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Viewing 91 to 120 of 1640
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0959
Dhinesh Kumar, Ashwhanth Raju, Nitin Sheth, Steffen Digeser
Abstract The future emission regulation (BS V) in India is expected to create new challenges to meet the particulate matter (PM) limit for diesel cars. The upcoming emission norms will bring down the limit of PM by 80 % when compared to BS IV emission norms. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is one of the promising technologies to achieve this emission target. The implementation of DPF system into Indian market poses challenges against fuel quality, driving cycles and warranty. Hence, it is necessary to do a detailed on-road evaluation of the DPF system with commercially available fuel under country specific drive cycles. Therefore, we conducted full vehicle durability testing with DPF system which is available in the European market to evaluate its robustness and reliability with BS III fuel (≤350ppm sulfur) & BS IV (≤50ppm sulfur) fuel under real Indian driving conditions.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1736
Manida Tongroon, Amornpoth Suebwong, Mongkon Kananont, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
Abstract The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extended cab, equipped with 4JK1-TCX engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro IV emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Palm-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 20% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0168
Prashant Shinde, Omprakash Kota
Abstract Increasing demand of Electric and Hybrid vehicles questions more about Reliability and Lifetime of electronic circuits associated with them. It is very important for a hardware circuit designer to evaluate if module will last the expected lifetime. This paper elaborates the methods and steps to find the expected lifetime of critical components; and to decide whether Hybrid Power Electronics Unit (PEU) will meet the OEM requirements on lifetime. Accelerated thermal stress method is used to determine the required High Temperature Operational Life (HTOL) hours for given thermal profile of Hybrid vehicle passenger car in driving (8,000Hrs), charging(30,000Hrs) and total lifetime (38000Hrs ≈ 15Years). Example calculation of required HTOL hours against expected lifetime for critical component from Hybrid ECUs is explained in this paper. Also inclusions and exclusions of this method in evaluating lifetime assessment are also discussed here.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0237
Vinod Verma, V Saravanan, Dinesh Redkar, Arun Mahajan, R Raja, Pankaj Pawar, Ashok Kumar
Abstract A hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to lift the heavy implements during field operations and transportation. As it is a crucial member of the tractor for its usage, so the power train assembly needs a properly designed lift arm, rocker arm assembly with better strength and stiffness. There are a standard like IS12224, IS4468 which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of tractor and the layout of hydraulic three point linkage. Computer aided engineering techniques followed by laboratory testing have been deployed in the earlier stages of the product design & development itself to deliver the first time right products to the customer. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor hydraulic lift arm to meet the above requirements. A Design Verification Plan (DVP) has been developed consisting of 3 load cases.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0811
Daichi Kano, Nagasaka Kazuya, Go Matsubara, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Kasugai, Hideaki Saito
In the development of a motorcycle frame, the balance between high performance and reliability and a short development period are important. In this study, a fatigue durability evaluation technique for a motorcycle frame was developed to enable highly accurate development within a short period of time. Furthermore, we developed a shaking table excitation system as a means to supplement the road test.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Abstract Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emissions become a necessary part for engines. The increased level of complexity poses technical challenges for the quality and reliability for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one conventional methodology focuses on every component's quality to ensure that the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. This conventional methodology tightens the component tolerance during the manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another conventional methodology that is on the other side of the spectrum focuses on tailoring an engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing differences. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the development and validation cost for engines.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2818
Scott Shafer
Abstract All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2722
Sundarram Arunachalam, Ramprabhu Kannan, Nagarajan Gopikannan, Jayaramareddy Sekar
Abstract With advancement of technology, better safety and higher vehicle reliability is primary requirement of end customer especially in public transportation. Hence there exist challenges in design and development of steering system for long haulage and tipper application. In the steering system, track rod is used to steer both the front tyre under different operating condition assisted by power steering system. This paper deals with the failures observed on track rod in long haulage and tipper application with loading conditions. Also the methodology adapted to resolve the field failures.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2756
Basaran Ozmen, Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Serter Atamer, Roman Teutsch
Abstract Securing the desired strength and durability characteristics of suspension components is one of the most important topics in the development of commercial vehicles because these components undergo multiaxial variable amplitude loading. Leaf springs are essential for the suspension systems of trucks and they are considered as security relevant components in the product development phase. In order to guide the engineers in the design and testing department, a simulation method is developed as explained by Bakir et al. in a recently published SAE paper [1]. The main aim of the present study is to illustrate the validation of this simulation method for the durability of leaf springs based on the results from testing and measurements. In order to verify this CAE Method, the calculated stresses on the leaf springs are compared with the results of strain gage measurements and the fatigue failures of leaf springs are correlated with the calculated damage values.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2816
Andrei Radulescu, Leighton Roberts, Eric Yankovic
Cylinder deactivation (CDA) is an effective method to adjust the engine displacement for maximum output and improve fuel economy by adjusting the number of active cylinders in combustion engines. A Switching Roller Finger Follower (SRFF) is an economic solution for CDA that minimizes changes and preserves the overall width, height, or length of Dual Overhead Cam (DOHC) engines. The CDA SRFF provides the flexibility of either transferring or suppressing the camshaft movement to the valves influencing the engine performance and fuel economy by reducing the pumping losses. This paper addresses the performance and durability of the CDA SRFF system to meet the reliability for gasoline passenger car engines. Extensive tests were conducted to demonstrate the dynamic stability at high engine speeds and the system capacity of switching between high and low engine displacement within one camshaft revolution.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2758
Zhigang Wei, Robert Rebandt, Michael Start, Litang Gao, Jason Hamilton, Limin Luo
In product design and development stage, validation assessment methods that can provide very high reliability and confidence levels are becoming highly demanded. High reliability and confidence can generally be achieved and demonstrated by conducting a large number of tests with the traditional approaches. However, budget constraints, test timing, and many other factors significantly limit test sample sizes. How to achieve high reliability and confidence levels with limited sample sizes is of significant importance in engineering applications. In this paper, such approaches are developed for two fundamental and widely used methods, i.e. the test-to-failure method and the Binomial test method. The concept of RxxCyy (e.g. R90C90 indicates 90% in reliability and 90% in confidence) is used as a criterion to measure the reliability and confidence in both the test-to-failure and the Binomial test methods.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2757
Deepak Anand Subramanian, Nithya Sridhar, N. Obuli Karthikeyan, V. Srinivasa Chandra
Abstract The Indian automotive sector is experiencing a major shift, focusing predominantly towards the levels of quality, reliability and comfort delivered to the customer. Since the entry of global players into the market, there is a rising demand for timely product launches with utmost priority to reliability. In any vehicle, engine isolation systems play a critical role in isolating the engine vibrations from the vehicle chassis. This project details on how testing can aid in reducing the launch time as well as estimating the reliability of the component when used in a different application/vehicle. It proposes a methodology to formulate a life model for the engine mount considering various combinations of predictor parameters affecting its performance over its design life. In order to maintain good correlation with the field (which considers the loading pattern and the environmental factors), warranty data was analyzed and the predictors were chosen appropriately.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2666
Scott Lambert
Abstract The Global Brake Safety Council sees an increase in disc brake pads that are prematurely replaced before the end of the friction lining life cycle, due to: 1 Rust related issues such as separation of friction lining from the disc brake shoe2 Fluctuation in critical dimensions. A leading cause for both issues is the use of mill scale steel, or ‘black steel’ (non-pickled and oiled). In the North American aftermarket, as there are little or no steel specifications for disc brake shoes, black steel is increasingly used. GBSC conducted research of discarded disc brake pads from job-shops and engaged in discussions with metallurgists, major pad manufacturers and OE brake foundation engineers to identify root causes of premature pad replacement and the effects of black steel used for disc brake shoe manufacturing. Mill scale is embedded in and around the bond line of the friction lining and the disc brake shoe, causing a weaker bond, susceptible to rust jacking.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0415
I. Coutinho, L. F. Vales, C. B. S. Vimieiro
Abstract Vehicle durability mission loads are an essential and decisive for a reliable life prediction for the component through any durability evaluation. One option to calculate mission loads are multibody models to represent vehicle’s suspension degrees of freedom (dofs) and its dynamic behavior. Generally, trucks have greater wheelbase and then lower natural frequencies than passengers’ vehicles. Therefore are more suitable to dynamic body excitation and the ordinary consideration of a rigid body shell is not relevant. The proposal of this work is to compare the chassis loads considering rigid and flexible frame mounted over the primary suspension. A pseudo-damage was calculated with chassis loads time history for severity assessment. The chose vehicle for the study is an Iveco 4×2 medium range, 6850mm of wheel base, with gross weight of 17ton and leaf springs primary suspension on both: front and rear axles.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0561
Antonio C. C. Nascimento Filho
Abstract In the design of automotive structural components is common scaling of the data for the "worst case", i.e. a condition of the component of least resistance (stress) and maximum load conditions applied (strength). However, in a real situation, it is not possible to determine with absolute certainty these amounts due to the random nature of the parameters involved. Thus, this design should be treated in a probabilistic manner, where the parameters involved could be considered as random variables, and the project could be qualified for a desired condition of reliability. This paper presents a proposed process (flowchart) for performing computational experiments for reliability analysis in automotive structural components regarding stochastic conditions of involved parameters. The process showed itself as able to identify the most adequate method of predicting reliability to solve problems of stress -strength interference in a design of structural automotive component.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0553
Alirio Cavalcanti de Brito, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Abstract The increasing use of embedded electronics in aerospace and automotive vehicles increases the designers' concern regarding the reliability of the components as well as the reliability of their interconnections. The discussion about the most appropriate method for assessing the reliability of solder joints for a given application is an ever-present theme in the literature. Several methods of prediction have been developed for assessing the reliability of solder joints. The standard method established by the industries for assessing reliability of solder joints is the thermal cycling. However, when the thermal distributions in real applications are studied, particularly in some electronic components used in on-board electronics of space systems, the thermal cycling does not represent what actually happens in practice in the packaging.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0306
Haraldo Rehder, Gustavo P. Rehder
Abstract Durability tests of commercial vehicles are performed on road running uphill and downhill as well as on flat roads; these tests take very long time and have high costs. To lower test time and costs, it is proposed to accelerate the durability tests of commercial vehicles power trains by using a Towing Trailer with an electromagnetic (EM) brake, developed in Brazil, simulating uphill. This Trailer was already presented [1], [2] for cooling test simulation at 20 km/h on commercial vehicles up to 250 HP. In the cabin (cab) of the vehicle under test, there are the braking level control and a laptop, which receives wireless and registers the operational parameters of the Towing Trailer. The GPS in the truck cabin (cab) supply information such as time, speed, latitude and longitude allowing the control of the route.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0219
Daniel Haber
Abstract Today, in order to optimize the resources usage and reduce the air pollution, the automobile industry is facing new challenges, with the necessity to improve engines fuel economy, enhance vehicles autonomy and reduce the CO2 emission. One of the solution, which is being much researched, is the car components weight reduction. There is a range of new materials that have been developed to attend the new weight standards. Together with lightweight these materials must also deliver acceptable mechanical properties, easy to manufacture and to assembly capability, good appearance, high durability, good cost-benefit relation and in some cases also acceptable impact energy absorption. This paper presents a review of some of the lightweight materials that are being applied in automobiles, like Carbon Fiber, Aluminum Alloy, Magnesium Alloy, Hybrid Material and Polymer Composites.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2500
Brigitte Vasques
The drilling of multi layers composite stacks remains a common process in aerospace industry. Research of productive solutions such as one shot and dry drilling operations to avoid reaming and lubrication are contemplated by aerospace customers on titanium multi layers composite applications. Those solutions permit to reduce the number of finishing operation and drilling time. Special ADEs (Advanced Drilling Equipment) machines are used to drill aircraft components in limited access areas. Parameters such as cutters, ADE machines type, rigidity clamping, cutting conditions, speed, feed, chip fragmentation and extraction are related and influence the holes quality. Titanium (TA6V) thickness and cutting configuration influence the cutter wear development. In this work, ADE and specific cutter geometries developed by Apex are used for the one shot dry drilling of titanium. Carbide cutters have been chosen for their resistance to the heat developed by titanium drill.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft's large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on a proof of concept for an aircraft fuselage assembly to monitor the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line and plant performance in real time. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2555
Ephraim Suhir, Alain Bensoussan, Johann Nicolics
There is a concern that the continuing trend on miniaturization (Moore's law) in IC design and fabrication might have a negative impact on the device reliability. To understand and to possibly quantify the physics underlying this concern and phenomenon, it is natural to proceed from the experimental bathtub curve (BTC) - reliability “passport” of the device. This curve reflects the combined effect of two major irreversible governing processes: statistics-related mass-production process that results in a decreasing failure rate with time, and reliability-physics-related degradation (aging) process that leads to an increasing failure rate. It is the latter process that is of major concern of a device designer and manufacturer. The statistical process can be evaluated theoretically, using a rather simple predictive model.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2556
Thomas Rousselin, Guillaume Hubert, Didier Regis, Marc Gatti
Abstract The changes brought by the increasing integration density and the new technological trends have pushed the reliability at its limit. Safety analysis for critical system such as embedded electronics for avionics systems needs to take into account these changes. In this paper, we present the consequences on the deep sub-micron (DSM) CMOS devices concerning their single event effect (SEE) sensitivity. We also propose a new modeling method in order to address these issues.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2549
Marc-André Léonard, Jean-François Boland, Christophe Jégo, Claude Thibeault
Abstract Design assurance guidance such as DO-254, and commercial off the shelf (COTS) increasing popularity in high critical mission have pushed the validation and verification methodologies to improve by integrating fault tolerance analysis in reliability assessment. A novel methodology for analysing the sensitivity of digital designs to single event upsets (SEU) is proposed. We first characterize basic combinational circuit models using fault injection via mutation technique at low level of abstraction. Error analysis is performed at primary outputs to identify patterns that are collected in a faulty behaviour library. This library is then used at a high level of abstraction to execute a sensitivity analysis on a digital design model. A reliability report is then generated showing the soft error rate (SER) and the benign errors count. We proved our methodology by analysing the radiation sensitivity of a discrete wavelet transform architecture using two different sets of data.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2388
Luis Rabelo, Tom Clark
Abstract Although a multitude of anomaly detection and fault isolation programs can be found in the research, there does not appear to be any work published on architectural templates that could take advantage of multiple programs and integrate them into the desired systems. More specifically, there is an absence of a methodological process for generating anomaly detection and fault isolation designs to either embed within new system concepts, or supplement existing schemes. This paper introduces a new approach based on systems engineering and the System Modeling Language (SysML). Preliminary concepts of the proposed approach are explained. In addition, a case study is also mentioned.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2526
Borislav Klarin, Thomas Resch, Chiara Sessarego, Giorgio Spanu, Gianni Lamonaca
This paper presents a methodology for numerical investigation of a full flexible balancer drive together with engine and crank train under realistic operating conditions where shaft dynamics, gear contact and rattle impacts, gear root stresses and friction losses in bearings and gear interaction are taken into account and can be balanced against each other to achieve the design criteria. Gear rattle is driven by the speed fluctuation of the crank train, the resistance torque (mainly friction), shaft inertia and the backlash in the gears. The actual trend to engine downsizing and up-torqueing increases the severity to rattle as engines are running on higher combustion pressures. This increases torque and speed fluctuation, which makes the detailed investigation in this torque transfer even more demanding. A common method to reduce gear rattle is the usage of so-called scissors gears.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2404
Massimo Masi, Lorenzo Artico, Paolo Gobbato
Abstract The design of intake manifolds and valve ports in internal combustion engines is a fundamental aspect of obtaining high volumetric efficiency and originating in-cylinder flows of proper intensity. CFD calculations using the RANS approach may support steady-state flow measurements in the design of intake manifolds, valve passages, and combustion chambers. On the other hand, the geometrical complexity of these engine parts hardly allows to mesh them by means of fully hexahedral grids and the accuracy of computations is strongly compromised. The paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical study performed on the head of a motorbike high-speed spark ignition engine. The work aims at investigating the reliability of CFD RANS computations performed on polyhedral grids of different size and assessing the mesh size required for accurate computations on such a type of grid.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2037
Masato Yokomizo, Toshiaki Iwai, Keiichi Narita, Mitsugu Kudo
The use of Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATFs) with lower viscosity and excellent anti-shudder durability for wet clutch system will be effective for improving fuel saving performance in automatic transmissions. In this study, two ATF formulation techniques were examined. The first trial formulation is to improve fatigue life in gear components even if a lower viscosity ATF is used. The second one is to improve anti-shudder durability for wet lock-up clutch system in AT units. As to fatigue life performance, the relation between molecular weight of Viscosity Index Improver (VII) and film formation property in EHL contact regions were experimentally investigated. ATFs containing VIIs with lower molecular weight tend to increasing EHL film thickness, resulting in a longer gear pitting fatigue life. Calcium detergents and ashless friction modifiers in ATFs were found to give a great impact on the anti-shudder performance.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2187
Mark A. Gehringer, Keith Thompson
Abstract This paper describes the development of a semi-automated end-of-line driveline system balance tester for an automotive assembly plant. The overall objective was to provide final quality assurance for acceptable driveline noise and vibration refinement in a rear wheel drive vehicle. The problem to be solved was how to measure the driveline system unbalance within assembly plant constraints including cycle time, operator capability, and integration with a pre-existing vehicle roll test machine. Several challenging aspects of the tester design and development are presented and solutions to these challenges are addressed. Major design aspects addressed included non-contacting vibration sensing, data acquisition/processing system and vehicle position feedback.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2336
Anastasios Arvanitis, Jeff Orzechowski, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy
Abstract Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 1640