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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3415
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0143
James Price
Consumer demands place the automotive industry under pressure to drive innovation into cars at the same pace (faster time to market with no increase in cost) as the consumer industry does for consumer electronics. This trend is driving up EE content in vehicles as well, requiring a reduction in design cycle time without further cost increases. Intrinsic to EE content is the fact that it’s impossible to compartmentalize design domains because it is connected in many different ways. The traditional parallel flows to design software, electronics, networks, and the physical shape of the vehicle are mostly independently of each other and are not ideally suited to deal with any type of interdependency. Unfortunately, this often leads to lengthy design cycles, many iterations, and suboptimal designs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0498
Matt Gynn, Jamie Steele
This study explores the process changes and challenges encountered during the transition to Virtual Automotive maintenance and service operations—for example, training existing manpower on new tools, the overall schedule adjustments, and to check the item applicability. The confirmation process was reworked significantly, while the final evaluation and reporting process was able to be maintained. Problems were encountered with the organization of the digital part data, the increase in workload of Virtual simulations over physical checks, and the limitations of current simulation technologies. Virtual tools are much slower than physical checks. Ideas for future enhancements of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) and simulation systems are explored.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0495
Shohei Mikami, Georgi Chakmakov
Designing a lightweight and high-strength engine product is universally important from the standpoints of fuel consumption, power, and cost; however, it is difficult to find an optimal solution accomplishing these characteristics in products such as the cylinder heads that are simultaneously affected by a thermal load and various mechanical loads. We focused on an optimization means called “nonparametric optimization” and created a method of cylinder head design that utilized it. Our optimization process was divided into topological optimization and shape optimization. In the topological optimization process, we searched for a structure with the highest theoretical stiffness in the given design space. This provided an efficient structure when pursuing both lightweight and high-strength characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process. Strain energy and displacement of the combustion chamber were used as the parameters for controlling stiffness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0490
Ryosuke Saito
We discuss the achievement of accurate and rapid appearance evaluation of a commodity from a design perspective. In design development, it is important to evaluate the quality of products in accordance with the customer’s viewpoint. Appearance evaluation using an actual model, such as a Mock-Up Model, is the optimal means. However, in order to respond to flaws or design changes quickly, we use a digital model. Therefore, we developed a graphic tool, TOPS, which can be used to obtain correct rendering results equivalent to an actual model, enabling a high level of precision and efficiency in digital design development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0140
Aleksandar Hrnjak
In the auto industry there are many electromechanical systems and components and each system has a different purpose. This paper will explain sensitivity and integration of electromechanical systems up to 0.5 KW such as closure systems or similar actuators (power liftgate systems, power sliding door system, sun-roof system, window regulators, cinch latch… etc.) We can split these systems in two major groups as: 1) System with Strong Motor (SM system) 2) System with Weak Motor (WM system) Both systems can have the same purpose and different performance. SM system has less mechanical components and a stronger motor, while WM system has more mechanical components and a weaker motor. In this paper I will explain what advantages and disadvantages are between the systems, such as: 1. System integration 2. Systems sensitivity and reaction 3. Systems packaging and mass 4. Systems noise level 5.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0444
xueqian chen, Zhanpeng SHEN, Qinshu He
In some engineering problems, more than one model can be created to simulate the structural behavior. The model selection uncertainty is needed to be considered now. At the same time, the model form uncertainty can’t be ignored in order to obtain the reliable prediction results. In this research, different models’ degree of belief is computed by combining the Bayesian method with the test data. The adjustment factor approach is used to propagate the model selection uncertainty into prediction of a system response, and then the response confidence interval is obtained via the calculating results of the synthesis model. The last simulation results are gotten by combining the confidence interval of the model form uncertainty with the results of the synthesis model. The confidence interval at the prediction point is calculated by the interpolation method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0132
Sibi Visht Sankara Narayanan, Diane Peters PhD
Typically, when someone needs to perform occasional towing tasks, such as towing a boat on a trailer, they have two choices. They can either purchase a larger, more powerful vehicle than they require for their regular usage, or they can rent a larger vehicle when they need to tow something. In this project, we propose a third alternative: a trailer with an on-board power supply, which can be towed by a small vehicle. This system requires a means of sensing how much power the trailer’s power supply should provide, and an appropriate control system to provide this power. In this project, we design and model the trailer, a standard small car, and the control system, and evaluate the concept’s feasibility. We have selected a suitable power source for the trailer, a DC motor, coupled directly to the trailer’s single drive wheel, which allows us to dispense with the need for a differential.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and AHP. A risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was made. Risk prioritizing of a certain forklift system was processed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0446
Ronald Lannan
The Business Case for MBD Abstract : Use of MBD processes for embedded controls software development has been purported to result in cost, quality, and delivery improvements. Initially the business case for MBD was rather vague and qualitative, but more data is now becoming available to support the premise for this development methodology. Often, the implementation of MBD in an organization is bundled with other software process improvements, so trying to unbundle the contributions from MBD has been problematic. This paper addresses the dominant factors for MBD cost savings and the business benefits that have been realized by companies in various industries engaged in MBD development. It also summarizes some key management best practices and success factors that have helped organizations achieve success in MBD deployment. Note: This paper complements the other paper submitted: The Benefits of MBD
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0496
Anindya Deb, Ranga Srinivas Gunti, Clifford Chou, Utpal Dutta
The present work is concerned with the objective of multi disciplinary optimization (MDO) of an automotive front end structure using truncated finite element model. A truncated finite element model of a real world vehicle is developed and its efficacy for use in design optimization is demonstrated. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the weight of the front end structure meeting NVH, durability and crash safety targets. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0146
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy PhD, Selin Arslan, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
As the need for super high speed components (pumps, motors, etc) continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. This paper will address the dynamic modes a bearing passes through and the potential failure modes associated with each. A review of the state of the art of current failure modes will be given, and then a hypothesis on some new failure modes associated with particular speeds will be discussion. The paper will also describe an apparatus that was designed especially to study these phenomena. Range of speed studied is 0- 60,000 rpm. Preliminary measurements indicated that this range breaks into three different zones, each with its own unique possible failure characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0148
Georg Macher, Harald Sporer, Eric Armengaud, Christian Kreiner
Automotive OEM’s are investing large sums in the development of (hybrid) electrified vehicles and networked automotive systems (such as Car2x systems). Future aims towards autonomous driving and currently ongoing replacement of traditional mechanical systems with modern embedded systems lead to significantly increasing complexity of these systems. Premium cars in 2009 implied more than 90 electronic control units (ECU) with close to 1 Gigabyte software code implemented. For 2018 30% of the overall vehicle costs are predicted to stem from vehicle electronics. At the same time, the higher degree of integration and the safety-criticality of the control application raise new challenges. Evidence of correctness of the different applications, possibly running on the same computing platform, has to be guaranteed. On one hand, the development of such systems has to face many cost challenges and is required to support the demands of time-to-market (first time right).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0445
Steven Fraser
The Benefits of MBD Abstract : Use of MBD processes is becoming increasingly common in embedded control system software as a means to manage software complexity, improve quality, and reduce development costs. The MBD process can achieve these goals by combining the design, simulation, and implementation of software features into a single, integrated workflow that reduces development effort and allows extensive software testing to be performed in simulation. In order to realize the full benefit of MBD, engineering organizations must invest resources intelligently in the tools, processes, and infrastructure to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0450
Qinshu He
We address the thermal problem posed at the Sandia Validation Challenge Workshop. Probability boxes (p-boxes) based on probability bounds analysis take advantage of probability and set theories, keeping the separation of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Area metric is still used to characterize the disagreement between the quantitative predictions from a model and relevant empirical data when either or both predictions and data are expressed as probability boxes distributions. Unlike traditional single value, area metric based on p-boxes produces an interval quantitative measure of model-form uncertainty in the face of available data, which is retaining the units of the data themselves, and generalizing the range of deterministic difference. When data belong to different distributions or physical observations, u-pooling method is used to pooling the incomparable comparisons, and the u-values based on u-pooling are interval values too.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0457
Subrata Sarkar, Kailash Golecha, Surbhi Kohli, Amit Kalmegh
Journal bearings are machine elements designed to produce smooth (low friction) motion between solid surfaces in relative motion and to generate a load support for mechanical components. With Journal bearings the entire load is carried by a thin film of fluid present between the rotating and non-rotating elements. Thickness of the film is very sensitive to the environment temperature, radial clearance and misalignment. These parameters are very difficult to control and it is very important to consider all the parameters while designing the Journal bearing. When noises in the design space are very strong, conventional DOE or RSM method suppresses the effect of control factors. This will result in poor design of the product and lead to higher cost. The overall objective of the present work is to produce a bearing design which is insensitive to the noises at each stage of product life cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0453
Zhimin Xi, Hao Pan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Model bias can be represented by a generic random process for a time series (or dynamic) system response. Accurate characterization of the model bias in different design configurations plays an important role for time-dependent reliability analysis. This paper addresses three technical challenges in this field: (i) model bias modeling of dynamic system responses, (ii) validation metric for dynamic system responses, and (iii) dynamic model bias approximation at various design configurations. The proposed approach is incorporated with Monte Carlo simulation for time-dependent reliability analysis of a corroded beam structure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0715
Terry Lynn Chapin, Van Walworth
Purpose Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold – even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Design/Methodology/Approach Specialized molds for rubber injection were designed and built with a series of hot runner layouts and specialized cavity shapes. Regressive short shot techniques were employed to establish how the runners filled and how the cavities filed. The injection series included matched pairs of identical molds with identical runner and cavity layouts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0131
Nick Smith
Demand for increased functionality in automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) systems is being propelled by both customers and various governmental regulations and requirements. This demand for more capabilities also introduces new challenges for OEMs who are responsible for implementing these functions. Of course, the cost of system development and manufacturing are considerable, but there are challenges beyond cost that the OEM must deal with, such as increased weight, reliability and quality concerns, exponentially-increasing complexity, and the government requirements.From the point of view of the electrical system platform as a whole, it provides the unique role of integrating all the individual E/E systems. When integrated, unanticipated problems can emerge that require design modifications. Often, these are discovered way down the design path, which results in delays in the program that can lead to missed deadlines and costly rework.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0431
KI Woo Sung, Jong Gurl KIM, Dae-Un Sung, Hye Mi Kim
HKMC has implemented the term of guarantee as 10 years and 100,000 miles for North American power train in order to expand a share in the North American market in 1999. Warranty data of 10 years and 100,000 miles for North American power train is 10-year field data of sales volume in North America which is important to confirm the durability of power train parts. In addition, it is meaningful that HKMC has collected data for ten years first in the world. However, there are some difficulties in warranty data analysis because it is hard to access to warranty repair data containing life information of parts and data is not opened to the public. Although the importance of warranty data has been recognized, the accuracy of data and analysis methods have not been systematically studied in the automobile business world. Unlike warranty data on electronics, failure time of automobile warranty data is given in the two dimensions with mileage and duration of use.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0455
Hao Pan, Zhimin Xi, Ren-Jye Yang
Available methodologies for model bias characterization are mainly regression-based approaches, such as Gaussian process, Bayesian inference-based models, response surface approach, etc. Due to the curse of dimensionality, performance of all regression-based approaches degrades for high dimensional problems. This paper proposes an adaptive Copula approach for model bias characterization without suffering the curse of dimensionality. The main idea of the proposed research is to model the statistical relationship between model bias, base model prediction, and model inputs adaptively using classification techniques. Two case studies whose dimensionality range from medium to high will be employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian venegas
Simulation Based Process Reliability Design Venkatesh Agaram PTC, Inc., USA Processes involved in product development, manufacturing, and service can be complex, so much so that experts with many years of experience may not have a good understanding of the sensitivity of the process performance metrics to the process control variables, particularly to the interactions between the control variables. Consequently, it is unrealistic to expect that process performance reliability can be based on the experience-based judgment of a few subject matter experts (SMEs). Simulation tools that can take into account the interaction between variations of different process control variables in order to predict the overall process performance reliability are needed to enhance the intuition of SMEs Processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service can be modeled as a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order differential equations in time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0488
Andreea Elena Balau, Dennis Kooijman, Ignacio Vazquez Rodarte, Norbert Ligterink
The goal of this work is to develop a tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench for type approval testing. The WLTC database was used as input data. This database was created with the help of a number of European countries that collaborated and provided real world driving measurements. Consequently cycles that contain typical accelerations per velocity and road types are generated, such that these cycles are representative to real driving behaviour. The stochastic drive cycle generator is developed in Matlab and is based on Markov processes. Two different stochastic generators are used: one for generating the road type and one for generating the vehicle acceleration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0449
Libo Cao, Kai Zhang, Xin Lv, Lingbo Yan
Background:The Hybrid III anthropomorphic testing device (ATD or dummy) has been used in automotive testing widely. The validity of an ATD finite element model is largely dependent on accuracy of model structure and proper assignment of material parameters especially for the soft material used in the ATD. Objective:Aiming at the problem that knee in the published finite element model of Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy doesn't accord well with the physical dummy, the objective of this work was to improve the validity of the knee model. Method and material:Mesh refinement was performed, and the foam solid elements in the front of the knee which are not real in the physical knee model were replaced by skin solid elements. What’s more, a series of uniaxial compression tests for ATD skin material and rubber were performed. Material parameters of skin and rubber were fitted using uniaxial compression test data.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0456
Ed Henshall, Brian Rutter, David Souch
Automotive design is becoming ever more complex with software controlled electromechanical systems becoming the norm in order to meet ever increasingly stringent legislative requirements and increasing customer expectations. Efficient design of such inherently complex systems calls for improvement to the engineering design process if robust and reliable product is to be designed. There is a tendency for such improvement to reflect the increased complexity of the designed systems with the design process itself becoming increasingly complex. This has been seen where a Failure Mode Avoidance (FMA) approach is used within product design with some of the individual FMA tools requiring increasing amounts of detail with this increasing complexity resulting in the tools becoming progressively more cumbersome to use. A restricted toolset is often used and tools tend to be used non-synergistically with limited attention paid to the Systems Engineering demands of product design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0497
Monika Filiposka, Ana M. Djuric
Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications, where large workspace is required and with limited higher manipulability to one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position of the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produce the rectangular workspace. In this paper full kinematic model of 6DOF general CNC machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0205
James Price
Rapid resolution of electrical faults reduces costs, enhances brand image and maximizes vehicle availability. Although diagnostic systems continue to improve, service technicians frequently have to consult schematics, location views and other engineering resources to fix a problem. But this data can be hard to find, hard to understand, and out of date or wrong. This session presents new technology to leverage design data directly into the service domain. The technician is presented only with relevant vehicle-specific data, is able to navigate dynamically through electrical schematics, and can seamlessly link with other resources such as 3D models and repair procedures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0443
Zhenfei Zhan, Junqi Yang, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang, Saeed Barbat, Ling zheng
ncreasing computer programs and models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. To maximize the effectiveness of these models, the validity and predictive capabilities of these models need to be assessed quantitatively. For a successful implementation of CAE models as an integrated part of the current vehicle development process, it is necessary to develop objective validation metric that has the desirable metric properties to quantify the discrepancy between multiple tests and simulation results. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric that can evaluate the differences of the multiple time histories as well as the key features under uncertainty.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0503
Hefeng Zhan
Plenty of dust particles which are generated when a swapping vehicle is dumping harm to workers’ health. In the study, the designed vacuum dust control system could effectively capture easily raised dust particles in the air in the premise of not impacting the dumping process so as to improve the unloading work environment. Firstly, longitudinal motion trajectory model of dust particles in the dumping process is established. Based on the side collision probability model of dust particles, lateral velocity distribution of dust particles is obtained. What’s more, the scope of lateral dust particles is determined. Taking into account coupling of the dust control system and the working state of the vehicle, the suction mouth is arranged at the edge on the outside of hatch cover. Centrifugal horizontal dust removal system designed in the research is fixed in the middle of the filter cover part and discharging hatch cover area.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0494
Sulki Seong, Wangoo Kim, Daesung Bae, Seungpyo Lee, Younggeol Cho, Kyeongdeok Yang
Bearing is an important part for supporting the weight and transmits power. Rotating bearing is required excellent durability. Various studies have been conducted long time, for predict performance and durability of the bearing. However, prediction of the bearing durability has been used expression computation method using a theoretical formula between the raceway and ball. Flange analysis is commonly used structural analysis. Such an approach, have assumed to be static load. So it is difficult to consider the dynamic characteristics (Centrifugal force, Gyroscope effect) of the bearing. In order to predict the accurate bearing endurance life, it should be considering the dynamic characteristics. This paper proposes the method for bearing endurance life prediction considering dynamic characteristic. Between the raceway and ball contact is one of the important factors to take into account the dynamic characteristics of the bearing.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3415

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