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Viewing 1 to 30 of 364
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0236
Maki Kawakoshi, Takanobu Kaneko, Toru Nameki
Abstract Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0450
Tobias Karlsson, Magdalena Lindman, Jordanka Kovaceva, Bo Svanberg, Henrik Wiberg, Lotta Jakobsson
Abstract Different types of driver workload are suggested to impact driving performance. Operating a vehicle in a situation where the driver feel uneasy is one example of driver workload. In this study, passenger car driving data collected with Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data acquisition equipment was analyzed, aiming to identify situations corresponding to a high driver's subjective rating of ‘unease’. Data from an experimental study with subjects driving a passenger car in normal traffic was used. Situations were rated by the subjects according to experienced ‘unease’, and the Controller Area Network (CAN) data from the vehicle was used to describe the driving conditions and identify driving patterns corresponding to the situations rated as ‘uneasy’. These driving patterns were matched with the data in a NDS database and the method was validated using video data. Two data mining approaches were applied.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0448
Richard Young
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0434
Nicholas P. Skinner, John D. Bullough
Abstract Rear automotive lighting systems employing dynamic features such as sweeping or flashing are not commonly used on vehicles in North America, in part because they are not clearly addressed in vehicle lighting regulations. Nor is there abundant evidence suggesting they have a substantial role to play in driver safety. The results of a human factors investigation of the potential impacts of dynamic rear lighting systems on driver responses are summarized and discussed in the context of safety, visual effectiveness and the present regulatory context.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0431
John D. Bullough
Abstract Present standards for vehicle forward lighting specify two headlamp beam patterns: a low beam when driving in the presence of other nearby vehicles, and a high beam when there is not a concern for producing glare to other drivers. Adaptive lighting technologies such as curve lighting systems with steerable headlamps may be related to increments in safety according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, but isolating the effects of lighting is difficult. Recent analyses suggest that visibility improvements from adaptive curve lighting systems might reduce nighttime crashes along curves by 2%-3%. More advanced systems such as adaptive high-beam systems that reduce high-beam headlamp intensity toward oncoming drivers are not presently allowed in the U.S. The purpose of the present study is to analyze visual performance benefits and quantify potential safety benefits from adaptive high-beam headlamp systems.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0723
Allison Daniello, Kristofer Kusano, H. Gabler
Predicting driver response to road departure and attempted recovery is a challenging but essential need for estimating the benefits of active safety systems. One promising approach has been to mathematically model the driver steering and braking inputs during departure and recovery. The objective of this paper is to compare a model developed by Volvo, Ford, and UMRTI (VFU) through the Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) Program against a set of real-world departure events. These departure events, collected by Hutchinson and Kennedy, include the vehicle's off road trajectory in 256 road departure events involving passenger vehicles. The VFU-ACAT model was exercised for left side road departures onto the median of a divided highway with a speed limit of 113 kph (70 mph). At low departure angles, the VFU-ACAT model underpredicted the maximum lateral and longitudinal distances when compared to the departure events measured by Hutchinson and Kennedy.
2013-02-05
Book
John D. Lee, Trent W. Victor, Michael A. Regan
It is estimated that, in the United States, around 20 percent of all Police-reported road crashes involve driver distraction as a contributing factor. This figure increases if other forms of inattention are considered. Evidence (reviewed in this volume) suggests that the situation is similar in other countries and that driver distraction and inattention are even more dangerous as contributing factors in crashes than drug and alcohol intoxication. Having a solid evidence-base from which to develop injury countermeasures is a cornerstone of road-safety management. This book adds to the accumulating evidence-base on driver distraction and inattention. With 24 chapters by 52 authors from more than 10 countries, it provides important new perspectives on the definition and meaning of driver distraction and inattention, the mechanisms that characterize them, the measurement of their effects, strategies for mitigating their effects, and recommendations for further research.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0100
Brian Cullinane, Christopher Kirn
The human-machine interface (HMI) of a warning system should not be the cause of unintended consequences, such as startling or confusing the driver. The driver should be able to quickly understand and assess a threat and appropriately respond to the external event. In most instances, warning signals are used to inform the driver of a situation that he/she does not perceive on his/her own. If the driver is not aware of the situation, then the warning signal should be comprehended and clearly distinguished from other warning signals. Timely Comprehension is a laboratory methodology developed with the goal of evaluating integrated warning systems in development. Currently, no standardized verification method publically exists to evaluate the in-vehicle integration of warning systems. This methodology can help identify comprehension/distinguish-ability issues prior to full system development in a controlled, repeatable and safe setting.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0036
Toshihito Ikenishi, Naoki Narishima, Takayoshi Kamada, Masao Nagai, Junji Tanaka
Existing driver assistance systems are based on averaged characteristics of drivers, so the systems may cause sense of discomfort to some drivers and the effectiveness on accident prevention degrades due to low system acceptance. To deal with this issue, an individual adaptive hurry driving detection system is proposed in this research. We proposed the detection method of hurry driving using hierarchical Bayesian model. Urban driving data are collected by a continuous-logging drive recorder (DR). Features of hurry driving behavior extracted by hierarchical Bayesian method. The probability of hurry driving state is estimated by using this model using this model.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0552
Se Jin Park, Hyun Kyoon Lim
In this study, we analyzed the physiological characteristics of elderly drivers when they met an unexpected event like a sudden stop by the car in front or cut in lane while driving on the highway. Electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), Galvanic skin response (GSR), and skin temperature (SKT) were measured and analyzed from drivers during driving using a driving simulator. In this experiment, 20 elderly people (males, 65.6±5.0 years old) who have driving experience more than 10 years participated. As a control group, twenty young male adults (26.3±2.0 years old) in twenties whose driving experience was over 3 years. All subjects performed practice driving about for 10 min to adapt to the driving simulator before the main test. Driving speeds given to subjects were 50, 70, 90, 110 km/h. Unexpected events were repeated twice. As a result, compared with young drivers, elderly drivers showed longer and greater cognitive strain while driving simulator.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0332
Leopoldo Rideki Yoshioka, Gustavo Henrique Rocha Santos, Renato Duarte Costa, Andre Vas
One of the biggest challenges in managing any business is undoubtedly the reduction of operating costs. This paper presents the results obtained by deploying a management system for fleet operating efficiency based on the use of technological tools combined with managerial efforts, and training of drivers' behaviors. The use of sensing, onboard intelligence, communication networks and data processing allows the identification of inappropriate behavior of the vehicle/driver as well as the shortcomings of fleet operating pattern. In the model adopted, from the mass of collected data are generated weekly reports that are used to guide the fleet managers and correcting flawed features found in the behavior of drivers. The benefits of this process were observed in the form of fuel savings, reduced maintenance costs and accidents.
2010-01-01
Book
Eugene Faber, Paul Olson, Robert Dewar
This third edition contains invaluable new information you need to know about driver perception and response, and related human factors and design issues. If you work with driver perception and response cases in any capacity, this book is an invaluable addition to your reference library. This text contains the most current information available in the area of driver perception and perception-response time. Existing chapters have been expanded, and new chapters have been added to present completely new material on many related driver perception and response issues including: Roadway design and the driver Work zones Railroad grade crossings Roadway signage Weather and driving Driver distraction
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-01-2831
P. Nimmagadda, P. T. Tkacik, Z. A. Merrill, N. R. Kadire
A warning system is described as, that improves safety in an over the road truck application by warning the driver with steering wheel vibration of impending roll over. This work focuses on creating a Haptic feedback and the corresponding driver response to a range of frequencies and amplitudes of vibration at the steering wheel. The haptic feedback system is the endpoint of the entire warning system. An experimental road going system is designed, presented, and tested. The experimental data reveals information about the response of the human subject to the frequency of steering wheel vibration, while driving a vehicle. Data variability is investigated through sampling of a population of drivers. The experimental setup probing the amplitude and frequency information is analyzed. Objective measurement anomalies in the data were seen in the subjective tests as well. Some conclusions are given about the applicability of laboratory tests to moving vehicle tests.
2009-10-06
Journal Article
2009-01-2922
Hiromichi Nozaki, Masayuki Shimizu, Makoto Sakuno
A driving simulator capable of duplicating the critical sensations incurred during a spin, or when a driver is engaged in drift cornering, was constructed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., and Hiromichi Nozaki of Kogakuin University. Specifically, the simulator allows independent movement along three degrees of freedom and is capable of exhibiting extreme yaw and lateral acceleration behaviors. Utilizing this simulator, the control characteristics of drift cornering have become better understood. For example, after a J-turn behavior experiment involving yaw angle velocity at the moment when the drivers attention transitions to resuming straight ahead driving, it is now understood that there are major changes in driver behavior in circumstances when simulator motions are turned off, when only lateral acceleration motion is applied, when only yaw motion is applied, and when combined motions (yaw + lateral acceleration) are applied.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-01-2865
Kenneth A. Sherwin, Daniel E. Williams
Synthetic torque feedback (artificial feel) is valued in the market for enhancing steering performance as perceived by the driver. The possibility of using this same hardware, with minimal control modifications, to aid the driver in responding to tire failures, is discussed.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-01-2866
Hiromichi Nozaki
Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance offers potential measures by which the control stability of a vehicle can be rapidly improved. However, for all Proportional Derivative (PD) steering methods, the inconvenience caused by the need to keep turning the steering wheel during cornering is significant. Because the steering return phenomenon of the steering wheel stop like this is not so preferable, it is preferable that the Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance is extremely weak (almost 0) in such a usual grip cornering driving. Alternatively, in the drift area of cornering where the grip area of the tires has been exceeded, Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance is helpful because the driver can control his counter steering extremely well. Furthermore, only a small amount of Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance is required in the drift area.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-01-2930
Gregory M. Fitch, Myra Blanco, Richard J. Hanowski
Camera/Video Imaging Systems (C/VISs) display video captured from cameras mounted on the truck's fenders and trailer to drivers using displays mounted inside the truck cabin. C/VISs provide a countermeasure to blind-spot related crashes by allowing drivers to see objects not ordinarily visible by a typical mirror configuration. They also support drivers in determining the clearance between the trailer and an adjacent vehicle when performing a lane change. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Association (FMCSA) have collaboratively funded research on the development of C/VISs that operate during the day, as well as enhancing C/VISs to operate at night and in inclement weather. This paper presents the work performed in developing a C/VIS capable of being used in an eight-month technology field demonstration (TFD), which will allow the measurement of driver behavior with the C/VIS in a revenue-producing environment.
2009-06-09
Technical Paper
2009-01-2305
Ross Johnson, Brian Lewis Smith, Rajeev Penmatsa, Tim Marler, Karim Abdel-Malek
Collision avoidance in digital human modeling is critical for design and analysis, especially when there is interaction between the avatar and his/her environment. This paper describes a new algorithm for obstacle avoidance with optimization-based posture prediction. This new approach is motivated by a need for decreased computational time and increased fidelity for modeling and analysis of collision avoidance tasks. Posture prediction is run in an iterative loop while conducting collision detection to dynamically update collision avoidance constraints. It is shown that this approach is substantially faster than the basic method involving a fixed number of sphere-based avoidance constraints with a single optimization/posture-prediction run. The method is demonstrated using an upper-body virtual human model in a cab setting.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2078
Till Papenfus, Klaus Genuit, Peter Blaschke, Koo Tae Kang, In-Soo Jung, Jaemin Jin
The development of a new method to evaluate the NVH quality of diesel combustion noise bases upon following questions by regarding typical driving modes: Driving behavior with diesel vehicles Which driving situation causes an annoying diesel combustion noise Judgment of diesel combustion noise as good or bad A suitable test course was determined to regard typical driving situations as well as the European driving behavior. Vehicles of different segments were tested on that course. The recorded driving style and the simultaneously given comments on the diesel combustion noise results to a typical driving mode linked to acoustics sensation of diesel combustion noise. The next step was to simulate this driving mode on the chassis dynamometer for acoustical measurements. The recordings of several vehicles were evaluated in listening test to identify a metric. The base of metric was objective analyses evaluating diesel combustion noise in relevant driving situations.
2009-05-13
Technical Paper
2009-01-1609
Wang Ping, Wu Guangqiang
Real-time interaction between a driver and the simulator is problematic. In this study, the racing car driving simulator has been established, which is composed of the following functional components: Motion Controller, Simview, Scenario Editor, Application Programmer Interface (APIs) and Crash Simulation. With TCP/IP protocol, the Motion Controller receives driver's manipulation, road unevenness and crash situation of Simview, then generates motion streams that reflecting the current conditions, and sends them to Simview and to the hydraulic platform. Furthermore, by detecting and analyzing general vehicle two-dimensional impact, a kind of complete and applicable calculation method has been established, and complicated vehicle impacts can be analyzed accurately. This racecar driving simulator places a racing driver in a interactive environment, and provides the driver with high-fidelity motion, visual, auditory, and force feedback cues.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0450
Takahiko Murano, Takashi Yonekawa, Masami Aga, Sueharu Nagiri
A number of active safety systems are already developed to support drivers’ decision and action to help avoid accidents, but further enhancement of those active safety systems cannot be accomplished without increasing our understanding on driver behaviors and their interaction with vehicle systems. For this reason, a state-of-art driving simulator (DS) has been developed that creates very realistic scenarios as a means of realizing these requirements. The DS consists of a simulator cabin, turntable (inside the dome), a 6-DOF hexapod system, shakers (vehicle vertical vibration actuators), and a motion system capable of moving 35 meters longitudinally and 20 meters laterally. The system is also capable of projecting images of actual city streets and highways onto a 360° spherical screen inside of the dome. As a result, the DS is able to reproduce a driving environment that is very similar to real driving.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0546
Nicholas P. Skinner, John D. Bullough
A field experiment was performed to measure the effects of oncoming illuminance profiles with different photometric and temporal characteristics on visual recovery and subjective discomfort. Target detection time was correlated with the dosage, and rated discomfort was correlated with the peak illuminance of each profile. Older subjects generally had longer recovery times, but there were no differences between the age groups in terms of rated discomfort. The results suggest that discomfort glare is not predictive of visual disability and that control of luminous intensity at isolated points within the distribution of headlamps alone is not sufficient to minimize glare recovery.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0533
D. Norfleet, J. Wagner, K. Alexander, P. Pidgeon
Automotive simulators offer an immersive environment to operate vehicle systems in a safe and repeatable manner. A fundamental question exists regarding their effectiveness for an identified task. For instance, driving simulators can play a significant role in evaluating vehicle designs, developing safety regulations, supporting human factors engineering research, administering driver training and education, and offering individual entertainment. Some of the driving simulator technology users include automotive manufacturers and suppliers, research laboratories at universities and government agencies, driver education and training programs, and motorsports and racing entertainment venues. In each case, the simulator capabilities and functionality must encompass the expectations of the driver to permit their perception of realistic scenarios for evaluation. This paper investigates three driving simulators in terms of their hardware and software, as well as their applications.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0751
E. Atkins
Operator error is a primary cause of vehicle accidents, yet human ingenuity is critical to effectively react in situations automation is not prepared to handle. Human operators have always been the ultimate authority, but their decisions may or may not be safe. This paper explores the constraints and requirements of vehicle systems that support automation override of a human operator. We adopt the view that a human operator remains the ultimate authority until grave risk is encountered, at which time the automation overrides strictly to re-establish a safe operating state. An override system must continually monitor vehicle state, predict near-term risk levels, compute a strategy to mitigate substantial risk, and warn the operator of the impending risk given sufficient time. Override action must occur just-in-time to re-establish a safe state before risk increases beyond the “grave” threshold.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0049
Ippei Yamazaki, Ikuo Kushiro, Yoji Kunihiro
The frequency response of steering effort torque changes according to the influence of vehicle dynamics. To help enhance feel, a new electronic power steering (EPS) control has been constructed. As the control can be achieved by the addition of a viscosity control with a filter to existing EPS systems, its structure is simple and easily installed. Actual vehicle tests have been performed to verify that the control is capable of enhancing convergence without adversely affecting response during steering.
2008-12-02
Technical Paper
2008-01-2968
Ross Bentley
The intentions for this paper are to provide a better understanding of what causes a driver to perform at his maximum level, and how to tune your driver to do so. In a sport where results count for a team/engineer's reputation, tuning or “engineering the driver” may have the biggest impact on a race engineer's career. A driver can develop his own abilities (skills and techniques), but once he does that, others can impact how well he consistently performs - how well he accesses and uses these skills and techniques. Anyone working with a driver should use a variety of “tools” to help a driver perform consistently at his best.
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