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Viewing 151 to 180 of 1640
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0146
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy, Selin Arslan, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
Abstract As the need for super high speed components (pumps, motors, etc) continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. This paper will address the dynamic modes a bearing passes through and the potential failure modes associated with each. A review of the state of the art of current failure modes will be given, and then a hypothesis on some new failure modes associated with particular speeds will be discussion. The paper will also describe an apparatus that was designed especially to study these phenomena. Range of speed studied is 0- 60,000 rpm.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0420
Musarrat Jehan, Efstratios Nikolaidis
Abstract There is randomness in both the applied loads and the strength of systems. Therefore, to account for the uncertainty, the safety of the system must be quantified using its reliability. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) is widely used for probabilistic analysis because of its robustness. However, the high computational cost limits the accuracy of MCS. Smarslok et al. [2010] developed an improved sampling technique for reliability assessment called Separable Monte Carlo (SMC) that can significantly increase the accuracy of estimation without increasing the cost of sampling. However, this method was applied to time-invariant problems involving two random variables. This paper extends SMC to problems with multiple random variables and develops a novel method for estimation of the standard deviation of the probability of failure of a structure. The method is demonstrated and validated on reliability assessment of an offshore wind turbine under turbulent wind loads.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0453
Zhimin Xi, Hao Pan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Abstract To date, model validation metric is prominently designed for non-dynamic model responses. Though metrics for dynamic responses are also available, they are specifically designed for the vehicle impact application and uncertainties are not considered in the metric. This paper proposes the validation metric for general dynamic system responses under uncertainty. The metric makes use of the popular U-pooling approach and extends it for dynamic responses. Furthermore, shape deviation metric was proposed to be included in the validation metric with the capability of considering multiple dynamic test data. One vehicle impact model is presented to demonstrate the proposed validation metric.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0425
Monica Majcher, Zissimos P. Mourelatos, Vasileios Geroulas, Igor Baseski, Amandeep Singh
Abstract Using the total probability theorem, we propose a method to calculate the failure rate of a linear vibratory system with random parameters excited by stationary Gaussian processes. The response of such a system is non-stationary because of the randomness of the input parameters. A space-filling design, such as optimal symmetric Latin hypercube sampling or maximin, is first used to sample the input parameter space. For each design point, the output process is stationary and Gaussian. We present two approaches to calculate the corresponding conditional probability of failure. A Kriging metamodel is then created between the input parameters and the output conditional probabilities allowing us to estimate the conditional probabilities for any set of input parameters. The total probability theorem is finally applied to calculate the time-dependent probability of failure and the failure rate of the dynamic system. The proposed method is demonstrated using a vibratory system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0759
Tetsuya Nagai, Ryoji Hiraoka, Nobuyuki Iwai, Mitsuru Kowada, Isao Azumagakito
Abstract In the real site of engine development, new means are required for optical measurements under a wide variety of conditions including high-loaded operation. We have accordingly developed the new optical probe having less restriction when installing onto the engine as well as having high durability. The shape of connector end of newly developed optical probe that fits to the engine is interchangeable with the M5 sensor used for in-cylinder pressure measurement. The optical module of the optical probe can also be installed in the M10 spark plug or the M8 glow plug. The durability of the newly developed optical probe is; heat up to 400°C, pressure up to 25 MPa, and vibration up to 50 G. The durability of the optical probe was assessed using the engines of commercially available motorcycles. The 110 cm3 engine was used for the time-wise assessment. The 150 cm3 engine was used for the environment-wise assessment. Either one is a single cylinder engine.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0115
Nuwong Chollacoop, Manida Tongroon, Mongkon Kananont, Amornpoth Suebwong, Peerawat Saisirirat, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
Abstract The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0074
Dhiyaneswar Rani, A K Saravanan, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, B Ashok
Abstract Material handling is a major section in all the industries especially for delicate and huge components. Here in this industry they are using pneumatics system to tilt the component for certain angle so that operator will be able to do the further operation in the line. Pneumatic system needs compressed air for running the system, which in turn requires electricity to compress the air using an air compressor. Due to frequent power shutdowns many industries are facing problem to run their manufacturing unit peacefully. As an alternate they are using generators which require fuel to generate power. This adds excess cost for manufacturing the products and demand for fuel is also increasing day by day. So to avoid all this problem with a one step solution, dependability of energy resources has to be minimized. For avoiding the usage of energy resources the usage of pneumatics and compressed air has to be reduced.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0128
MR Vikram, Ramesh Patil, Shashidhar Chattanahalli, Vijay H Meti
Abstract Automotive manufacturers are facing unprecedented cost challenges across globe. Market requirement has become very competitive with increased demand for higher performance and value engineering. This is encouraging automotive manufacturers to develop dampers with local suppliers, as there is a huge component cost advantage and also logistic cost savings. However, in emerging markets, supplier capability to develop the component for solving particular NVH problem of OEM is not matured as compared to developed market suppliers. The challenge for auto makers is to develop suppliers who can provide proper performance and durability, while at the same time providing lower cost components. This paper gives an overview of the challenges in the development process to develop a competitive torsional vibration damper for rear wheel drive vehicle to reduce boom noise and vibration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0163
Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, S Prasanth, Sudhir Darekar, Jagadeesan Chellan, K Ashok Kumar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar
Abstract A cabin on an agricultural tractor is meant to protect the operator from harsh environment, dust and provide an air conditioned space. As it is an enclosed space, cabin structure should be a crashworthiness structure and should not cause serious injury to operator in case of tractor roll over. There are International standard like OECD Code 4, SAE J2194 which regulates the crashworthiness of this protective structure. The roll-over protective structure (ROPS) is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the operator in case of tractor overturn. None of the cabin parts should enter into the clearance zone for operator safety. In addition to meeting ROPS test criteria, the cabin structural strength should be optimized for the required tractor life. In this paper, simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor cabin structure and its mountings to meet the above requirements.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Abstract Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic loadcases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram Tharaneetharan, Kalyan Hatti
Abstract This paper describes a methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system (OBD) with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the new system as per requirement of commercial vehicle technology. OBD is a system that detects failures which adversely affect emissions and illuminates a MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp) to inform the driver of a fault which may lead to increase in emissions. OBD provides standard and unrestricted access for diagnosis and repair. Below given Figure 1 shows the working principle of OBD system. The exhaust emission of a vehicle will be controlled primarily by Engine Control Unit (ECU) and Exhaust Gas After Treatment Control (EGAS CU). These two control units determine the combined operating strategies of the engine and after treatment device. Figure 1 Modern Control Architecture for OBD System in Commercial vehicle [1
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0086
Prakhar Srivastava, Manish Laxman Karle, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand A Deshpande
Abstract Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS) is a safety critical system because it affects vehicle stability and dynamics. In EPAS, electric motor takes the power from the battery and delivers this power to rack and pinion only on demand. Since EPAS contains electrical component such as Motor and electronic component such as Electronic Control Unit (ECU), reliability of these components is very important. To ensure safety and reliability, ISO 26262 standards are adapted which are derived from IEC 61508. This standard regulates the product development on system, hardware and software level and manages functional safety for electrical and electronic components. This paper discusses the applicability of the ISO 26262 standard to the development of EPAS ECU with respect to its hardware and software design. Hazard analysis and risk assessment of the basic EPAS architecture is performed and architecture is improved to achieve safety goal as per the standard.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0113
Vipin Sukumaran T., Sumith Joseph, Kamal kant, Vipin P, Mohan D Umate
Abstract In recent past, the two stroke vehicle manufacturers are continuously motivated to develop extreme low emission vehicle for meeting the requirements of emissions regulations. To achieve this emission compliance, manufacturers have developed engines with better induction system, improved ignition timings, increased compression ratio (C.R) and larger after-treatment devices. As an effect of above changes, engine operating temperatures are quite high which reduces the block-piston life. Even though, typical two stroke engines are forced cooled engines, there is a lot of potential for optimizing block cooling to reduce maximum liner temperature and block gradient for enhancing block-piston durability. This paper presents an experimental study of various measures to reduce liner temperature for a two stroke, single cylinder 70 c.c. engine used for two wheeler application.
2014-11-04
Technical Paper
2014-36-0766
Clodoaldo Borges Chagas, Thiago Caetano de Freitas, Robson Pederiva
Abstract More and more, the automotive vehicle consumers tend to opt for internal combustion engines which use chain in their timing system, since the chain drive system presents high durability, avoiding the usual maintenance common to the belt timing system. The necessity of developing parts which increase the fuel consumption efficiency and minimize noise and vibration leads to the study and comprehension of some physical phenomena such as “polygonal action” and the ability of predicting the fluctuation of angular velocity of the sprockets used for timing the crankshaft and camshaft. The study of mathematic models in parallel to the physical test guides the development of the present work.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2707
Brian C. Kaul, Benjamin J. Lawler, Charles E.A. Finney, Michelle L. Edwards, Robert M. Wagner
Abstract Advances in engine controls and sensor technology are making advanced, direct, high-speed control of engine combustion more feasible. Control of combustion rate and phasing in low-temperature combustion regimes and active control of cyclic variability in dilute SI combustion are being pursued in laboratory environments with high-quality data acquisition systems, using metrics calculated from in-cylinder pressure. In order to implement these advanced combustion controls in production, lower-quality data will need to be tolerated even if indicated pressure sensors become available. This paper examines the effects of several data quality issues, including phase shifting (incorrect TDC location), reduced data resolution, pressure pegging errors, and random noise on calculated combustion metrics that are used for control feedback.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2796
Heju Zhu, Wanying Li, Hanguo Tao, Jun Li, Xiuhua Sui
Abstract In order to study and evaluate the effect of sulfated ash in different diesel engine lubricants on the performance and durability of diesel particulate filter (DPF), the two engine oils of API CI-4 and CJ-4 with different sulfated ash levels are used respectively in the durability tests of two DPF systems. Moreover, the pressure drop, ash loading and filtration efficiency of the two DPFs, deposits in the inlets and outlets of the DPFs, intake flow rate and fuel consumption rates of engine are measured and compared. The test results show that: Compared to the API CI-4 which has more ash in the formulation than the API CJ-4, the API CJ-4 shows a markedly excellent performance on the lower ash loading and longer service interval and life for DPF, as well as lower fuel consumption rate for the diesel engine with DPF.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2430
Rajendra Vivekananda Hosamath, Muralidhar Nagarkatte
Abstract All top ranking automobile companies in the world believe in single word “Quality” and maintaining quality standards is a philosophy, a belief in which we live, a task which cannot be put aside for another day. To achieve the world class quality standards Divgi-Warner meticulously follows a highly effective tool known as Quality System Basics (QSB).QSB helps Divgi-Warner to preserve integrity of commitment to achieve manufacturing excellence. This case study covers the Quality System Basics implementation experience of Divgi-Warner Pvt. Ltd. (DWPL) India, a BorgWarner's plants located at Pune and Sirsi in India.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0304
Leonardo Navarenho de Souza Fino, Rafael Navarenho de Souza
Abstract The reliability of the microelectronic devices and circuits is a major factor that determines both their manufacturability and application lifetime. One of the most pervasive problems on the integrated circuit (IC) industry is the electrostatic discharging (ESD) failure. ESD damage has become more prevalent in newer technologies due to the higher susceptibility of smaller circuit components. In addition, the changes on the IC technology have also changed the ESD protection techniques, requiring a continuous improvements and studies. ESD causes about 40 % of IC failures and represents, annually, a loss of billions of dollars due to repair, rework, shipping, labor and overhead costs associated with the damage, which highlights the importance of fundamental understanding of ESD aspects and design of efficient ESD protection.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0103
Demerson Alves de Campos
Abstract Over recent years, demands for fuel-efficient vehicles have increased with the rise of the fuel price and public concerns on environment. Recently, application of lightweight materials is increasing in the automobile industry in order to improve mass reduction and consequently fuel efficiency. On this particular study, with a goal of developing a Lightweight Fixed Steering Column, it was identified an opportunity to replace fixed steering column metallic upper and lower brackets by polymeric material. In order to fulfill NVH, Crash, Durability and Performance requirements, a DFSS methodology has been applied. As a result, It was achieved ∼51% of mass reduction, ∼10% of performance improvement with ∼14% of cost increase.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0142
Luis Alberto Pargas Carmona
Abstract A vehicle is a product that encloses high levels of complexity. Assessing its quality requires taking into account several variables simultaneously. Usually, this kind of analysis is made over one variable at a time, ignoring the multidimensional nature of the quality. This is even more critical when two or more vehicles are included in the analysis (e.g. for benchmarking purposes), or when the aim of the analysis is to evaluate the performance of more than one variable over time. This study presents an overview of the biplot, which is a low-dimensional representation of observations and variables, and the possibility to use it in monitoring multiple quality variables.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0219
Marcos Colombini, Teo Rocha
Abstract Product Design is a process of creating new product by an organization or business entity for its customer. Being part of a stage in a product life cycle, it is very important that the highest level of effort is being put in the stage. The Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology consists of a collection of tools, needs-gathering, engineering, statistical methods, and best practices that find use in product development. DFSS has the objective of determining the needs of customers and the business, and driving those needs into the product solution so created. In this paper the DFSS methodology is employed to develop the optimal solution to enhance sound transmission loss in a vehicle front of dash pass-through. An integrated approach using acoustic holography and beamforming Noise Source Identification (NSI) techniques is presented as a manner to improve sound insulation during vehicle development.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2306
Mathialagan Balaji, Hemant Bhatkar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar, Ananthan Anbazhagan, Pramod Palkar
Abstract Rear axles are subjected to bending and torsion loads out of which Bending loads are predominant. In case of Off road vehicles Bi Axial- combination of Bending and torsion loads were predominant, because of axle construction and vehicle usage pattern. Defined test procedures are available for bending durability and torsional durability evaluation of axles. In this experiment, new test methodology was developed for Bi Axial durability evaluation of Off road vehicle rear axle with single servo hydraulic linear actuator. For creating Bi Axial load condition, we may need multiple actuators and complicated fixtures. Axle wheel end is constrained at an angle with suitable fixtures for creating the bending and torsional forces together in the axle. Servo hydraulic linear actuator with suitable loading arm is used for applying the test torque in the axle input flange.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2297
Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Serter Atamer
Abstract In today's world, there are a prominent number of weight and cost reduction projects within the vehicle engineering development activities. Regarding this phenomenon, a complete optimization study is applied to a leaf spring assembly, which has 4 leaves and which is used in heavy duty trucks, by reducing the number of leaves down to 3 together with weight and cost reductions. At the first step of the project, the stiffness of the leaf spring is calculated with in-house software based on mathematical calculations using the thickness profile of the leaves. Then the results of these calculations are compared with non-linear elastic leaf spring calculations which are conducted with FEA. This elastic leaf spring finite element model is transferred into Multi-Body-Simulation (MBS) model in order to determine the forces acting on the leaf spring.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2312
Venkatesan Chokkalingam, Mohan Rao
Abstract The durability of the components in a vehicle plays one of the major roles in its life cycle cost. The powertrain mount is one such component since its rubber characteristics have significant impact on the vehicle's NVH and fatigue life. This paper presents the enhanced durability benefits obtained by changing the polymer composition, manufacturing methods and design optimization of a powertrain mount for an off-road commercial vehicle. The methodology involved characterization[2] of the existing mount, arriving a new compound formulation, making of prototypes, experimental validation for durability[3] and repeatability in the laboratory combined with rigorous on field vehicle trials. NVH measurements were also carried out on the improved mounts. The above exhaustive exercise resulted in the development of a comprehensively far better mount than an existing mount with improved durability without compromise on NVH properties.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0405
Matheus Ferreira, Adalto Silva, Mário Praça, Sandra Costa
Abstract Lead free bronze substrate associated with a lead free electroplated coating has been the standard bearing material technology for medium size Diesel engines. However the increasing engine demands are driving this technology to the limit. With the increase of Peak Cylinder Pressure (PCP) to improve power density and reduce CO2 emissions, the bearings are subjected to higher loads which usually reduce their durability. The new operating conditions are more prone to wear and eventually scuffing occurrences. Therefore materials with higher scuffing and wear resistance without a significant cost increase are demanded. To meet the requirements of highly loaded Medium Duty Diesel (MDD) applications, a lead free material based on a high resistant bronze substrate associated with a polymeric coating was developed. The polymer is sprayed onto the substrate and cured on a high temperature to provide performance improvement and adequate thickness control.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0174
Ygor Henrique de Almeida, Roberto Rossy Chaves, Fabrício Cardinali Rezende, Tiago Augusto Carneiro Calijorne, Juan Carlos Horta Gutiérrez
Abstract Currently the durability test of FIAT vehicles powertrain suspension system is performed in pattern roads that reproduces conditions which the vehicle is submitted by costumer during product life cycle. The test done in these roads is time consuming and expensive. Experimental Engineers, for quite some time, have endeavored in doing automotive components fatigue tests in the lab. These environments provide more controlled test conditions and enable a less time consuming test. This work analyzes, over one of the three powertrain system attachment points of a passenger vehicle, differences that are found between a test performed in pattern roads and a test performed in a 6DOF road simulator. As conclusion, presents alternatives to perform the test of these components in lab using a 6DOF road simulator.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0279
Alvaro C. Michelotti, André L. Paza, Cristiano Foppa, Tiago A. Martins
Abstract Reliability growth method is as a supporting tool for the production readiness plan of a new product line, in order to have an estimated probability of field failures during normal production. This is accomplished in the case study presented herein using prototypes test bench data. Evaluation is carried to verify its adequacy to support new product launch. Additionally, continuous improvement and evaluation of design change impact on product performance is another potential application of the method. In the case study a reliability growth planning and assessment is conducted prior to a new alternator pulley product line launch to confirm initial durability targets of the product could be achieved during transition from R&D validated prototype to the mass production items of the new product line. It includes efforts from Product Engineering during development stages until Start Of Production (SOP).
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2347
Britney J. McCoy, Arman Tanman
Abstract In-use testing of diesel emission control technologies is an integral component of EPA's verification program. Device manufacturers are required to complete in-use testing once 500 units have been sold. Additionally, EPA conducts test programs on randomly selected retrofit devices from installations completed with grants by the National Clean Diesel Campaign. In this test program, EPA identified and recovered a variety of retrofit devices, including diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), installed on heavy-duty diesel vehicles (on-highway and nonroad). All of the devices were tested at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. This study's goal was to evaluate the durability, defined here as emissions performance as a function of time, of retrofit technologies aged in real-world applications.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2308
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Litang Gao
Road vibrations cause fatigue failures in vehicle components and systems. Therefore, reliable and accurate damage and life assessment is crucial to the durability and reliability performances of vehicles, especially at early design stages. However, durability and reliability assessment is difficult not only because of the unknown underlying damage mechanisms, such as crack initiation and crack growth, but also due to the large uncertainties introduced by many factors during operation. How to effectively and accurately assess the damage status and quantitatively measure the uncertainties in a damage evolution process is an important but still unsolved task in engineering probabilistic analysis. In this paper, a new procedure is developed to assess the durability and reliability performance, and characterize the uncertainties of damage evolution of components under constant amplitude loadings.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2307
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
This paper reviews the correlation concepts and tools available, with the emphasis on their historical origins, mathematical properties and applications. Two of the most commonly used statistical correlation indicators, i.e., modal assurance criterion (MAC) for structural deformation pattern identification/correlation and the coefficient of determination (R2) for data correlation are investigated. The mathematical structure of R2 is critically examined, and the physical meanings and their implications are discussed. Based on the insights gained from these analyses, a data scatter measure and a dependency measure are proposed. The applications of the measures for both linear and nonlinear data are also discussed. Finally, several worked examples in vehicle dynamics analysis and statistical data analyses are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of these concepts.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 1640