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2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0082
R.B. Obara, L.C. Guedes
Abstract Internet has transformed all industries and the automotive sector is on its list. It is true that manufacturing has experienced great advances in recent years, but the massive use of internet in industry is about to revolutionize it once again. The Internet of Things (IoT), the Big Data Analytics and the use of RFID technology will revolutionize manufacturing, giving to the so called “smart factories” the ability for self-diagnosis, self-configuration and self-optimization. That is what we call Industry 4.0, or the fourth industrial revolution. However, how will Industry 4.0 affect automakers and end users of vehicles? What are the challenges to bring Industry 4.0 innovations to the manufacturing industry? The present work discusses future trends in engine manufacturing, focusing on the quality control of its main components. Also, a fully automated inspection technique for quality control of cylinder bores from internal combustion engines is presented.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0074
Luis Alberto Pargas Carmona
Abstract Regression analysis is perhaps one of the most widely used statistical tools in six-sigma projects. The reason for its popularity is that it provides a formal evaluation of the relationship between one dependent variable and one or more predictors. The ordinary least squares (OLS), which is a method for estimating the parameters of the linear regression model, has some numerical properties that can be easily understood by looking at them in a geometric manner. In this paper, we discuss the fundamentals of both simple and multiple regression analysis from a geometric perspective. This approach offers an intuitive understanding of some concepts that otherwise would require a background in statistical mathematics and differential calculus. One of the topics covered in this paper is multicollinearity, whose consequences are not well understood by many practitioners.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0330
I. A. Coutinho, J. Landre
Abstract Vehicle components are frequently submitted to several vibratory conditions along their applications. At commercial vehicles industry, dynamic excited components are exposed to durability failures, which more than financial repairing costs, can potentially prevent value growth, since goods such as fuel, food, commodities, medicine, won’t reach their destinations and hold a whole economy chain. Vibratory bench tests is a common resourced used by development companies (OEMs) to assess if component is properly design to fulfill vehicle operational conditions.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0217
Roberta de Cássia Ferreira Porto, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Abstract Systems such as satellites, airplanes, cars and air traffic controls are becoming more complex and/or highly integrated. These systems integrate several technologies inside themselves, and must be able to work in very demanding environments, sometimes with few or none maintenance services due to their severe conditions of work. To survive such severe work conditions, the systems must present high levels of reliability, which are achieved through different approaches, processes, etc. These unfold in many: levels of aggregation (systems, subsystems, equipments, components, etc.), phases of their lifecycles (conception, design, manufacturing, assembly, integration, tests, operation, etc.), environments (land, sea, air, space, etc.), types of components/applications/experiences/technological communities (nuclear, aerospace, military, automotive, medical, commercial, etc.), leaded by the widespread use of semiconductors.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0114
Henrique Martelli, Daniel Vilela
Abstract This study aims to develop a virtual structural durability procedure for the formula SAE chassis and apply it on 2015 Maua Racing vehicle in order to identify potential durability concern areas and mass reduction areas. Quasi-static load cases were developed, based upon acceleration experimental data and analytical load transfer function, to represent the vehicle dynamic behavior at several work conditions. Virtual simulations (multibody and finite elements) indicate that 2015 chassis meets the targeted durability criteria for both peak loading and fatigue damage. Borderline regions were verified considering peak loading target and a special attention should be paid to them during reduction mass studies avoiding the target violation. Other regions present structural stress considerably lower than material capability, what indicates significant mass reduction potential.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0034
Shunsuke Ishimitsu, Takuma Sagawa, Tomoaki Ito, Naoaki Shibatani, Toshihisa Takagi, Kazuki Yoshida, Kenta Suzuki, Takanori Chino
Recent years, ANC (Active Noise Control) technology has been paying attention. However, rather than the noise measures, the noise gives us the impression even running sound for motorcycles. That is, the control method of the engine sound is shifted from the noise reduction to sound design in each manufactures. Therefore, we proposed a method to design the engine sound using Active Sound Quality Control (ASQC) based on the ANC. Specifically, we proposed the algorithm amplifying and reducing the engine specific order components. From the simulation results, the engine specific order components can be amplified and reduced like an equalizer with the proposed algorithm. And, auditory impressions of engine sound controlled by ASQC were investigated using psychoacoustic measurements. 13 stimuli were obtained by applying ASQC for several order components to amplify or reduce their levels.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0099
Kazunobu Sakamoto
The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of durability predictions for motorcycle body components through the implementation of a fatigue analysis that uses the finite element method (FEM) to identify the fatigue failure characteristics of arc welds, die-cast aluminum alloys, and thermo-plastics. In addition to highly accurate load conditions and stress analysis, a fatigue analysis that also takes into consideration the fatigue failure mechanism is essential to making accurate durability predictions. Fatigue tests were carried out under several load conditions using specimens of several different shapes that simplified the actual structures. The fatigue life of the weld toe is assumed to be the difference of the crack propagation rate due to the loading mode. The durability of die-cast aluminum alloys was found to be sensitive to the microscopic structure due to the casting process.
2017-10-31
White Paper
WP-0003
Actuators are the key to sophisticated machines that can perform complex tasks previously done by humans.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2432
Xiangwang Li, Weimin Wang, Xiongcai Zou, Zhiming Zhang, Wenlong Zhang, Shemin Zhang, Tao Chen, Yuhuang Cao, Yuanda Chen
Abstract In order to reduce emissions, size and manufacturing cost, integrated exhaust manifold become popular in gasoline engine, especially in three-cylinder engine. Moreover, due to shorter length, lighter weight, and less component connections, the exhaust manifold and hot end durability will improve apparently. In this work, an advanced cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold is adopted in a three-cylinder turbo engine. Because of this integration characteristic, the gas retain in cylinder head longer and the temperature reach higher level than normal cylinder head, which will cause thermal fatigue failure more easily. To validate the exhaust manifold and hot end durability, series simulation and test validation work have been done. Firstly, overall steady state and transient temperature simulation was done for global model. For turbocharger, in order to simulate the outlet turbulent flow and 3d rotation, a code was compiled to define this 3d rotation.
2017-09-29
Technical Paper
2017-01-5011
Raviprakash Shankaranarayana
Abstract Process Parameters play a vital role in product quality of Injection Molded components. Variation in process parameters will lead to Injection Molded manufacturing defects like Sink Mark, Flow Mark, Silver Streak, Flash, Warping, Weld lines, Jetting, voids, Short Shot & Bubbles. This manuscript is innovative because suppliers (Tier 1 and Tier 2) do not use DoE for standardization of their process parameters in Injection Molding and High Pressure Die Casting. They do trial and error method to arrive at the process parameters which is error prone and time consuming. The variation of process parameters can be optimized using Six Sigma approach, a structured methodology which is Process focused & data driven approach.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2125
Mohammad Barkat, Vivek Karan, Pradeep N
Abstract The exponential increase in the number of aircrafts and air travelers has triggered new innovations which aim to make airline services more reliable and consumer friendly. Quick and efficient maintenance actions with minimum downtime are the need of the hour. Areas that have a large potential for improvement in this regard are the real time use of diagnostic data, filtering/elimination of nuisance faults and machine learning capabilities with respect to maintenance actions. Although, numerous LRUs installed on the aircraft generate massive amounts of diagnostic data to detect any possible issue or LRU failure, it is seldom used in real time. The turnaround time for LRU maintenance can be greatly reduced if the results of the diagnostics conducted during LRU normal operation is relayed to ground stations in real-time. This enables the maintenance engineers to plan ahead and initiate maintenance actions well before the aircraft lands and becomes available for maintenance.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2506
Saikiran Divakaruni, HT Chang
Abstract Friction material back plate design, manufacturing and consistent quality are some of the key attributes for better brake performance. Historically, the auto industry’s focus on back plate quality has been limited to drawing dimensions. Recently, vehicle manufacturers across the globe are tightening caliper performance criteria to achieve near zero drag for fuel consumption regulations and improved NVH to attract end customers. To meet these new stringent requirements, friction and back plate suppliers need to focus, in more detail, on how to improve the backing plate quality and better understand the interface characteristics of back plate/pad assembly to caliper performance. While many key characteristics of the back plate were identified in past assembly design process, there has been vague understanding to connect with caliper performance, thus, the definition of back plate quality has been limited to basic dimensional measurement.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0127
Lauretta Rubino, Dominic Thier, Torsten Schumann, Stefan Guettler, Gerald Russ
Abstract With the increased use of engines utilizing direct fuel injection and the upcoming introduction of more stringent emissions legislation that regulates not only particulate mass (PM) but also particulate number (PN), the emissions from Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines (DISI) are an increasing concern. Gasoline Particle Filters (GPF) represent a potential way to reduce particle number emissions from DISI engines and are particularly effective considering the tough performance requirements during cold start and over RDE operation. Even though some learning from the development and application of particulate filters to diesel engines can be transferred to gasoline engines, the particle composition, mass to number ratio as well as the exhaust gas temperature and composition from gasoline engines are significantly different to diesel engines. Therefore, there is the need to study the application of particulate filters to gasoline engines in more depth.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1930
Anil Kumar Jaswal, Pradeep Chandrasekaran, Surendran Ramadoss
Abstract Indian Automobile Industry has started using Six Sigma for Vehicle Design and process improvement to compete with Global competition. This Paper describes how the Tools of Six Sigma shall be used as an Effective Tool for both redefining the Design and the Process Improvement. This Paper talks on the evolution of DMADV approach in Indian Automobile Industry compared to the related Trends in Other Manufacturing Sectors. The Author describes how the warranty failures in Commercial Segment Vehicle Category which was the selling talk for the Competition was addressed in Leading Indian Automobile OEM. As this Failure was adversely impacting customer satisfaction and no solution seemed forthcoming, top Management indicated to use a radically different approach to solve the problem within a years’ time.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1857
Joshua R. Goossens, William Mars, Guy Smith, Paul Heil, Scott Braddock, Jeanette Pilarski
Abstract Fatigue life prediction of elastomer NVH suspension products has become an operating norm for OEMs and suppliers during the product quoting process and subsequent technical reviews. This paper reviews a critical plane analysis based fatigue simulation methodology for a front lower control arm. Filled natural rubber behaviors were measured and defined for the analysis, including: stress-strain, fatigue crack growth, strain crystallization, fatigue threshold and initial crack precursor size. A series of four distinct single and dual axis bench durability tests were derived from OEM block cycle specifications, and run to end-of-life as determined via a stiffness loss criterion. The tested parts were then sectioned in order to compare developed failure modes with predicted locations of crack initiation. In all cases, failure mode was accurately predicted by the simulation, and predicted fatigue life preceded actual end-of-life by not more than a factor of 1.4 in life.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9681
Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Abstract Bearing and gear condition monitoring are important to improve a mechanical system reliability and performance. In the early stage of bearing failures, the Bearing Characteristic Frequencies (BCFs) contain very little energy and are often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations, an effective signal processing method would be necessary to eliminate such corrupting noise and interference. Referring to the non-stationary characteristics of roller bearing fault vibration signals, a roller bearing condition monitoring method based on Envelope Process to raw time-domain vibration signal and Autocorrelation enhancement to the residual signal is put forward in this paper. The concept of Envelope and Autocorrelation techniques and its implementation for defect identification are discussed. Also, distinction of bearing fault signal as cyclostationary from periodic signal for gear fault.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9177
N. Obuli Karthikeyan, R. Dinesh Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra, Vela Murali
Abstract In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are the most common terms. Customers are expecting a highly reliable product but at low cost. Any product that fails within its useful life leads to customer dissatisfaction and affects the reputation of the OEM. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol, either in proving ground or in lab. This paper details on developing an accelerated lab test methodology for steering gearbox bracket using fatigue damage and reliability correlation by simulating field failure. Initially, potential failure causes for steering gearbox bracket were analyzed. Road load data was then acquired at proving ground and customer site to evaluate the cumulative fatigue damage on the steering gearbox bracket. To simulate the field failure, lab test facility was developed, reproducing similar boundary conditions as in vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily Linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
Abstract For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, electromagnetic interference (EMI) limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0179
Saravanan Sambandan, Manuel Valencia, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the heater system plays a major role during winter condition to provide passenger comforts as well as to clear windshield defogging and defrost. In order to meet the customer satisfaction the heater system shall be tested physically in severe cold conditions to meet the objective performance in wind tunnel and also subjective performance in cold weather regions by conducting on road trials. This performance test is conducted in later stage of the program development, since the prototype or tooled up parts will not be available at initial program stage. The significance of conducting the virtual simulation is to predict the performance of the HVAC (Heating ventilating air-conditioning) system at early design stage. In this paper the development of 1D (One dimensional) model with floor duct systems and vehicle cabin model is studied to predict the performance. Analysis is carried out using commercial 1D simulation tool KULI®.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0176
B. Vasanth, Uday Putcha, S. Sathish Kumar, Ramakrishna nukala, Murali Govindarajalu
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1244
Keisuke Kimura, Tasbir Rahman, Tadashi Misumi, Takeshi Fukami, Masafumi Hara, Sachiko Kawaji, Satoru Machida
Abstract One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0890
Yoichiro Nakamura, Masahisa Horikoshi, Yasunori TAKEI, Takahiro Onishi, Yasuhiro Murakami, Chip Hewette
Abstract Heavy duty vehicles take a large role in providing global logistics. It is required to have both high durability and reduced CO2 from the viewpoint of global environment conservation. Therefore lubricating oils for transmission and axle/differential gear box are required to have excellent protection and longer drain intervals. However, it is also necessary that the gear oil maintain suitable friction performance for the synchronizers of the transmission. Even with such good performance, both transmission and axle/differential gear box lubricants must balance cost and performance, in particular in the Asian market. The development of gear oil additives for high reliability gear oil must consider the available base oils in various regions as the additive is a global product. In many cases general long drain gear oils for heavy duty vehicles use the group III or IV base oils, but it is desirable to use the group I/II base oils in terms of cost and availability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1676
Hartmut Lackner
Abstract Software systems, and automotive software in particular, are becoming increasingly configurable to fulfill customer needs. New methods such as product line engineering facilitate the development and enhance the efficiency of such systems. In modern, versatile systems, the number of theoretically possible variants easily exceeds the number of actually built products. This produces two challenges for quality assurance and especially testing. First, the costs of conventional test methods increase substantially with every tested variant. And secondly, it is no longer feasible to build every possible variant for the purpose of testing. Hence, efficient criteria for selecting variants for testing are necessary. In this contribution, we propose a new test design method that enables systematic sampling of variants from test cases. We present six optimization criteria to enable control of test effort and test quality by sampling variants with different characteristics.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1687
Nick Mikulec, Tim Felke, Shaunak Bangale
Abstract It is common for an automotive OEM to produce a wide variety of automotive models related to a common platform. As such, it is important to analyze how these variants perform with relation to reliability and warranty claims relative to each other. This paper illustrates techniques that have been applied to use warranty claim information to assess the relative reliability and incident rates for DTC occurrences, component removals, and co-occurrences with other DTCs for a family of Vehicle applications. These results are then used to identify common root cause failure modes and DTCs on specific vehicle applications that perform worse than fleet averages, and components with much lower reliability than components in similar applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1488
Srinivas Kurna, Ruchik Tank, Riddhish Pathak
Abstract The job of a suspension system is to maximize the friction between the tires and the road surface, to provide steering stability with good handling and to act as a cushioning device ensuring the comfort of the driver & passengers. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. Almost all heavy duty vehicles use inverted type suspension system which is also called as bogie type suspension system. The design of this type of suspension is a complex and difficult science which has evolved over many years. It was recognized very early in the development of suspensions that the interface between vehicle body and wheel needed some sort of cushioning system to reduce the vibration felt as the vehicle moved along. This was already part of road coach design and took the form of leaf (laminated) steel springs mounted on the axles, upon which the vehicle body rested.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1491
Manish Kumar Seth, Jens Glorer, Ralf Schellhaas
Abstract For long automakers around the globe are trying to reduce weight and cost of the components in order to make vehicles more cost and fuel efficient. This paper deals with same problem for rear twist beam for an upcoming vehicle, the task was to reduce the weight and cost of the twist beam structure without compromising on attributes as compared to the surrogate part. This problem was solved by inventing a new torsion profile and gusset combination which uses shape instead of thickness to use material more efficiently thereby reducing weight and cost. This invention has been successfully patented as well.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1331
Marko Basic, Thomas Resch
Abstract This paper describes a numerical study of the effect of hollow crankshafts on crankshaft local strength and durability as well as slider bearing contact behavior. Crankshaft dynamic simulation for durability is still a challenging task, although numerical methods are already worldwide established and integrated part of nearly every standard engine development process. Such standard methods are based on flexible multi-body dynamic simulation, combined with Finite Element analysis and multi-axial fatigue evaluation. They use different levels of simplification and consider the most influencing phenomena relevant for durability. Lightweight design and downsizing require more and more detailed methods due to higher deformation of the crankshaft. This is especially true for hollow shafts, as present in motorsport design or aerospace applications, but also for standard engine having high potential for significant weight savings.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1106
Yuki Ono, Kenji Matsumoto, Yuji Mihara
Abstract In order to improve shift response, durability and transmission efficiency of the CVT system, it is essential to precisely understand the behavior of individual belt elements. Although there have been some previous works measuring the strain or load on belt elements, they have been performed for speed ranges that are far below actual vehicle operation speeds due to limits in measurement techniques. We therefore developed measurement equipment that can be fitted on a CVT belt to enable measurement during actual CVT operation, and obtained the strain on belt elements under transient conditions including acceleration and transmission ratio shifts. The results showed that the strain peaks due to normal force on V faces of elements around the entrance and/or exit of the pulleys. The bending component of the strain fluctuated on the straight section from the secondary pulley to the primary pulley.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1131
Keith Gilbert, Srini Mandadapu, Christopher Cindric
Abstract The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0907
Timothy Johnson, Ameya Joshi
Abstract This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number regulations, and Euro 6 type regulations for China and India in the 2020 timeframe. China will be tightening 30-40% relative to Euro 6 in 2023. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and the US EPA is anticipating developing a harmonized proposal for implementation in 2023+. The US also finalized the next round of HD GHG (greenhouse gas) regulations for 2021-27, requiring 5% engine CO2 reductions. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1655