Abstract ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs). We demonstrate in this article that it is to reduce the maximum severity in the Correspondence Diagram between Risk and ASIL (CDRA) and to increase the degree of acceptable risks in view of situations specific to motorcycles.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues and occupant injury criteria to facilitate certification of oblique facing seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft.
Evaluating Alternate Approaches for Co-Hosting Third Party Software within Safety Critical Applications in ISO 26262 Context
Abstract Safety compliance has a new set of difficult questions to address due to the usage of COTS, OSS and externally supplied software code in automotive systems. The use of third-party software component is essential to business as it helps in reduction of cost and development cycle. However, there are many technical risks encountered when incorporating Third-Party Software (TPSW) components into safety related software. Moreover, safety systems conforming to new automotive safety standard ISO 26262 are expected to satisfy criteria for co-existence of TPSW with internal safety related software and legacy code. The purpose is to avoid a potential failure that may be triggered by TPSW which in turn may propagate to cause failure in other software partitions. There are several options available to address the above requirements. We should carefully evaluate the TPSW's functionality and pedigree and apply combination of techniques to assist in supporting the intent of ISO 26262. This paper discusses on the issues concerning insertion of third party software code (OEM supplied code, Tier 2 vendor software) into in-house developed ECU software.
This SAE Standard provides installation requirements, test procedures, design guidelines, and performance requirements for side turn signal lamps for vehicles less than 12 m in length.
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for tail lamps (rear position lamps) intended for use on vehicles of less than 2032 mm in overall width.
Methods will be developed to characterize In Flight Entertainment (IFE) component impact performance separate from seat design. These methods will address both initial seat head impact criterion (HIC) testing and subsequent IFE component changes. Methods will evaluate head blunt trauma, post-impact sharp edges, and egress impediment. Criteria development will involve defining test methods, test parameters, measurements, and acceptance criteria. Particular emphasis on evaluating IFE changes that require coordination and evaluation per SAE ARP 6448, Appendix B.
This document provides informational background, rationale and a technical case to allow consideration of the removal of the magnesium alloy restriction in aircraft seat construction as contained in AS8049B. The foundation of this argument is flammability characterization work performed by the FAA at the William J. Hughes Technical Center (FAATC), Fire Safety Branch in Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA. The rationale and detailed testing results are presented along with flammability reports that have concluded that the use of specific types of magnesium alloys in aircraft seat construction does not increase the hazard level potential in the passenger cabin in a post-crash fire scenario. Further, the FAA has developed a lab scale test method, reference DOT/FAA/TC-13/52, to be used as a certification test, or method of compliance (MOC) to allow acceptability of the use of magnesium in the governing TSO-C127 and TSO-C39C. Other flammability studies are also cited in the AIR document to substantiate the FAA findings.
Abstract This paper aims to discuss technically the global trend of labeling legislation and the reflections of governmental programs, such as Inovar Auto, on auto parts industry, in special, about ecolabel intended for tires, focusing advances on rolling resistance analyses and its influence on the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. It will be presented analytical models and theirs respective predicted results to support tire development and researches regarding fuel consumption.
LED Light Sources Tests and Requirements Standard - Part 2: LED Lumen and Color Maintenance Measurements
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for the methods of the measurement of lumen maintenance of LED devices (packages, arrays and modules). This document does not provide guidance or make any recommendation regarding predictive estimations or extrapolation for lumen maintenance beyond the limits of the lumen maintenance determined from actual measurements.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides definitions of common terms used in SAE Documents pertaining to motor vehicle lighting. It covers not only basic lighting terms but also terms which identify major segments of technical reports.
Develop test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for adaptive high beam systems.
Abstract Ejection Mitigation testing is now required by the U.S. government through FMVSS 226 . FMVSS 226 contains the requirement of using a linear guided headform in a horizontal impact test into the inflated curtain, or other ejection mitigation countermeasure that deploys in the event of a rollover. The specification provides dimensions for a featureless headform  but there are limited specifications for the headform skin surface condition. In the “Response to Petitions” of the 2011 Final Rule for FMVSS 226 , the NHTSA declined the option to include a headform cleaning procedure. This research presents a case study to quantify the effect of changes in the friction between the headform and curtain on the measured excursion. The study presented here shows that a change in friction between the headform and curtain can affect excursion values by up to 135 millimeters (mm).
Abstract In current inflatable curtain airbag development process, the curtain airbag performance is developed sequentially for the airbag coverage, FMVSS 226, FMVSS 214 and NCAP. Because the FMVSS 226 for the ejection mitigation and the NCAP side impact test require the opposite characteristics in terms of the dynamic stiffness of the inflatable curtain airbag, the sequential development process cannot avoid the iteration for dynamic stiffness optimization. Airbag internal pressure characteristics are can be used to evaluate the airbag performance in early stage of the development process, but they cannot predict dynamic energy absorption capability. In order to meet the opposite requirements for both FMVSS 226 and NCAP side impact test, a test and CAE simulation method for the inflatable curtain airbag was developed. The purpose of this study is to standardize the test setup for comparing the energy absorption capability of inflatable curtain airbag and to make criteria for meeting both FMVSS 226 and NCAP early in the program.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the lighting function identification codes for use on all passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and emergency vehicles.
Efficient Testing Framework for Simulink Models with MTCD and Automated Test Assessments in the Context of ISO 26262
Requirements-based functional testing of model-based embedded software is a crucial requirement of the ISO 26262 safety standard for passenger cars . Test assessment of requirements-based test cases is a laborious task and checking test results manually is prone to error. The intent of this paper is as follows: We introduce a method for requirements-based testing, which allows testing and automatic evaluation of single as well as several (grouped) requirements with one test sequence. Within a large-scale industrial project we have already shown that our new approach reduces testing expenditures and susceptibility to errors. Within this paper we shall present a method which facilitates the fulfillment of requirements traceability stipulated by ISO 26262. This method supports automated test case generation from test specifications, which then can be executed and assessed by a test tool automatically. The combination of these two methods in an efficient testing framework results in a significant reduction of testing expenditures and considerable increase in test coverage.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedures, performance requirements, and guidelines for cargo lamps intended for use on vehicles under 5443 kg (12000 lb) GVWR.
Directional Flashing Optical Warning Devices for Authorized Emergency, Maintenance, and Service Vehicles
This document provides design guidelines, test procedure references, and performance requirements for directional, single color, flashing optical warning devices used on authorized emergency, maintenance and service vehicles. It is intended to apply to, but not limited to, surface land vehicles.
This valuable resource lists all Aerospace Standards (AS), Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP), Aerospace Information Reports (AIR), and Aerospace Resource Documents (ARD) published by SAE. Each listing includes title, subject, document number, key words, new and revised documents, and DODISS-adopted documents. AMS Index - Now Available!
Clearance, Sidemarker, and Identification Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles 2032 mm or More in Overall Width
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for clearance, sidemarker, and identification lamps intended for use on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. A clearance lamp, sidemarker lamp, or an identification lamp conforming to the requirements of this document may be used on vehicles less than 2032 mm in overall width.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for side turn signal lamps intended for use on vehicles 12 m or more in overall length, except pole trailers. Side turn signal lamps conforming to the requirements of this document may be used on other large vehicles such as trucks, truck tractors, buses, and other applications where this type of lighting device is desirable. It is not intended for use on shorter vehicles due to the higher intensity requirements of SAE J2039 compared to the SAE J914 devices.
Increasing complexity in E/E architecture poses several challenges in developing comfortable, clean and safe cars. This mandates robust processes to mitigate potential hazards due to malfunction of electronic systems throughout the product life cycle. With the advent of ISO 26262  which provides guidelines for developing safe cars, the process is getting standardized towards safer mobility. In this paper, the functional safety process is briefly covered and a case study of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment for specific E/E system is presented. An in-house tool developed for functional safety process and management is covered.
Buses have been main means of mass transport in organized as well as unorganized sectors in India. Though the art and science of Chassis Designing had been practiced and matured by all Indian OEMs, Body design had long not been accorded high priority by them. Till 1989, there was no comprehensive set of rules enforced. Bus designs were developed with scant regard for safety and emission. OEMs sold their products in the form of drive away chassis and the Body Design & Body Building was largely left to Body Builders, many of whom employed poor design, build and quality control practices. Spurious materials, parts, non-uniform construction resulted in number of accidents and many of them were fatal. Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR) kicked-in 1st July 1989. With roll out of CMVR, various safety related features like entry/exit door, emergency exits, window frames, their locations, dimensions and designs were defined. Stability and strength evaluations of the bus body, seat anchorages, and roll over test for the full body got promulgated.
Natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been introduced in many parts of world including India, Europe and United States and achieved tremendous success in addressing the energy security and pollution challenges. This paper describes in detail the safety requirements for CNG vehicles in India, Europe and United States. Various safety and design requirements for CNG fuel system components such as gas cylinders, cylinder valves, fuel lines, filling connection, pressure regulator, gas-air mixer, electrical systems, are explained. The safety requirements described in ISO standards, UN-ECE standards, USA FMVSS, NFPA standards and Indian Standards are compared and discussed in detail. It also specifies the procedure for commissioning and installation of CNG vehicles. Further, it is concluded that all these international standards for CNG vehicles have adequate provisions with regard to impact protection, passenger safety and fire safety. It is also suggested that countries can consider communization of CNG system requirements for better advantages.
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for reflex reflectors used on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Reflex reflectors conforming to these requirements may also be used on vehicles less than 2032 mm in overall width.
The Brazilian Automotive regulations that are aimed towards the safety of drivers, passengers and pedestrians have gone through recent changes to prevent and/or minimize injury and trauma from different types of accidents. Until now, National Traffic Council (CONTRAN) Resolution n° 14/98 required vehicles to only have safety belts for an occupant restraint system, and frontal airbags were not required. Since the recent CONTRAN n° 311/09 Resolution requires mandatory frontal airbags, the occupant restraint system must be tuned due to the interaction with different components that may make up the system, like safety belts with pretensioners and seatbelt load limiting devices. The present study was developed to optimize the restraint system of a current vehicle in production, while focusing on minimizing the vehicle complexity. The optimization tool helped to develop a robust restraint system for the frontal passenger during a frontal impact . The numerical computational model created was initially correlated with an experimental test, and then 72 simulations were performed to build the optimization matrix.
Torque Output Improvement for S-cam Drum Brakes using DOE Methods (per ASTM E1169-07) and the SAE J2115-06 Inertia Dynamometer Test Procedure
This paper presents three main topics which proved useful during the systematic resolution and testing program to confirm the ability of the proposed friction material to conform to the performance requirements indicated on the TP-121D  dynamometer test. Initially, the paper presents some commonalities and differences between the vehicle FMVSS 121, the dynamometer TP-121D and the SAE J2115-06  test protocols. The second part of the paper elaborates on the implementation of the methodology established on the ASTM E1169-07 . This standard relies on Design of Experiments (DOE) methods to assess the robustness of a given test method when testing on the extreme values allowed for key test conditions. The DOE used a three-factor, two-level, fractional factorial design to investigate the influence of (a) cooling air speed, (b) brake power as the combination of test inertia and deceleration settings, and (c) brake adjustment method. This experiment allows the quantification of their effects on brake retardation, maximum brake pressures, brake stroke, and cycle times among others.
Simulation of the Performance Based Standards (PBS) Low-Speed 90° Turn Test in TruckSim by Jumping Back in Time
In 2008 the Australian National Transport Commission (NTC) published a reference document titled Performance Based Standards Scheme - The Standards And Vehicle Assessment Rules . This document describes a series of testing requirements known as Performance Based Standards (PBS) to be used for certifying truck configurations acceptable for the Australia highway system. The PBS specification allows for both in-vehicle testing and numerical analysis using simulation tools such as TruckSim . Several of the PBS tests require a Low-Speed 90° Turn, used to measure tracking behavior and tire friction utilization. This test presents an unusual simulation challenge because the driver is required to closely track a path with the outer sidewall of the outside front tire. A human driver must learn the response of the vehicle in order to steer it accurately through the test. This paper describes how the learning process was simulated in TruckSim by using the built-in scripting language to monitor the tracking of the point of interest (outer sidewall of a tire) for drifting from the target path.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides standardized laboratory tests, test methods, and performance requirements applicable to signal and marking devices used on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.