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2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2011
Suyash Singh, Ankur Mathur, Sandeep Das, Purnendu Sinha, Vinay Singh
Abstract In the Smart Cities, main objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The process said for utilization of available resources is the best fit for our concept. Our concept is to convert and refurbish the old and scrap vehicles which will increase their longevity and can be used in any smart city in India or abroad. The ultimate aim to provide this technology for the development of any new smart city in India is the utilization of available resources and reduction in the junk materials and environmental pollution. Refurbishing the old and scrap vehicles with replacement of IC engines doesn’t mean that they will be kept as a scrap and be thrown away, our idea is to utilize maximum of all the available resources. The IC engines taken out of these vehicles will be re-used appropriately.
2017-06-26
White Paper
WP-0001
NASA has embarked on an ambitious program to integrate additive manufacturing techniques and to develop processes for the microgravity environment. The most recent example of this program is the successful launch and deployment of the first 3D printer on the International Space Station. In this one-year effort, students were required to meet a series of milestones to design, manufacture, and test their ideas in close cooperation with members of the NASA Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) concept team.The participants in this project were tasked with thinking of new solutions using AM that would simultaneously be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties but also have the capacity for high mechanical properties. Working in interdisciplinary teams, the participant teams investigated the use of recycled materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1275
David Hobbs, Charles Ossenkop, Andy Latham
Abstract Global sales of electric and hybrid vehicles continue to grow as emission legislation forces vehicle manufacturers to build cleaner vehicles, with some 8 million already in service. Hybrid and Electric vehicles contain some of the most complex systems ever used in the automotive field, sophisticated and unique electric hybrid systems are added to modern motor vehicles which are already quite complex. As these vehicles reach the end of their lives they will be processed by the global vehicle recycling industry and the high voltage components will be reused, recycled or re-purposed. This paper explores safe working practices for businesses involved in a global marketplace who are completing battery disabling, removal, disassembly, storage and shipping; includes the various technologies and safe working practices along with some of the legal restrictions on dismantling, storage and shipping of high voltage batteries around the world.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Abstract Increasingly international academic and industrial communities desire to better understand, implement and improve the sustainability of vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage. Underpinning a number of studies that evaluate different circular economy strategies for the electric vehicle (EV) battery system are implicit assumptions about the retained capacity or State-of-Health (SoH) of the battery. International standards and best-practice guides exist that address the performance evaluation of both EV and HEV battery systems. However, a common theme in performance testing is that the test duration can be excessive and last for a number of hours. The aim of this research is to assess whether energy capacity and internal resistance measurements of Li-ion based modules can be optimized, reducing the test duration to a value that may facilitate further End-of-Life (EoL) options.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Abstract In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
Abstract This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1276
Aditi Moorthy, Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian, Jeremy Good, Geoff Lewis
Abstract The problem of accessibility to public transit is well-documented in transportation theory and network literature, and is known as the last mile problem. A lack of first and last mile transit services impairs access to public transit causing commuters to opt for private modes of transit over public modes. This paper analyzes the implications of a shared autonomous vehicle (AV) taxi system providing last mile transit services in terms of environmental, cost, and performance metrics. Conventional public transit options and a hypothetical last-mile shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) system are analyzed for transit between Ann Arbor and Detroit Wayne County Airport for life cycle energy, emissions, total travel time, and travel costs. In the case study, energy savings from using public transit options with AV last mile service were as high as 37% when compared to a personal vehicle option.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Abstract Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0179
Murugesan Venkatesan, VE Annamalai
Abstract The Indian Economy is becoming significant in the late years. There will be more middle class individuals in the coming years having higher purchasing power, bringing about sharp increment in the ownership of vehicles. The quantity of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) in 2015 is evaluated at 8.7 million and by 2025, this figure is assessed to ascend to 21.8 million. Car breaking yards' ELV recycling practices result in inadequate resource recovery and various forms of pollution. 75-80% of the ELV constitutes of metal and recycled due to its economic benefits. The rest of the 25-30% comprises of plastics, rubber, glass and operating fluids which are mostly disposed off in land or water. Existing international literature has analyzed ELV recycling and remanufacturing practices in India as separate topics.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0426
Eduardo Orfale Junior, Andre Luiz, Lessandre Serigiolle, Mauro Marcial
Abstract Currently in the general industry, the awareness of the population and the governments concerns for the environment and processes, such as sustainable products is increasing each year. The automotive industry follows the same trend. In a vehicle, 99% of its components can be recycled. These recyclables can supply the own automotive industry, and other industries as well, such as the manufacture of batteries made with recycled metal vehicles. Recycling vehicles also provides energy saving, conserving natural resources, and reducing water and air pollution, eliminating in a proper way harmful emissions in the environment as the lead and mercury. It is estimated that the market for recycling vehicles in the United States, injects 32 billion dollars every year in the economy, employing more than 140,000 people and have approximately 9,000 local collection and recycling.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1290
J. Groenewald, James Marco, Nicholas Higgins, Anup Barai
Abstract While a number of publications have addressed the high-level requirements of remanufacturing to ensure its commercial and environmental sustainability, considerably less attention has been given to the technical data and associated test strategies needed for any evidence-based decision as to whether a vehicle energy storage system should be remanufactured - extending its in-vehicle life, redeployed for second-life (such as domestic or grid storage) or decommissioned for recycling. The aim of this paper is to critically review the strategic requirements for data at the different stages of the battery value-chain that is pertinent to an Electric Vehicle (EV) battery remanufacturing strategy. Discussed within the paper is the derivation of a feasible remanufacturing test strategy for the vehicle battery system.
CURRENT
2016-04-05
Standard
J3071_201604
This SAE Battery Identification and Cross Contamination Prevention document is intended to provide information that may be applicable to all types of Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) devices. It is important to develop a system that can facilitate sorting by chemistry. The recycler is interested in the chemistry of the RESS. This is true for the recyclers of Lead Acid, Lithium Ion, Nickel Cadmium etc. Thus recyclers of RESS will receive RESS from automotive, commercial, and industrial applications. These RESS have the potential to be contaminated with a RESS of an incompatible chemistry. It is recognized that mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate the introduction of incompatible chemistries into a given recycling stream would also benefit safety and the environment.
2016-03-31
WIP Standard
J2974
This SAE Technical Information Report provides information on Automotive Battery Recycling. This document provides a compilation of current recycling definitions, technologies and flow sheets and their application to different battery chemistries.
2015-08-18
Magazine
The advent of stop-start technology As environmental concerns grow for R&D teams, OEMs look to bring the strategy further into the mainstream. Recycling opportunities for hybrid/electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries With limited reserves and strict environmental regulations, re-cyclers look to established extraction means to reuse, recycle, and dispose of the used batteries. Cameras look to go the distance Automakers seek vision systems with greater distances, improved reliability, and more functionality, thanks to ruggedized complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies. Getting right with composites With composites now a mainstay in most new aircraft de-signs, the engineering emphasis has switched from understanding if they work to thinking through the most efficient way to manufacture them, such as using design-for-manufacturing software.
CURRENT
2015-07-08
Standard
J3030_201507
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to establish the specific minimum equipment requirements for recovery/recycling/recharge equipment intended for use with both R-1234yf and R-134a in a common refrigerant circuit that has been directly removed from, and is intended for reuse in, mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. This document does not apply to equipment used for R-1234yf and R-134a having a common enclosure with separate circuits for each refrigerant, although some amount of separate circuitry for each refrigerant could be used.
CURRENT
2015-04-15
Standard
J2974_201504
This SAE Technical Information Report provides information on Automotive Battery Recycling. This document provides a compilation of current recycling definitions, technologies and flow sheets and their application to different battery chemistries.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1306
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood, Ahmad Pesaran
Abstract Battery second use-putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure-has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g., electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to battery degradation, including: How long will PEV batteries last in automotive service? How healthy will PEV batteries be when they leave automotive service? How long will retired PEV batteries last in second-use service? How well can we best predict the second-use lifetime of a used automotive battery? Under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including the Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1304
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Rao Venkateshwara, Bagul Rahul
Abstract This paper describes the suitability of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET) material for canopy strip in a commercial vehicle. The material described in this paper is a PET compound recycled from used PET bottles and reinforced with glass fibers so as to meet the product's functional requirements. The application described in this paper is a Canopy strip which is a structural exterior plastic part. Canopy strip acts as a structural frame to hold the Vinyl canopy in both sides of the vehicle. Functionally, the part demands a material with adequate mechanical and thermal properties. Generally, PET bottles are thrown after use thereby creating land pollution. PET being inert takes an extremely long time to degrade thereby occupying huge amount of space in landfills and directly affecting rain water percolation. This work focused on recycling the PET bottles and compounding them suitably so as convert them into useful automotive parts.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9101
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Abstract Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle's efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2429
C Venkatesan, V Faustino, S Arun, S Ravi Shankar
Abstract The automotive industry needs sustainable seating products which offer good climate performance and superior seating comfort. The safety requirement is always a concern for current seating systems. The life of the present seating system is low and absorbs moisture over a period of time which affects seat performance (cushioning effect). Recycling is one of the major concerns as far as polyurethane (PU) is concerned. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which is eco-friendly and light in weight. Thermoplastic Polyolefin (PO) materials were tried in place PU for many good reasons. It is closed cell foam which has better tear and abrasion resistance. It doesn't absorb water and has excellent weathering resistance. Also it has a better cushioning effect and available in various colours. Because of superior tear resistance, it is possible to eliminate upholstery and would reduce system level cost.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2232
Samira Keivanpour, Christian Mascle, Daoud Ait Kadi
The End of Life phase of Aircraft is a relatively complex phase in life cycle of this product. The retired Aircrafts need to be parked in certain conditions. Some valuable parts are disassembled and the rest of them are dismantled. Materials are separated and upgraded, waste is burned or deserted and toxic materials restrained or incinerated. All of these activities should be performed in an ecologically right manner; however, collectively produced added values for all stakeholders need to be considered. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework for value chain analysis of Aircraft recycling process in the context of sustainable development. The value chain related to recycling aircraft at the end of life was chosen to generate an in-depth analysis of the value chain, considering environmental and socio-economic concerns. The value chain framework for recycling of fleets is identified. The key processes with environmental and social impacts are determined.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1973
Atsushi Mizutani
Abstract This paper describes the development of high efficiency and compact bumper recycling equipment for facilitating bumper recycling globally. Various equipment to remove paint coat from bumper has been developed since 90s', using mechanical, physical or chemical method. However, it is difficult to promote bumper recycling without realizing cost effective overall system from paint coat removal to pelletizing. Our company jointly developed method of mechanically removing paint coat and has committed to bumper recycling in the form of outsourcing since 2000. In 2010, a dedicated plant for recycling bumpers was launched on the premises of our Oppama Assembly Plant in Japan. In the future, promoting bumper recycling at other overseas assembly plants is necessary as vehicle production will expand globally.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0831
Shigeki Nitta, Kanako Ito
The purpose of this study is to define requirements for technological and business success in the world's first implementation of Reverse-Supply-Chain, in which bumper materials of end-of-life vehicles (ELV) are recycled for use as ingredients in new bumper materials. In Japan, ELVs are recovered following to the government regulation. About 20% (700,000 ton) of such collected ELVs are automotive shredder residues (ASR), most of which are burnt as fuel or used as landfill trash. ASRs are mainly plastics, which are largely used as materials of bumpers. The reverse-supply-chain was started as a small business by a collaboration between the car manufacture (Mazda), dismantler, and resource-recycling business operator, and enhanced by the development of easy-to-recycle bumpers, technologies of paint removal from crushed bumpers and sorting-out, a material quality control method, and improvement in transportation efficiency.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1285
Suna Erses Yay, Kubilay Yay
This study aims to determine environmental aspects of an end-of-vehicle recycling process through life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Functional unit of the study was an end-of-vehicle with a weight of 1432 kg. System boundaries included transportation of the scrap car to disassembly and shredding facility, disassembly and shredding processes and transportation of the materials to recycling facilities. Data regarding process was gathered from a shredding facility, literature and the libraries of the SimaPro 7.3.2. Gathered data was evaluated through CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology by the means of abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidation. According to results, transportation and diesel consumption are the important factors for ELV recycling.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0132
Surendra Datar
For sustainability, industries are now focusing on methodologies for Recycle, Reuse, Repair of a variety of industrial material. Cutting tools used in manufacturing of automobiles have therefore become a part of it. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1] or by redesigning a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2]. An automobile part was redesigned for reuse of a used up tool [3]. By reforming, very large size grinding wheel used for crankshaft grinding can be reused after it gets smaller in diameter during crankshaft grinding operation [4]. This paper deals with two more implemented ideas to show that with a redesigned tool holder it was possible to reuse used up carbide inserts and significantly cut the manufacturing cost in addition to avoid manufacturing of new inserts and thus conserve natural resources.
2013-02-07
Magazine
Powdered tires Researchers quantify several environmental benefits associated with using ultra-fine scrap tire rubber powders in virgin and recycled rubber and plastics compounds.
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