Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 3407
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0487
Lev Klyatis
Abstract title: INTRODUCTION TO SUCCESSFUL PREDICTING OF PRODUCT PERFORMANCE (RELIABILITY, DURABILITY, SAFETY, QUALITY, RECALLS, AND OTHERS) This paper will discuss the problem with successful predicting of product performance components. The best component for analyzing performance during service life, including predicting, is recalls, because, first, recall accumulates reliability, durability, safety, profit, and total economic situation. Second, there is open official and objective information about the number of recalls from the government (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and others), as well as companies-producers. Therefore, for analyzing the situation with the product performance , including predicting, this paper considers the situation with recalls. It will demonstrate how dangerous is the current situation with recalls, reliability, durability, safety, especially in automotive, including in the USA for last thirty years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts – especially Powertrain ones – with accuracy down to 0.1 µm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
The concept of digital continuity continues into the Automotive wire harness manufacturing environment. The validation of manufacturing options and comparison of costs ensures smart business decisions and avoids manufacturing capacity challenges. Leading Automotive OEMs and Tier 1s have realized this and leverage connections to and from business systems to deploy valid manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10.5 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma and finite element analysis is used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because this system has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of these kinds of new systems. In this research, the durability test mode of AFLS (Adaptive Front Lightning System) with LED (Light Emitting Diode) lamp has been developed. First of all, The failure modes were analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal load, vibration, swiveling movement and electrical loads were investigated. The RLDA (Road Load Data Acquisition) technique was used for obtaining the vibration and temperature of LED AFLS in proving ground. The vibration test mode was developed by PSD (Power Spectral Density). The thermal load effect on life time of LED was investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0464
Christian-Andreas Schumann, Eric Forkel, Thomas Klein, Dieter Gerlach, Egon Mueller
Total quality is becoming increasingly important for competitiveness. In order to achieve high quality, the requirements must be continuously compared with the results achieved in the process. This is done by means of measurement parameters and comparative values. The acquisition of the data requires appropriate measurement methods. The measurement methods and procedures have to be constantly developed in order to measure more precisely and to generate an even higher quality. Thus, the achieved product quality can be determined absolutely and relatively. If deviations from the planned quality parameters occur, the operator will be able to intervene immediately. The presented procedure is one of the non-contact (optical) measurement methods using CMMs, 3D scanners and 3D cameras. It is a combination of stereo photography and photogrammetry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge Jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng Jiang, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Chang
An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customer into engineering languages. In other wards, transfer the wants of the customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire sample for customer wants is processed, combining KANO model with QFD, to calculate the importance of customers wants. Simultaneously, the attribute of the property is distinguished. Due to the information gained is uncertain and questionnaire sample size might be small, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced to solve the correlation of the wants of customers and the technical characteristics. Then, TRIZ and QFD are combined to get invention principles of conflicting technical characteristics. Finally, the evaluation information of expert language is analyzed by the free mixed-language approach to obtain the final importance weights of technical characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Bushing model development is always necessary for dynamic simulation regarding vehicle durability, as its accuracy will directly affect the quality of the result. By considering nonlinearity, asymmetry, and hysteresis, this paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, providing users fast and stable fitting and application process in the time domain. A total number of 9 parameters make ABM relatively straight-forward and less redundant compared with some existing bushing models. The additional capability with proper transfer function makes ABM possible to reflect the frequency dependency of some special-made bushings, such as hydraulic engine mounts. Comparisons between tested and simulated result show that ABM is capable of reproducing accurate force out of a given bushing, under some common situation faced in durability simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0463
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Immanuel Rajkumar
In automotive embedded software developments, as the software functionality are added based on the user preference and technology growth. The software logic were added to the legacy code and the functionality is being visualized. Due to the complexity added to the software, there are chance of introducing a defect to the existing piece of code which makes the functionality to improperly function. In this paper, we will discuss how embedded software projects were developed across globally and how the data is collected. Based on the data collection and applying the statistical method to identify the exact root cause of the problem from injection standpoint, subsequently from escape by review method and testing. By applying the Lean six sigma methodology and Big data analytic method to analyses the data collected, based on analysis performed for data pattern continuous improvement actions were derived.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0136
Ying Fan
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is an analysis technology for improving the reliability of the product. The main process of FMEA is summarized as fellows: firstly to find out the potential failure modes of the product; then to calculate the risk priority number (RPN); finally to determine the risk value order of the subsystems or parts. Risk priority number is a basic method to risk management and harm degree judgment of the product failure. Aiming at a failure mode, with the value of the severity of effect (S), the probability of occurrence (O), and the difficulty of detection (D), the value of RPN is the product of S , O and D. The range of three factors is from 1 to 10 respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0137
Ying Fan
Accurate risk prioritizing is directly related to the effectiveness of risk management. To overcome the shortage of the single numerical evaluation value, aiming at improving the accuracy of risk factors, a new risk priority method was proposed based on geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number and AHP. A risk evaluation system was established. Then the fuzzy description of risk was processed with AHP, and fuzzy weights of risk factors were obtained and calculated it by using the geometric characteristics of triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the detailed ranking of risk factors by severity, probability and detection of risk was made. Risk prioritizing of a certain forklift system was processed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0144
Diljith Muthuvana, Renuka prasad
Abstract System Engineering is a broad concept that can be applied to any business case to help transform the engineering and the organizational needs into understandable, unambiguous, achievable tasks with a fixed time-line. In today's dynamics of the demanding business needs it has become inevitable to think for solutions that guarantee faster delivery while maintaining the quality standards. Traditional processes tend to fall back when implemented to satisfy the challenges faced by engineers in real world while achieving the business need. Many processes have evolved based on the lessons learnt while organization strives towards continuous improvement and adhering to quality standards. Agile, Lean, Kanban are few proven set of principles and practices that has helped to deliver expected results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0363
Vasanth Balashunmuganathan, Ramakrishna Nukala, Sathishkumar Sampath Kumar, Murali Govindarajalu
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the passengers while driving. It will create poor visibility to the passengers when the mist is not cleared on side windows to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don’t clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. Defrost/Demist is one of the major issues for all OEMs in recent years. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. Multiple flow simulation needs to be carried out for various design configurations of demister outlet until the target velocity is achieved before finalizing the design and its time consuming.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0497
Monika Filiposka, Ana M. Djuric, Waguih ElMaraghy
Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications, where large workspace is required and with limited higher manipulability to one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position of the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produce the rectangular workspace. In this paper full kinematic model of 6DOF general CNC machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE softwares. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0503
Hefeng Zhan, Gangfeng Tan, Haobo Xu, Xin Li, Zhaohua Wang, Can Wang
Plenty of dust particles which are generated when a swapping vehicle is dumping harm to workers’ health. In the study, the designed vacuum dust control system could effectively capture easily raised dust particles in the air in the premise of not impacting the dumping process so as to improve the unloading work environment. Firstly, longitudinal motion trajectory model of dust particles in the dumping process is established. Based on the side collision probability model of dust particles, lateral velocity distribution of dust particles is obtained. What’s more, the scope of lateral dust particles is determined. Taking into account coupling of the dust control system and the working state of the vehicle, the suction mouth is arranged at the edge on the outside of hatch cover. Centrifugal horizontal dust removal system designed in the research is fixed in the middle of the filter cover part and discharging hatch cover area.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0498
Matt Gynn, Jamie Steele
This study explores the process changes and challenges encountered during the transition to Virtual Automotive maintenance and service operations—for example, training existing manpower on new tools, the overall schedule adjustments, and to check the item applicability. The confirmation process was reworked significantly, while the final evaluation and reporting process was able to be maintained. Problems were encountered with the organization of the digital part data, the increase in workload of Virtual simulations over physical checks, and the limitations of current simulation technologies. Virtual tools are much slower than physical checks. Ideas for future enhancements of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) and simulation systems are explored.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU’s in order to ensure correct functioning of intended functionality works as expected. These tests perform two critical functions. 1- Act as a proof of quality for the manufactured ECU and 2 - determine a faulty test object and therefore act as a criterion for rejection. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. With ever increasing demand of faster production, there is an increasing pressure to design the tests and its execution framework in a time optimized manner without any compromise on the quality of tests or a reduction in functional coverage. On the other hand, OEMs specify increasingly more functionality and complexity in ECU, thus demanding increase in EoL tests functional coverage. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0639
Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Durability performance of vehicles in the automotive industry is assessed by extended proving ground (PG) testing on vehicle prototypes to ensure the optimum performance of the vehicle system in service. Since these PG tests are time and cost intensive, laboratory testing using road simulators and software testing with Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) modelling have been adopted in order to ensure timely product release while reducing the cost of testing. A road simulator is used for extended testing of a prototype while the CAE is used prior to the availability of the prototype. As vehicle parameters are modified, the road input loads for that vehicle also changes to account for the modified parameters. Hence, the data collected from PG testing of one variant of a vehicle is not accurate enough for use in the CAE testing of another variant since the variant hasn’t been manufactured yet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Simulation Based Process Reliability Design Venkatesh Agaram PTC, Inc., USA Processes involved in product development, manufacturing, and service can be complex, so much so that experts with many years of experience may not have a good understanding of the sensitivity of the process performance metrics to the process control variables, particularly to the interactions between the control variables. Consequently, it is unrealistic to expect that process performance reliability can be based on the experience-based judgment of a few subject matter experts (SMEs). Simulation tools that can take into account the interaction between variations of different process control variables in order to predict the overall process performance reliability are needed to enhance the intuition of SMEs Processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service can be modeled as a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order differential equations in time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0421
Hye Seong Heo, Christoph Pannemann, Yun Kyu Choi, Achim Strass
The energy sources of electrified vehicles, weather it is a high-power battery or a fuel cell, deliver direct current which has to be inverted into alternating current for the electric motor. The core of the main inverter in electrified vehicles is the IGBT power module. During the operational lifetime, the IGBT modules are exposed to harsh environmental conditions such as severe temperature cycles. Active temperature cycles are a result of internal heating of the dies caused by inverting the direct current while driving. Passive temperature cycles are caused by variations of the ambient temperature like summer and winter cycles or by variations of the performance of the cooling system. Moisture or mechanical stress through vibration or shock are other factors that limit the lifetime of the IGBT module. Many papers have been written about reliability testing of power modules, life time modelling and calculation. However, only little has been published from experience in the field.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0471
Apurva Gokhale, Sumeet Parashar, Saket Kansara
Abstract Need for accounting Robustness and Reliability in engineering design is well understood and being researched. However, the actual practice of applying robustness and reliability methods to high fidelity CAE based simulations, especially during optimization is just starting to gain traction in last few years. Availability of computing power is helping the use of such methods, but, at the same time the demand for modeling stochastic behavior with high fidelity CAE simulations and considering large number of stochastic variables still makes it prohibitive. Typically, Robust Design Optimization (RDO) formulations calculate mean and standard deviation of responses based on sampling. On the other hand Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO) formulations have been using methods like First Order Reliability Method (FORM) or Second Order Reliability Method (SORM) which require nested optimization to evaluate joint probability distribution and reliability factor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0582
Deepak Ranjan Bhuyan, Sreekanth Netapalli, Sathya Dev, Soundarya Srinivasan
Springback prediction is challenging for Automotive Industry due to use of High Strength Steel (HSS). Automotive OEMs are working to reduce the springback effect of sheet metal stampings caused due to elastic behavior of materials with the help of changes to manufacturing process and part geometry. Use of HSS has grown due to improved passive safety (higher strength) and reduced vehicle weight. This on the other hand tends to intensify the springback effect, as the HSS materials have a higher elastic limit. Recent development in FEA studies made it possible for the industry to rely on stamping simulation. There is always a gap between the springback predicted from stamping simulation and the actual stamped part. Currently FEA technique is not able to accurately predict this gap. The objective of this study is to minimize this gap using DFSS method for predicting the springback and optimizing the simulation parameters with the help of LS-Dyna FEM tool.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0132
Sibi Visht Sankara Narayanan, Diane Peters
Typically, when someone needs to perform occasional towing tasks, such as towing a boat on a trailer, they have two choices. They can either purchase a larger, more powerful vehicle than they require for their regular usage, or they can rent a larger vehicle when they need to tow something. In this project, we propose a third alternative: a trailer with an on-board power supply, which can be towed by a small vehicle. This system requires a means of sensing how much power the trailer’s power supply should provide, and an appropriate control system to provide this power. In this project, we design and model the trailer, a standard small car, and the control system, and evaluate the concept’s feasibility. We have selected a suitable power source for the trailer, a DC motor, coupled directly to the trailer’s single drive wheel, which allows us to dispense with the need for a differential.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0431
KI Woo Sung, Jong Gurl Kim, Dae-Un Sung, Hye Mi Kim
HKMC has implemented the term of guarantee as 10 years and 100,000 miles for North American power train in order to expand a share in the North American market in 1999. Warranty data of 10 years and 100,000 miles for North American power train is 10-year field data of sales volume in North America which is important to confirm the durability of power train parts. In addition, it is meaningful that HKMC has collected data for ten years first in the world. However, there are some difficulties in warranty data analysis because it is hard to access to warranty repair data containing life information of parts and data is not opened to the public. Although the importance of warranty data has been recognized, the accuracy of data and analysis methods have not been systematically studied in the automobile business world. Unlike warranty data on electronics, failure time of automobile warranty data is given in the two dimensions with mileage and duration of use.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0501
Dengfeng Wang, Rongchao Jiang
The cost of fuel for commercial trucks takes up a great proposition in the total vehicle operating costs. In order to improve the power performance and fuel economy of a domestic self-dumping truck, an optimization matching method of the powertrain system was presented in this paper. A vehicle performance simulation model of this self-dumping truck was established using AVL-Cruise software. Then the power performance and fuel economy simulations were executed according to China National Standard GB/T 12543-2009 “Acceleration performance test method for motor vehicles” and GB/T27840-2011 “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”. Moreover, the simulation results were compared with the road test results, which were measured on proving ground, to verify the validity of the vehicle performance simulation model.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0420
Musarrat Jehan, Efstratios Nikolaidis
There is randomness in both the applied loads and the strength of a system. Therefore, to account for the uncertainty, the safety of the system must be quantified using its reliability. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) is widely used for probabilistic analysis because of its robustness. However, the high computational cost limits the accuracy of MCS. Haftka et al. [2010] developed an improved sampling technique for reliability assessment called Separable Monte Carlo (SMC) that can significantly increase the accuracy of estimation without increasing the cost of sampling. However, this method was applied to time-invariant problems involving two random variables. This paper extends SMC to problems with multiple random variables and develops a novel method for estimation of the standard deviation of the probability of failure of a structure. The method is demonstrated and validated on reliability assessment of a wind turbine under turbulent wind loads.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0425
Monica Majcher, Zissimos P. Mourelatos, Vasileios Geroulas, Igor Baseski, Amandeep Singh
Using the total probability theorem, we propose a method to calculate the failure rate of a linear vibratory system with random parameters excited by stationary Gaussian processes. The response of such a system is non-stationary because of the randomness of the input parameters. A space-filling design, such as optimal symmetric Latin hypercube sampling or maximin, is first used to sample the input parameter space. For each design point, the stationary Gaussian output process is easily characterized using a spectral decomposition approach and the constant failure rate is efficiently estimated using MCS over a short time. A Kriging metamodel is then created between the input parameters and the corresponding failure rates allowing us to estimate the constant failure rate for any set of input parameters. The total probability theorem is finally applied to calculate the time-dependent failure rate or equivalently the time-dependent probability of failure of the dynamic system.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0438
Ashley Lehman, Vesselin Stoilov, Andrzej Sobiesiak
This paper describes the application of the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) to investigate the thermal system performance of vehicle underbody components which are affected by variation in design parameters. The results from this study will pinpoint the design parameters which offer the greatest opportunity for improvement of thermal system performance and reliability. In turn, this method can save engineering time and resources. A mathematical model was first developed using Matlab for a vehicle underbody system consisting of a muffler, heat shield, and underbody panel. There were a number of input parameters identified. Some of these parameters deviate from their nominal value due to environmental factors, wear and ageing, or variation in the manufacturing process. These parameters include the emissivity of the muffler surface, the view factors between each component, and the temperature and velocity of the ambient air.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0495
Shohei Mikami, Georgi Chakmakov
Designing a lightweight and high-strength engine product is universally important from the standpoints of fuel consumption, power, and cost; however, it is difficult to find an optimal solution accomplishing these characteristics in products such as the cylinder heads that are simultaneously affected by a thermal load and various mechanical loads. We focused on an optimization means called “nonparametric optimization” and created a method of cylinder head design that utilized it. Our optimization process was divided into topological optimization and shape optimization. In the topological optimization process, we searched for a structure with the highest theoretical stiffness in the given design space. This provided an efficient structure when pursuing both lightweight and high-strength characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process. Strain energy and displacement of the combustion chamber were used as the parameters for controlling stiffness.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3407

Filter