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Viewing 271 to 300 of 1639
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0137
Sivashankar S, Hari Krishna SV, Alfred Nixon Mendez, Colin J. Dodds
Every class of commercial vehicle has an entirely different usage pattern based on customer application and needs. To perform accurate durability testing, these prototypes should run on real customer usage locations and loading conditions for the target life. However, this is time consuming and not practical, hence resulting in Proving Ground (PG) testing. It is also known that a standard PG durability cycle cannot be valid for every class of vehicle and every application. So a statistical approach was followed to develop an accelerated durability test cycle based on in-house PG test surfaces in order to match the real customer usage to the durability target life. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability Validation test cycles for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on a heavy duty tipper and an intermediate commercial vehicle.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0139
Sathish Kumar P, Vikram Suryavanshi, Manikandan M, Bollishetty Sreedhar
Evaluation of vehicle structural durability is one of the key requirements in design and development of today's automobiles. Computer simulations are used to estimate vehicle durability to save the cost and time required for building and testing the prototype vehicles. The objective of this work was to find the service life of automotive structures like passenger commercial vehicle (bus) and truck's cabin by calculating cumulative fatigue life for operation under actual road conditions. Stresses in the bus and cabin are derived by means of performing finite element analysis using inertia relief method. Multi body dynamics simulation software ADAMS was used to obtain the load history at the bus and cabin mount locations - using measured load data as input. Strain based fatigue life analysis was carried out in MSC-Fatigue using static stresses from Nastran and extracted force histories from ADAMS. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the physical test results.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0004
Matthew Symonds, Craig Ritchie, Raman Rai
Rising fuel prices and global concern over climate change have resulted in the need to deliver vehicles with improved fuel efficiency. The aim is to achieve this without compromising vehicle performance, durability or cost. Passenger car manufacturers worldwide are looking at various ways to optimize fuel economy performance. One option is for a vehicle OEM to re-design engine componentry in an effort to reduce engine friction and thereby reduce tailpipe emissions. There is also an increased focus on the crankcase lubricant as a potential tool to improve engine efficiency. This has led to a close collaborative working model between equipment manufacturers and engine oil marketers to create state of the art fluids capable of delivering higher fuel economy benefits without compromising engine durability. This paper describes a structured approach to the design of an advanced engine oil for a diesel passenger car.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0138
S. Sathya Prakash
Arriving at an accelerated durability test cycle either for a laboratory simulation or for an FE-based fatigue simulation is not an easy task. The loading spectra over the entire life span or desired validation cycle needs to be synthesized and the resulting signal is to be used for driving a rig or for Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation, as the case may be. Any structural durability evaluation essentially involves multiple measurements involving strain, acceleration, displacement, force-all of which directly or indirectly are a measure of fatigue damage on the structure. Multi channel dynamic events (time domain based) comprising strain signals can be accelerated by damage-editing, but what if the input time histories are not strains but are displacements, accelerations and forces? A directly “non damaging” parameter like displacement or acceleration or force signal makes an accelerated test synthesis not very easy.
2012-10-23
Technical Paper
2012-32-0097
Gagandeep Singh Risam, Anil Singanamalli, Sasun C, Rajasekaran T
Ability to meet customer expectations and understand customer usage behavior is fundamental to the delivery of the successful products in the Automobile industry. A combination of data collection tools such as customer survey and customer chasing technique with instrumented vehicle are generally used to get insight into the customer usage pattern and driving style. The available information can be priceless if it is used to tailor laboratory test standards representative of customer usage behavior. Test cycles, tailored based on specific customer usage behavior, have the potential to work as very effective design filter during the validation stage of new product design and development process. In this paper, a method to tailor vehicle level durability driving cycle on a laboratory scale roller Chassis dynamometer has been demonstrated. This cycle is developed based on the data collected with customer for their daily usage routine.
2012-10-23
Journal Article
2012-32-0042
Takao Kudo
In the designing of bearing to use in internal combustion engines, the author has established an assessment method for needle roller bearing considering the slip ratio of needle rollers when operating. Damages sometimes occur in a bearing when continuously operating the engine although the bearing has a basic dynamic load rating. For an example, flaking occurred in the needle rollers during the continuous operation of the engine when a roller bearing was applied to the bearing that supported the gear which transmitted the driving force from the starter motor to the crankshaft when starting the engine. While the bearing is located on the crankshaft, the bearing is not directly subjected to the loads from engine combustion pressures. We therefore focused our attention on the bearing slip ratio as a factor that affects the bearing rather than the loads.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2141
Vintila Canciu, Alexandru Canciu
Traceability has always been considered a useful but costly activity and different methods have been applied to reduce this cost. The current paper constitutes an attempt to improve these methods by introducing an optimal traceability process to be used in the context of RTCA DO-297 “Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Development Guidance and Certification Considerations”. The paper starts by comparing the definitions of traceability from DO-297 and the related development guidelines (i.e. ARP4754A, DO-254 and DO-178B). The paper continues by classifying the traceability methods recommended by the guidelines and introducing a performance criterion for optimal traceability based on category theory. This criterion addresses the possibility of information loss present in the current traceability methods. The paper proposes an optimal traceability process (i.e. that guarantees that information is not lost) and exemplifies it. The paper ends by recommending further enhancements.
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2104
Mitchell Miller, Janice Meraglia, James Hayward
Proposes adoption of an industry standard marking protocol to assure the authenticity of high-reliability electronics. The protocol is seen as a key ingredient in the industry's effort to control counterfeit electronic parts escapes. The specifications of the marking protocol have been informed by the experience of the authors, who are currently participating in a DNA marking program mandated by the Defense Logistics Agency. The protocol would set out these criteria for an effective marking program: Simplicity Proven uncopyability Reportability: transparency and ease of oversight Legal validity: empowering of law enforcement Quick ramp-up and seamless implementation Extreme fidelity and absolute character of results - reliability of the mark at a very high level Universal adoption
2012-10-22
Technical Paper
2012-01-2184
Michael Baldwin
This paper will illustrate how the increasing electrical demands to power military and aerospace applications can successfully be met by high performance electromechanical relays. To meet these higher demands engineering compatibility must be properly understood between the intended application and relay switching performance parameters. With high performance electromechanical relays continuing to play a critical part in military and aerospace applications it is more important than ever before that engineers capture all of the military and aerospace electrical power requirements. A critical area within powering military and aerospace systems is capacitive load switching. Capacitive loads can generate high current levels that are transient in duration and adversely affect the relay at the component level and the military or aerospace applications at the higher systems levels. As capacitance increases the amplitude and duration of the current transient also increase.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0181
Marcelo R. Cavaglieri, Diogo P. Bessa, Alisson C. Portella, Thays G. Wenzel F. Cavaglieri
This paper refers to a developed measurement process able to interact with small plastic parts, with holes about 0.4mm of diameter with a critical function on the vehicle. This method must be similar to the real condition. In other words, it must represent the fuel passing through these parts, though in a clean and faster way. To do this characterization, a light beam was used, in intensity strong enough to pass from side to side of the cavity up to the hole. This way enabling us to measure the light intensity that goes out. The resultant spread light beam is recorded by a digital microscope and converted in a chart by an algorithm. Based on a model developed, that picture is converted or translated in a number which can be used to separate part types, according to correlation of the spray performances. The main purpose of this methodology is a simple and effective way to monitor the produced parts and ensure the proper operation of the component when assembled in the complete system.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0452
Clodoaldo Borges Chagas, Thiago Caetano Freitas, Renan Francisco Silva, Breno Garcia Carneiro
Industrial applications frequently use interference between shafts and holes to fix parts together. The present work shows the methodology for validation of Finite Element calculus for press fitting a shaft in a dust shield hole. In the case of study the dust shield can be easily hit by shocks during transport and handling of the product. The shocks would change the position of the parts and consequently the new position could become a quality problem. The process of verification determines the factors which become the project more robust using the technical of Design of Experiment (DOE). The test and the computational simulation are shown as parallel way to determine the appropriate friction coefficient which could be used to predict the assembling and disassembling force for current project as well as the new design with similar features.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0128
Bruno Geoffroy Scuracchio, Robinson Ferrari Barbosa, Jose Roberto Curitiba
The improvement of fatigue life in parts subjected to cyclic stresses by application of mechanical surface treatment processes is already well known, both in the industry and in the academy. Speaking of automotive springs, the shot peening process becomes an essential step in manufacturing these parts. In the case of leaf springs, however, a systematic investigation of the effect of shot peening on fatigue life is still required. The aim of this work is to improve the knowledge of shot peening on leaf springs for vehicles through fatigue tests on a series of samples that were subject to different peening processes. A second shot-peening after a first peening under stress (stress peening) led to a higher durability comparing to the conventional process, opening an opportunity of vehicle weight reduction.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0158
Thais Christina S. Santos, Danilo Mattos Batista, Filipe Marins Maduro
This material presents a project for data acquisition applied to monitoring climatic road simulators. The developed system acquires accelerometers and thermocouple signals from the vehicle suspension and body, point-by-point. This implementation allows real-time monitoring during tests, with the objective of making is autonomous. The platform used for the data-logger and automation system is composed by analog and digital input/output, TCP/IP and OPC protocols. The result obtained by this approach consisted mainly on the possibility of mapping the vehicle response throughout the tests, the integration of climatic and vibration control and overall contribution to a higher use of road simulators.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0244
Henrique Martinni Ramos de Oliveira, Estephanie Nobre Dantas Grassi, Pedro Augusto Sobral Espindola, Carlos Jose de Araujo
Shape memory alloys (SMA) have a unique behavior due to a reversible phase transformation between two solid crystalline structures: martensite (low temperature and low stiffness phase) and austenite (high temperature and a higher stiffness phase). This transformation can occur either as a result of temperature change or mechanical stress load, both above characteristic critical values of these materials. Due to the reversible nature of this phenomenon, direct transformation occurs when austenite transforms into martensite and reverse transformation when martensite transforms into austenite. The latter is induced by raising the temperature and it is this process that occurs during the generation of significant associated forces through the undergone deformation recovering of the material, being of fundamental importance for the use as actuators.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2055
Dipak Annasaheb Vani, Sudhindra Deshpande
In the pursuit of manufacturing excellence BorgWarner, Inc., USA has utilized some key aspects of Toyota Production System and General Motors Quality System Basics tools to create a systematic framework called as Borg Warner Production System (BWPS). The goal of BWPS is to have robust manufacturing systems to deliver flawless quality products at lowest possible cost and give hassle free customer experience. This case study covers the BorgWarner Production System implementation experience of DivgiWarner Pvt. Ltd. India, one of the BorgWarner's plant based in Pune and Sirsi, India. The BWPS consists of 7 foundational elements and 23 tactical strategies.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2058
Zhigang Wei, Fulun Yang, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Dmitri Konson
Fatigue, creep, oxidation, or their combinations have long been recognized as the principal failure mechanisms in many high-temperature applications such as exhaust manifolds and thermal regeneration units used in commercial vehicle aftertreatment systems. Depending on the specific materials, loading, and temperature levels, the role of each damage mechanism may change significantly, ranging from independent development to competing and combined creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, creep-fatigue-oxidation. Several multiple failure mechanisms based material damage models have been developed, and products to resist these failure mechanisms have been designed and produced. However, one of the key challenges posed to design engineers is to find a way to accelerate the durability and reliability tests of auto exhaust in component and system levels and to validate the product design within development cycle to satisfy customer and market's requirements.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-1995
Amit Sandooja, Sagar Jadhav
Abstract Gear design is one of the most critical components in the Mechanical Power Transmission industry. Among all the gear design parameters pressure angle is the most critical parameter, which mainly affects the load carrying capacity of the gear. Generally gears are designed with a symmetric pressure angle for drive and coast side. It means that both flank side of gear are able to have same load carrying capacity. In some applications, such as in wind turbines, the gears experience only uni-directional loading. In such cases, the geometry of the drive side need not be symmetric to the coast side. This allows for the design of gears with asymmetric teeth. Therefore new gear designs are needed because of the increasing performance requirements, such as high load capacity, high endurance, long life, and high speed. These gears provide flexibility to designers due to their non-standard design.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-1951
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns of a recently developed Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust (T.R.U.E-Clean®) for exhaust emission control. Like other ground vehicle systems, the T.R.U.E-Clean® system experiences cyclic loadings due to road vibrations leading to fatigue failure over time. Creep and oxidation cause damage at high temperature conditions which further shortens the life of the system and makes fatigue life assessment even more complex. Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly assess the durability/reliability of the system in the early development stage. However, reliable and validated simplified engineering methods with rigorous mathematical and physical bases are still urgently needed to accurately manage the margin of safety and decrease the cost, whereas iterative testing is expensive and time consuming.
2012-09-17
Technical Paper
2012-01-1794
Woohyun Hwang, Kunsoo Huh, Myoungjune Kim, Jihyun Jung
In future automobiles, conventional hydraulic brakes can be removed and be replaced by electrically operated brakes called brake-by-wire. The brake-by-wire units such as EMB(Electro-Mechanical Brake) provide better performance in braking by directly controlling the brake motor and are environmentally friendly without hydraulic fluid. Since the brake is safety-critical, the EMB should be reliable in its lifetime and robust fault diagnosis techniques should be included. Many researches have been carried out to develop the diagnosis techniques to improve their robustness and reliability. In this study, a fault size detection method is proposed with the parity space approach for the EMB system. In order to detect and isolate sensor faults from the residual, the residual generator is constructed. The model-based fault diagnosis system is developed for the EMB sensors; current sensor, position (or speed) sensor and clamping force sensor.
2012-09-17
Technical Paper
2012-01-1806
Sylwia Agnes Hornig, Utz Von Wagner
Friction material properties influence brake squeal simulation results decisively. It is well known that friction materials exhibit nonlinear and transversely isotropic characteristics dependent on the type and direction of loading. In order to improve brake squeal prediction reliability, friction material properties identified under squeal loading conditions have to be introduced to the simulation models. Because of this fact, the development of a measurement and identification method for friction material properties in context of brake squeal simulation is in progress. The present paper presents the further developed Dynamic Compression Test Rig (DCTR) and the enhanced evaluation method for the estimation of the normal dynamic component stiffness of friction material specimens under typical squeal conditions. In general, the development of testing procedures implies a set of influence and uncertainty factors, which may influence measurement results decisively.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1883
Don Jasurda
Quality itself is no longer a differentiator among aerospace manufacturers. High quality is expected and achievable. With enough time and money, any manufacturer can turn around a high-quality product. Around the globe, the focus of manufacturing quality is shifting to a discussion about the cost of quality and how to manage it. The question being asked by manufacturers is no longer how to achieve quality, but how to achieve it within cost and time constraints. The aerospace manufacturer that can achieve quality with the least expense, while producing products the fastest, is the one that will win in today's tough, global market. This paper will describe the “closed-loop” approach to dimensional engineering, utilizing virtual simulations and tolerance analyses, and how such an approach can link cost factors with tolerance adjustments so that users have the data they need to make the most strategic business decisions regarding the balance between quality and cost.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1640
Daniel B. Trudell, James E. McCarthy, Jr., Patrick J. Tow
An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1669
Chris McFadden, William Barton, Edward Akucewich, Lisa Blanazs, Michael Huston, Wes Venhoff, James Supp
The ASTM D6121 (L-37) is a key hypoid gear lubricant durability test for ASTM D7450-08 (API Category GL-5) and the higher performance level SAE J2360. It is defined as the ‘Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Load-Carrying Capacity of Lubricants Under Conditions of Low Speed and High Torque Used for Final Hypoid Drive Axles’. Pass/fail is determined upon completion of the test by rating the pinion and ring gears for several types of surface distress, including wear, rippling, ridging, pitting, spalling and scoring. Passing the L-37 in addition to the other tests required for API Category GL-5 credentials, as well as the more strenuous SAE J2360 certification, requires in-depth formulating knowledge to appropriately balance the additive chemistry. This paper describes the results of ASTM D6121 experiments run for the purposes of better understanding gear oil durability.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1881
Niklas Bjorlingson, Mattias Rengstedt
The use of advanced battery tools substantially improves both ergonomics and quality in aircraft assembly. The Atlas Copco STB family of tools has built-in transducers, which allows the tool to meet the high demands for tightening accuracy requested by the aircraft industry. STB offers a variety of radio communication protocols including Bluetooth and Wi-Fi to allow torque data to be transmitted to a control unit that stores it for analysis. To trace stored torque data back to the application i.e. traceability, has turned out to be the desired process for critical fasteners in e.g. wing junction. The handheld STB tool can also be setup to operate without a control unit, in case there is no need to transmit and store torque data. For structural fasteners which are widely used all around the aircraft, this way of operating provides added value over a pneumatic clutch tool because of the improved accuracy in tightening as well as cost savings for energy and improved ergonomics.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0511
Kaho Takahashi, Manabu Tachibana, Takayuki Fukui, Shigeo Kogure, Kentaro Murakami, Tomoya Yoshida, Kazuto Yamaguchi
Customers desire to keep the interior of their vehicles as clean as possible. A field survey was made of the types of dirt and stains found on interior trim parts as the starting point for the development of products that meet this need. The survey findings showed that soiled stains resulting from long periods of use are commonly found on seat surfaces and cloth seats also have beverage stains. Dirt stains are typically seen on plastic trim parts. An analysis of the components of soiled stains revealed the presence of higher fatty acids that tend to adhere to the urethane coating on the surface of genuine leather seat covers and to the polyester fibers of cloth seat covers. A coating technology was then developed for bringing dirt to the surface so that it can be easily removed by wiping with a wet cloth.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0915
Efstratios Nikolaidis, Vijitashwa Pandey, Zissimos Mourelatos
Monte Carlo simulation is a popular tool for reliability assessment because of its robustness and ease of implementation. A major concern with this method is its computational cost; standard Monte Carlo simulation requires quadrupling the number of replications for halving the standard deviation of the estimated failure probability. Efforts to increase efficiency focus on intelligent sampling procedures and methods for efficient calculation of the performance function of a system. This paper proposes a new method to manage cost that views design as a decision among alternatives with uncertain reliabilities. Information from a simulation has value only if it enables the designer to make a better choice among the alternative options. Consequently, the value of information from the simulation is equal to the gain from using this information to improve the decision. A designer can determine the number of replications that are worth performing by using the method.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0514
Hadi Zaklouta, Richard Roth
In today's highly competitive automotive markets manufacturers must provide high quality products to survive. Manufacturers can achieve higher levels of quality by changing or improving their manufacturing process and/or by product inspection where many strategies with different cost implications are often available. Cost of Quality (CoQ) reconciles the competing objectives of quality maximization and cost minimization and serves as a useful framework for comparing available manufacturing process and inspection alternatives. In this paper, an analytic CoQ framework is discussed and some key findings are demonstrated using a set of basic inspection strategy scenarios. A case of a welded automotive assembly is chosen to explore the CoQ tradeoffs in inspection strategy selection and the value of welding process improvement. In the assembly process, many individual components are welded in series and each weld is inspected for quality.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0068
Jong Ho Kim, Ill Soo Kim, Hong Wook Lee, Byung Ok Park
The Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) process consists of four phases, identification & definition of opportunity, concept development, design optimization, and design verification. In the phase of concept development, TRIZ (Russian acronym for Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) is useful for creating new ideas from the present ideas, which includes the trimming strategy, the antidote strategy, and the picket fence strategy. In this paper, systems of a vehicle such as Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine, windshield wiper blade, and Continuously Variable Valve Actuation (CVVA) of engine, are selected and new concepts for each system are created by applying the previously mentioned three strategies. FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), the latter part in the phase of concept development in DFSS, is conducted for newly generated concepts of systems that are mentioned above. As a result of FMEA, it is found that the wind lift of the wiper blade can be a serious problem.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0224
Moon-Won Kang
A Brake hose is a core part of the braking system that delivers the hydraulic pressure generated in the master cylinder to an actuator, which, in turns, creates braking force. The braking hose can be deformed in many different ways under various driving conditions, and it is essential that the brake hose should not experience any excessive deformation or interference with surrounding parts for durability and reliability. Despite of its importance, the brake hose design method has been very limited. Currently, it is tentatively designed with simple curves, such as a spline curve, then tested and modified with many different prototypes by doing a trial-and-error process due to the difficulty in simulating the behavior of the hose.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0515
Jacob Frimenko
This paper presents a system of factors that sometimes contribute to meager returns for Six Sigma deployment investments. The author shows how these factors erode improvement project efficiency and describes program strategies that are effective counter measures. Solutions included: keeping business leaders responsible for improvements, using expert project coaches, sharing and replicating project findings and lessons, reducing project burden, focusing on improvement projects, and using concentrated and time-bound efforts.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 1639