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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Oscar Flores-Centeno, Manuel Fabela-Gallegos, David Vazquez-Vega, Carlos Blake-Cervantes, Ricardo Hernandez-Jimenez
The vehicle’s dynamic behavior is influenced mainly by the interaction of four factors: driver, vehicle, road an environment. Under given circumstances, perturbation of these factors can cause degradation of vehicles´ performance; as a result, an accident will take place affecting the vehicle itself, road infrastructure and injury or even death of passenger(s). In order to increase road safety is essential to fully understand the interaction of those factors on vehicle’s dynamic behavior, especially heavy vehicles due to its greater mass, dimensions and potential damage that can cause. This paper presents the effect of road condition on the dynamic behavior of a 3-axle straight-truck based on numerical simulations. Validated commercial software was used. Three different road conditions were studied, namely potholes, longitudinal level differences between adjacent lanes due to repairing process, and different surface friction coefficients also due to road repairing process. For numerical simulations, three standardized maneuvers were taken into account, namely, single and double lane change and panic braking.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sijing Guo, Zhenfu Chen, Xuexun Guo, Quan Zhou, Jie Zhang
Hydraulic electromagnetic shock absorber (HESA) consists of hydraulic cylinder and check valves etc., by which the high-pressure oil produced by shock absorber reciprocation could be exported to drive the hydraulic motor, so as to drive the generator, and eventually recover the mechanical vibration energy otherwise dissipated by the traditional shock absorber as heat energy. Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension(HIS) can improve the vehicle roll and pitch stablity performance by interconnecting the chambers of the shock absorbers on the vehicle. To integrate both the advantages of HESA and HIS, a new type of suspension system is proposed in this paper, namely Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension system based on Hydraulic Electromagnetic Shock Absorber (HESA-HIS). HESA-HIS has three operating modes: energy-recovery priority mode, driving stability performance priority mode and energy-recovery and driving stability performance balance mode. The working principle of HESA-HIS in the three operating modes is introduced, and the mathematic theory model is deduced with relative automobile theory knowledge.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Serter Atamer
In today's world, there are a prominent number of weight & cost reduction projects within the vehicle engineering development activities. Regarding this phenomenon, a complete optimization study is applied to a 4-leaf pendulum leaf spring used in heavy duty trucks by reducing the number of leaves down to 3 together with weight and cost reductions. Leaf spring itself plays a crucial role in a heavy duty truck structure. Because of this purpose, the new designs should withstand all forces like the current design assuring same strength and fatigue characteristics. In other words, it should be lower in price and weight but at the same time strong enough to maintain its durability throughout its life time. This fact brings great responsibility to the development process of the new optimized leaf springs. Hence, a complete optimization process is applied from scratch till the very end which is illustrated in this paper. At the first step of the project, the stiffness of the leaf spring is calculated with an in-house software based on mathematical calculations using the thickness profile of the leaves.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
This paper reviews the correlation concepts and tools available, with the emphasis on their historical origins, mathematical properties and applications. Two of the most commonly used statistical correlation indicators, i.e., modal assurance criterion (MAC ) for structural deformation pattern identification/correlation and the coefficient of determination (R^2 ) for data correlation are investigated. The mathematical structure of R^2 is critically examined, and the physical meanings and their implications are discussed. Based on the insights gained from these analyses, a data scatter measure and a dependency measure are proposed. The applications of the measures for both linear and nonlinear data are also discussed. Finally, several worked examples in vehicle dynamics analysis and statistical data analyses are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of these concepts.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Marc Auger, Larry Plourde, Melissa Trumbore, Terry Manuel
Design of body structures for commercial vehicles differs significantly from automotive due to government, design, usage requirements. Specifically the design of heavy truck doors differ as they are not required to meet side impact requirements due to their height off the ground as compared to automobiles. However, heavy truck doors are subjected to higher loads, longer life and less damage from events. Past aluminum designs relied either on bent extrusions around the periphery of the door or multiple steel and/or aluminum reinforcements joined to the inner in order to provide the necessary structure. Doors using aluminum extrusions for the peripheries were limited to two dimensional bending for the extrusions resulting in a planar door with limited styling features an opportunity for aerodynamic improvements. Doors with stamped reinforcements and door mounted mirrors require joining the inner and outer structure at the lower mirror mount forcing the use of a division bar to split the glass that impedes vision and drives cost for the extra parts.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
Cost reduction in automotive industry becomes a widely-adopted operational strategy not only for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) that take cost leader generic corporation strategy, but also for many OMEs that take differentiation generic corporation strategy. Since differentiation generic strategy requires an organization to provide a product or service above the industry average level, a premium is typically included in the tag price for those products or services. Cost reduction measures could increase risks for the organizations that pursue differentiation strategy. Although manufacturers in automotive industry dramatically improved production efficiency in past ten years, they are still facing up with the pressure of cost control. The big challenge in the cost control for automakers and suppliers is increasing prices of raw materials, energy and labor costs. These costs construct constrains for the traditional economic expansion model. Lean manufacturing and other traditional Six Sigma processes have been widely utilized to reduce waste and improve efficiency further in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Venkatesan C, DeepaLakshmi R
The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide 12(PA12) is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and cost factor is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic copolyester (TEEE) materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly developed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn’t require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time. Also it has got better heat ageing properties and higher burst pressure at elevated temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rostislav Sirotkin, Galina Susova, Gennadii Shcherbakov
Abstract Within the Russian aviation industry the necessary level of reliability risks related to the failures of aircraft mechanical parts and systems vital to the safety of flight is assured via the system of activities aimed at influencing the parameters of critical parts (CP). The goal of the system is to provide a relationship between activities aimed at prevention of dangerous failures at all phases of airplane life cycle. The system operation is regulated by the normative documents and by controlling their observance. Normative documents containing requirements and recommendations were developed about 15 years ago based on the industry experience and traditions and taking into account the requirements of AS9100 series of international standards [2] wherever possible. The documents were developed taking into account typical safety management errors outlined in [1]. Requirements specifying the necessity of CP-related activities are specified in the national standards concerning the organization of quality management system (QMS) in the aviation industry as well as programs of safety, reliability and maintainability activities.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Marco Amrhein, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Seana McNeal, Brett Jordan, Peter Lamm
Abstract Transient operating conditions in electrical systems not only have significant impact on the operating behavior of individual components but indirectly affect system and component reliability and life. Specifically, transient loads can cause additional loss in the electrical conduction path consisting of windings, power electronic devices, distribution wires, etc., particularly when loads introduce high peak vs. average power ratios. The additional loss increases the operating temperatures and thermal cycling in the components, which is known to reduce their life and reliability. Further, mechanical stress caused by dynamic loading, which includes load torque cycling and high peak torque loading, increases material fatigue and thus reduces expected service life, particularly on rotating components (shaft, bearings). This article investigates the aforementioned stress mechanisms and provides analysis techniques and metrics to quantify the impact of transient operating conditions onto system and component reliability and life.
Article
2014-08-18
Material laws and orientation information are coupled in a single finite element analysis to predict the performance of the hybrid composite beam under a dynamic three point bending load.
Article
2014-08-18
LC411-USBH low-profile compression load cells from Omega enable 1000 readings per second and feature a USB output to connect directly to a computer.
WIP Standard
2014-08-14
Industries, organizations, and professions are reliant upon a community of competent people and individuals that possess relevant skills and knowledge for their scope of responsibility. Traditional methods of defining requisite knowledge and skills have been based on job analysis methodologies and through the development of Subject Matter Expert (SME) BoKs. While job analysis methodologies may suffice at a micro-level, they offer little value to the profession and industrial communities. Furthermore, SME developed BoKs are inherently limited to the knowledge and experience by the individuals serving as SMEs.
Article
2014-08-13
Model 3340 G-Logger three-channel, portable data acquisition system from Silicon Designs, Inc. (SDI) offers powerful Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis and display, as well as real-time acceleration and GPS data collection and viewing, all within the same compact package.
Article
2014-08-12
AC17 test reporting begins in 2015. Initially it "gifts" applicable CAFE A/C efficiency credits, but leads to mandatory use. Industry also looks to reduce A/C-induced EV range loss from solar loading using films, glass, pre-ventilation.
Article
2014-08-12
Johnson Controls has opened a new crash test facility at its automotive seating headquarters in Plymouth, MI. One of the highlights of the facility is a Seattle Safety ServoSled that allows the automotive supplier to offer what it claims is the most accurate, standardized safety testing of seats globally through collaboration with its other testing facilities located in Burscheid, Germany; Changchun and Shanghai, China; and Yokohama, Japan.
WIP Standard
2014-08-11
This specification covers procedures for sampling and testing aircraft-quality, special aircraft-quality, and premium aircraft-quality requiring transverse tensile property testing.
WIP Standard
2014-08-07
This FMEA Standard describes Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Design (DFMEA) and Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Manufacturing and Assembly Processes (PFMEA). It assists users in the identification and mitigation of risk by providing appropriate terms, requirements, ranking charts, and worksheets. As a Standard, this document contains requirements "must" and recommendations "should" to guide the user through the FMEA process. The FMEA process and documentation must comply with this Standard as well as any corporate policy concerning this Standard. Documented rationale and agreement with the customer is necessary for deviations in order to justify new work or changed methods during customer or third-party audit reviews.
Article
2014-08-04
HBM Inc.’s new industrial measurement amplifier enables users to make precise, dynamic measurements of raw and filtered torque, frequency, pulse, speed, and angle of rotation.
Article
2014-08-04
The SAB 32 shield connection clip from Conta-Clip provides a quick, simple connection when cables require shielding from interference.
Article
2014-08-04
The R&S SMW200A high-end vector signal generator from Rohde & Schwarz supports frequencies up to 20 GHz.
Article
2014-08-04
Sonoscan’s AW322 200 automated system for ultrasonic inspection of MEMS wafers images and identifies internal gap-type defects down to 5µm in size.
Article
2014-08-04
The Model XLUS88 subminiature, bidirectional tension/compression load cell from tecsis LP operates from 150 g to 1000 lb.
Article
2014-07-30
The Electric Power Research Institute has announced a collaboration with 8 automakers and 15 utilities to develop and demonstrate an open grid integration platform for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).
Article
2014-07-29
To develop an electric powertrain with a minimum noise level and minimized whining it is necessary to have accurate CAE simulation and precise criteria to assess whining noise.
Standard
2014-07-24
Scope—Traditional methods of photometry rely on the use of a goniometer to rotate the test item around two axes at right angles. This method is satisfactory for most situations but has certain disadvantages: a. Point-by-point measurements with a goniometer may be slow. With more advanced requirements, particularly for headlamps, where the entire beam pattern is of concern, isocandela measurements are becoming increasingly needed. Such testing can be very time consuming. b. For production quality assurance, the speed of a goniometer may not allow testing to keep pace with the production line if a large quantity of lamps must be sampled. c. High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps are becoming commonly used. Such lamps are orientation sensitive, changing in both lumen output and intensity distribution when tilted. This can introduce significant inaccuracies in test results when testing is performed using a goniometer. There is a need for alternative test techniques which can achieve very high speed data acquisition, the capture of full isocandela distribution, and the elimination of lamp tilting.
Article
2014-07-23
In development of an advanced test engine to demonstrate fuel-saving and emissions-reducing technologies, the EPA is using ANSYS FORTÉ CFD software, giving its engineers the ability to quickly and inexpensively make multiple design iterations.
Standard
2014-07-21
The supplier shall use the following process to respond to a customer request for corrective and preventive action.
WIP Standard
2014-07-18
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of carbon and low-alloy steel forgings.
Article
2014-07-16
Ram’s official move to adopt the SAE J2807 towing standard for validating all three (1500, 2500, and 3500) of its pickup weight classes raises the competitive bar for the industry's other pickup players. Meanwhile, Ford has engineered its latest F-450 with half the GCVW capability of a Class-8 tractor-trailer.
Article
2014-07-15
Opel recently broke ground on a €210 million expansion of its Rüsselsheim International Technical Development center (ITDC) that will be used to develop and test engines. The 36,000-m² (400,000-ft²) expansion will be completed in 2017.
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