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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0276
Lev Klyatis
This paper considers the situation in the laboratory testing: different stress types and accelerated testing, including accelerated reliability/durability testing, accelerated life testing, reliability testing, proving grounds, vibration, temperature, voltage, humidity, and others. In comparison with field situation, most of these testing simulate only one or part of the field input influences. One uses often not accurately the theory of physics-of-degradation process or failures for comparison of the field results with laboratory results. Thos situation will be considered with practical examples. It will be demonstrated that often used laboratory testing does not offer the possibility for successful prediction of product performance during service life As a result, there are many complaints, recalls, less profit than was predicted during design and manufacturing. It will be shown how one can improve this situation..
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0295
Silvio César Bastos
Automotive industries has been seeking quality excellence as a key factor of competitiveness. Product characteristics and functions should meet the expectations of customers in terms of warranty and reliability. The objective of this paper is to present a method to improve the synchronization of customer´s products requirements with their suppliers in terms of key performance indicators. The improvement allows suppliers to take corrective and preventive actions through knowledge of components application in engines and vehicles. Engines assembly lines maintain records and daily meeting to explore trends of productivity and supplier quality performance is measured based on engines failure instead parts supplied. This methodology results integration between Lean Manufacturing and Supplier Quality Engineering and respective targets communizing efforts toward Quality Assurance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0050
Mario Berk, Hans-Martin Kroll, Olaf Schubert, Boris Buschardt, Daniel Straub
With increasing levels of driving automation, the information provided by automotive environment sensors becomes highly safety relevant. A correct assessment of the sensor’s reliability is therefore crucial for ensuring the safety of the customer functions. There are currently no standardized procedures or guidelines for demonstrating the reliability of the sensor information. Engineers are faced with setting up test procedures and estimating efforts. Statistical hypothesis tests are commonly employed in this context. In this contribution, we present an alternative method based on Bayesian parameter inference, which is easy to implement and whose interpretation is more intuitive for engineers without a profound statistical education. It also enables a more realistic representation of dependencies among errors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0341
Seyyedvahid Mortazavian, Javid Moraveji, Reda Adimi, Xingfu Chen
Engine camshaft cap components experience high number of fluctuating loads during engine operation. The problem is complicated in engines with variable cam timing, because the loading for these components are sensitive to engine valve timing (combustion phasing) which can lead to catastrophic overload or fatigue failures. Improving the design of these components using computer-aided tools can drastically reduce the cost and time to the market of the final acceptable design, by eliminating the number of physical prototypes. Hence, a decent and robust finite element analysis with representative load and boundary conditions can significantly reduce the premature failures in engine development. In this study, first a finite element analysis method is developed for simulating a cap punching bench test. Effect of punch radius and shape on the component stiffness is investigated and correlated with test data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1676
Hartmut Lackner
Software systems, and automotive software in particular, are becoming increasingly configurable to fulfill customer needs. New methods such as product line engineering facilitate the development and enhance the efficiency of such systems. In modern, versatile systems, the number of theoretically possible variants easily exceeds the number of actually built products. This produces two challenges for quality assurance and especially testing. First, the costs of conventional test methods increase substantially with every tested variant. And secondly, it is no longer feasible to build every possible variant for the purpose of testing. Hence, efficient criteria for selecting variants for testing are necessary. In this contribution, we investigate the cost drivers of testing multivariable systems and define novel criteria to systematically sample variants for the purpose of testing. The presented criteria reduce the test effort by means of tested variants as well as executed test steps.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0337
Kalyan S. Nadella, Yi Zhang
Ensuring durability is one of the key requirements while developing cooling modules for vehicles. Cooling modules typically include radiator, charge air cooler, transmission oil cooler, low-temp radiator and condenser. Typical loading on cooling modules comes from body, in the form of road loads. The road load accelerations are commonly utilized to predict the high-stress regions and predict the fatigue life of the components. In certain cases where components are attached to both body and engine, the cooling module components can experience additional loads which might require additional analysis to determine the fatigue life. In the proposed paper we look at the effect of engine roll on the fatigue life of transmission oil cooler which is mounted on the body through radiator and is simultaneously connected to the engine using a steel pipe. Bench tests were used to prove out the mode of failure observed in the simulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0348
Mani Shankar, I V N Sri Harsha, K V Sunil, Ramsai Ramachandran
In an automobile, road loads due to tire-road interaction are transferred to vehicle body through suspension. This makes suspension a critical component from the body durability perspective. During vehicle design and development, optimization of suspension parameters to suit ride and handling performance is a continuous and iterative process. These changes on suspension can affect vehicle body durability performance. This paper tries to establish a process to evaluate the effect of changes in suspension parameters on body durability, thus helping in understanding the impact of these changes. The process starts with virtual model building in Multi Body Dynamics software. The base line model is co-related with testing using responses like spring displacement at suspension, acceleration and strain data at the vehicle body.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0347
Yat Sheng Kong, Dieter Schramm, M. Zaidi Omar, Sallehuddin Mohd. Haris, Shahrum Abdullah
This paper presents the development of a relationship between objective vehicle ride level and coil spring durability life using road data to shorten suspension design process. Current development processes of vehicle suspension systems which include vehicle ride and suspension spring durability are categorized into different stages of analysis and therefore, consumes lots of time. Through the developed predictive model, the ISO weighted accelerations were used to describe durability of spring components or vice versa. This model has led to immediate solution of suspension design with reduced number of testing. In order to construct the model, strain and acceleration data from various roads were measured using data acquisition which was involving car movements. Prior to the strain measurement, a finite element model of the spring was measured to identify the critical region of the spring and strain gauges were applied on the particular spot.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1491
Manish Kumar Seth, Jens Glorer, Ralf Schellhaas
This paper outlines the invention, patented under patent number US 9,315,087 B2, on how a twist beam can be efficiently designed for a given roll stiffness by using the sectional properties of the beam section in combination with a long reinforcement and curved flanges. This helps in reducing the weight and cost in addition to improve the durability performance and camber compliance of the twist beam structure while using conventional stamping and welding technologies. As against the conventional method of changing the roll stiffness only with the thickness of the torsion beam, the invention detailed in this paper uses the shape and the thickness of the torsion profile to control the roll stiffness.The paper details the work done to develop the design concept and the validation using rig and vehicle level testing. This invention has been successfully patented with USPTO in 20166 (Patent number US 9,315,087 B2)
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0296
Oberti Dos Santos Almeida
One of the biggest challenges for the Product Development Engineers is to have a clear understanding of the Quality Principles and Disciplines they should follow while they are engineering. In general, the current Product Development System guides of the Automakers companies are mostly focused on provide guidance for the Engineers on the following areas: Design Efficiency; Design Rules for Product Robustness; Design Validation; Product Reliability; Testing Procedures. The introduction of a new/advanced technology system alone does not mean low incidence of customer complaints. The only way to get that is plan/execute Consumer Driven Design with excellence. Global Vehicles are more sensitive to Quality since they must satisfy diverse cultural customers without compromise reliability. When a new vehicle is being developed to be sold in many markets around the world – Global Product - this problem is even bigger. Different markets mean different customer expectations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0129
Sinya Miura, Takashi YASUDA
In general, CFD analysis with porous media is precise enough to simulate airflow behavior in a heat exchanger core, placed in the engine room of a vehicle. In a case when the airflow behavior is complex, however, the precision lowers according to our study. Therefore, we developed a new modeling method to keep high-precision and applied it to the analysis of airflow in vehicle engine room. The concept of a new modeling is at first that the shape of tubes and the distance between the tubes are as the actual product so that the airflow with an oblique angle is to pass through a core in the same conditions of the actual product. With this concept, airflow with an oblique angle hits the inner walls of tubes and passes through a core with changing the direction.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0480
Mingde Ding
For structural application, composite parts structure is much more affected by load cases than steel part structure. Engine room bracket of EV, which is structural part and is used to bear Motor Controller, Charger and so on, has different load cases for different EV. Three commonest load cases that are Case 1: bearing 65kg (without suspension part), Case 2: bearing 68kg(including 3.5kg suspension part) and Case 3: bearing 70.1kg (including 5.6kg suspension part). According to topology optimization, structurel 1 was obtained, and then CAE analysis including (strength, stiffness and model) was carried out for abovement three load cases. For Case 1 and Case 2, the analysis result can meet the requirement. However, for Case 3, the stiffness and model analysis result can not satisfy the requirement. To meet the analysis result of Case 3, Structure 1 was optimized and structure 2 was obtained. The CAE analysis was conducted and the results can satisfy the requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0397
Salah H. R. Ali
Abstract There is an eternal extended cooperation between the CMM-coordinate metrology and automotive industry which affecting positively the world economy. Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is considered as one of the very important techniques to increase the manufacturing quality. Hence, giving more attention to the CMM metrology can play a good role in that area to increase the outcome of the auto industry with high quality. Thus, developing CMM-coordinate metrology techniques constitutes allows important issue and needs more and more scientific research work to enhance the automotive industry. This paper aims to give an overview on the new research works performed in this area during the last few years. The article discusses the latest technology and being updates, such as micro-CMM and hybrid-multi-probe-CMM. On the other hand some new applications of CMM-coordinate metrology techniques in automotive industry have been presented.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0299
Chandra Jalluri, Himanshu Rajoria, Mark Goderis, Michael Habel, Trevor Hill
In automotive manufacturing, MQL (Minimum Quantity Lubricant) machining has been implemented on multi-axis CNC Machining Centers. In MQL machining, since there is no flood coolant, small quantities of coolant through spindle-tool is used at targeted cutting zones. However, a challenge that MQL machining faces is significant thermal growth of machine components (spindle, column, fixture etc) that must be appropriately addressed in order to achieve quality with tight tolerances. A strategy adopted by CNC OEMs is to measure the thermal growth and offset it during machining (machine thermal compensation). A gage bore is mounted in the machine fixture and its position measured using a probe. Required offsets are then calculated and applied for subsequent machining. Different OEMs use different methods for this gage bore-probe based referencing. It is imperative that this compensation be done correctly for it directly impacts quality.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0298
Allen Dobryden, Brian Rutter, Derek Hartl, Eric Bramson
Integration of a new, complex technology which crosses several powertrain subsystem boundaries (and thereby involves multiple organizations), without introducing inadvertent failure modes, can be a difficult task. This paper illustrates an approach to addressing this task at a system level using an example new technology. In product development activities involving primarily reuse of known technologies, perhaps with minor improvements, organizational and subsystem boundaries are generally clear. Interfaces are well established and responsibilities for failure mode avoidance are generally known. Implementation of a new technology which involves multiple parts of the organization, however, presents unique challenges to failure mode avoidance. The example technology primarily impacts the exhaust system, the powertrain cooling system, and the powertrain control system. It can affect engine operation, emissions, and performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0179
Saravanan Sambandan, Manuel Valencia, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract In current automotive industry, the necessity of providing quick warm up of the cabin during extreme cold conditions becomes more challenging to the engineers. A Trade-off between development time, cost and desired performance has to be achieved for deciding the right combination of HVAC (Heating ventilating air-conditioning) components to meet the customer satisfaction. In the HVAC, heater system plays a major role during winter condition to provide passenger comforts as well as to clear windshield defogging/deicing. The heater system consists of heater core, engine coolant as inner medium and air as outer medium. The coolant is circulated by engine coolant/water pump carrying heat from engine and flows across the heater core. The HVAC blower provides air to the cabin by taking heat from the heater core through floor duct systems thus warm up the cabin.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0455
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0473
Satoshi Nakada, Toru Furusawa, Eiichiro Yokoi, R Carbas, M Costa, E Marques, G Viana, LFM da Silva
Abstract In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1331
Marko Basic, Thomas Resch
Abstract This paper describes a numerical study of the effect of hollow crankshafts on crankshaft local strength and durability as well as slider bearing contact behavior. Crankshaft dynamic simulation for durability is still a challenging task, although numerical methods are already worldwide established and integrated part of nearly every standard engine development process. Such standard methods are based on flexible multi-body dynamic simulation, combined with Finite Element analysis and multi-axial fatigue evaluation. They use different levels of simplification and consider the most influencing phenomena relevant for durability. Lightweight design and downsizing require more and more detailed methods due to higher deformation of the crankshaft. This is especially true for hollow shafts, as present in motorsport design or aerospace applications, but also for standard engine having high potential for significant weight savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0176
B. Vasanth, Uday Putcha, S. Sathish Kumar, Ramakrishna nukala, Murali Govindarajalu
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. Passenger thermal comfort is mainly influenced by the inside cabin temperature and airflow flows through the duct system. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. The main focus for all OEMs is to optimize the design of the duct system and satisfy the target requirements such as airflow, velocity and temperature. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Normally floor duct design is evaluated by the target airflow, velocity and temperature achieved at passenger leg locations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1131
Keith Gilbert, Srini Mandadapu, Christopher Cindric
Abstract The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0890
Yoichiro Nakamura, Masahisa Horikoshi, Yasunori TAKEI, Takahiro Onishi, Yasuhiro Murakami, Chip Hewette
Heavy duty vehicles take a large role in providing global logistics. It is required to have both high durability and reduced CO2 from the viewpoint of global environment conservation. Therefore lubricating oils for transmission and axle/differential gear box are required to have higher durability and longer drain interval performance.  However, it is necessary that the gear oil maintain suitable friction performance for the synchronizers of the transmission. Furthermore, the maintainability and running costs of heavy duty vehicles is very important. Regarding the gear oil needed for such good performance, both transmission and axle must have good cost-performance balance.  The development of gear oil additives for high reliability gear oil must consider the available base oils in various regions as the additive is a global product.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1488
Srinivas Kurna, Ruchik Tank, Riddhish Pathak
The job of a suspension system is to maximize the friction between the tires and the road surface, to provide steering stability with good handling and to act as a cushioning device ensuring the comfort of the driver & passengers. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. Almost all heavy duty vehicles use inverted type suspension system which is also called as bogie type suspension system. The design of this type of suspension is a complex and difficult science which has evolved over many years. It was recognized very early in the development of suspensions that the interface between vehicle body and wheel needed some sort of cushioning system to reduce the vibration felt as the vehicle moved along. This was already part of road coach design and took the form of leaf (laminated) steel springs mounted on the axles, upon which the vehicle body rested.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily Linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, EMI limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1244
Keisuke Kimura, Tasbir Rahman, Tadashi Misumi, Takeshi Fukami, Masafumi Hara, Sachiko Kawaji, Satoru Machida
A new IGBT has been developed for Toyota’s 4th generation HV’s. The power loss reduction of power control units (PCUs) for hybrid vehicles (HVs) is essential to improve their fuel efficiency. It is important to reduce the loss of the power devices (IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCUs, because of being about 20% of the whole power loss of the HVs. Also the trade-off between the power device downsizing and the heat dissipation feasibility is the important technical issues. In order to achieve the 4th generation PCU design goal, the IGBT development goal is to improve 19.8% of the losses, 30% of downsizing, 14% of the breakdown-voltage than the previous generation. For the loss reduction goal, SBL (Super-Body-Layer) structure is installed to improve the trade-off characteristic between the switching loss and the steady-state loss. The goal is achieved by optimizing the SBL impurity concentration which is an important parameter for trade-off characteristic improvement.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1687
Nick Mikulec, Tim Felke, Shaunak Bangale
For an automotive OEM, it is usual to produce a wide variety of automotive models related to a common platform. As such, it is important to analyze how these variants perform with relation to reliability and warranty claims relative to each other. This paper will illustrate techniques that have been applied to use warranty claim information to assess the relative reliability and incident rates for DTC occurrences, component removals and co-occurrence with other DTCs for a family of Vehicle applications. These results are then used to identify common root cause failure modes, DTCs on specific vehicle applications that are performing much worse than fleet averages and components with much lower reliability than components in similar applications.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0052
Andre Kohn, Rolf Schneider, Antonio Vilela, Udo Dannebaum, Andreas Herkersdorf
Abstract A main challenge when developing next generation architectures for automated driving ECUs is to guarantee reliable functionality. Today’s fail safe systems will not be able to handle electronic failures due to the missing “mechanical” fallback or the intervening driver. This means, fail operational based on redundancy is an essential part for improving the functional safety, especially in safety-related braking and steering systems. The 2-out-of-2 Diagnostic Fail Safe (2oo2DFS) system is a promising approach to realize redundancy with manageable costs. In this contribution, we evaluate the reliability of this concept for a symmetric and an asymmetric Electronic Power Steering (EPS) ECU. For this, we use a Markov chain model as a typical method for analyzing the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) in majority redundancy approaches. As a basis, the failure rates of the used components and the microcontroller are considered.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0420
Prashant Khapane, Sumiran Lohani
Abstract Vibration Isolation is the key objective of engine mounting systems in the automotive industry. A well-designed, robust engine mount must be capable of isolating the engine assembly from road-based excitations. Owing to high vibration inputs, engine mounts are susceptible to wear and failure. Thus, the durability of engine mounts is a cause for concern. A design validation methodology has been developed at Jaguar Land Rover using Multibody Dynamics (MBD) to enhance the prognosis of engine mount loads during full - vehicle durability test events. This paper describes the development of a virtual multi-axial simulation table rig (MAST Rig) to test virtual engine mount designs. For the particular example considered in this paper, a simple sinusoidal input is applied to the MAST Rig. The development of the virtual MAST Rig has been described including details of the modelling methodology.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1106
Yuki Ono, Kenji Matsumoto, Yuji Mihara
In order to improve shift response, durability and transmission efficiency of the CVT system, it is essential to precisely understand the behavior of individual belt elements. Although there have been some previous works measuring the strain or load on belt elements, they have been performed for speed ranges that are far below actual vehicle operation speeds due to limits in measurement techniques. We therefore developed measurement equipment that can be fitted on a CVT belt to enable measurement during actual CVT operation, and obtained the strain on belt elements under transient conditions including acceleration and transmission ratio shifts. The results showed that the strain peaks due to normal force on V faces of elements around the entrance and/or exit of the pulleys. The bending component of the strain fluctuated on the straight section from the secondary pulley to the primary pulley.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0235
Vinaykumar Dhangar, Solairaj Perumal, Abhay Kumar, Dinesh Redkar, Arun Mahajan, Abhirup Chakraborty, T Ganesan
Abstract A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Hydraulic system is a key feature which connects these implements with the tractor. It controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induces extreme range of load on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Bell crank assembly is one of the main components of hydraulic system which controls the draft (thus, the loads experienced by tractor) through load sensing mechanism. Often bell crank assembly failures are reported from field due to uneven soil hardness and presence of rocks. This paper studies one of such bell crank assembly failures in the field. The failure was reported after half life cycle of usage during agriculture Operation.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1636