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2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1852
Ehsan Fatourehchi, Vishak Elisaus, Mahdi Mohammadpour, Stephanos Theodossiades, Homer Rahnejat
Abstract Efficiency and durability are key areas of research and development in modern racing drivetrains. Stringent regulations necessitate the need for components capable of operating under highly loaded conditions whilst being efficient and reliable. Downsizing, increasing the power-to-weight ratio and modification of gear teeth geometry to reduce friction are some of the actions undertaken to achieve these objectives. These approaches can however result in reduced structural integrity and component durability. Achieving a balance between system reliability and optimal efficiency requires detailed integrated multidisciplinary analyses, with the consideration of system dynamics, contact mechanics/tribology and stress analysis/structural integrity. This paper presents an analytical model to predict quasi-static contact power losses in lubricated spur gear sets operating under the Elastohydrodynamic regime of lubrication.
2016-04-11
Journal Article
2016-01-9081
Sean A. McKelvey, Yung-Li Lee
Abstract Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0266
Greg K. Caswell, James McLeish
The use of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for measuring accelerations, pressure, gyroscopic yaw rate and humidity in engine controls, inflatable restraint, braking, stability and other safety critical vehicle systems is increasing. Their use in these safety critical systems in high stress automotive environments makes ensuring their reliability and durability essential tasks, especially as the Vehicle System Functional Safety requirements of ISO-26262 are being implemented across the industry. A Design for Reliability (DfR) approach that applies Physics of Failure methods to evaluate and eliminate or mitigate susceptibilities to failure modes of a device during the design of a product is the most effective and efficient way to achieve Functional Safety levels of reliability-durability. MEMS packages exhibit several failure modes that can be predicted as a device is designed using modern Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software tools.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0279
Chong Chen, Zhenfei Zhan, Jie Li, Yazhou Jiang, Helen Yu
Abstract To reduce the computational time of the iterations in robust design, meta-models are frequently utilized to approximate time-consuming computer aided engineering models. However, the bias of meta-model uncertainty largely affects the robustness of the prediction results, this uncertainty need to be addressed before design optimization. In this paper, an efficient uncertainty quantification method considering both model and parameter uncertainties is proposed. Firstly, the uncertainty of parameters are characterized by statistical distributions. The Bayesian inference is then performed to improve the predictive capabilities of the surrogate models, meanwhile, the model uncertainty can also be quantified in the form of variance. Monte Carlo sampling is finally utilized to quantify the compound uncertainties of model and parameter. Furthermore, the proposed uncertainty quantification method is used for robust design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0657
T Sethuramalingam, Chandrakant Parmar, Sashikant Tiwari
Abstract DFSS is a disciplined problem prevention approach which helps in achieving the most optimum design solution and provides improved and cost effective quality products. This paper presents the implementation of DFSS method to design a distinctive cooling system where engine is mounted in the rear and radiator is mounted in the front of the car. In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle. This layout is mainly found in small, entry level cars and light commercial vehicles chosen for three reasons - packaging, traction, and ease of manufacturing. In conventional Passenger cars, a radiator is located close to the engine for simple packaging and efficient thermal management. This paper is about designing a distinctive cooling system of a car having rear mounted engine and front mounted radiator.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0318
Lev Klyatis
Abstract This paper will discuss the problem of improving engineering culture for development reliability, quality, and testing of the automotive industry product. The basic approach relates to other industries too. The paper will consider why it is so important for engineers and managers, and how it relates to Systems Engineering, which simply stated is , a system which is an integrated composite of people, products, and processes that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective. One of the basic problems of management is strategic thinking. Predicting is inaccurate when it is based on information obtained from using traditional approaches of accelerated life testing (ALT) data where the degradation (failure) processes differ substantially from the product’s degradation processes during service life under real world conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0320
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Mandar Tendolkar, Sivakumar Balakrishnan, Gurudatta Purandare
Abstract In the automotive industry, multiple prototypes are used for vehicle development purposes. These prototypes are typically put through rigorous testing, both under accelerated and real world conditions, to ensure that all the problems related to design, manufacturing, process etc. are identified and solved before it reaches the hands of the customer. One of the challenges faced in testing, is the low repeatability of the real world tests. This may be predominantly due to changes in the test conditions over a period of time like road, traffic, climate etc. Estimating the repeatability of a real world test has been difficult due to the complex and multiple parameters that are usually involved in a vehicle level test and the time correlation between different runs of a real world test does not exist. In such a scenario, the popular and the well-known univariate correlation methods do not yield the best results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1369
Pankaj Goverdhan Bhirud, Andrew Blows, Peter Wakelin, Ajay Virmalwar
Abstract Fatigue life predictions using the strain-life method are used in the design of modern light weight vehicle, for the complex loading that occur with the structural durability tests that these vehicles undergo. The accuracy of these predictions is dependent upon the many factors; geometry, loads & materials etc. This paper details a new procedure to ensure the quality and accuracy of the material parameters for the fatigue life prediction software. The material parameters for the solver are obtained by performing strain-controlled fatigue tests. The geometry of the coupons tested is determined by size and thickness of the material specimen that they are machined from and the loading regime in the test. Detailed data analyzed is conducted on these tests and the parameters that are used as input into the CAE strain-life fatigue prediction software are generated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1359
R. Pradeepak, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Nainishkumar Barhate
Abstract At present, vehicle testing in laboratory is one of the important phase to quicken the product validation process. In the early phase of laboratory testing it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure through physical rig setup which represents the consumer’s usage. Two and Multiple poster input excitation are among the laboratory rig testing to represent the actual road are used to predict the durability of vehicle components. The road inputs through the poster are known as drive files, a feedback controlled system which reproduces the track or real road recorded specimen’s accelerations, displacements and strains in laboratory. Derivation of drive files in poster testing requires iteration of physical specimen to exactly replicate the actual road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1292
Manish Dixit, V Sundaram, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract Noise pollution is a major concern for global automotive industries which propels engineers to evolve new methods to meet passenger comfort and regulatory requirements. The main purpose of an exhaust system in an automotive vehicle is to allow the passage of non-hazardous gases to the atmosphere and reduce the noise generated due to the engine pulsations. The objective of this paper is to propose a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach followed to optimize the muffler for better acoustic performance without compromising on back pressure. Conventionally, muffler design has been an iterative process. It involves repetitive testing to arrive at an optimum design. Muffler has to be designed for better acoustics performance and reduced back pressure which complicates the design process even more.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0046
Markus Ernst, Mario Hirz, Jurgen Fabian
Abstract A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0074
Michael Jensen
Abstract Electronics now control or drive a large part of automotive system design and development, from audio system enhancements to improvements in engine and drive-train performance, and innovations in passenger safety. Industry estimates suggest that electronic systems account for more than 30% of the cost of a new automobile and represent approximately 90% of the innovations in automotive design. As electronic content increases, so does the possibility of electronic system failure and the potential for compromised vehicle safety. Even when designed properly, electronics can be the weakest link in automotive system performance due to variations in component reliability and environmental conditions. Engineers need to understand worst-case system performance as early in the design process as possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0414
Nehal Sardar Rahim
Abstract The Aisin A465 6-Speed Diesel Hybrid powertrain started production in early 2012 and is available in the North American market in the Hino 195h DC COE truck. The suitability, and added fuel efficiency, of a Hybrid powertrain for Class 5 Box truck is very dependent on fleet usage conditions and duty cycle. Aisin has undertaken real-world, extended mileage, durability testing on public roads to determine the operational modes for which such a powertrain is most suitable, and for which a fleet owner can expect fuel savings that will result in a payback period justifying the higher cost of a hybrid system equipped commercial truck. Data collected on the same Aisin proprietary durability test routes with a Conventional Class 3-5 Cab Chassis truck provides insights into truck usage parameters that differ between Hybrid and Conventional Class 3-5 commercial trucks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0408
Sagar Polisetti, Siddesh Gowda, Nitin Kumar Khanna, Manjul Jyoti
Abstract Suspension system is one of the most important systems in an automobile and the failure in the sub systems or parts would prove catastrophic. A semi-trailing arm (STA) suspension is an independent rear suspension system for automobiles where each wheel hub is located only by a large, roughly triangular arm that pivots at two points onto the chassis or the body. STA usually is subjected to three directional loads viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in service. The conventional methodology of validating the system is by applying multi-axial loads or by road load simulation consuming significant amount of time. In this paper an attempt is being made to validate the damper mounting pins by reproducing the damper loads locally instead of validating the entire system. STA was strain gauged at the critical locations and was mounted onto the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0480
Weiguo Zhang, Mark Likich, Mac Lynch, John White
Abstract The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Abstract Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0319
David E. Verbitsky
Abstract Failure analysis (FA) and accelerated testing are essential tools used in mobility electronics. Yet, FA’s role is underestimated and underutilized. Its administration lacks standardization and support, esp., during multi-stress accelerated reliability testing (ART). Proposed three-stage systemic early FA (SEFA) methodology provides feedback using conventional and original systematic hierarchical complementary multidisciplinary comparative tools and methods focusing on prevalent early failures (EF). Subject matter result-oriented technical root-cause FA (RCFA) is a vital past of SEFA. This paper outlines three-phase RCFA methodology along with specific methods, tools, and examples related to ART. Presented EF classifications interpret EFs’ symptoms, mechanisms, and causes and propose corrective actions. Suitable RCFA-SEFA improve products and ART by precluding-resolving prevalent EF.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0269
Zhigang Wei, Michael Start, Jason Hamilton, Limin Luo
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns for vehicle components and systems, which experience cyclic fatigue loadings and may eventually fail over time. Durability and reliability assessment and associated product validation require effective and robust testing methods. Several testing methods are available and among them, three basic testing methods are widely used: life testing, binomial testing (bogey testing), and degradation testing. In fact, their commonalities, differences, and relationships have not been clearly defined and fully understood. Therefore, the maximum potential of these testing methods to generate efficient, optimized, and cost-effective testing plans, consistent results, and meaningful results interpretation have been significantly limited. In this paper, a unified framework for representing these testing methods and conducting reliability analysis in a single damage-cycle (D-N) diagram is provided.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0272
Huairui Guo, David Dronzkowski
Abstract Pre-production vehicle validation is a critical step in understanding what potential issues end customers may find. Road profiles used in vehicle level tests are critical in finding failures. Clearly, if all the vehicles are tested only on highway, many failures will not be discovered. Therefore, using the right road profiles is very important. Traditionally, customer survey data is used to identify an appropriate road profile by defining a route that represents the Xth percentile customer. In this paper, a clustering method is applied to group all the customers into several groups. Each group is represented by a single road profile, and the entire customer population can be represented by multiple road profiles. If vehicles are tested using these profiles, then the road test can better represent the field condition, and hopefully failures can be discovered more efficiently.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0434
Roshan N. Mahadule, Jaideep Singh Chavan
Abstract Door closing velocity (DCV) is one of the important design parameter for door durability performance. The closing velocity varies with the design parameters and physical properties of the door. The variation in door closing effort may increase or decrease the durability of the door and body components, this can be a concern when the overall vehicle durability performance is considered. This paper gives a mathematical model to calculate the door closing effort accounting the energy sink from various door design parameters such as door seal, latch, hinge, door weight, checkstrap and cabin-pressure. In addition to this, the MS-Excel based computation tool has been developed, which aims to calculate the door closing velocity and energy contribution from each design parameter. This tool is very interactive and effective for durability engineer and helps in improving the quality of vehicle door design.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0283
Joydip Saha, Harry Chen, Sadek Rahman
Abstract More stringent federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems in order to best utilize the waste heat and minimize overall power consumption. With all new technologies and requirements, how to properly design, optimize, and control the vehicle thermal and cooling systems become great challenges to automotive engineers. Model based approach has become essential to the new thermal management system architectures design and evaluation of the optimal system solutions. This paper will discuss how the model based vehicle thermal system simulation tools have been developed from analytical & empirical data, and have been used for assessment and development of new thermal management system architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0053
Abhishek Sharma
Abstract Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, printers, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, maintenance, community support, advantages and disadvantages. Target audience would be the software engineers, program managers, using an open source stack for the product development.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0050
Huafeng Yu, Chung-Wei Lin, BaekGyu Kim
Abstract Modern vehicles can have millions of lines of software, for vehicle control, infotainment, etc. The correctness and quality of the software play a key role in the safety of whole vehicles. In order to assure the safety, engineers give an effort to prove correctness of individual subsystems or their integration using testing or verification methods. One needs to eventually certify that the developed vehicle as a whole is indeed safe using the artifacts and evidences produced throughout the development cycle. Such a certification process helps to increase the safety confidence of the developed software and reduce OEM’s liability. However, software certification in automotive domain is not yet well established, compared to other safety-critical domains, such as avionics and medical devices. At the same time, safety-relevant standards and techniques, including ISO 26262 and assurance cases, have been well adopted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0953
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Smith, Michael Zammit, Brad Walker
In order to meet LEV III, EURO 6C and Beijing 6 emission levels, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) can potentially implement unique aftertreatment systems solutions which meet the varying legislated requirements. The availability of various washcoat substrates and PGM loading and ratio options, make selection of an optimum catalyst system challenging, time consuming and costly. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodologies have been used in industry since the 1990s. One of the earliest applications was at Motorola where the methodology was applied to the design and production of a paging device which Consumer Reports called “virtually defect-proof”.[1] Since then, the methodology has evolved to not only encapsulate complicated “Variation Optimization” but also “Design Optimization” where multiple factors are in play. In this study, attempts are made to adapt the DFSS concept and methodology to identify and optimize a catalyst for diesel applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1393
Prabhakar Konikineni, V. Sundaram, Kumar Sathish, Sankarasubramanian Thirukkotti
Abstract Fan shroud is one of the critical components in an engine cooling system. It helps in achieving optimum air flow across the heat exchangers. The major challenge is to design a fan shroud which meets noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) requirements without compromising on air flow targets [1]. An improperly designed fan shroud will cause detrimental effects such as undesirable noise and vibration, which will further damage the surrounding components. In current days, multiple simulations and test iterations are carried out in order to optimize its design. The objective of this paper is to provide a design framework to achieve optimized fan shroud that meets NVH requirements in quick turnaround time using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach [2]. The purpose of the Engine cooling system is to maintain the coolant temperature across the vehicle.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1736
Manida Tongroon, Amornpoth Suebwong, Mongkon Kananont, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
Abstract The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extended cab, equipped with 4JK1-TCX engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro IV emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Palm-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 20% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0168
Prashant Shinde, Omprakash Kota
Abstract Increasing demand of Electric and Hybrid vehicles questions more about Reliability and Lifetime of electronic circuits associated with them. It is very important for a hardware circuit designer to evaluate if module will last the expected lifetime. This paper elaborates the methods and steps to find the expected lifetime of critical components; and to decide whether Hybrid Power Electronics Unit (PEU) will meet the OEM requirements on lifetime. Accelerated thermal stress method is used to determine the required High Temperature Operational Life (HTOL) hours for given thermal profile of Hybrid vehicle passenger car in driving (8,000Hrs), charging(30,000Hrs) and total lifetime (38000Hrs ≈ 15Years). Example calculation of required HTOL hours against expected lifetime for critical component from Hybrid ECUs is explained in this paper. Also inclusions and exclusions of this method in evaluating lifetime assessment are also discussed here.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0811
Daichi Kano, Nagasaka Kazuya, Go Matsubara, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Kasugai, Hideaki Saito
In the development of a motorcycle frame, the balance between high performance and reliability and a short development period are important. In this study, a fatigue durability evaluation technique for a motorcycle frame was developed to enable highly accurate development within a short period of time. Furthermore, we developed a shaking table excitation system as a means to supplement the road test.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2756
Basaran Ozmen, Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Serter Atamer, Roman Teutsch
Abstract Securing the desired strength and durability characteristics of suspension components is one of the most important topics in the development of commercial vehicles because these components undergo multiaxial variable amplitude loading. Leaf springs are essential for the suspension systems of trucks and they are considered as security relevant components in the product development phase. In order to guide the engineers in the design and testing department, a simulation method is developed as explained by Bakir et al. in a recently published SAE paper [1]. The main aim of the present study is to illustrate the validation of this simulation method for the durability of leaf springs based on the results from testing and measurements. In order to verify this CAE Method, the calculated stresses on the leaf springs are compared with the results of strain gage measurements and the fatigue failures of leaf springs are correlated with the calculated damage values.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Abstract Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization.
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