This document has been declared "CANCELLED" by the E32 committee as of April 2016 and has been superseded by ARP5120. By this action, this document will remain listed in the Numerical Section of the Aerospace Standards Index noting that it is superseded by ARP5120. Cancelled specifications are available from SAE.
In order to realize the benefits of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) within the aerospace and defense industry there is a need to address five critical elements of data interoperability within and across the aircraft maintenance ecosystem, namely • Approach • Trust • Context • Value • Security In Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) data interoperability is the ability of different authorized components, systems, IT, software, applications and organizations to securely communicate, exchange data, interpret data, use the information and derive consistent insight from the data that has been exchanged to derive value.
This document provides information on contamination and its effects on brakes having carbon-carbon composite friction materials (carbon). Carbon is hygroscopic and porous, and therefore readily absorbs liquids and contaminants. Some of the contaminants can impact intended performance of the brake. This document is intended to raise awareness of the effects of carbon brake contamination and provide information on industry practices for its prevention. Although not addressed in this report, contaminants can cause problems with other landing system components including tires.
This specification covers a direct reading, remote control, pneumatic pressure inflator assembly, for use on aircraft tires and struts having pneumatic pressure requirements up to 600 psi. It includes pressure relief provisions for safe inflation. Also included are dual chuck stem gages for measuring tire pressure.
Abstract More stringent federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems in order to best utilize the waste heat and minimize overall power consumption. With all new technologies and requirements, how to properly design, optimize, and control the vehicle thermal and cooling systems become great challenges to automotive engineers. Model based approach has become essential to the new thermal management system architectures design and evaluation of the optimal system solutions. This paper will discuss how the model based vehicle thermal system simulation tools have been developed from analytical & empirical data, and have been used for assessment and development of new thermal management system architectures.
A Unified Framework for Representing Product Validation Testing Methods and Conducting Reliability Analysis
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns for vehicle components and systems, which experience cyclic fatigue loadings and may eventually fail over time. Durability and reliability assessment and associated product validation require effective and robust testing methods. Several testing methods are available and among them, three basic testing methods are widely used: life testing, binomial testing (bogey testing), and degradation testing. In fact, their commonalities, differences, and relationships have not been clearly defined and fully understood. Therefore, the maximum potential of these testing methods to generate efficient, optimized, and cost-effective testing plans, consistent results, and meaningful results interpretation have been significantly limited. In this paper, a unified framework for representing these testing methods and conducting reliability analysis in a single damage-cycle (D-N) diagram is provided.
Product validation and reliability demonstration require testing of limited samples and probabilistic analyses of the test data. The uncertainties introduced from the tests with limited sample sizes and the assumptions made about the underlying probabilistic distribution will significantly impact the results and the results interpretation. Therefore, understanding the nature of these uncertainties is critical to test method development, uncertainty reduction, data interpretation, and the effectiveness of the validation and reliability demonstration procedures. In this paper, these uncertainties are investigated with the focuses on the following two aspects: (1) fundamentals of the RxxCyy criterion used in both the life testing and the binomial testing methods, (2) issues and benefits of using the two-parameter Weibull probabilistic distribution function.
Abstract The objective of the paper is to outline the steps taken to change the reliability and maintenance environment of a plant from completely reactive to proactive. The main systems addressed are maintenance function fulfillment with existing staffing; work order management, planning, and scheduling; preventive maintenance (PM) definition and frequency establishment; predictive maintenance (PdM) scheduling and method definition; and shutdown planning and execution. The work order management methods were evaluated and modified to provide planning and scheduling of work orders on a weekly basis. The computerized maintenance and management system (CMMS) was updated to automatically insert work orders into the backlog of work for completion. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed and the results of the FMEA led to implementation of the following PM and PdM activities: vibration analysis, thermal imaging, and temperature monitoring.
Abstract To reduce the computational time of the iterations in robust design, meta-models are frequently utilized to approximate time-consuming computer aided engineering models. However, the bias of meta-model uncertainty largely affects the robustness of the prediction results, this uncertainty need to be addressed before design optimization. In this paper, an efficient uncertainty quantification method considering both model and parameter uncertainties is proposed. Firstly, the uncertainty of parameters are characterized by statistical distributions. The Bayesian inference is then performed to improve the predictive capabilities of the surrogate models, meanwhile, the model uncertainty can also be quantified in the form of variance. Monte Carlo sampling is finally utilized to quantify the compound uncertainties of model and parameter. Furthermore, the proposed uncertainty quantification method is used for robust design.
Abstract In order to accurately predict product reliability, it is best to design a test in which many specimens are tested for a long duration. However, this scenario is not often practical due to economic and time constraints. This paper describes a reliability test in which a limited number of specimens are tested with little time remaining before the scheduled start of production. During the test, an unexpected failure mode that can be mitigated through a product redesign occurs. Because the scheduled start of production is near, there is not enough time to perform a test with redesigned specimens, so the current test proceeds as planned. We discuss several methods and the associated assumptions that must be made to account for the presence of the unexpected failure mode in the test data in order to make predictions of reliability of the redesigned product.
Abstract Mahalanobis Distance (MD) is gaining momentum in many fields where classification, statistical pattern recognition, and forecasting are primary focus. It is a multivariate method and considers correlation relationships among parameters for computing generalized distance measure to separate groups or populations. MD is a useful statistic in multivariate analysis to test that an observed random sample is from a multivariate normal distribution. This capability alone enables engineers to determine if an observed sample is an outlier (defect) that falls outside the constructed (good) multivariate normal distribution. In Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS), MD is suitably scaled and used as a measure of severity in abnormality assessment. It is obvious that computed MD depends on values of parameters observed on a random sample. All parameters may not equally impact MD. MD could be highly sensitive with respect to some parameters and less sensitive to some other parameters.
Abstract In the automotive industry, multiple prototypes are used for vehicle development purposes. These prototypes are typically put through rigorous testing, both under accelerated and real world conditions, to ensure that all the problems related to design, manufacturing, process etc. are identified and solved before it reaches the hands of the customer. One of the challenges faced in testing, is the low repeatability of the real world tests. This may be predominantly due to changes in the test conditions over a period of time like road, traffic, climate etc. Estimating the repeatability of a real world test has been difficult due to the complex and multiple parameters that are usually involved in a vehicle level test and the time correlation between different runs of a real world test does not exist. In such a scenario, the popular and the well-known univariate correlation methods do not yield the best results.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes procedures for use in the field to determine if 115/200 Volt, 400 Hz aircraft external electrical power connectors are excessively worn, which may result in the inability of the external power plug to be retained, intermittent electrical performance and arcing.
This specification and its supplementary detail specifications establish the requirements for electrodeposition of metals by brush plating.
The scope of the Landing Gear Integrity Programs (LGIP) Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to assist in the safe-life structural integrity management of the landing gear system and subsystems components. In addition, component reliability, availability, and maintainability is included in a holistic LGIP.
Provide information and guidance for landing gear operation in cold temperature environment. Covers all operational aspects on ground and in flight. Includes effects on: tires, wheels, brakes, shock strut, seals, and actuation.
AS5714 MINIMUM PERFORMANCE STANDARD FOR PARTS 23, 27 and 29 AIRCRAFT WHEELS, BRAKES AND WHEEL AND BRAKE ASSEMBLIES
To assist the FAA with the technical update of TSO-C26d to address Electric Brake Actuation, standardize with TSO-C135a and address any remaining concerns with the current document.
Provide specifications for hydraulic fluids used in landing gear shock struts. Some of this information was previously in AIR5358 however specifications should be in an AS. This new document will contain the appropriate specifications for premixed hydraulic fluid with additives believed to improve fluid performance and reduce friction.
Minimum Performance Standard for Part 23, 27, and 29 Aircraft Wheels, Brakes, and Wheel and Brake Assemblies
This document was requested by the FAA to provide a technical update of TSO-C26d to address Electric Brake Actuation, standardize with TSO-C135a and address any remaining concerns with the current technical requirements in AIR5381.
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a reasonable definition of external hydraulic fluid leakage exhibited by landing gear shock absorbers. The definition will outline normal and excessive leakage that is measureable and routinely encountered in newly assembled refurbished/remanufactured components, leakage during acceptance flights, recently delivered and in-service aircraft.
This handbook is intended to assist the user to understand the ANSI/EIA-649B standard principles and functions for Configuration Management (CM) and how to plan and implement effective CM. It provides CM implementation guidance for all users (CM professionals and practitioners within the commercial and industry communities, DoD, military service commands, and government activities (e.g., National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)) with a variety of techniques and examples. Information about interfacing with other management systems and processes are included to ensure the principles and functions are applied in each phase of the life cycle for all product categories.
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174.
This report details continuing work examining the fatigue life durability of a US Army Trailer. This report describes, through example, a process to evaluate and reduce the experimental data needed for a Mechanical Systems Physics - of Failure analysis. In addition the report describes the process used to validate the computer simulation models.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all portions of the vehicle, but design efforts should focus on components and systems with the highest contribution to the overall average repair cost (see 3.7). The costs to be minimized include not only insurance premiums, but also out-of-pocket costs incurred by the owner. Damageability, repairability, serviceability and diagnostics are inter-related. Some repairability, serviceability and diagnostics operations may be required for collision or comprehensive loss-related causes only. Some operations may be for non-collision-related causes only (warranty, scheduled maintenance, non-scheduled maintenance, etc.). Some may be required for both causes. The scope of this document deals with only those operations that involve collision and comprehensive insurance loss repairs.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the basic general design requirements for ground support equipment used in the civil air transport industry. It is intended to assist the airlines in standardizing requirements for various configurations of equipment. For procurement of equipment, sections of this document should be specified with due consideration of the functional and environmental requirements of the equipment, and to the relative cost of satisfying those requirements.
This information report provides general guidance for the design considerations, qualification in endurance, strength and fatigue of landing gear using composite components as principle structural elements. The information discussed herein includes the development and evaluation of design data considering: the potential for imbedded manufacturing defects, manufacturing process variations, the component operating environment, potential damage threats in service, rework and overhaul, and inspection processes. This AIR mainly discusses the use of thick composites for landing gear structural components. Considerations and recommendations provided in this AIR may therefore differ greatly from considerations and recommendations found in widely accepted composite design references such as CMH-17 and Advisory Circulars such as AC 20-107(B).
This AIR will address the need for a strategy to achieve aircraft operating certificate holder maintenance efficiencies within the existing regulatory environment as well as the need for regulation, policy, and guidance changes in the long-term to accommodate more complex IVHM solutions. This document will analyse which IVHM solutions can be incorporated within existing maintenance procedures and which also comply with regulations, policy, and guidance. One of the AIR’s objectives is to define best practices for aircraft operating certificate holders to engage with regulators to get approval for simpler IVHM applications leading to maintenance efficiencies. Additionally, this document will analyse the barriers that existing regulations, policy, and guidance present to the implementation of more advanced IVHM solutions. The result is a set of recommendations to certify and implement end-to-end IVHM solutions for the purpose of gaining maintenance efficiencies.
This standard shall apply to all commercial human suborbital spaceflights governed by the Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act of 2004.
Sophisticated infotainment systems, lane departure warning, adaptive cruise control, and blind-spot monitoring are increasingly common in cars today. The proliferation of automotive electronics and other “smart” features has increased the market for automotive semiconductor devices and the number of sensors per vehicle. Yet, more chips and greater functionality translate to further networking/communications activity within the car, and that raises the prospect of potentially serious errors.
Definition of target design and location on aircraft, that will be used: - To provide correct GSE alignment support and docking when approaching the aircraft in automatic, semi-automatic or manual mode - by GSE autoleveling system to detect and follow aircraft vertical movements