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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1676
Hartmut Lackner
Abstract Software systems, and automotive software in particular, are becoming increasingly configurable to fulfill customer needs. New methods such as product line engineering facilitate the development and enhance the efficiency of such systems. In modern, versatile systems, the number of theoretically possible variants easily exceeds the number of actually built products. This produces two challenges for quality assurance and especially testing. First, the costs of conventional test methods increase substantially with every tested variant. And secondly, it is no longer feasible to build every possible variant for the purpose of testing. Hence, efficient criteria for selecting variants for testing are necessary. In this contribution, we propose a new test design method that enables systematic sampling of variants from test cases. We present six optimization criteria to enable control of test effort and test quality by sampling variants with different characteristics.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0495
Michael Christian Haverkamp
Abstract The vehicle interior constitutes the multi-sensory environment of driver and passengers. Beside overall design and execution, materials and its surfaces are of specific interest to the customer. They are not only needed to fulfil technical functions, but are in direct focus of the customer’s perception. The perceived quality is based on all sensory data collected by the human perceptual system. Surfaces express design intent and craftsmanship by their visual appearance. Haptic features supervene when materials are touched. And even smell has an influence on the perception of ambience. Although sound is generated nearly every time when fingers slide across a surface, touch-sounds have been disregarded so far. In various cases, these contact sounds are clearly audible. As essential sound responses to haptic activity, they can degrade perceived quality. A method has been developed for a standardized generation of touch-sounds.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0169
Emilio C. Baraldi, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract The competition among automotive industries increases each year worldwide. Among their diverse needs, what can be highlighted are: market expansion, model diversification, competitive prices, customer-recognized quality, new products release in shorter time periods, among others. The occurrence of flaws that might compromise the health or safety of the product’s user is admittedly one of the largest issues for any manufacturer, especially if these flaws are identified after its commercialization (recall). In this work, a study on recall in the automotive industry in the Brazilian market will be presented, comprising the years of 2013 and 2014. Reasons and causes of recall are addressed, based on the sample of the aforementioned research, with special emphasis on flaws derived from the production process. The conclusion at the end of the work is that the final assembly in the automotive manufacturing process is what requires more attention from engineering area.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
Abstract A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft's large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on a proof of concept for an aircraft fuselage assembly to monitor the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line and plant performance in real time. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2187
Mark A. Gehringer, Keith Thompson
Abstract This paper describes the development of a semi-automated end-of-line driveline system balance tester for an automotive assembly plant. The overall objective was to provide final quality assurance for acceptable driveline noise and vibration refinement in a rear wheel drive vehicle. The problem to be solved was how to measure the driveline system unbalance within assembly plant constraints including cycle time, operator capability, and integration with a pre-existing vehicle roll test machine. Several challenging aspects of the tester design and development are presented and solutions to these challenges are addressed. Major design aspects addressed included non-contacting vibration sensing, data acquisition/processing system and vehicle position feedback.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0399
Mohamed Sithik, Rama Vallurupalli, Barry (Baizhong) Lin, Subash Sudalaimuthu
Abstract In recent trend, there is a huge demand for lightweight chassis frame, which improves fuel efficiency and reduces cost of the vehicle. Stiffness based optimization process is simple and straightforward while durability (life) based optimizations are relatively complex, time consuming due to a two-step (Stress then life) virtual engineering process and complicated loading history. However, durability performances are critical in chassis design, so a process of optimization with simplified approach has been developed. This study talks about the process of chassis frame weight optimization without affecting current durability performance where complex durability load cases are converted to equivalent static loadcases and life targets are cascaded down to simple stress target. Sheet metal gauges and lightening holes are the parameters for optimization studies. The optimization design space is constrained to chassis unique parts.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1376
Christian-Andreas Schumann, Egon MUELLER, Dieter Gerlach, Claudia Tittmann, Martin-Andreas Schumann
Achieving and sustaining high levels of quality is an essential prerequisite for successful and sustainable development. The requirement for the description of the existing quality levels are measurement parameters and comparative values for defining the state of the art. The quality of products is defined by measurements determining information for comparing with the planned parameters. The measurement results are used to determine absolutely and relatively the achieved quality. Products change shape and form within the whole product lifecycle. The more accurate and safe the measurement of form and shape become, the better the product quality can be defined. The methods of 3D-measurement are divided into contact (mechanical) and non-contact (optical) using CMMs, 3D scanners and 3D cameras. Advanced methods exploit e.g. the stereo photography. Therefore, a scanner technology has been developed based on 3D surface stereo photography.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0079
Hyun Kim
The FMVSS 208 advanced air bag rule has brought new technologies into the automotive industry. Low Risk Deployment, Suppression, or a combination of both, have prevailed in the industry to meet the right front passenger requirements for FMVSS 208 compliance. This rule provides the options to conduct low risk deployment (LRD) airbag tests with a 12-months-old infant dummy riding in a rear facing child seat and child dummies representing 3 years and 6 years old children. If the LRD tests do not meet the injury criteria set by NHTSA, vehicle manufacturers have to choose the another option for the suppressing airbag system when infants or children are present at the passenger seat. But this suppressing systems is not the cost effective method, also, contains potential quality problem such as misrecognition passenger age. Thus, the car makers start to choose LRD requirement option and develop new LRD passenger airbag system.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1883
Don Jasurda
Quality itself is no longer a differentiator among aerospace manufacturers. High quality is expected and achievable. With enough time and money, any manufacturer can turn around a high-quality product. Around the globe, the focus of manufacturing quality is shifting to a discussion about the cost of quality and how to manage it. The question being asked by manufacturers is no longer how to achieve quality, but how to achieve it within cost and time constraints. The aerospace manufacturer that can achieve quality with the least expense, while producing products the fastest, is the one that will win in today's tough, global market. This paper will describe the “closed-loop” approach to dimensional engineering, utilizing virtual simulations and tolerance analyses, and how such an approach can link cost factors with tolerance adjustments so that users have the data they need to make the most strategic business decisions regarding the balance between quality and cost.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1881
Niklas Bjorlingson, Mattias Rengstedt
The use of advanced battery tools substantially improves both ergonomics and quality in aircraft assembly. The Atlas Copco STB family of tools has built-in transducers, which allows the tool to meet the high demands for tightening accuracy requested by the aircraft industry. STB offers a variety of radio communication protocols including Bluetooth and Wi-Fi to allow torque data to be transmitted to a control unit that stores it for analysis. To trace stored torque data back to the application i.e. traceability, has turned out to be the desired process for critical fasteners in e.g. wing junction. The handheld STB tool can also be setup to operate without a control unit, in case there is no need to transmit and store torque data. For structural fasteners which are widely used all around the aircraft, this way of operating provides added value over a pneumatic clutch tool because of the improved accuracy in tightening as well as cost savings for energy and improved ergonomics.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0202
David E. Verbitsky
A three-stage systematic hierarchical complementary failure analysis (SHCFA) methodology is proposed. It addresses all types of failures occurred during different phases of reliability stress tests (RST) and product life cycles in a flexible, but consistent manner. The SHCFA provides a result-effective and cost-efficient approach leading to significant sustainable growth of quality, reliability and customer satisfaction, improvement of RST, and concurrent reduction of losses. Practical failure classifications and RST-related examples substantiate and illustrate the proposed approach.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2226
J. Dorfling, L. K. Kliment, K. Rokhsaz, T. DeFiore, C. Nguyen, J. E. Turnberg
Data obtained from digital flight data recorders are used to assess the actual operational environment of propellers on a fleet of Beech 1900D aircraft in commuter role. Information is given on various aerodynamic parameters as well as those pertaining to engine and propeller usage. The takeoff rotation has been identified as the most demanding phase of flight in terms of unsteady loads exerted on the propeller blades. Special attention is paid to ground operations.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2256
Eric Kendall
This paper describes how airplane control surface rate limiting can enable a ‘cliff-like’ onset of Pilot-Induced Oscillation, (P.I.O.) and how the danger can be erased by implementation of Conditionally Enabled Phase Compensated Rate Limiters, (PCRLs), in the design of the airplane's flight control system. The application is particularly important for large airplanes where control surface actuator sizing and the associated hydraulic system volumetric flow rate capability cannot be generously over-sized without large weight and cost penalties. It is shown that the PCRL can remain inactive during normal airplane operations where RMS control commands are relatively small thus avoiding adverse control surface response effects that have hindered earlier PCRL acceptance.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2255
Adam Wolff
A novel method of piloting control removes the requirements of conventional operator control mechanisms to facilitate simplified incorporation of a motorcycle and a separable flight device. The operator uses a single handlebar to concurrently and independently affect the three axis of fixed-wing flight. Pitch, roll, and yaw, are affected through movements of up/down, tilt, and rotation respectively. The yaw rotation is also associated with ground steering. The resulting product, a flight and motor module fastened to a lightly modified commercially-acquired motorcycle, is cost accessible to an un-before tapped market segment.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2236
Dragoslav Kosta Milojevic
In the last few years, the Robotics Division of ABB Inc. has made some key contributions to the high performance robotic paint finishing technology. The developments have been predominantly motivated by the applications required for the automotive industry, but they are still highly applicable to aerospace applications, both for aircraft assembly and part manufacturing. These developments include: new IRB5500 robots with increased work envelope and acceleration capability; highly efficient RB1000 paint atomizer family; CBS advanced paint saving cartridge technology; new robotic powder paint application (IC-3) and color change (PCC) equipment; DispensePac sealant and adhesive robotic dispensing systems including newest applications of sprayable masking materials; TrueView vision and force control systems supporting applications in work object location, robot guidance, part cleaning, sanding, polishing and masking.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2230
Robert M. Boman
The high cost, lengthy time, and lack of synergistic integration activities between aircraft based on the current aircraft/store integration process have driven domestic and foreign militaries to search for a plug-and-play approach for aircraft/store integration. In order to integrate the increasingly complex, software-intensive systems that are currently being designed, streamlined processes must be developed to facilitate their timely adoption. One of the most promising approaches is Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) and Model Driven Architecture (MDA). MDE allows designers to use high-level models to solve particular design problems. With MDE, the systems architecture can be analyzed through many different views and then MDA can be used to transform these high-level models to usable software through an automatic code generation process.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2231
Ben Loh, Jamey Jacob
Inflatable wings have proven themselves to be a viable option in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight in certain applications. There are several advantages when using inflatable wings. Foremost among these is the ability of the aircraft to be stored, fully assembled, in a smaller volume for ease of transportation and quick launch capability. Example applications currently being pursued include backpackable UAVs and extra-terrestrial aircraft, as well as HALE UAVs deployed from rapid delivery systems. This paper discusses the design options between using a folding wing system that is volume limited and an inflatable wing system that is mass limited. There should be an optimum between the two that provides the lowest packed volume and weight combination for the highest deployed span. The concept of hybrid rigid/inflatable wings appears to be feasible for UAVs that combine both systems.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2272
Prasannakumar Bhonge, Hamid Lankarani
Dynamic aircraft seat regulations are identified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 14 CFR Parts § 23.562 [1] and § 25.562 [2] for crashworthy evaluation of a seat in dynamic environment. The regulations specify full-scale dynamic testing on production seats. The dynamic tests are designed to demonstrate the structural integrity of the seat to withstand an emergency landing event and occupant safety. SAE standard AS 8049 [3] supports detailed information on dynamic seat testing procedure and acceptance criteria. Full-scale dynamic testing in support of certification is expensive and repeated testing due to failure drastically increases the expense. Involvement of impact environment, flexibility in interior configuration and complicated nature of seat engineering design makes this problem quite complex, so that classical hand calculations are practically impossible.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2267
Harry R. Clements
This abstract and the following paper are written in conversational, rather than technical, language. The only technical element of the paper is the statistical analysis of the information collected, thoroughly but informally, from Reference 1, Jane's “All the World's Aircraft.” It started as a personal curiosity on my part, but when I had the statistical results I thought they would be of interest to aircraft buffs of all ages, not just old codgers like me. I was curious if the sporty looking new personal airplanes really are better performing than the groovy (is that term used anymore?) looking airplanes of my youth. I divided old and new by the year 1970, giving plenty of candidates in both groups (about one hundred in total) and compared their max cruising speeds for the horsepower installed. The groups include two and four place models, each with a logical subcategory of fixed or retractable gear. Do the new ones get more speed for the horsepower they carry?
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2266
Jeffrey A. Weaver
Within the next decade, U.S. air carriers are expected to outsource over 70 percent of all maintenance performed on their aircraft. To reduce the potential for errors, air carriers must adopt an outsourcing initiative that enables the selection of Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MRO) facilities to be based on results-driven criteria around safe and reliable practices. A well-planned and developed air carrier maintenance outsourcing initiative must emphasize an MRO audit plan utilizing safety, diversification, and performance as the primary evaluation standards before making a selection based on cost alone. The purpose of this paper is to provide an objective analysis on why the imperative elements of safety, diversification, and performance are critical to the air carrier and how they should be incorporated into a predefined list of air carrier outsourcing objectives in order to determine the best possible provider of aircraft maintenance service.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2265
Harry Clements
Experience in recent years has demonstrated the inadequacy of the present U.S. Airways System. This paper assumes the adoption of one promising solution – the use of a few very large airports (which will be termed Super Regionals in the paper), widely dispersed across the country and not necessarily associated with any given city, and served by equally large air transports, something like the Boeing 777 or Airbus A380, providing the movement of the largest number of passengers, and cargo, between distant points. Air transport to and from these likely remote large airports and other airports would be accomplished by a variety of types and sizes of airplane, dependent on the traffic density to the given destination. This paper focuses on the one type of “other airplane” that could open up the system to include 5000 locations, this being the nominal figure for active airports in the U.S. with runways of 2000 foot length or over.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2263
Mihailo (Mimi) P. Djuric
A dual cable flight control Driving System presented here functions the same way as current flight control systems in normal operation. However, if a jam occurs this System automatically transfers the command to the non-jammed side without pilot’s intervention. It enables either pilot to continue controlling the aircraft despite jamming, with no extra effort, no delay in action, and no threat of over-controlling the aircraft as a result of jamming. Current designs always require pilot’s action involving critical time delays in controlling the aircraft. For the same flight regime this System retains the same pilot effort force and the same cockpit control deflection as the non-jammed system. If unjamming occurs (icing condition) it automatically reverts back to normal operation without any pilot’s intervention. In normal operation the System is able to automatically balance-out asymmetric loads between surfaces thus leading to some load reduction and possible weight saving.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2225
William H. Wentz, Ahmed S. Mohamed
Global warming concerns have prompted actions to restrict carbon dioxide emissions by a rapidly growing number of nations throughout the world. The aviation community can expect emission limits in the near future, and should become pro-active in this arena. Rapid advances are being made in the automobile industry to research and develop more efficient vehicles. The very successful introduction of gasoline-electric hybrid automobiles has spawned intense research and development of advanced batteries, ultra-capacitors, electric motors and controls. Opportunities for adapting automobile technologies to small general aviation airplanes should be exploited. Over the past few years, several groups have successfully flown experimental airplanes powered by ground-rechargeable batteries.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2262
Dave Cooper, Michel van Tooren, Wan Mazlina Wan Mohamed
Dating from the early 1980s, Knowledge-Based Engineering technology (KBE) has been used to capture and automate design and engineering, in particular in the automobile and aircraft industries. A viable KBE system in the 21st century must provide users with a dynamic modeling feedback loop in an environment favorable to both exploration and experimentation, supplying various approaches for engineering a given set of artifacts. The fundamental properties of a KBE system must include automatic caching and dependency tracking for the scalable runtime performance of large models, minimal source code volume, and efficient and rapid tools for model development and debugging. And, not least, it must complement existing CAD systems. A crucial aspect of a bonafide KBE system is its language-based core, embedded in a standardized, full-featured programming language, i.e., as a superset.
2008-08-19
Technical Paper
2008-01-2271
Francesco Gargiulo, Gianpaolo Romano, Alessandro Busco
The purpose of this work is to increase the effectiveness and the efficiency of the operations carried out during the activities in the aeronautical maintenance and transformation processes. In particular, we examine the Non-Routine Card Resolution Process. An NRC is document issued when a fault, not expected, detected during the maintenance/transformation operations, is found. Typically to describe a defect we need of the aircraft zone (MajorZone, Sub-MajorZone, Zone, etc.) and/or the system (ATA system) and/or the coordinates, the component (sometimes with the sub-component) and the kind of the defect with its attributes. We name this set of information Non-Routine Card. The costs and the efforts of the NRC management are of the same order of magnitude of the planned activity management (Job Card - JC). The process requires that corrective actions come from applicable technical documentation.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2253
Willem A. J. Anemaat, Ken Po, Balaji Kaushik
The purpose of this paper is to compare classical handbook methods used to predict performance parameters such as range and endurance to computer based methods. Three different methods are compared: classical handbook methods are based on simple drag polars and engine performance data, spreadsheet methods use more detailed engine data and drag polars and third is the use of APP (Aircraft Performance Program), a commercially available software program. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are described and accuracy listed based on existing airplanes. One example is used: a business jet type aircraft. Methods used are described and inputs and outputs of the different programs used are shown.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2234
Michael Bolitho, Jamey Jacob
Vortex generators, both active and passive, have been shown to be useful flow control devices on aircraft for both separation control and to maintain uniform flow over sections of the wing by energizing the boundary layer, particularly control surfaces. Meanwhile, plasma actuators have been used to delay separation by adding momentum to the boundary layer. Linear plasma actuators have been shown to be an effective arrangement of the plasma actuator for several applications of aerodynamic flow control, primarily separation. The annular plasma actuator, or plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA), has also been shown to be effective as a zero net mass flux jet. Similar to the annular plasma actuator, the linear thrust vectoring plasma actuator can be used to create a wall-normal jet, but with vectoring capability. It is shown that by varying parameters of the input signal, the strength of the dielectric barrier discharge, as well as the direction of the jet produced, can be controlled.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2232
Linda K. Kliment, Richard B. Bramlette, Kamran Rokhsaz, Thomas DeFiore
Presented here are analyses and statistical summaries of data collected from 11,299 flight operations recorded on 6 BE-1900D aircraft during routine commuter service over a period of three years. Basic flight parameters such as airspeed, altitude, flight duration, etc. are shown in a form that allows easy comparison with the manufacturer's design criteria. Lateral ground loads are presented for ground operations. Primary emphasis is placed on aircraft usage and flight loads. Maneuver and gust loads are presented for different flight phases and for different altitude bands. In addition, derived gust velocities and various coincident flight events are shown and compared with published operational limits.
2008-08-19
Journal Article
2008-01-2270
Bart Peeters, Jan Debille, Héctor Climent
Ground Vibration Testing (GVT) of aircraft is typically performed very late in the development process. Main purpose of the test is to obtain experimental vibration data of the whole aircraft structure for validating and improving its structural dynamic models. Among other things, these models are used to predict the flutter behaviour and carefully plan the safety-critical in-flight tests. Due to the limited availability of the aircraft for a GVT and the fact that multiple configurations need to be tested, an extreme time pressure exists to get the test results. The aim of the paper is to discuss recent hardware and software technology advancements for performing a GVT that are able to realize an important testing and analysis time reduction without compromising the accuracy of the results.
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