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Viewing 151 to 180 of 1655
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0453
Zhimin Xi, Hao Pan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Abstract To date, model validation metric is prominently designed for non-dynamic model responses. Though metrics for dynamic responses are also available, they are specifically designed for the vehicle impact application and uncertainties are not considered in the metric. This paper proposes the validation metric for general dynamic system responses under uncertainty. The metric makes use of the popular U-pooling approach and extends it for dynamic responses. Furthermore, shape deviation metric was proposed to be included in the validation metric with the capability of considering multiple dynamic test data. One vehicle impact model is presented to demonstrate the proposed validation metric.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Abstract System dynamics modeling of complex processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service, is an efficient approach for assessing value potential of different business transformation alternatives at small and large enterprises. Process elements such as generation of concepts, detailed designs, pilot level plant trials, etc. can be modeled including first-pass work, testing and review, rework identification and defect fixing, along with release readiness, staffing, schedule pressures, overtime and many other business metrics. Enterprise level processes, with their complex logic loops, can be represented as a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, whose solutions can reveal the intricate underlying dynamics. Design of experiments, performed on the system dynamics models representing the business processes, are an inexpensive way of gaining insights into the impact of interactions between the numerous process control variables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0639
Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Abstract This research proposes the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict the road input for road load data generation for variants of a vehicle as vehicle parameters are modified. This is important to the design engineers while the vehicle variant is still in the initial stages of development, hence no prototypes are available and accurate proving ground data acquisition is not possible. ANNs are, with adequate training, capable of representing the complex relationships between inputs and outputs. This research explores the implementation of the ANN to predict road input for vehicle variants using a quarter vehicle test rig. The training and testing data for this research are collected from a validated quarter vehicle model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0759
Tetsuya Nagai, Ryoji Hiraoka, Nobuyuki Iwai, Mitsuru Kowada, Isao Azumagakito
Abstract In the real site of engine development, new means are required for optical measurements under a wide variety of conditions including high-loaded operation. We have accordingly developed the new optical probe having less restriction when installing onto the engine as well as having high durability. The shape of connector end of newly developed optical probe that fits to the engine is interchangeable with the M5 sensor used for in-cylinder pressure measurement. The optical module of the optical probe can also be installed in the M10 spark plug or the M8 glow plug. The durability of the newly developed optical probe is; heat up to 400°C, pressure up to 25 MPa, and vibration up to 50 G. The durability of the optical probe was assessed using the engines of commercially available motorcycles. The 110 cm3 engine was used for the time-wise assessment. The 150 cm3 engine was used for the environment-wise assessment. Either one is a single cylinder engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0205
Steve Trythall
Abstract Rapid resolution of electrical faults reduces costs, enhances brand image and maximizes vehicle availability. Although diagnostic systems continue to improve, service technicians frequently have to consult schematics, location views and other engineering resources to fix a problem. But this data can be hard to find, hard to understand, and out of date or wrong. This session presents new technology to leverage design data directly into the service domain. The technician is presented only with relevant vehicle-specific data, is able to navigate dynamically through electrical schematics, and can seamlessly link with other resources such as 3D models and repair procedures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
Abstract End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU's in order to ensure correct functioning of its intended functionality. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. On one hand, faster production demands require these tests and its framework to be designed in a time optimized manner. On the other hand, increase in ECU functionality translates to an increase in test's functional coverage, requiring more time. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production. Availability of multicore microcontrollers with increase in clock speed can increase the performance of end of line tests, but design challenges e.g. synchronization do not guarantee a linear performance increase. Therefore, design of test execution framework is absolutely critical to increase performance of test execution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because it has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of this system. In this research, the durability test mode of a new Adaptive Front Lighting System (AFLS) with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as a new light source has been developed for a new large luxury sedan vehicle. First of all, the failure mode effect was analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal, vibrational, operational and electrical loads were investigated. The Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) technique was used to collect the vibration and temperature of an AFLS in a proving ground. The vibration test mode was designed by a Power Spectral Density (PSD) approach. The customer usage data was used for making the target cycles of operational movement such as swiveling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
Abstract A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts - especially Powertrain ones - with accuracy down to 0.1 μm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non-contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0582
Deepak Ranjan Bhuyan, Sreekanth Netapalli, Sathya Dev, Soundarya Srinivasan
Abstract Springback prediction for stamped components is a challenging task for Automotive Industry. Automotive Manufacturers are working to reduce the springback effect of sheet metal stampings caused due to elastic behavior of materials with the help of changes to manufacturing process and part geometry. Recent development in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) studies made it possible for the industry to rely on stamping simulation. There is always a gap between the springback predicted from stamping simulation and the actual stamped part. Currently FEA techniques are trying to close this gap. The objective of this study is to minimize this gap using DFSS method for predicting the springback and optimizing the simulation parameters with the help of LS-Dyna FEM tool. The behavior of material with different simulation parameters has been studied in this paper and the ones that best correlate with actual data are identified.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0576
Jiaquan Chen, Yongfeng Jiang, Min Qin, Wenquan Hao, Yin-Ping Chang, Lingge Jin
This research proposes an automatic computer-aided design, analysis, and optimization process of a twist beam rear suspension system. The process combines CAD (Computer-Aided Design), CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering), and optimization technologies into an automation procedure, which includes: structural design, dynamic analysis, vibration analysis, durability analysis, and multidisciplinary optimization. The automation results shown the twist beam rear suspension weight reduced, the durability fatigue life increased, and the K&C (kinematics & compliance) characteristics are improved significantly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge Jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng Jiang, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Chang
Abstract An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customers into engineering languages. In other words, transfer the wants of customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire of customer wants for a CUV (Crossover Utility Vehicle) is created and processed. Using QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and modified KANO model, the relative important degree is obtained from the original relative important degree of customer wants surveyed. Since some information gained is uncertain and the questionnaire sample is limited, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced, which calculates the competitive important degree of customer wants, then the final important degree of customer wants is gained by integrating the relative important degree and the competitive important degree.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0494
Sulki Seong, Wangoo Kim, Daesung Bae, Seungpyo Lee, Younggeol Cho, Kyeongdeok Yang
Abstract A rotating bearing must have an excellent durability life. Various studies have been conducted for a long time to predict the bearing durability life. However, the bearing durability life has been predicted by an analytic formula in terms of the raceway and ball. A finite element structural analysis has been carried out for a flange, commonly with an assumption of a static load. So it is difficult to consider the dynamic effects (Centrifugal force, Gyroscope effect) of the bearing, which is very important due to its high speed operation. In order to predict the accurate bearing durability life, the dynamic effects must be considered. This paper proposes a method for bearing durability life prediction, considering dynamic effects. Contact between the raceway and ball is one of the important factors to take into account for the dynamic effects of the bearing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0487
Lev Klyatis
Abstract This paper will discuss the problem with successful predicting of product performance (reliability, quality, durability, safety, recalls, profit, life cycle cost, and other interconnected technical and economic components of performance). The best component for analysing the performance situation during service life, including predicting, is recalls, because, first, recall accumulates the safety, reliability, durability, quality, profit, and total economic situation. And second, there is open official and objective information about the number of recalls from Government (National Highway Trafic Safety Administration and others), as well as companies-producers. Therefore, for analyzing the situation with the product performance, including predicting, this paper considers the situation with recalls.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0146
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy, Selin Arslan, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
Abstract As the need for super high speed components (pumps, motors, etc) continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. This paper will address the dynamic modes a bearing passes through and the potential failure modes associated with each. A review of the state of the art of current failure modes will be given, and then a hypothesis on some new failure modes associated with particular speeds will be discussion. The paper will also describe an apparatus that was designed especially to study these phenomena. Range of speed studied is 0- 60,000 rpm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
Abstract NHTSA issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate countermeasures that can minimize the likelihood of a complete or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this safety ruling is the Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an optimized concept SABIC with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements. The simulated SABIC is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle. The improved performance included: minimization of the test results variability and the optimization of the ejection mitigation performance of the SABIC.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Abstract Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma (DFSS) and finite element analysis are used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1735
Robert Wade, Jerry C. Hsieh
Abstract Exhaust manifold design is one of the more challenging tasks for the engine engineer due to the harsh thermal and severe vibration environment. Extremely high exhaust gas temperatures and dynamic loading combine to subject the manifold to high cyclic stress when the material has reduced fatigue strength due to the high temperature. A long service life before a fatigue failure is the objective in exhaust manifold design. Accumulation of fatigue damage can occur from dynamic loading and thermal loading combined. Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) is a primary mechanism for accumulating fatigue damage. TMF typically occurs when a vehicle driving cycle has operating conditions that repeatedly change the exhaust gas temperature between hot and cold. Another way to experience temperature cycling is through splash quenching. Splash quenching was analyzed and found to rapidly accumulate fatigue damage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1144
Kumaraswamy Hebbale, Farzad Samie, Jonathan Kish
Abstract Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCT) for passenger cars are being developed by OEMs and suppliers. The driving force is the improvement in fuel economy available from manual transmissions together with the comfort of automatic transmissions. A dry clutch system (dDCT) is currently the subject of research, development, and production implementation. One of the key issues in the development of a dDCT is clutch durability. In dry clutches with current linings, above a critical temperature, the friction system starts to suffer permanent damage. In addition, the clutch friction characteristics are a function of the clutch interface temperature. Because a reliable, low-cost temperature sensor is not available for this application, the clutch control engineers rely on a good thermal model to estimate the temperature of the clutches. A thermal model was developed for dry dual clutch transmissions to predict operating temperature of both pressure and center plates during all maneuvers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1182
Mehrdad Mastali Majdabadi Kohneh, Ehsan Samadani, Siamak Farhad, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
Abstract Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are one of the best candidates as energy storage systems for automobile applications due to their high power and energy densities. However, durability in comparison to other battery chemistries continues to be a key factor in prevention of wide scale adoption by the automotive industry. In order to design more-durable, longer-life, batteries, reliable and predictive battery models are required. In this paper, an effective model for simulating full-size LIBs is employed that can predict the operating voltage of the cell and the distribution of variables such as electrochemical current generation and battery state of charge (SOC). This predictive ability is used to examine the effect of parameters such as current collector thickness and tab location for the purpose of reducing non-uniform voltage and current distribution in the cell.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1613
Nikhil Bolar, Thomas Buchler, Allen Li, Jeff Wallace
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. The three key requirements of structural performance evaluation for vehicle development are NVH, durability and safety.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0115
Nuwong Chollacoop, Manida Tongroon, Mongkon Kananont, Amornpoth Suebwong, Peerawat Saisirirat, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
Abstract The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0074
Dhiyaneswar Rani, A K Saravanan, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, B Ashok
Abstract Material handling is a major section in all the industries especially for delicate and huge components. Here in this industry they are using pneumatics system to tilt the component for certain angle so that operator will be able to do the further operation in the line. Pneumatic system needs compressed air for running the system, which in turn requires electricity to compress the air using an air compressor. Due to frequent power shutdowns many industries are facing problem to run their manufacturing unit peacefully. As an alternate they are using generators which require fuel to generate power. This adds excess cost for manufacturing the products and demand for fuel is also increasing day by day. So to avoid all this problem with a one step solution, dependability of energy resources has to be minimized. For avoiding the usage of energy resources the usage of pneumatics and compressed air has to be reduced.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Abstract Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic loadcases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram Tharaneetharan, Kalyan Hatti
Abstract This paper describes a methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system (OBD) with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the new system as per requirement of commercial vehicle technology. OBD is a system that detects failures which adversely affect emissions and illuminates a MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp) to inform the driver of a fault which may lead to increase in emissions. OBD provides standard and unrestricted access for diagnosis and repair. Below given Figure 1 shows the working principle of OBD system. The exhaust emission of a vehicle will be controlled primarily by Engine Control Unit (ECU) and Exhaust Gas After Treatment Control (EGAS CU). These two control units determine the combined operating strategies of the engine and after treatment device. Figure 1 Modern Control Architecture for OBD System in Commercial vehicle [1
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0086
Prakhar Srivastava, Manish Laxman Karle, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand A Deshpande
Abstract Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS) is a safety critical system because it affects vehicle stability and dynamics. In EPAS, electric motor takes the power from the battery and delivers this power to rack and pinion only on demand. Since EPAS contains electrical component such as Motor and electronic component such as Electronic Control Unit (ECU), reliability of these components is very important. To ensure safety and reliability, ISO 26262 standards are adapted which are derived from IEC 61508. This standard regulates the product development on system, hardware and software level and manages functional safety for electrical and electronic components. This paper discusses the applicability of the ISO 26262 standard to the development of EPAS ECU with respect to its hardware and software design. Hazard analysis and risk assessment of the basic EPAS architecture is performed and architecture is improved to achieve safety goal as per the standard.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0128
MR Vikram, Ramesh Patil, Shashidhar Chattanahalli, Vijay H Meti
Abstract Automotive manufacturers are facing unprecedented cost challenges across globe. Market requirement has become very competitive with increased demand for higher performance and value engineering. This is encouraging automotive manufacturers to develop dampers with local suppliers, as there is a huge component cost advantage and also logistic cost savings. However, in emerging markets, supplier capability to develop the component for solving particular NVH problem of OEM is not matured as compared to developed market suppliers. The challenge for auto makers is to develop suppliers who can provide proper performance and durability, while at the same time providing lower cost components. This paper gives an overview of the challenges in the development process to develop a competitive torsional vibration damper for rear wheel drive vehicle to reduce boom noise and vibration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0163
Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, S Prasanth, Sudhir Darekar, Jagadeesan Chellan, K Ashok Kumar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar
Abstract A cabin on an agricultural tractor is meant to protect the operator from harsh environment, dust and provide an air conditioned space. As it is an enclosed space, cabin structure should be a crashworthiness structure and should not cause serious injury to operator in case of tractor roll over. There are International standard like OECD Code 4, SAE J2194 which regulates the crashworthiness of this protective structure. The roll-over protective structure (ROPS) is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the operator in case of tractor overturn. None of the cabin parts should enter into the clearance zone for operator safety. In addition to meeting ROPS test criteria, the cabin structural strength should be optimized for the required tractor life. In this paper, simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor cabin structure and its mountings to meet the above requirements.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0113
Vipin Sukumaran T., Sumith Joseph, Kamal kant, Vipin P, Mohan D Umate
Abstract In recent past, the two stroke vehicle manufacturers are continuously motivated to develop extreme low emission vehicle for meeting the requirements of emissions regulations. To achieve this emission compliance, manufacturers have developed engines with better induction system, improved ignition timings, increased compression ratio (C.R) and larger after-treatment devices. As an effect of above changes, engine operating temperatures are quite high which reduces the block-piston life. Even though, typical two stroke engines are forced cooled engines, there is a lot of potential for optimizing block cooling to reduce maximum liner temperature and block gradient for enhancing block-piston durability. This paper presents an experimental study of various measures to reduce liner temperature for a two stroke, single cylinder 70 c.c. engine used for two wheeler application.
2014-11-04
Technical Paper
2014-36-0766
Clodoaldo Borges Chagas, Thiago Caetano de Freitas, Robson Pederiva
Abstract More and more, the automotive vehicle consumers tend to opt for internal combustion engines which use chain in their timing system, since the chain drive system presents high durability, avoiding the usual maintenance common to the belt timing system. The necessity of developing parts which increase the fuel consumption efficiency and minimize noise and vibration leads to the study and comprehension of some physical phenomena such as “polygonal action” and the ability of predicting the fluctuation of angular velocity of the sprockets used for timing the crankshaft and camshaft. The study of mathematic models in parallel to the physical test guides the development of the present work.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2707
Brian C. Kaul, Benjamin J. Lawler, Charles E.A. Finney, Michelle L. Edwards, Robert M. Wagner
Abstract Advances in engine controls and sensor technology are making advanced, direct, high-speed control of engine combustion more feasible. Control of combustion rate and phasing in low-temperature combustion regimes and active control of cyclic variability in dilute SI combustion are being pursued in laboratory environments with high-quality data acquisition systems, using metrics calculated from in-cylinder pressure. In order to implement these advanced combustion controls in production, lower-quality data will need to be tolerated even if indicated pressure sensors become available. This paper examines the effects of several data quality issues, including phase shifting (incorrect TDC location), reduced data resolution, pressure pegging errors, and random noise on calculated combustion metrics that are used for control feedback.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 1655