226 and NCAP side impact test, a test and CAE simulation method for the inflatable curtain airbag was developed.
Abstract Ejection Mitigation testing is now required by the U.S. government through FMVSS 226 . FMVSS 226 contains the requirement of using a linear guided headform in a horizontal impact test into the inflated curtain, or other ejection mitigation countermeasure that deploys in the event of a rollover. The specification provides dimensions for a featureless headform  but there are limited specifications for the headform skin surface condition. In the “Response to Petitions” of the 2011 Final Rule for FMVSS 226 , the NHTSA declined the option to include a headform cleaning procedure. This research presents a case study to quantify the effect of changes in the friction between the headform and curtain on the measured excursion. The study presented here shows that a change in friction between the headform and curtain can affect excursion values by up to 135 millimeters (mm).
Efficient Testing Framework for Simulink Models with MTCD and Automated Test Assessments in the Context of ISO 26262
Requirements-based functional testing of model-based embedded software is a crucial requirement of the ISO 26262 safety standard for passenger cars . Test assessment of requirements-based test cases is a laborious task and checking test results manually is prone to error. The intent of this paper is as follows: We introduce a method for requirements-based testing, which allows testing and automatic evaluation of single as well as several (grouped) requirements with one test sequence. Within a large-scale industrial project we have already shown that our new approach reduces testing expenditures and susceptibility to errors. Within this paper we shall present a method which facilitates the fulfillment of requirements traceability stipulated by ISO 26262. This method supports automated test case generation from test specifications, which then can be executed and assessed by a test tool automatically.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the lighting function identification codes for use on all passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and emergency vehicles.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedures, performance requirements, and guidelines for cargo lamps intended for use on vehicles under 5443 kg (12000 lb) GVWR.