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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0267
Rahul Rama Swamy Yarlagadda, Efstratios Nikolaidis, Vijay Kumar Devabhaktuni
Over the last two decades inverse problems have become increasingly popular due to their widespread applications. This popularity continuously demands designers to find alternative methods, to solve the inverse problems, which are efficient and accurate. It is important to use effective techniques that are both highly accurate and computationally efficient. This paper presents a method for solving inverse problems through Artificial Neural Network (ANN) theory. This paper also presents a method to apply Grey Wolf optimizer (GWO) algorithm to solve inverse problems. GWO is a recent optimization method demonstrating great results. Both of the methods are then compared to traditional methods such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Four typical engineering design problems are used to compare the four methods' performance. The results show that the GWO outperforms other methods both in terms of efficiency and accuracy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0289
Balakrishna Chinta
Mahalanobis Distance (MD) is gaining momentum in many fields where classification, statistical pattern recognition, and forecasting are primary focus. It is a multivariate method and considers correlation relationships among parameters for computing generalized distance measure to separate groups or populations. MD is a useful statistic in multivariate analysis to test that an observed random sample is from a multivariate normal distribution. This capability alone enables engineers to determine if an observed sample is an outlier (defect) that falls outside the constructed (good) multivariate normal distribution. In Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS), MD is suitably scaled and used as a measure of severity of an abnormality. It is obvious that computed MD depends on values of parameters observed on a random sample. All parameters may not equally impact MD. MD could be highly sensitive with respect to some parameters and less sensitive to some other parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0320
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Mandar Tendolkar, Sivakumar Balakrishnan, Gurudatta Purandare
In the automotive industry, multiple prototypes are used for vehicle development purpose. One of the challenging issues focused in R&D is the repeatability of durability tests, in order to get proper failure results for lifetime prediction. Durability test of a vehicle should have consistency throughout the testing period to provide accurate results for assessment and validation. The present work deals with more complex situations than what univariate methods can offer in terms of analysis. Hence, univariate analysis gives less accurate results in terms of checking the repeatability of tests. The current work deals with the development of a new repeatability analysis approach using multivariate analysis. The technique is developed with a non-parametric multivariate method called Mantel test which brings down all the complex parameters of the analysis to one number for checking the repeatability and take corrective measures accordingly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0434
Roshan N. Mahadule, Jaideep Singh Chavan
Door closing velocity (DCV) is one of the important design parameter which determines durability of the door. DCV varies according to the design and physical properties of the door. The physical properties of the Door assembly can affect DCV and may increase or decrease durability of the door and attached body components, this can be a concern when the overall vehicle durability performance is considered. This paper present a new tool that gives usable input data to durability engineers, which helps to bridge the gap between CAE simulations and physical tests while also reducing computation time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1292
Manish Dixit, V Sundaram, Sathish Kumar S
Noise pollution is a major concern for global automotive industries which propels engineers to evolve new methods to meet passenger comfort and regulatory requirements. The main purpose of an exhaust system in an automotive vehicle is to allow the passage of non-hazardous gases to the atmosphere and reduce the noise generated due to the engine pulsations. The objective of this paper is to propose a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach followed to optimize the muffler for better acoustic performance without compromising on back pressure.Conventionally, muffler design has been an iterative process. It involves repetitive testing to arrive at an optimum design. Muffler has to be designed for better acoustics performance and reduced back pressure which complicates the design process even more.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0270
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Michael Start, Litang Gao
Statistical parameters, such as mean, standard deviation, in particular, failure probability are of significant interest to durability and reliability engineers. These parameters can be estimated from samples, however, these estimated parameters usually contain significant uncertainties and cannot be fully representative of the population, particularly, for test data with small sample sizes. Generally, sample size is a balanced result between durability/reliability performance and cost. There are several ways to characterize and quantify the uncertainty caused by the sample size effects, and one of the most commonly used engineering approach for failure probability is RxxCyy, in which xx and yy represent xx% reliability (R) and yy% confidence (C). RxxCyy criterion is commonly used in both test-to-failure method and the binomial test method [4-8].
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0283
Joydip Saha, Harry Chen, Sadek Rahman
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems which may include various new technologies such as active grill shutter, variable coolant flow control devices, PWM controlled fan and control strategies in order to best utilize the waste heat and minimize overall power consumption. With these new technologies and new devices, the comprehensive vehicle-thermal-system simulation tools are essential to evaluate and develop the optimal system solution for new cooling system architectures. This paper will discuss how the model-based vehicle thermal system simulation tools have been developed from analytical & empirical data, and have been used for assessment and development of new cooling system architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0074
Michael Jensen
Electronics now control or drive a large part of automotive system design and development, from audio system enhancements to improvements in engine and drive-train performance, and innovations in passenger safety. Industry estimates suggest that electronic systems account for more than 30% of the cost of a new automobile and represent approximately 90% of the innovations in automotive design. As electronic content increases, so does the possibility of electronic system failure and the potential for compromised vehicle safety. Even when designed properly, electronics can be the weakest link in automotive system performance due to variations in component reliability and environmental conditions. Engineers need to understand worst-case system performance as early in the design process as possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0279
Chong Chen, Zhenfei Zhan, Jie Li, Yazhou Jiang, Helen YU
To reduce the computational time in the iterations of reliability-based design optimization, surrogate models are frequently utilized to approximate time-consuming computer aided engineering models. However, surrogate models introduces additional sources of uncertainty, such as model uncertainty. In this paper, an efficient uncertainty quantification method considering both model and parameter uncertainties is proposed. Firstly, the uncertainty of input parameters are represented in the form of Probability Density Function (PDF). Then, bias correction is then performed to improve the predictive capabilities of the surrogate models, whose uncertainty can be quantified as confidence intervals. Finally, Monte Carlo sampling is utilized to quantify the compound uncertainties. A numerical example and a real-world vehicle weight reduction design example are used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0953
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith, Michael Zammit, Brad walker
In order to meet LEV III, EURO 6C and Beijing 6 emission levels, OEMs can potentially implement unique after treatment systems solutions which meet the varying legislated requirements. The availability of various wash coat substrates and PGM loading and ratio options, make selection of an optimum catalyst system challenging, time consuming and costly. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodologies have been used in industry since 1990s. One of the earliest applications was at Motorola where the methodology was applied to the design and production of pagers which Consumer Reports called “virtually defect-proof”.1 Since then, the methodology has evolved to not only encapsulate complicated variation optimization but also design optimization where multiple factors are in play. In this study, attempts are made to adapt the DFSS concept and methodology to identify and optimize a catalyst for diesel applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0050
Huafeng Yu, Chung-Wei Lin, BaekGyu Kim
Modern vehicles can have millions of lines of software, for vehicle control, infotainment, etc. The quality and correctness of the software play a key role in the safety of whole vehicle. In order to assure the safety, engineers give an effort to prove correctness of individual subsystems or their integration using testing or verification methods. One needs to eventually certify that the developed vehicle as a whole is indeed safe using the artifacts and evidences produced throughout the development cycle. Such a certification process helps to increase the safety confidence of the developed software and reduce OEM’s liability. However, software certification in automotive domain is not yet well established, compared to other safety-critical domains, such as medical devices and avionics. At the same time, safety-relevant standards and techniques, including ISO 26262 and assurance case, have been well adopted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0319
David E. Verbitsky
Proper failure analysis (FA) is an essential tool helping to effectively and efficiently resolve and prevent complex safety, quality, reliability, improvement-development, profitability (SQRIP) and accelerated reliability testing (ART) problems of modern mobility electronics. Yet, FA role is underestimated and underutilized, especially during ART. Moreover, attention is traditionally paid to normal and wear-out failures overlooking early troubles. Systemic early FA methodology (SEFA) provides SQRIP-ART feedback utilizing harmonized proprietary systematic hierarchical complementary studies and methods. Current paper describes organization of subject matter detailed technical root-cause FA (RCA). RCA is the main part of SEFA distinguishable from simple FMA and costly FA R&D. Flexible comprehensive RCA target important failures' symptoms, mechanisms and causes recommending optimized effective and efficient corrective-preventive actions (CAPA).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0268
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Ling Zheng, Helen Yu, Yazhou Jiang, Hui Zhao, Jie LI
Computer modeling and simulation have significantly facilitated the efficiency of product design and development in modern engineering, especially in the automotive industry. For the design and optimization of car models, optimization algorithms usually work better if the initial searching points are within or close to a feasible domain. Therefore, finding a feasible design domain in advance is beneficial. A data mining technique, ID3 (Iterative Dichotomizer 3), is exploited in this paper to identify a set of reduced feasible design domains from the original design space. Within the reduced feasible domains, optimal designs can be efficiently obtained while releasing computational burden in iterations. A mathematical example is used to illustrate the proposed method. Then an industrial application about automotive structural optimization is employed to demonstrate the proposed methodology. The results show its potential in practical engineering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0266
Greg K. Caswell, James McLeish
Package technology is constantly improving in order to keep up with the advances in silicon technology. MEMS packages exhibit several failure modes that can be predicted using modern software tools. This paper provides a methodology for creating a high-fidelity model of the interposer with all the conductor geometries. The two failure modes that are explored with this model are package warpage prediction due to actual copper imbalance and filled microvia delamination. Each layer can meshed based on the actual geometry in the layout design. Package warpage is caused by copper imbalance between the two sides of the interposer. The CTE mismatch between the two sides can bend the package to such a degree that it becomes impossible to assemble the solder interconnects. The filled microvias have copper structures that can delaminate from the copper traces in the conductor layers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0276
Mahalingesh Burkul, Hemant Bhatkar, Mahesh Badireddy, Narayanan Vijayakumar
In an automotive product development environment, identifying the premature structural failures is one of the important tasks for Body-In-White (BIW), sub-assemblies and components. The integrated car body structure i.e. monocoque structure, is widely used in passenger cars and SUVs. This structure is subjected to bending and torsional vibrations, due to dynamic loads. Normally the stresses due to bending are relatively small compared to stresses due to torsion in Body-In-White under actual road conditions [1]. This paper focuses on evaluating the life of Body-In-White structures subjected to torsional loading. An accelerated test method was evolved for identifying failure modes of monocoque BIW by applying torsion fatigue. The observation of the crack generation and propagation was made with respect to a number of torsion fatigue cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0053
Abhishek Sharma
Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, advantages and disadvantages. In Automotive domain Linux is increasingly becoming popular as a choice of the Operating System other than the propriety OS. There has been lot of push in industry to use the open source software stack in the product development.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0269
Zhigang Wei, Michael Start, Jason Hamilton, Limin Luo
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns for vehicle components and systems, which experience cyclic fatigue loadings and may eventually fail over time. Durability and reliability testing is a critical process in product validation but it is usually costly and time consuming. Therefore, accelerated testing methods are often used to shorten the development time, reduce the associated cost while not significantly sacrifice the accuracy of the assessment. There are several commonly used accelerated testing methods available: accelerated test-to-failure, accelerated binomial testing (bogey testing), and accelerated degradation testing etc. However, these accelerated testing methods are often used separately and independently. Therefore, the maximum potential, in terms of efficiency and economy, of these accelerated testing methods has not been fulfilled. In this paper, a general framework for accelerated testing and data analysis is established.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0281
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora, Abd El-Rahman Hekal, Amr Sami, Muhannad Hendy
In this paper, transient component temperatures in the vehicle under-hood and underbody are estimated. The main focus is on the component temperatures as a result of radiation from exhaust, convection by underbody or under-hood air and heat conduction through the components. The exhaust surface temperature is simulated as function of time and for various vehicle duty cycles such as city traffic, road load and grade driving conditions. At each time step the radiation flux to the surrounding component is estimated, heat addition or removal by convection is evaluated based on air flow, air temperature and component surface area. Geometrical properties of the components are obtained by fitting them into pre-set shapes (e.g., cylinders, spheres, ellipsoids, etc.).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0282
Julio Abraham Carrera
Recent emissions standards have become more restrictive in terms of CO2 and NOx reduction. This has been translated into higher EGR rates at higher exhaust gas temperatures with lower coolant flow rates for much longer lifetimes. In consequence, Thermal Load for EGR coolers has been increased and boiling and its interaction with thermal fatigue are now a critical issue during their development. It is almost impossible to avoid localized boiling inside an EGR cooler and, in fact, it would not be strictly necessary when it is below the Critical Heat Flux (CHF). However when CHF is exceeded, film boiling occurs leading to the sudden drop of the heat transfer rate and the metal temperature rise. In consequence, thermal stress increases even when film boiling is reached only in a small area inside the part. It is very difficult to accurately predict under which conditions CHF is reached and to stablish the margins to avoid it.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0277
Xingxing Feng, Kaimin Zhuo, Jinglai Wu, Vikas Godara, Yunqing Zhang
Interval inverse problems can be defined as problems to estimate input through given output, where the input and output are interval numbers. Many problems in engineering can be formulated as inverse problems like vehicle suspension design. Interval metrics, instead of deterministic metrics, are used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with five degrees of freedom. The vibration properties of a vehicle vibration model are described by reasonable intervals and the suspension interval parameters are to be solved. A new interval inverse analysis method, which is a combination of Chebyshev inclusion function and optimization algorithm such as multi-island genetic algorithm, is presented and used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with six conflicting objective functions. The interval design of suspension using such an interval inverse analysis method is shown and validated, and some useful conclusions are reached.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0280
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Amr Sami, Abd El-Rahman Hekal, Dipan Arora, Masuma Khandaker
`In this paper, the development a transient thermal analysis model for the exhaust system is presented. Given the exhaust gas temperature out of the engine, a software tool has been developed to predict changes in exhaust gas temperature and exhaust surface temperature under various operating conditions. The software is a thermal solver that will predict exhaust gas and wall surface temperature by modeling all heat transfer paths in the exhaust system which includes multi-dimensional conduction, internal forced/natural convection, external forced/natural convection, and radiation. The analysis approach involves the breaking down of the thermal system into multiple components, which include the exhaust system (manifold, takedown pipe, tailpipe, etc.), catalytic converter, DPF/GPF (diesel particulate filter or gasoline particulate filter), if they exist, thermal shields, etc.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0480
Weiguo Zhang, Mark Likich, Mac Lynch, John White
The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
2016-02-04
Standard
AMS2369C
This specification covers quality assurance sampling procedures which may be used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of carbon and low-alloy steel castings.
2016-02-03
Article
Britain has established a real-world test highway for connected and autonomous vehicle technologies. JLR is one of the companies investing in the 66-km-long R&D route.
2016-02-02
Article
Imetrum’s precision, noncontact 3D measurement system, the Precision Displacement Tracker, slashes setup times and provides richer data sets without compromising measurement resolution or sampling speed.
2016-02-02
Article
Intertek’s Milton Keynes Transportation Technologies laboratory has developed a portable vehicle exhaust emissions testing system that enables manufacturers to report real-world driving emissions.
2016-02-02
Article
EngineLab’s EL129 control units for engine simulation and testing have a range of input and output options and can be adapted for flexible control system development.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0168
Prashant Shinde, Omprakash Kota
Abstract Increasing demand of Electric and Hybrid vehicles questions more about Reliability and Lifetime of electronic circuits associated with them. It is very important for a hardware circuit designer to evaluate if module will last the expected lifetime. This paper elaborates the methods and steps to find the expected lifetime of critical components; and to decide whether Hybrid Power Electronics Unit (PEU) will meet the OEM requirements on lifetime. Accelerated thermal stress method is used to determine the required High Temperature Operational Life (HTOL) hours for given thermal profile of Hybrid vehicle passenger car in driving (8,000Hrs), charging(30,000Hrs) and total lifetime (38000Hrs ≈ 15Years). Example calculation of required HTOL hours against expected lifetime for critical component from Hybrid ECUs is explained in this paper. Also inclusions and exclusions of this method in evaluating lifetime assessment are also discussed here.
2016-01-30
Article
GKN believes that flight tests will prove 8% wing drag reduction in natural laminar flow wing concepts.
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