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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0136
Ying Fan
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is an analysis technology for improving the reliability of the product. The main process of FMEA is summarized as fellows: firstly to find out the potential failure modes of the product; then to calculate the risk priority number (RPN); finally to determine the risk value order of the subsystems or parts. Risk priority number is a basic method to risk management and harm degree judgment of the product failure. Aiming at a failure mode, with the value of the severity of effect (S), the probability of occurrence (O), and the difficulty of detection (D), the value of RPN is the product of S , O and D. The range of three factors is from 1 to 10 respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0448
Balakrishna Chinta
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a powerful statistical technique used for understanding variation in the observed data and decomposing variation along eigenvectors, known as Principal Components (PCs), by considering variance-covariance structure of the data. Traditionally, eigenvectors that contain most of the variation or information are selected to reduce variables in data reduction. Eigenvalues of low magnitude are considered to be noise and often, not included in the dataset to accomplish dimensional reduction. Analogously, in Principal Component Regression (PCR), PCs with large eigenvalues are selected without considering correlation between the source variables and the dependent response. This inherent deficiency may lead to inferior regression modelling. While addressing this issue, an alternative to PCR is developed and proposed in this paper. In this method, a principal component associated with zero eigenvalue is termed Trivial Principal Component (TPC).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0454
Zhanpeng SHEN, Xueqian Chen, Qinshu He, Chao Ping zang
Area metric provides a quantitative measure which characterizes the mismatch/ disagreement of numerical predictions and experimental observations. It is defined as the area between the prediction distribution and the data distribution as a kind of global measure of the mismatch between them. U-pooling method, which obtains area metric based upon multiple System Response Quantities (SRQs), is adopted to increase the effectivity of metrics. However, the multiple SRQs is required to be independent in u-pooling method, which usually cannot been satisfied in practice. Though we could also obtain an area metric by the way of derictly using u-pooling method without considering the correlation of the SRQs in engineering applications, the metric cannot factually express the disagreement of numerical simulation and experimental observation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0501
Dengfeng Wang, Rongchao Jiang
The cost of fuel for commercial trucks takes up a great proposition in the total vehicle operating costs. In order to improve the power performance and fuel economy of a domestic self-dumping truck, an optimization matching method of the powertrain system was presented in this paper. A vehicle performance simulation model of this self-dumping truck was established using AVL-Cruise software. Then the power performance and fuel economy simulations were executed according to China National Standard GB/T 12543-2009 “Acceleration performance test method for motor vehicles” and GB/T27840-2011 “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”. Moreover, the simulation results were compared with the road test results, which were measured on proving ground, to verify the validity of the vehicle performance simulation model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0138
Ravi Anand
Image classification can be used in to detect objects of interests. This has a very wide variety of applications such as those in Industrial Quality Control, Medical Image processing, Geographic Information Systems(GIS) and Image based Search algorithms. Multi-spectral and high resolution image processing Sensor platforms that collect large amounts of high-quality GIS data utilize automatic/Rapid feature extraction techniques. This paper surveys different Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods that can be leveraged to achieve more accurate Image Classification with superior performance. We study how Neural Network based approach in AI is used for Image Classification. We compare it with approaches based on Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0500
Emilio Larrodé, Alberto Torne, Alberto Fraile
This paper is collaboration between the Research Group on Sustainable Means of Transport and Systems (SMITS) of the University of Zaragoza (Spain) and the Spanish company, Zytel Automotive S.L. (ZYTEL). The analysis and decision making on design, behaviour and use of a prototype electric vehicle is the main focus has been pursued in this paper. It was modelled a prototype electric vehicle, called Gorila EV, as from the software tool Adams/Car (MSC Software Corporation). The way it decided to tackle this paper was by Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). Conduct an analysis of the vehicle by CAE allows increasing the quickness and convenience when getting results and reduce costs incurred testing with real prototypes. In this study it considers urban driving, where the vehicle trajectory is constrained by the infrastructure (road signs) and other vehicles (traffic).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0145
Reinhold Blank
The electrical and electronic system in vehicles with all its components has become more and more complex. Many different stakeholders are involved and more and more parts of the development process have been shifted to the suppliers. This outsourcing results in substantial savings on the OEM side, but brings additional challenges to manage the overall system and keep the core IP within the OEM. This presentation shows an approach that was adopted recently by several OEMs. It is called the “E/E-Architecture” process and applies the principles of system engineering according ISO/IEC15288. It shows the starting point by managing the requirements and how to use functions as the source of the truth over the entire design process. During the E/E Architecture phase, it is important to concentrate on the strategic design aspects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0147
Matthew J. Pitts, Elvir Hasedžić, Lee Skrypchuk, Alex Attridge, Mark Williams
The advent of 3D displays offers HMI designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user’s experience of data with the vehicle, both by utilising depth of field to encode additional information and add context; and by leveraging the user’s emotional response to a novel and exciting technology. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment effectively introduces a new HMI design space, with a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to significantly increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver’s attention away from the road, or by increasing the time taken to assimilate the information presented. Vehicle manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and don’ts’ of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0452
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Chong Chen, Yajing Shu, Ling zheng, Ren-Jye Yang, Yan Fu, Saeed Barbat
Simulation based design optimization has become the common practice in automotive product development. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate various dynamic systems. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess their validity. In model validation, for the purpose of obtaining results successfully, it is vital to select or develop appropriate metrics for specific applications. For dynamic systems, one of the key obstacles of model validation is that most of the responses are functional, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of a metric that can evaluate the differences in terms of phase shift, magnitude and shape, which requires information from both time and frequency domain. And by representing time histories in frequency domain, more intuitive information can be obtained, such as magnitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0458
Subrata Sarkar, Sudarshan Kumar, Atul Singhal, Surbhi Kohli, Kailash Golecha, Sushant Bawadhankar, Jubin George
The objective of this paper is to provide a robust design solution for Jet pump which can work for both Gasoline and Diesel Fuel. The major focus areas evolved were improvement in robustness of Jet pump performance such as motive flow and induced flow. A preliminary design was initiated using a conventional design approach followed by robust design approach. Two approaches for robust design has been discussed namely the Taguchi Methodology (Orthogonal Cross Array based design) and the Dual RSM Technique. Results shows that Orthogonal Cross array based Taguchi approach was deemed better as compared to Dual RSM. Taguchi method accounts the variations of the input signal with a reduced number of runs as compared to the Dual RSM approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0130
Julio Rodriguez, Ken Rogich, Philip Pidgeon, Kim Alexander, John R. Wagner
Abstract: **Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0451
Hao Zhu, Xi Tan MD, Biwen Zhou, Yumei Hu, Xi Tan
The serpentine belt’s multi-scale problems in geometric size, which give rise to a very large number of element and deeply low calculating efficiency, always set obstacles to predicting the dynamic response of a serpentine belt drive system using three-dimensional finite element model (FEM). For this problem, in this paper, an equivalent finite element model is built which can accurately present the belt’s geometric characteristics such as cross-area and moment of inertia, as well as material characteristics such as stiffness and damping, etc. Furthermore, this equivalent model has less elements and much higher calculating efficiency. This equivalent model is then used in a three-dimensional belt-drive model to simulate the dynamic characteristics of the belt-drive system. Finally, an experiment is proposed to verify the belt-drive model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0426
Xiaowu Yang, Sida Li, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Bruce Minaker, Mark Villaire
In the automotive industry, multi-axis shaker tables are often used to study the damage caused by motion-induced inertia loads to components such as engine mounts or fuel tank strips. To assess the component durability characteristics using this approach, prototype parts must be built and a test rig must be installed. This process is both time and budget consuming, so there is an incentive to reduce the number of physical shaking tests. To that end, this paper introduces a set of software tools that are capable of conducting virtual shaking simulations with quality output results, i.e., a virtual multi-axial shaker table (VMAST). By refining and reproducing vehicle body acceleration signals collected from the proving grounds, the VMAST is able to replay the body motion of a vehicle. The reproduced motion (drive file) can then be used to drive the virtual dynamic shaking.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0141
Viktor Sheshukov, Sergey P. Gladyshev PhD, Ruzaliia Naraeva PhD
Linear electric motors designed on the basis of permanent magnets have disadvantage. It is caused by nonlinear distribution of a magnetic flux density around the cylindrical permanent magnet. Therefore, the motors should be designed with the high level reserve power. It lids to increase of mass - dimensional parameters of a motor. In addition, it complicates a control system of an electric drive on base of the linear motor. These disadvantages are eliminated by using, offered by authors, of three-zoned permanent magnetic structures. Using the three zone magnetic structures on basis Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets allows reducing weight - dimensional parameters of the linear motor. In this paper is considered design technique of creation the tree zone magnet structure. As an example, it was designed linear electrical motor (actuator) for diesel speed electronic controller. Prototype electronic speed controller was build and tested.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0151
Sergey P. Gladyshev, Irina Okrainskaya PhD, Pavel Gladyshev PhD
The simple electrical machine, with the (DC) direct current stator excitation, consists of the salient pole rotor and stator. The rotor and stator cores are laminated. Rotor does not contain windings. Stator has two windings spaced perpendicular in to each other. One coil is used for excitation from DC voltage source. The second winding is output. On base of this machine, it is possible realization brushless DC machines. In addition to this, the brushless DC machine contains a rotor position sensor and transistors switchers controlled by the sensor of rotor position. The DC machines can be designed as the shunt-connected, separately excited, or series-connected motors. Also, the machines with DC stator excitation can operate in the synchronous mode operation. In this paper, it is discussed opportunity realization of an induction mode operation. In the induction mode operation, one coil is used for excitation from alternative current (AC) source. The second coil is short circuited.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0421
Hye Seong Heo, Christoph Pannemann, Yun Kyu Choi, Achim Strass
The energy sources of electrified vehicles, weather it is a high-power battery or a fuel cell, deliver direct current which has to be inverted into alternating current for the electric motor. The core of the main inverter in electrified vehicles is the IGBT power module. During the operational lifetime, the IGBT modules are exposed to harsh environmental conditions such as severe temperature cycles. Active temperature cycles are a result of internal heating of the dies caused by inverting the direct current while driving. Passive temperature cycles are caused by variations of the ambient temperature like summer and winter cycles or by variations of the performance of the cooling system. Moisture or mechanical stress through vibration or shock are other factors that limit the lifetime of the IGBT module. Many papers have been written about reliability testing of power modules, life time modelling and calculation. However, only little has been published from experience in the field.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0420
Musarrat Jehan, Efstratios Nikolaidis
There is randomness in both the applied loads and the strength of a system. Therefore, to account for the uncertainty, the safety of the system must be quantified using its reliability. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) is widely used for probabilistic analysis because of its robustness. However, the high computational cost limits the accuracy of MCS. Haftka et al. [2010] developed an improved sampling technique for reliability assessment called Separable Monte Carlo (SMC) that can significantly increase the accuracy of estimation without increasing the cost of sampling. However, this method was applied to time-invariant problems involving two random variables. This paper extends SMC to problems with multiple random variables and develops a novel method for estimation of the standard deviation of the probability of failure of a structure. The method is demonstrated and validated on reliability assessment of a wind turbine under turbulent wind loads.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0417
Akira Yamada, Shunsuke Iwao
To make vehicles conspicuous, carmakers have designed highly-luminescent daytime running lights, position lights, and tail lights. To create the high luminescence, we used a lens with a free curved surface. But, in conventional lens design, we found the following problems: 1) A V-type lens is fixed and emits light unevenly. 2) When there are too few LEDs, the light doesn't appear to be lit. 3) We need many LEDs to make the whole lens emit light, but this is expensive. Lens translucency is degraded when using a milk-white lens with the surface texture of the lens. We designed a special fine-texture form that is highly luminescent and guides the light. We developed technology that controls the luminosity as well. Because the lens is finely-textured we needed a metallic mold to create the form for mass-production. We developed it with CAM, which automatically generates the smooth machining path in the tool and the curved surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0425
Monica Majcher, Zissimos Mourelatos, Vasileios Geroulas, Igor Baseski, Amandeep Singh
Using the total probability theorem, we propose a method to calculate the failure rate of a linear vibratory system with random parameters excited by stationary Gaussian processes. The response of such a system is non-stationary because of the randomness of the input parameters. A space-filling design, such as optimal symmetric Latin hypercube sampling or maximin, is first used to sample the input parameter space. For each design point, the stationary Gaussian output process is easily characterized using a spectral decomposition approach and the constant failure rate is efficiently estimated using MCS over a short time. A Kriging metamodel is then created between the input parameters and the corresponding failure rates allowing us to estimate the constant failure rate for any set of input parameters. The total probability theorem is finally applied to calculate the time-dependent failure rate or equivalently the time-dependent probability of failure of the dynamic system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
A Catia-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to predict trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured CBU results. Since design data was used for the study, it was hypothesized that the difference between study and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens VSA software, the vehicle was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. The study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng jiang, Yin-ping Chang
An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customer into engineering languages. In other wards, transfer the wants of the customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire sample for customer wants is processed, combining KANO model with QFD, to calculate the importance of customers wants. Simultaneously, the attribute of the property is distinguished. Due to the information gained is uncertain and questionnaire sample size might be small, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced to solve the correlation of the wants of customers and the technical characteristics. Then, TRIZ and QFD are combined to get invention principles of conflicting technical characteristics. Finally, the evaluation information of expert language is analyzed by the free mixed-language approach to obtain the final importance weights of technical characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE softwares. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0142
Gopal Athani, Kapil Dongare, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Prasad Rao Yerraguntla, Shashi Kulkarni, Ramakrishna Koduru
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) is a prominent subsystem in the Micro Hybrid Systems, and helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption. Fundamentally, ESS detects the idle running of the engine, and shuts it down autonomously, and allows the driver to restart the engine, with a routine action like pressing or releasing the clutch or brake pedal. When an engineer designs a system like ESS, typical approach to trigger the system functions is by establishing a sequence of events, detecting it, and enabling the triggers. Influence of the functions on other vehicle systems or vice versa is also considered, and system design is revised to achieve the functional safety. This results in a set of hard rules to be followed for the system functions to work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU’s in order to ensure correct functioning of intended functionality works as expected. These tests perform two critical functions. 1- Act as a proof of quality for the manufactured ECU and 2 - determine a faulty test object and therefore act as a criterion for rejection. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. With ever increasing demand of faster production, there is an increasing pressure to design the tests and its execution framework in a time optimized manner without any compromise on the quality of tests or a reduction in functional coverage. On the other hand, OEMs specify increasingly more functionality and complexity in ECU, thus demanding increase in EoL tests functional coverage. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0582
Deepak Ranjan Bhuyan, Sreekanth Netapalli, Sathya Dev, Soundarya Srinivasan
Springback prediction is challenging for Automotive Industry due to use of High Strength Steel (HSS). Automotive OEMs are working to reduce the springback effect of sheet metal stampings caused due to elastic behavior of materials with the help of changes to manufacturing process and part geometry. Use of HSS has grown due to improved passive safety (higher strength) and reduced vehicle weight. This on the other hand tends to intensify the springback effect, as the HSS materials have a higher elastic limit. Recent development in FEA studies made it possible for the industry to rely on stamping simulation. There is always a gap between the springback predicted from stamping simulation and the actual stamped part. Currently FEA technique is not able to accurately predict this gap. The objective of this study is to minimize this gap using DFSS method for predicting the springback and optimizing the simulation parameters with the help of LS-Dyna FEM tool.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0639
Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Durability performance of vehicles in the automotive industry is assessed by extended proving ground (PG) testing on vehicle prototypes to ensure the optimum performance of the vehicle system in service. Since these PG tests are time and cost intensive, laboratory testing using road simulators and software testing with Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) modelling have been adopted in order to ensure timely product release while reducing the cost of testing. A road simulator is used for extended testing of a prototype while the CAE is used prior to the availability of the prototype. As vehicle parameters are modified, the road input loads for that vehicle also changes to account for the modified parameters. Hence, the data collected from PG testing of one variant of a vehicle is not accurate enough for use in the CAE testing of another variant since the variant hasn’t been manufactured yet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Bushing model development is always necessary for dynamic simulation regarding vehicle durability, as its accuracy will directly affect the quality of the result. By considering nonlinearity, asymmetry, and hysteresis, this paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, providing users fast and stable fitting and application process in the time domain. A total number of 9 parameters make ABM relatively straight-forward and less redundant compared with some existing bushing models. The additional capability with proper transfer function makes ABM possible to reflect the frequency dependency of some special-made bushings, such as hydraulic engine mounts. Comparisons between tested and simulated result show that ABM is capable of reproducing accurate force out of a given bushing, under some common situation faced in durability simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because this system has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of these kinds of new systems. In this research, the durability test mode of AFLS (Adaptive Front Lightning System) with LED (Light Emitting Diode) lamp has been developed. First of all, The failure modes were analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal load, vibration, swiveling movement and electrical loads were investigated. The RLDA (Road Load Data Acquisition) technique was used for obtaining the vibration and temperature of LED AFLS in proving ground. The vibration test mode was developed by PSD (Power Spectral Density). The thermal load effect on life time of LED was investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0487
Lev Klyatis
Abstract title: INTRODUCTION TO SUCCESSFUL PREDICTING OF PRODUCT PERFORMANCE (RELIABILITY, DURABILITY, SAFETY, QUALITY, RECALLS, AND OTHERS) This paper will discuss the problem with successful predicting of product performance components. The best component for analyzing performance during service life, including predicting, is recalls, because, first, recall accumulates reliability, durability, safety, profit, and total economic situation. Second, there is open official and objective information about the number of recalls from the government (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and others), as well as companies-producers. Therefore, for analyzing the situation with the product performance , including predicting, this paper considers the situation with recalls. It will demonstrate how dangerous is the current situation with recalls, reliability, durability, safety, especially in automotive, including in the USA for last thirty years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0438
Ashley Lehman, Vesselin Stoilov, Andrzej Sobiesiak
This paper describes the application of the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) to investigate the thermal system performance of vehicle underbody components which are affected by variation in design parameters. The results from this study will pinpoint the design parameters which offer the greatest opportunity for improvement of thermal system performance and reliability. In turn, this method can save engineering time and resources. A mathematical model was first developed using Matlab for a vehicle underbody system consisting of a muffler, heat shield, and underbody panel. There were a number of input parameters identified. Some of these parameters deviate from their nominal value due to environmental factors, wear and ageing, or variation in the manufacturing process. These parameters include the emissivity of the muffler surface, the view factors between each component, and the temperature and velocity of the ambient air.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 3415

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