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2015-06-12
Standard
AS9014A
These requirements are applicable to IAQG sector schemes when making use of ABs, CRBs and their auditors, for the assessment and certification/registration of supplier quality systems in accordance with the requirements of this document. The quality management system standard used by the CRB shall be 9100/9110/9120, as appropriate to the supplier's activities. It shall be applied to the supplier's complete Quality System that covers aerospace products. Sectors may use these requirements for other standards. IAQG members have committed to recognize the equivalence of certification/registration of a suppliers quality management system to either of the AS, EN or JISQ/SJAC standards. This AS provides the approval process for Auditor Authentication Bodies (AAB), training course providers, trainers and auditors who meet the requirements of AIR5493 and outlines the America's sector specific process to implement AS9104. This document is created to be in conformance with AS9104.
2015-04-30
WIP Standard
J3098
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to illuminated devices installed on the front exterior of motor vehicles that are intended only to be decorative in nature. This Recommended Practice provides guidelines for the installation, activation, performance, and test procedures of decorative illuminated devices installed on the front exterior of motor vehicles.
2015-04-29
WIP Standard
J1133
This document provides design guidelines, test procedure references, and performance requirements for stop arm lamp devices on school bus vehicles which are used to alert traffic to stop when passengers are loading and unloading
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
Abstract NHTSA issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate countermeasures that can minimize the likelihood of a complete or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this safety ruling is the Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an optimized concept SABIC with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements. The simulated SABIC is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle. The improved performance included: minimization of the test results variability and the optimization of the ejection mitigation performance of the SABIC.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1481
Myles Wilson, David Aylor, David Zuby, Joseph Nolan
Abstract The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) evaluates autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems as part of its front crash prevention (FCP) ratings. To prepare the test vehicles' brakes, each vehicle must have 200 miles on the odometer and be subjected to the abbreviated brake burnish procedure of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 126. Other organizations conducting AEB testing follow the more extensive burnishing procedure described in FMVSS 135; Light Vehicle Brake Systems. This study compares the effects on AEB performance of the two burnishing procedures using seven 2014 model year vehicles. Six of the vehicles achieved maximum AEB speed reductions after 60 or fewer FMVSS 135 stops. After braking performance stabilized, the Mercedes ML350, BMW 328i, and Volvo S80 showed increased speed reductions compared with stops using brand new brake components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0273
Helmut Martin, Martin Krammer, Bernhard Winkler, Christian Schwarzl
Abstract Although the ISO 26262 provides requirements and recommendations for an automotive functional safety lifecycle, practical guidance on how to handle these safety activities and safety artifacts is still lacking. This paper provides an overview of a semi-formal safety engineering approach based on SysML for specifying the relevant safety artifacts in the concept phase. Using specific diagram types, different views of the available data can be provided that reflects the specific needs of the stakeholders involved. One objective of this work is to improve the common understanding of the relevant safety aspects during the system design. The approach, which is demonstrated here from the perspective of a Tier1 supplier for an automotive battery system, covers different breakdown levels of a vehicle. The safety workflow presented here supports engineers' efforts to meet the safety standard ISO 26262 in a systematic way.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0275
Gokul Krithivasan, William Taylor, Jody Nelson
Abstract In ISO 26262, the top-level safety goals are derived using the Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment. Functional safety requirements (FSRs) are then derived from these safety goals in the concept phase (ISO 26262-3:2011). The standard does not call out a specific method to develop these FSRs from safety goals. However, ISO 26262-8:2011, Clause 6, does establish requirements to ensure consistent management and correct specification of safety requirements with respect to their attributes and characteristics throughout the safety lifecycle. Hence, there are expectations on the part of system engineers to bridge this gap. The method proposed in this paper utilizes concepts from process modeling to ensure the completeness of these requirements, eliminate any external inconsistencies between them and improve verifiability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0267
Ryoichi Inada, Teppei Hirotsu, Yasushi Morita, Takahiro Hata
Abstract The ISO 26262 is a functional safety standard for road vehicles. The standard requires manufacturers to conduct quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of products. The DC is defined as the percentage of failure probability covered by safety mechanisms. However, DC evaluation methods for drift faults, in which the change in element values is not constant, have not been discussed. In this paper, we propose a DC evaluation method for analog circuits with drift faults. With this method, we first parameterize the effect of drift faults onto a bounded region then split the region into safe fault, hazardous detectable fault, and hazardous undetectable fault regions. We evaluate the classification rate distribution by the area ratios of these regions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0571
Andreas Teibinger, Christian Mayer, Ernö Dux, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Peter Luttenberger, Jac Wismans, Rémy Willinger
Abstract In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0156
Alexandr Murashkin, Luis Silva Azevedo, Jianmei Guo, Edward Zulkoski, Jia Hui Liang, Krzysztof Czarnecki, David Parker
Abstract The number of software-intensive and complex electronic automotive systems is continuously increasing. Many of these systems are safety-critical and pose growing safety-related concerns. ISO 26262 is the automotive functional safety standard developed for the passenger car industry. It provides guidelines to reduce and control the risk associated with safety-critical systems that include electric and (programmable) electronic parts. The standard uses the concept of Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs) to decompose and allocate safety requirements of different stringencies to the elements of a system architecture in a top-down manner: ASILs are assigned to system-level hazards, and then they are iteratively decomposed and allocated to relevant subsystems and components. ASIL decomposition rules may give rise to multiple alternative allocations, leading to an optimization problem of finding the cost-optimal allocations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1429
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Abstract Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 has minimum performance requirements for retroreflective tape at different entrance and observation angles. In the author's preliminary research, all DOT-C2 retroreflective tape on the market is advertised as meeting and exceeding FMVSS No. 108 requirements. The authors' literature review revealed that there have been no publications quantifying the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape across a wide range of entrance and observation angles. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape may perform, beyond the minimum federal requirements. In an attempt to solve this issue, the authors have quantified the performance of different types of retroreflective tape with a retroreflectometer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1430
Brian Gilbert, Joseph McCarthy, Ron Jadischke
Abstract The analysis and modeling of vehicle crush in accident reconstruction has traditionally been based upon the use of linear, crush-based, stiffness coefficients. Recent advances have allowed for the calculation and implementation of non-linear crush coefficients in the accident reconstruction software Human-Vehicle-Environment (HVE) by Engineering Dynamics Corporation (EDC). HVE contains the collision algorithm called DyMESH (DYnamic MEchanical SHell), which is capable of using the non-linear coefficients. These non-linear coefficients have shown to increase the accuracy of a predicted crash pulse. Published research on non-linear crush coefficients for the use in HVE has been limited to frontal impacts. Calculating side stiffness coefficients is more complex since most side impact crash tests involve two vehicles that can crush and absorb impact energy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1432
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Judson Welcher
Abstract Accident reconstruction experts are often asked to evaluate the visibility and conspicuity of objects in the roadway. It is common for objects placed in or along the roadway, vehicles, and required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 for certain vehicles and trailers, to have red and white DOT-C2 retroreflective tape installed on several locations. Retroreflective tape is designed to reflect light back towards the light source at the same entrance angle. The authors' literature review revealed that there have been no publications quantifying the performance of commercially available DOT-C2 retroreflective tape with real world vehicles. Therefore, without additional study, an accident reconstruction expert cannot know exactly how a specific type of compliant tape would perform beyond the minimum federal requirements. In the current research, the performance of white and red DOT-C2 retroreflective tape is quantified.
2015-04-14
WIP Standard
J2938
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for the methods of the measurement of lumen maintenance of LED devices (packages, arrays and modules). This document does not provide guidance or make any recommendation regarding predictive estimations or extrapolation for lumen maintenance beyond the limits of the lumen maintenance determined from actual measurements.
2015-03-05
Book
This valuable resource lists all Aerospace Standards (AS), Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP), Aerospace Information Reports (AIR), and Aerospace Resource Documents (ARD) published by SAE. Each listing includes title, subject, document number, key words, new and revised documents, and DODISS-adopted documents. AMS Index - Now Available!
2015-02-17
Standard
J567_201502
This SAE Standard references the performance and functional requirements of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and its U.S. member, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). By referring to IEC/ANSI and its standards concerning light source (bulb) sockets, light source (lamp) holders, and gages, this document recognizes the need for harmonized standards world-wide for what are typically commodity items. Additional requirements are noted.
2015-01-16
WIP Standard
J845
This document provides design guidelines, test procedure references, and performance requirements for omnidirectional and selective coverage optical warning devices used on authorized emergency, maintenance and service vehicles. It is intended to apply to, but is not limited to, surface land vehicles.
2014-11-18
WIP Standard
ARP6337
Define and develop test parameters, test methods, measurements, and acceptable performance criteria for composite aircraft seat structures.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0016
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs).
2014-10-31
WIP Standard
ARP6316
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues and occupant injury criteria to facilitate certification of oblique facing seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2422
Raghuram Krishnamurthy, Rani Mukherjee
Abstract Safety compliance has a new set of difficult questions to address due to the usage of COTS, OSS and externally supplied software code in automotive systems. The use of third-party software component is essential to business as it helps in reduction of cost and development cycle. However, there are many technical risks encountered when incorporating Third-Party Software (TPSW) components into safety related software. Moreover, safety systems conforming to new automotive safety standard ISO 26262 are expected to satisfy criteria for co-existence of TPSW with internal safety related software and legacy code. The purpose is to avoid a potential failure that may be triggered by TPSW which in turn may propagate to cause failure in other software partitions. There are several options available to address the above requirements. We should carefully evaluate the TPSW's functionality and pedigree and apply combination of techniques to assist in supporting the intent of ISO 26262.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0165
Mauro Marcial, André Luiz Pereira, Eduardo Orfale Jr, Rodrigo Martins Freitas, William Yamada
Abstract The increase in crash tests done for independent entities of consumer protection, such as the Euro NCAP (Europe) or IIHS (United States) have shown increasingly importance for safety regarding the occupant protection. The consumer of the automotive market in developed countries, as United States or countries of European Union for example, they seek for a safer vehicle when buying a new one. On the other hand in Brazil, the consumer does not have the culture of buying a vehicle thinking in safety performance, but they choose the cars because of body style and accessories. The regulation of the Brazilian government's obligation to Air Bag and ABS brakes for all vehicles produced in the country from January 2014 and the INOVAR AUTO program, aims to bring more safety to vehicles produced in the country.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0281
Gelcino de Paula Brito, José Antônio Ferreira Borges, Gabriel Fernandes Garcia Nogueira
Abstract The vehicular safety is a very important subject in Brazil, after all, 40,000 people died in the country in 2013 due the traffic accidents. This work investigates the legislation and the blind area evolution of several kinds of vehicles through the years. The studies associate the results to vehicle structures evolution (rear side columns), specific aspects of some projects (structural rigidity) and to the accessories adoption (mirrors, head restraints, jackets and baggage handlers in motorcycles). Blind area were measured in the vicinity of vehicles of different models and categories, considering drivers of several statures aiming at represent the real conditions found in the traffic. The study established that trucks, mainly in older models, presents larger blind areas than passenger cars, opposing the theory that height elevated vehicles guarantees better visibility.
2014-08-11
Standard
J914_201408
This SAE Standard provides installation requirements, test procedures, design guidelines, and performance requirements for side turn signal lamps for vehicles less than 12 m in length.
2014-06-17
Standard
J585_201406
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for tail lamps (rear position lamps) intended for use on vehicles of less than 2032 mm in overall width.
2014-05-27
WIP Standard
ARP6330
Methods will be developed to characterize In Flight Entertainment (IFE) component impact performance separate from seat design. These methods will address both initial seat head impact criterion (HIC) testing and subsequent IFE component changes. Methods will evaluate head blunt trauma, post-impact sharp edges, and egress impediment. Criteria development will involve defining test methods, test parameters, measurements, and acceptance criteria. Particular emphasis on evaluating IFE changes that require coordination and evaluation per SAE ARP 6448, Appendix B.
2014-05-16
Standard
AIR6160
This document provides informational background, rationale and a technical case to allow consideration of the removal of the magnesium alloy restriction in aircraft seat construction as contained in AS8049B. The foundation of this argument is flammability characterization work performed by the FAA at the William J. Hughes Technical Center (FAATC), Fire Safety Branch in Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA. The rationale and detailed testing results are presented along with flammability reports that have concluded that the use of specific types of magnesium alloys in aircraft seat construction does not increase the hazard level potential in the passenger cabin in a post-crash fire scenario. Further, the FAA has developed a lab scale test method, reference DOT/FAA/TC-13/52, to be used as a certification test, or method of compliance (MOC) to allow acceptability of the use of magnesium in the governing TSO-C127 and TSO-C39C.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0016
Marcos R. Gali, Renan R. M. Ozelo, Argemiro L. A. Costa, José Maria C. Dos Santos
Abstract This paper aims to discuss technically the global trend of labeling legislation and the reflections of governmental programs, such as Inovar Auto, on auto parts industry, in special, about ecolabel intended for tires, focusing advances on rolling resistance analyses and its influence on the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. It will be presented analytical models and theirs respective predicted results to support tire development and researches regarding fuel consumption.
2014-04-28
Standard
J387_201404
This SAE Recommended Practice provides definitions of common terms used in SAE Documents pertaining to motor vehicle lighting. It covers not only basic lighting terms but also terms which identify major segments of technical reports.
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