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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
C Venkatesan, V Faustino, S Arun, S Ravi Shankar
Abstract The automotive industry needs sustainable seating products which offer good climate performance and superior seating comfort. The safety requirement is always a concern for current seating systems. The life of the present seating system is low and absorbs moisture over a period of time which affects seat performance (cushioning effect). Recycling is one of the major concerns as far as polyurethane (PU) is concerned. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which is eco-friendly and light in weight. Thermoplastic Polyolefin (PO) materials were tried in place PU for many good reasons. It is closed cell foam which has better tear and abrasion resistance. It doesn't absorb water and has excellent weathering resistance. Also it has a better cushioning effect and available in various colours. Because of superior tear resistance, it is possible to eliminate upholstery and would reduce system level cost. The development involves testing and characterization of the materials, making of prototypes and validations.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Samira Keivanpour, Christian Mascle, Daoud Ait Kadi
The End of Life phase of Aircraft is a relatively complex phase in life cycle of this product. The retired Aircrafts need to be parked in certain conditions. Some valuable parts are disassembled and the rest of them are dismantled. Materials are separated and upgraded, waste is burned or deserted and toxic materials restrained or incinerated. All of these activities should be performed in an ecologically right manner; however, collectively produced added values for all stakeholders need to be considered. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework for value chain analysis of Aircraft recycling process in the context of sustainable development. The value chain related to recycling aircraft at the end of life was chosen to generate an in-depth analysis of the value chain, considering environmental and socio-economic concerns. The value chain framework for recycling of fleets is identified. The key processes with environmental and social impacts are determined. The decision making process along the value chain and the policy framework including codes, regulations and standards are addressed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Atsushi Mizutani
Abstract This paper describes the development of high efficiency and compact bumper recycling equipment for facilitating bumper recycling globally. Various equipment to remove paint coat from bumper has been developed since 90s', using mechanical, physical or chemical method. However, it is difficult to promote bumper recycling without realizing cost effective overall system from paint coat removal to pelletizing. Our company jointly developed method of mechanically removing paint coat and has committed to bumper recycling in the form of outsourcing since 2000. In 2010, a dedicated plant for recycling bumpers was launched on the premises of our Oppama Assembly Plant in Japan. In the future, promoting bumper recycling at other overseas assembly plants is necessary as vehicle production will expand globally. Having more compact and cost effective recycling system compared to the one at the Oppama plant is required since the scale of the system including bumper crushing, paint coat removal, and pelletizing has to match processing capacity at these plants rather than equipping large one like Oppama's.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Shigeki Nitta, Kanako Ito
The purpose of this study is to define requirements for technological and business success in the world's first implementation of Reverse-Supply-Chain, in which bumper materials of end-of-life vehicles (ELV) are recycled for use as ingredients in new bumper materials. In Japan, ELVs are recovered following to the government regulation. About 20% (700,000 ton) of such collected ELVs are automotive shredder residues (ASR), most of which are burnt as fuel or used as landfill trash. ASRs are mainly plastics, which are largely used as materials of bumpers. The reverse-supply-chain was started as a small business by a collaboration between the car manufacture (Mazda), dismantler, and resource-recycling business operator, and enhanced by the development of easy-to-recycle bumpers, technologies of paint removal from crushed bumpers and sorting-out, a material quality control method, and improvement in transportation efficiency. In this paper, requirements for the establishment of the reverse-supply-chain are defined, which enable continuous horizontal-recycle of discarded bumpers of low utility value, further promoting recycling activities of disused plastics, contributing to the reduction in the use of underground resources and green-house gas emissions.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Suna Erses Yay, Kubilay Yay
This study aims to determine environmental aspects of an end-of-vehicle recycling process through life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Functional unit of the study was an end-of-vehicle with a weight of 1432 kg. System boundaries included transportation of the scrap car to disassembly and shredding facility, disassembly and shredding processes and transportation of the materials to recycling facilities. Data regarding process was gathered from a shredding facility, literature and the libraries of the SimaPro 7.3.2. Gathered data was evaluated through CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology by the means of abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidation. According to results, transportation and diesel consumption are the important factors for ELV recycling. It is thought that decreasing of diesel consumption and selection of closest sites to material recycling facilities for disassembly and shredding facilities will decrease the environmental effects of ELV recycling.
Technical Paper
2013-03-25
Surendra Datar
For sustainability, industries are now focusing on methodologies for Recycle, Reuse, Repair of a variety of industrial material. Cutting tools used in manufacturing of automobiles have therefore become a part of it. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1] or by redesigning a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2]. An automobile part was redesigned for reuse of a used up tool [3]. By reforming, very large size grinding wheel used for crankshaft grinding can be reused after it gets smaller in diameter during crankshaft grinding operation [4]. This paper deals with two more implemented ideas to show that with a redesigned tool holder it was possible to reuse used up carbide inserts and significantly cut the manufacturing cost in addition to avoid manufacturing of new inserts and thus conserve natural resources.
Magazine
2013-02-07
Powdered tires Researchers quantify several environmental benefits associated with using ultra-fine scrap tire rubber powders in virgin and recycled rubber and plastics compounds.
Standard
2013-01-14
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to establish the specific minimum equipment performance requirements for recovery and recycling of HFC-134a that has been directly removed from, and is intended for reuse in, mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. It also is intended to establish requirements for equipment used to recharge HFC-134a to an accuracy level that meets Section 9 of this document and SAE J2099. The requirements apply to the following types of service equipment and their specific applications. a. Recovery/Recycling Equipment, b. Recovery/Recycling-Refrigerant Charging, c. Refrigerant Recharging Equipment Only.
Technical Paper
2012-10-02
Jose Joaquim Filho
Style changes and technological advances have led to reduced service life of current products as automobiles. These are among the goods that are constantly re-designed to meet our growing needs for improved products. However, these demands for new products and more modern has meant a great cost to our natural resources, such as excessive use of raw materials, water and energy during production, use and end of life cycle of these assets. The increasing scarcity of land available for the proper disposal of waste in landfills, in addition to the high cost of implementing these areas and the increasing distances to urban centers imply the need to reduce solid waste generation, including here the automotive. The growth of the automotive market has created a serious problem due to the disposal of urban waste volumes generated, the great diversity of materials involved and their toxicity. The objective of this study is to analyze the various constituent materials of the vehicle and its impact on the environment (APPENDIX 1).
Standard
2012-06-04
To provide a procedure to inspect a refrigerant cylinder used in equipment servicing mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. This includes the pressure cylinder used for refrigerant recovery/recycling and charging equipment.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Todd F. Mackintosh
Electrification of the transportation industry is increasing rapidly with batteries currently the technology of choice. At the end of life, the battery chemistry used to electrify the vehicle may not be easily identifiable. A simple, common identifier is required to allow consumers, service and waste management personnel to direct unknown battery types to appropriate recyclers or secondary use markets. Recyclers also benefit from this identifier as it allows them to sort, screen for potential contamination to existing process streams, and identify the manufacturer so they may contact them to find detailed information about the battery to ensure proper and safe recycling. The SAE Battery Recycling Committee has recommended that batteries be identified by battery system, miscellaneous hazards and date of manufacture be identified as part of chemistry identification code. For the lithium-ion chemistry it is further recommended that cathode and anode be specified. To avoid confusion and duplication with other standards, the SAE identifier has selected identification letters and a color background consistent with the Battery Association of Japan's (BAJ) “Guidelines for Recycle Mark on Batteries” (1).
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
John Howes
As the market for plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles continues to grow, so too will the demand for advanced batteries using lithium-ion and other chemistries. The need to recycle advanced batteries will grow as well lest the batteries become a solid waste disposal problem. Currently, lithium recycling is an industry in its infancy, but one that will need to develop to meet expected growing demand. This considers policy issues that policymakers will need to address as the demand for advanced battery recycling emerges.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Surendra Datar
For sustainability in automobile manufacturing, recycle, reuse, and repair of used up cutting tools is now an established process. Although many types of tools were designed for one time use and then throw, an increasing awareness of the impact on the natural resources have made manufacturers to put some of these back to use or sell it back to suppliers who have put up a mechanism to extract the elements e.g. Tungsten and use it for manufacturing of new tools. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1], by redesigning of a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2] or reusing short length drills that are used in making of long oil holes in crank case, cylinder head, cam shaft or connecting rods [3]. This paper demonstrates successful use of used up crankshaft grinding wheels. These used up grinding wheels can be reformed and used for grinding of many other automobile parts that require a new grinding wheel of size 600 mm to 750 mm on diameter depending on the machine on which grinding is being done.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Bert Bras, Tina Guldberg
In this paper, we quantify several environmental benefits associated with using ultra fine scrap tire rubber powders in virgin and recycled rubber and plastics compounds. Specifically, we will analyze the savings in oil extraction and rubber production in comparison to the rubber powder production using cryogenic grinding. The analysis uses first hand factory data provided by a rubber powder producer. As will be shown, even though cryogenic nitrogen requires production and use of liquid nitrogen, there is still a net environmental benefit in terms of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.
Standard
2012-04-10
This SAE Standard applies to: • recycled R-134a refrigerant, used in servicing of motor vehicle air conditioning (A/C) systems that were designed for use with R-12 and have been retrofitted for use with R-134a; • recycled R-134a refrigerant, used in servicing of motor vehicle air conditioning (A/C) systems that were designed for use with R-134a; • recycled R-1234yf refrigerant, used in servicing of motor vehicle air conditioning (A/C) systems that were designed for use with R-1234yf. Hermetically sealed, refrigerated cargo systems are not covered by this document.
Standard
2011-11-21
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to provide equipment specifications for the recovery of HFC-134a (R-134a) refrigerant to be returned to a refrigerant reclamation facility that will process it to the appropriate ARI 700 Standard or allow for recycling of the recovered refrigerant to SAE J2210 specifications by using Design Certified equipment of the same ownership. It is not acceptable that the refrigerant removed from a mobile air-conditioning (A/C) system, with this equipment be directly returned to a mobile A/C system. This information applies to equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar HFC-134a (R-134a) A/C systems.
Standard
2011-11-21
Refrigerant containment is an important part of servicing mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. This procedure provides guidelines for technicians for servicing mobile A/C systems and operating refrigerant recycling equipment designed for HFC-134a (R-134a) (described in SAE J2210).
Standard
2011-08-12
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to provide equipment specifications for CFC-12 (R-12) recovery for return to a refrigerant reclamation facility that will process it to the appropriate ARI Standard (Air Conditioning and Refrigerant Institute) or allow for recycling of the recovered refrigerant in equipment that is certified to meet the requirements of SAE J1991. Under the existing rule, the U.S. EPA requires refrigerant removed from a mobile air-conditioning (A/C) system using recovery equipment certified to meet SAE J2209 can only be recycled using equipment meeting SAE J1991 that is owned by the same company or individual. It is not acceptable that the refrigerant removed from a mobile A/C system, with this equipment, be directly returned to a mobile A/C system. This information applies to equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar CFC-12 (R-12) systems.
Standard
2011-08-12
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to provide information on refrigerant issues of concern to the mobile air-conditioning industry.
Standard
2011-08-12
This information applies to refrigerant used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar CFC-12 (R-12) systems. Systems used on mobile vehicles for refrigerated cargo that have hermetically sealed, rigid pipe, are not covered in this document.
Magazine
2011-07-31
Spotlight on Wolfgang Dürheimer Ian Adcock discovers ambitious plans for Bentley, Bugatti, and Volkswagen motorsport Pixel-ated In an Automotive Design exclusive, Ian Adcock gets the inside track on TATA's and Torotrak's unique zero-turn technology 'Buy to drive' Manufacturing Keith Howard investigates the benefits of additive manufacturing
Standard
2011-05-26
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to provide equipment specifications for CFC-12 (R-12) recycling equipment. This information applies to equipment used to service automobiles, light trucks, and other vehicles with similar CFC-12 (R-12) air-conditioning (A/C) systems. Systems used on mobile vehicles for refrigerating cargo that have hermetically sealed systems are not covered in this document. The equipment in this document is intended for use with refrigerant that has been directly removed from, and intended to be returned to, a mobile A/C system. Should other revisions due to operational or technical requirements occur, this document may be amended.
Magazine
2011-05-03
Weathering's day in the sun Before lighter-weight or recycled materials and components can make their way into vehicles, it is essential to understand how they react under the influence of weather.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Jody Bassam, Joseph A. Pomykala, J. Spangenberger, Edward J. Daniels
Over 250 million vehicles are operating on United States roads and highways and over 12 million of them reach the end of their useful lives annually. These end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) contain over 24 million tons (21.8 million metric tonnes) of materials including ferrous and non-ferrous metals, polymers, glass, and automotive fluids. They also contain many parts and components that are still useable and some that could be economically rebuilt or remanufactured. Dismantlers acquire the ELVs and recover from them parts for resale “as-is” or after remanufacturing. The dismantler then sells what remains of the vehicle, the “hulk”, to a shredder who shreds it to recover and sell the metals. Presently, the remaining non-metallic materials, commonly known as shredder residue, are mostly landfilled. The vehicle manufacturers, now more than ever, are working hard to build more energy efficient and safer, more affordable vehicles. In the process, new valuable materials and parts are constantly introduced in new models.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Surendra Datar
Recycle, Reuse, Repair is an established process for sustainability. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1] or by redesigning a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2]. This paper explores the possibility of reuse of HSS drills that are used for making long oil holes in automobile parts like crankcase (cylinder block), cylinder head, crankshaft, etc. Design/manufacture of such drills is peculiar by virtue of their size and length and are also known as thick web high helix drills. Making of oil holes entails use of drills that are 500 to 600 mm long depending on the size of the component. In most of the long oil hole drilling operations, a limited portion of the drill is useable. This is because there is a possibility of fouling of the holding elements with guiding element, or with the part being drilled and the chance of accidental damage to part or machine. These short length drills (for the original use) have full potential for reuse in areas where the reduced length can suit the application.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Claudia M. Duranceau, Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu
The goal of this research was to determine and quantify today's actual end-of-life vehicle disposition rates based on their age and material content. The current facts and status of today's automotive recycling industry were sought. Disposition rates and material trends were projected using adjusted ELV age data from Duranceau and Linden's 1999 research and average materials content data from open-sources. End-of-life vehicle age and population data adjustments were used to estimate representative material compositions for the US and Canadian ELV fleet. The disposition rates were broken down by percentages of (1) part weight reused, (2) part weight remanufactured, (3) part weight recycled pre-shredder, (4) weight of recovered fluids, and (5) weight of metals recycled post shredder. The 86.3% percent material recovery established in this study was compared to the 84% reported in Paul's 2001.
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