Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 390
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0141
Prasanna Vasudevan, Sreegururaj Jayachander
Abstract Several studies in the field of hedonics using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to explain the complex psychological and chemical processes. Work on the effect of odors in alleviating driver fatigue is limited. The potential to improve road safety through non-pharmacological means such as stimulating odors is the impetus behind this paper. This is especially relevant in developing countries today with burgeoning economies such as India. Longer road trips by commercial transport vehicles with increasingly fatigued drivers and risk of accidents are being fuelled by distant producer - consumer connections. This work describes a two stage comparative study on the effects of different odors typically obtainable in India. The stages involve administration of odorants orthonsally and retronasally after the onset of circadian fatigue in test subjects. This is followed by a small cognitive exercise to evaluate hand-eye coordination.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1421
Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh, Richard Young
Abstract This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0-and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1420
Shinichi Kojima, Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
Abstract This study aims at the development of a projection pattern that is capable of shortening the time required by a driver to perceive a pedestrian at night when a vehicle’s high beams are utilized. Our approach is based on the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. Visual contrast sensitivity is dependent on spatiotemporal frequency, and maximum contrast sensitivity frequency varies depending on environmental luminance. Conventionally, there are several applications that utilize the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. For example, the National Television System Committee (NTSC) television format takes into consideration low-sensitivity visual characteristics. In contrast, our approach utilizes high-sensitivity visual characteristics based on the assumption that the higher contrast sensitivity of spatio-temporal frequencies will correlate more effectively with shorter perception times.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1425
Thomas McWilliams, Daniel Brown, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Jonathan Dobres
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are an increasingly common feature of modern vehicles. The influence of such systems on driver behavior, particularly in regards to the effects of intermittent warning systems, is sparsely studied to date. This paper examines dynamic changes in physiological and operational behavior during lane departure warnings (LDW) in two commercial automotive systems utilizing on-road data. Alerts from the systems, one using auditory and the other haptic LDWs, were monitored during highway driving conditions. LDW events were monitored during periods of single-task driving and dual-task driving. Dual-task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s factory infotainment system or a smartphone to perform secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1412
Takeshi Hamaguchi, Satoshi Inoue, Shigeyuki Kimura, Terumasa Endo
Abstract In driver-focused vehicle development, driver workload is generally evaluated subjectively, with physiological, psychological, and behavioral indexes used to quantify and substantiate the subjective rating. In contrast, a model of driver behavior expresses the driver’s behavioral characteristics which make it possible to estimate how the driver will incorporate information into vehicle operation. Therefore, it is presumed to be capable of estimating the internal state of a driver. Conventionally, a model of driver behavior related to pedal operation has been used for evaluating the driver’s habits and the acceptability of various types of support devices. However, it has not been used for estimating driver workload related to pedal operation. To examine driver workload, this study divided pedal operation magnitude into two components: a learning/judgment component and a correcting component for prediction errors. A method was devised of separating these two components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1455
John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz, Susan Chrysler, Pujitha Gunaratne
Abstract In 2010, 32,855 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile crashes, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane departure crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane departure crashes accounted for approximately 9%. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of driver behavior modeling. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior, as well as warning systems that can issue useful alerts to the driver. Several scenario events were designed to fill gaps in previous crash research. For example, previous studies at NADS focused on crash events in which the driver was severely distracted immediately before the event. The events in this study included a sample of undistracted drivers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1448
Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract The effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) or similar crash warning/mitigation systems is highly dependent on driver acceptance. If a FCW system delivers the warning too early, it may distract or annoy the driver and cause them to deactivate the system. In order to design a system activation threshold that more closely matches driver expectations, system designers must understand when drivers would normally apply the brake. One of the most widely used metrics to establish FCW threshold is Time to Collision (TTC). One limitation of TTC is that it assumes constant vehicle velocity. Enhanced Time to Collision (ETTC) is potentially a more accurate metric of perceived collision risk due to its consideration of vehicle acceleration. This paper compares and contrasts the distribution of ETTC and TTC at brake onset in normal car-following situations, and presents probability models of TTC and ETTC values at braking across a range of vehicle speeds.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1426
Lex Fridman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler
Abstract The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-toend framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large onroad dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1428
Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Jonathan Dobres, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe
Abstract This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0456
Zhaozhong Zhang, Dongpu Cao
Abstract One main objective is to find out how these parameters interact and optimal driver control gain and driver preview time are obtained. Some steps further, neuromuscular dynamics is considered and the system becomes different from the simplified driver-vehicle system studied before. New optimal driver control gain and driver preview time could be obtained for both tensed and relaxed muscle state. Final step aims at analysing the full system considering driver, neuromuscular, steer-by-wire and vehicle models. The steer-by-wire system could potentially have a significant influence on the vehicle when the driver is at impaired state, which could be represented by setting higher response delay time or smaller preview time. Vehicle's stability and active safety could also be improved by introducing the steer-by-wire system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0147
Toshiya Hirose, Tomohiro Makino, Masanobu Taniguchi, Hidenobu Kubota
Abstract Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and can use as a safety driving assist for driver. Currently, it is investigated to clarify an appropriate activation timing for collision information, caution and warning in Japan. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information (Provide objective information for safe driving to the driver) on V2V, and investigated an effective activation timing of collision information, and the relationship between the activation timing and the accuracy of the vehicle position. This experiment used Driving Simulator. The experimental scenario is four situations of (1) “Assistance for braking”, (2) “Assistance for accelerating”, (3) “Assistance for right turn” and (4) “Assistance for left turn” in blind intersection. The activation timing of collision information based on TTI (Time To Intersection) and TTC (Time To Collision).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Abstract Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9153
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
Abstract The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1303
Haiqing Xu, Chang Jin, Hong Zhou, Yi Zhou
Abstract On the study of reducing the disturbance on driver’s attention induced by low frequency vehicle interior stationary noise, a subjective evaluation is firstly carried out by means of rank rating method which introduces Distraction Level (DL) as evaluation index. A visual-finger response test is developed to help evaluating members better recognize the Distraction Level during the evaluation. A non-linear back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) is then modeled for the prediction of subjective Distraction Level, in which linear sound pressure RMS amplitudes of five Critical Band Rates (CBRs) from 20 to 500Hz are selected as inputs of the model. These inputs comprise an input vector of BPANN. Furthermore, active noise equalization (ANE) on DL is realized based on Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FxLMS) algorithm that controls the gain coefficients of inputs of trained BPANN.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1427
Richard Young, Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman
Abstract The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include Auditory-Vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of Auditory-Vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1423
Richard Young, Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh
Abstract Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1449
Taylor Johnson, Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can detect an impending road departure and deliver an alert to allow the driver to steer back to the lane. LDW has great potential to reduce the number of road departure crashes, but the effectiveness is highly dependent upon driver acceptance. If the driver perceives there is little danger after receiving an alert, the driver may become annoyed and deactivate the system. Most current LDW systems rely heavily upon distance to lane boundary (DTLB) in the decision to deliver an alert. There is early evidence that in normal driving DTLB may be only one of a host of other cues which drivers use in lane keeping and in their perception of lane departure risk. A more effective threshold for LDW could potentially be delivered if there was a better understanding of this normal lane keeping behavior. The objective of this paper is to investigate the lane keeping behavior of drivers in normal driving.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1414
Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka, Shinichi Kojima, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
Abstract We investigated a lighting method that supports pedestrian perception by vehicle drivers. This lighting method makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments using a Campbell-Robson chart, we determined a suitable lighting pattern that improves the driver's pedestrian perception. In order to assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task, such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests were performed in the target environment, the results of which validated the proposed method.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1737
Thitsadee Ngernsukphaiboon, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Nuksit Noomwongs, Angkee Sripakagorn, Solaphat Hemrungrojn MD
Abstract The world is aging rapidly. Many countries can already be categorized as aging or aged societies while a few are becoming super-aged societies. In Thailand as well as in other countries, traffic accidents caused by elderly drivers will continue to rise as a significant percentage of elderly people still prefer to drive. Accidents may be prevented with driving tests and screening methods for elderly drivers. However, it is also necessary to understand the effect of aging on driving ability. With this understanding, driver training, driver assistant systems, and improvements on infrastructure may be designed accordingly. Among various physical changes, cognitive ability of the brain is one of the most significant factors affecting driving ability. In this paper, correlation between various cognitive functions of the brain and car following skill of drivers are considered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1407
Toshiya Hirose, Dai Kitabayashi, Hidenobu Kubota
Abstract This study investigated the driving characteristics of drivers when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving in the case of low driver alertness. The analysis clarified the difference in driving characteristics between cases of normal and low driver alertness. In the experiments, driver's alertness states varied from completely alert (level 1) to asleep (level 5). The experimental scenario was that the host vehicle drives along a highway at 27.8 m/s (100km/h) under the control of the autonomous system. The operation of the autonomous system is suspended, and the mode of autonomous driving changes to a mode of manual driving as the other vehicle pulls in front of the host vehicle. The driver then avoids a collision with the other vehicle with him/herself in control. The alertness level of drivers was determined from a previously developed method of examining video of the driver's face and their actions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0256
Changbo Fu, Paul (Tim) Freeman, John R. Wagner
Abstract Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1411
Caroline Crump, David Cades, Robert Rauschenberger, Emily Hildebrand, Jeremy Schwark, Brandon Barakat, Douglas Young
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS) technologies have been introduced as the automotive industry moves towards autonomous driving. One ADAS technology with the potential for substantial safety benefits is forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM), which is designed to warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, potentiate driver braking responses, and apply the vehicle's brakes autonomously. Although the proliferation of FCWM technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how these systems affect a driver's overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear. Exponent conducted a closed-course evaluation of drivers' reactions to an imminent forward collision event while driving an FCWM-equipped vehicle, either with or without a secondary task administered through a hands-free cell phone.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1213
Zifan Liu, Andrej Ivanco, Zoran Filipi
Abstract This paper presents a new way to evaluate vehicle speed profile aggressiveness, quantify it from the perspective of the rapid speed fluctuations, and assess its impact on vehicle fuel economy. The speed fluctuation can be divided into two portions: the large-scale low frequency speed trace which follows the ongoing traffic and road characteristics, and the small-scale rapid speed fluctuations normally related to the driver's experience, style and ability to anticipate future events. The latter represent to some extent the driver aggressiveness and it is well known to affect the vehicle energy consumption and component duty cycles. Therefore, the rapid speed fluctuations are the focus of this paper. Driving data collected with the GPS devices are widely adopted for study of real-world fuel economy, or the impact on electrified vehicle range and component duty cycles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0434
Nicholas P. Skinner, John D. Bullough
Abstract Rear automotive lighting systems employing dynamic features such as sweeping or flashing are not commonly used on vehicles in North America, in part because they are not clearly addressed in vehicle lighting regulations. Nor is there abundant evidence suggesting they have a substantial role to play in driver safety. The results of a human factors investigation of the potential impacts of dynamic rear lighting systems on driver responses are summarized and discussed in the context of safety, visual effectiveness and the present regulatory context.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0450
Tobias Karlsson, Magdalena Lindman, Jordanka Kovaceva, Bo Svanberg, Henrik Wiberg, Lotta Jakobsson
Abstract Different types of driver workload are suggested to impact driving performance. Operating a vehicle in a situation where the driver feel uneasy is one example of driver workload. In this study, passenger car driving data collected with Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data acquisition equipment was analyzed, aiming to identify situations corresponding to a high driver's subjective rating of ‘unease’. Data from an experimental study with subjects driving a passenger car in normal traffic was used. Situations were rated by the subjects according to experienced ‘unease’, and the Controller Area Network (CAN) data from the vehicle was used to describe the driving conditions and identify driving patterns corresponding to the situations rated as ‘uneasy’. These driving patterns were matched with the data in a NDS database and the method was validated using video data. Two data mining approaches were applied.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0448
Richard Young
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0236
Maki Kawakoshi, Takanobu Kaneko, Toru Nameki
Abstract Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0431
John D. Bullough
Abstract Present standards for vehicle forward lighting specify two headlamp beam patterns: a low beam when driving in the presence of other nearby vehicles, and a high beam when there is not a concern for producing glare to other drivers. Adaptive lighting technologies such as curve lighting systems with steerable headlamps may be related to increments in safety according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, but isolating the effects of lighting is difficult. Recent analyses suggest that visibility improvements from adaptive curve lighting systems might reduce nighttime crashes along curves by 2%-3%. More advanced systems such as adaptive high-beam systems that reduce high-beam headlamp intensity toward oncoming drivers are not presently allowed in the U.S. The purpose of the present study is to analyze visual performance benefits and quantify potential safety benefits from adaptive high-beam headlamp systems.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 390

Filter