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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1312
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2432
Xiangwang Li, Weimin wang, Xiongcai zou, Zhiming Zhang, Wenlong zhang, Shemin zhang, Tao Chen, Yuhuang cao, Yuanda Chen
In order to reduce emissions, size and manufacturing cost, integrated exhaust manifold become popular in gasoline engine, especially in three-cylinder engine. Moreover, due to shorter length, lighter weight, and less component connections, the exhaust manifold and hot end durability will improve apparently. In this work, an advanced cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold is in adopted in one three-cylinder turbo engine. Because of this integration characteristic, the gas retain in cylinder head longer and the temperature reach higher level than normal cylinder head, which will cause thermal fatigue failure more easily. To validate the exhaust manifold and hot end durability, series simulation and test validation work have been done. Firstly, overall steady state and transient temperature simulation was done for global model. The global model include cylinder head, block, turbocharger, and catalyst components.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0127
Lauretta Rubino, Dominic Thier, Torsten Schumann, Stefan Guettler, Gerald Russ
With the increasing number of engines utilizing direct fuel injection and the upcoming more stringent emission legislation, regulating not only particulate mass (PM) but particulate number (PN), emissions of Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines (DISI) are becoming of increasing concern. Gasoline Particle Filters (GPF) represent a novel potential measure to reduce particle number emissions from DISI engines and are particularly effective in view of the tight particle number limits requirements at cold start and over RDE. Even if some learning from the development and application of particulate filters to diesel engines can be transferred to gasoline engines, the particulate consistence, the mass to number ratio and the temperature as well as the gas composition of gasoline engines are significant different to diesel engines. Therefore, there is the need to study the application of particulate filters to gasoline engines carefully.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1930
Anil Kumar Jaswal, Pradeep Chandrasekaran, Surendran Ramadoss
Abstract Indian Automobile Industry has started using Six Sigma for Vehicle Design and process improvement to compete with Global competition. This Paper describes how the Tools of Six Sigma shall be used as an Effective Tool for both redefining the Design and the Process Improvement. This Paper talks on the evolution of DMADV approach in Indian Automobile Industry compared to the related Trends in Other Manufacturing Sectors. The Author describes how the warranty failures in Commercial Segment Vehicle Category which was the selling talk for the Competition was addressed in Leading Indian Automobile OEM. As this Failure was adversely impacting customer satisfaction and no solution seemed forthcoming, top Management indicated to use a radically different approach to solve the problem within a years’ time.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1857
Joshua R. Goossens, William Mars, Guy Smith, Paul Heil, Scott Braddock, Jeanette Pilarski
Abstract Fatigue life prediction of elastomer NVH suspension products has become an operating norm for OEMs and suppliers during the product quoting process and subsequent technical reviews. This paper reviews a critical plane analysis based fatigue simulation methodology for a front lower control arm. Filled natural rubber behaviors were measured and defined for the analysis, including: stress-strain, fatigue crack growth, strain crystallization, fatigue threshold and initial crack precursor size. A series of four distinct single and dual axis bench durability tests were derived from OEM block cycle specifications, and run to end-of-life as determined via a stiffness loss criterion. The tested parts were then sectioned in order to compare developed failure modes with predicted locations of crack initiation. In all cases, failure mode was accurately predicted by the simulation, and predicted fatigue life preceded actual end-of-life by not more than a factor of 1.4 in life.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9681
Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Abstract Bearing and gear condition monitoring are important to improve a mechanical system reliability and performance. In the early stage of bearing failures, the Bearing Characteristic Frequencies (BCFs) contain very little energy and are often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations, an effective signal processing method would be necessary to eliminate such corrupting noise and interference. Referring to the non-stationary characteristics of roller bearing fault vibration signals, a roller bearing condition monitoring method based on Envelope Process to raw time-domain vibration signal and Autocorrelation enhancement to the residual signal is put forward in this paper. The concept of Envelope and Autocorrelation techniques and its implementation for defect identification are discussed. Also, distinction of bearing fault signal as cyclostationary from periodic signal for gear fault.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9177
N. Obuli Karthikeyan, R. Dinesh Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra, Vela Murali
Abstract In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are the most common terms. Customers are expecting a highly reliable product but at low cost. Any product that fails within its useful life leads to customer dissatisfaction and affects the reputation of the OEM. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol, either in proving ground or in lab. This paper details on developing an accelerated lab test methodology for steering gearbox bracket using fatigue damage and reliability correlation by simulating field failure. Initially, potential failure causes for steering gearbox bracket were analyzed. Road load data was then acquired at proving ground and customer site to evaluate the cumulative fatigue damage on the steering gearbox bracket. To simulate the field failure, lab test facility was developed, reproducing similar boundary conditions as in vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0473
Satoshi Nakada, Toru Furusawa, Eiichiro Yokoi, R Carbas, M Costa, E Marques, G Viana, LFM da Silva
Abstract In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0337
Kalyan S. Nadella, Yi Zhang
Abstract Ensuring durability is one of the key requirements while developing cooling modules for various powertrains. Typically, road surface induced loads are the main driving force behind mechanical failures. While developing the components, road load accelerations are utilized in CAE simulations to predict the high-stress regions and estimate the fatigue life of the components mounted on the body. In certain scenarios where components are mounted to the body and attached to the engine with hoses, the components can experience additional loads associated with engine vibration. This attachment scheme requires a different analysis methodology to determine fatigue life. In the proposed paper, we look at the effect of engine motion (EM) on the fatigue life of internal transmission oil cooler (ITOC) which is mounted on the body through radiator and is simultaneously connected to the engine using a steel pipe.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0348
Mani Shankar, I V N Sri Harsha, K V Sunil, Ramsai Ramachandran
Abstract In an automobile, road loads due to tire-road interaction are transferred to vehicle body through suspension. This makes suspension a critical component from the body durability perspective. During vehicle design and development, optimization of suspension parameters to suit ride and handling performance is a continuous and iterative process. These changes on suspension can affect vehicle body durability performance. This paper tries to establish a process to evaluate the effect of changes in suspension parameters on body durability, thus helping in understanding the impact of these changes. The process starts with virtual model building in Multi Body Dynamics software. The base line model is correlated with testing using fatigue at some critical locations on Body in White (BIW).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0347
Yat Sheng Kong, Dieter Schramm, M. Zaidi Omar, Sallehuddin Mohd. Haris, Shahrum Abdullah
This paper presents the study of a relationship between objective vertical vibration and coil spring fatigue life under different road excitation to shorten suspension design process. Current development processes of vehicle suspension systems consist of many different stages of analysis and time consuming. Through this vertical vibration and durability characterisation, the vehicle ISO weighted vertical accelerations were used to describe fatigue life of coil spring. Strain signals from various roads were measured using a data acquisition and then converted into acceleration signal. The acceleration signals were then used as input to multibody suspension model for forces time history on spring and acceleration signal of sprung mass extraction. The acceleration signals were then processed for ISO weighted indexes while the force time history was used for coil spring fatigue life prediction respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0341
Seyyedvahid Mortazavian, Javid Moraveji, Reda Adimi, Xingfu Chen
Abstract In this study, a finite element analysis method is developed for simulating a camshaft cap punching bench test. Stiffness results of simulated camshaft cap component are correlated with test data and used to validate the model accuracy in terms of material and boundary conditions. Next, the method is used for verification of cap design and durability performance improvement. In order to improve the computational efficiency of the finite element analysis, the punch is replaced by equivalent trigonometric distributed loads. The sensitivity of the finite element predicted strains for different trigonometric pressure distribution functions is also investigated and compared to strain gage measured values. A number of equivalent stress criteria are also used for fatigue safety factor calculations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0295
Silvio César Bastos
Abstract Automotive industries have been seeking quality excellence as a key factor in competitiveness. Product characteristics and functions should meet the expectations of customers in terms of warranty and reliability. The objective of this paper is to present a method to improve the synchronization of customer’s product requirements with their suppliers in terms of key performance indicators. The improvement allows suppliers to take corrective and preventive actions through knowledge of component applications in engines and vehicles. Engine assembly lines maintain records and meet daily meet to explore trends of productivity, and supplier quality performance is measured based on engine failure instead of parts supplied. This methodology integrates Lean Manufacturing and Supplier Quality Engineering and respective targets, combining efforts towards Quality Assurance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0296
Oberti Dos Santos Almeida
Abstract One of the biggest challenges for the Product Development Engineers is to have a clear understanding of the Quality Principles and Disciplines they should follow while they are engineering. In general, the current Product Development System guides of the Automakers companies are mostly focused on provide guidance for the Engineers on the following areas: Design Efficiency; Design Rules for Product Robustness; Design Validation; Product Reliability; Testing Procedures. The introduction of a new/advanced technology system alone does not mean low incidence of customer complaints. The only way to get that is plan/execute Consumer Driven Design with excellence. Global Vehicles are more sensitive to Quality since they must satisfy diverse cultural customers without compromise reliability. When a new vehicle is being developed to be sold in many markets around the world - Global Product - this problem is even bigger. Different markets mean different customer expectations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0179
Saravanan Sambandan, Manuel Valencia, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the heater system plays a major role during winter condition to provide passenger comforts as well as to clear windshield defogging and defrost. In order to meet the customer satisfaction the heater system shall be tested physically in severe cold conditions to meet the objective performance in wind tunnel and also subjective performance in cold weather regions by conducting on road trials. This performance test is conducted in later stage of the program development, since the prototype or tooled up parts will not be available at initial program stage. The significance of conducting the virtual simulation is to predict the performance of the HVAC (Heating ventilating air-conditioning) system at early design stage. In this paper the development of 1D (One dimensional) model with floor duct systems and vehicle cabin model is studied to predict the performance. Analysis is carried out using commercial 1D simulation tool KULI®.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0176
B. Vasanth, Uday Putcha, S. Sathish Kumar, Ramakrishna nukala, Murali Govindarajalu
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0276
Lev Klyatis
Abstract This paper considers the situation in the laboratory testing: different stress types and accelerated testing, including accelerated reliability/durability testing, accelerated life testing, reliability testing, proving grounds, vibration, temperature, voltage, humidity, and others. In comparison with field situation, most of these testing simulate only one or part of the field input influences. One uses often not accurately the theory of physics-of-degradation process or failures for comparison of the field results with laboratory results. This situation will be considered with practical examples. It will be demonstrated that often used laboratory testing does not offer the possibility for successful prediction of product performance during service life As a result, there are many complaints, recalls, and less profit than was predicted during design and manufacturing. It will be shown how one can improve this situation..
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0397
Salah H. R. Ali
Abstract There is an eternal extended cooperation between the CMM-coordinate metrology and automotive industry which affecting positively the world economy. Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is considered as one of the very important techniques to increase the manufacturing quality. Hence, giving more attention to the CMM metrology can play a good role in that area to increase the outcome of the auto industry with high quality. Thus, developing CMM-coordinate metrology techniques constitutes allows important issue and needs more and more scientific research work to enhance the automotive industry. This paper aims to give an overview on the new research works performed in this area during the last few years. The article discusses the latest technology and being updates, such as micro-CMM and hybrid-multi-probe-CMM. On the other hand some new applications of CMM-coordinate metrology techniques in automotive industry have been presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1676
Hartmut Lackner
Abstract Software systems, and automotive software in particular, are becoming increasingly configurable to fulfill customer needs. New methods such as product line engineering facilitate the development and enhance the efficiency of such systems. In modern, versatile systems, the number of theoretically possible variants easily exceeds the number of actually built products. This produces two challenges for quality assurance and especially testing. First, the costs of conventional test methods increase substantially with every tested variant. And secondly, it is no longer feasible to build every possible variant for the purpose of testing. Hence, efficient criteria for selecting variants for testing are necessary. In this contribution, we propose a new test design method that enables systematic sampling of variants from test cases. We present six optimization criteria to enable control of test effort and test quality by sampling variants with different characteristics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1491
Manish Kumar Seth, Jens Glorer, Ralf Schellhaas
Abstract For long automakers around the globe are trying to reduce weight and cost of the components in order to make vehicles more cost and fuel efficient. This paper deals with same problem for rear twist beam for an upcoming vehicle, the task was to reduce the weight and cost of the twist beam structure without compromising on attributes as compared to the surrogate part. This problem was solved by inventing a new torsion profile and gusset combination which uses shape instead of thickness to use material more efficiently thereby reducing weight and cost. This invention has been successfully patented as well.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1488
Srinivas Kurna, Ruchik Tank, Riddhish Pathak
Abstract The job of a suspension system is to maximize the friction between the tires and the road surface, to provide steering stability with good handling and to act as a cushioning device ensuring the comfort of the driver & passengers. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. Almost all heavy duty vehicles use inverted type suspension system which is also called as bogie type suspension system. The design of this type of suspension is a complex and difficult science which has evolved over many years. It was recognized very early in the development of suspensions that the interface between vehicle body and wheel needed some sort of cushioning system to reduce the vibration felt as the vehicle moved along. This was already part of road coach design and took the form of leaf (laminated) steel springs mounted on the axles, upon which the vehicle body rested.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0890
Yoichiro Nakamura, Masahisa Horikoshi, Yasunori TAKEI, Takahiro Onishi, Yasuhiro Murakami, Chip Hewette
Abstract Heavy duty vehicles take a large role in providing global logistics. It is required to have both high durability and reduced CO2 from the viewpoint of global environment conservation. Therefore lubricating oils for transmission and axle/differential gear box are required to have excellent protection and longer drain intervals. However, it is also necessary that the gear oil maintain suitable friction performance for the synchronizers of the transmission. Even with such good performance, both transmission and axle/differential gear box lubricants must balance cost and performance, in particular in the Asian market. The development of gear oil additives for high reliability gear oil must consider the available base oils in various regions as the additive is a global product. In many cases general long drain gear oils for heavy duty vehicles use the group III or IV base oils, but it is desirable to use the group I/II base oils in terms of cost and availability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0455
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1131
Keith Gilbert, Srini Mandadapu, Christopher Cindric
Abstract The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0907
Timothy Johnson, Ameya Joshi
Abstract This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number regulations, and Euro 6 type regulations for China and India in the 2020 timeframe. China will be tightening 30-40% relative to Euro 6 in 2023. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and the US EPA is anticipating developing a harmonized proposal for implementation in 2023+. The US also finalized the next round of HD GHG (greenhouse gas) regulations for 2021-27, requiring 5% engine CO2 reductions. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0050
Mario Berk, Hans-Martin Kroll, Olaf Schubert, Boris Buschardt, Daniel Straub
Abstract With increasing levels of driving automation, the perception provided by automotive environment sensors becomes highly safety relevant. A correct assessment of the sensors’ perception reliability is therefore crucial for ensuring the safety of the automated driving functionalities. There are currently no standardized procedures or guidelines for demonstrating the perception reliability of the sensors. Engineers therefore face the challenge of setting up test procedures and plan test drive efforts. Null Hypothesis Significance Testing has been employed previously to answer this question. In this contribution, we present an alternative method based on Bayesian parameter inference, which is easy to implement and whose interpretation is more intuitive for engineers without a profound statistical education. We show how to account for different environmental conditions with an influence on sensor performance and for statistical dependence among perception errors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily Linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
Abstract For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, electromagnetic interference (EMI) limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0052
Andre Kohn, Rolf Schneider, Antonio Vilela, Udo Dannebaum, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract A main challenge when developing next generation architectures for automated driving ECUs is to guarantee reliable functionality. Today’s fail safe systems will not be able to handle electronic failures due to the missing “mechanical” fallback or the intervening driver. This means, fail operational based on redundancy is an essential part for improving the functional safety, especially in safety-related braking and steering systems. The 2-out-of-2 Diagnostic Fail Safe (2oo2DFS) system is a promising approach to realize redundancy with manageable costs. In this contribution, we evaluate the reliability of this concept for a symmetric and an asymmetric Electronic Power Steering (EPS) ECU. For this, we use a Markov chain model as a typical method for analyzing the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) in majority redundancy approaches. As a basis, the failure rates of the used components and the microcontroller are considered.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1331
Marko Basic, Thomas Resch
Abstract This paper describes a numerical study of the effect of hollow crankshafts on crankshaft local strength and durability as well as slider bearing contact behavior. Crankshaft dynamic simulation for durability is still a challenging task, although numerical methods are already worldwide established and integrated part of nearly every standard engine development process. Such standard methods are based on flexible multi-body dynamic simulation, combined with Finite Element analysis and multi-axial fatigue evaluation. They use different levels of simplification and consider the most influencing phenomena relevant for durability. Lightweight design and downsizing require more and more detailed methods due to higher deformation of the crankshaft. This is especially true for hollow shafts, as present in motorsport design or aerospace applications, but also for standard engine having high potential for significant weight savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0129
Sinya Miura, Takashi YASUDA
Abstract In general, CFD analysis with porous media is precise enough to simulate airflow behavior in a heat exchanger core, placed in the vehicle. In a case when the airflow behavior is complex, however, the precision lowers according to our study. Therefore, we developed a new modeling method to keep high-precision and applied it to analysis of airflow in the vehicle. The concept is at first that the shape of tubes and the distance between the tubes are as the actual product so that the airflow with an oblique angle is to pass through a core. With this concept, airflow with an oblique angle hits the surface of tubes and passes through a core with changing the direction. Next, the concept is to reproduce the air pressure loss in actually-shaped fins, and therefore, we use a porous medium for the modeling of the fins instead of the product shape modeling to combine with the the tubes.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1244
Keisuke Kimura, Tasbir Rahman, Tadashi Misumi, Takeshi Fukami, Masafumi Hara, Sachiko Kawaji, Satoru Machida
Abstract One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
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