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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization. DivgiWarner has not only designed and developed but has also been practicing unique processes of cost-reduction utilizing various tools as, 1. Value Analysis and Value Engineering 2. Cost-reduction through productivity improvement 3. Supply Chain Management ( SCM) 4. Lean Manufacturing 5. Total Quality Management (TQM) 6. Control over fixed Costs 7.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emission become necessary part for engines. With the increased levels of complexity, end users also require increased level of quality for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one extreme example is focused on very components’ quality to ensure the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. These measures tighten the component tolerance during manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another extreme example is on the other side of the methodologies spectrum. The methodology is to tailor the engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing difference. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the calibration and validation cost for engines. Given the cost and time constraints, system integration plays an important role in engine development.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2756
Basaran Ozmen, Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Serter Atamer, Roman Teutsch
Securing the desired durability of suspension components is one of the most important topics for the vehicle designers because these components undergo multiaxial variable amplitude loading in the vehicle. Leaf springs are essential for the suspension system of trucks and should be considered as a security relevant part in the product development phase. In order to guide the engineers in the design and testing department, a simulation method was developed as explained in the paper “Bakir, M., Siktas, M., and Atamer, S., "Comprehensive Durability Assessment of Leaf Springs with CAE Methods," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2297, 2014”. In this new study, the main aim is to present the validation of this newly developed CAE method for the durability of leaf springs depending on the results from testing and measurement in the rough road and test bench.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2757
Deepak Anand Subramanian, Nithya Sridhar, N. Obuli Karthikeyan, V. Srinivasa Chandra
The Indian automotive sector is experiencing a major shift, focusing predominantly towards the levels of quality, reliability and comfort delivered to the customer. Since the entry of global players into the market, there is a rising demand for timely product launches with utmost priority to reliability. In any vehicle, suspension plays a critical role in transferring the road inputs onto the vehicle components, therefore, responsible for both ride comfort and load transfer. Engine mount, being an integral part of this system, takes care of isolating the inertial forces between the engine and the chassis. This project details on how testing can aid in reducing the launch time as well as ensuring desired degree of reliability. It proposes a methodology to formulate a life model for the engine mount considering various combinations of predictor parameters affecting its performance over its design life.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2758
Zhigang Wei, Robert Rebandt, Michael Start, Litang Gao, Jason Hamilton, Limin Luo
Bench testing is commonly used to construct fatigue design curves, which are used for the durability and reliability assessment of engineering components subjected to cyclic loading. Several criteria, such as R90C90 and R99C50, are widely used in automotive industry to construct fatigue design curves for a typical testing sample allocation, i.e. two stress/load levels and 6 data points at each stress/load levels. In order to reduce the test sample size and associated testing cost, recently, a Bayesian statistics based design curve construction method has been successfully developed. The Bayesian method is based on a large amount of reliable historical fatigue test data, the associated probabilistic distributions of the mean and standard deviation of the failure cycles, and an advanced acceptance-rejection resampling algorithm.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2818
Scott Shafer
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These more rigorous regulations have driven engine manufacturers to apply technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems to reduce emissions. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Also, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Increased debris concentrations, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, combine to create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can results in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2816
Andrei Radulescu, Leighton Roberts, Eric Yankovic
Cylinder deactivation (CDA) is an effective method to adjust the engine displacement, for maximum output and improving fuel economy, by adjusting the numbers of active cylinders in the combustion engines. Switching Roller Finger Followers (SRFF) are an economic solution for CDA that minimize changes and preserve the overall width, height or length of Dual Overhead Cam (DOHC) engines. The CDA SRFF provides the flexibility of transferring or suppressing the camshaft movement to the valves influencing the engine performance and fuel economy by reducing the pumping losses. This paper addresses the performance and durability of the CDA SRFF system in meeting the reliability for modern automobile engines. Extensive tests were conducted to demonstrate the dynamic stability at high engine speeds, and the system capacity of switching between high and low engine displacement within one camshaft revolution.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2666
Scott Lambert
The Global Brake Safety Council sees an increase in disc brake pads that are prematurely replaced before the end of the friction lining life cycle, due to: Rust related issues such as separation of friction lining from the disc brake shoe Fluctuation in critical dimensions A leading cause for both issues is the use of mill scale steel, or ‘black steel’ (non-pickled and oiled). In the North American aftermarket, as there are little or no steel specifications for disc brake shoes, black steel is increasingly used. GBSC conducted research of discarded disc brake pads from job-shops and engaged in discussions with metallurgists, major pad manufacturers and OE brake foundation engineers to identify root causes of premature pad replacement and the effects of black steel used for disc brake shoe manufacturing. Mill scale is embedded in and around the bond line of the friction lining and the disc brake shoe, causing a weaker bond, susceptible to rust jacking.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft’s large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all these parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on an aircraft door assembly case study monitoring the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft OEM and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line or plant performance in real time, in addition to automating standardized reporting. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2500
Brigitte Vasques
The drilling of multi layers composite stacks remains a common process in aerospace industry. Research of productive solutions such as one shot and dry drilling operations to avoid reaming and lubrication are contemplated by aerospace customers on titanium multi layers composite applications. Those solutions permit to reduce the number of finishing operation and drilling time. Special ADEs (Advanced Drilling Equipment) machines are used to drill aircraft components in limited access areas. Parameters such as cutters, ADE machines type, rigidity clamping, cutting conditions, speed, feed, chip fragmentation and extraction are related and influence the holes quality. Titanium (TA6V) thickness and cutting configuration influence the cutter wear development. In this work, ADE and specific cutter geometries developed by Apex are used for the one shot dry drilling of titanium. Carbide cutters have been chosen for their resistance to the heat developed by titanium drill.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2549
Marc-André Léonard, Jean-François Boland, Christophe Jégo, Claude Thibeault
Abstract Design assurance guidance such as DO-254, and commercial off the shelf (COTS) increasing popularity in high critical mission have pushed the validation and verification methodologies to improve by integrating fault tolerance analysis in reliability assessment. A novel methodology for analysing the sensitivity of digital designs to single event upsets (SEU) is proposed. We first characterize basic combinational circuit models using fault injection via mutation technique at low level of abstraction. Error analysis is performed at primary outputs to identify patterns that are collected in a faulty behaviour library. This library is then used at a high level of abstraction to execute a sensitivity analysis on a digital design model. A reliability report is then generated showing the soft error rate (SER) and the benign errors count. We proved our methodology by analysing the radiation sensitivity of a discrete wavelet transform architecture using two different sets of data.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2555
Ephraim Suhir, Alain Bensoussan, Johann Nicolics
It has been lately established (see, e.g., [1]) that the continuing trend on miniaturization (Moore’s Law) in IC design and fabrication might have a negative impact on the device reliability, especially when it comes to deep submicron (DSM) technologies. These are characterized by etching thicknesses below 90nm. In order to understand and to quantify the physics underlying this phenomenon, it is natural to proceed from the experimental bathtub curve (BTC), an experimental reliability “passport” of a population of mass produced devices. As is known, this curve considers and reflects the combined effect of two irreversible processes: statistics-related mass-production process and reliability-physics-related degradation (aging) process. The first process results in a decreasing failure rate with time, while the second process leads to an increasing failure rate. It is this second process that should be of major concern to an IC designer and manufacturer.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2388
Luis Rabelo, Tom Clark
Abstract Although a multitude of anomaly detection and fault isolation programs can be found in the research, there does not appear to be any work published on architectural templates that could take advantage of multiple programs and integrate them into the desired systems. More specifically, there is an absence of a methodological process for generating anomaly detection and fault isolation designs to either embed within new system concepts, or supplement existing schemes. This paper introduces a new approach based on systems engineering and the System Modeling Language (SysML). Preliminary concepts of the proposed approach are explained. In addition, a case study is also mentioned.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2526
Borislav Klarin, Thomas Resch, Chiara Sessarego, Giorgio Spanu, Gianni Lamonaca
This paper presents a methodology for numerical investigation of a full flexible balancer drive together with engine and crank train under realistic operating conditions where shaft dynamics, gear contact and rattle impacts, gear root stresses and friction losses in bearings and gear interaction are taken into account and can be balanced against each other to achieve the design criteria. Gear rattle is driven by the speed fluctuation of the crank train, the resistance torque (mainly friction), shaft inertia and the backlash in the gears. The actual trend to engine downsizing and up-torqueing increases the severity to rattle as engines are running on higher combustion pressures. This increases torque and speed fluctuation, which makes the detailed investigation in this torque transfer even more demanding. A common method to reduce gear rattle is the usage of so-called scissors gears.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2187
Mark A. Gehringer, Keith Thompson
Abstract This paper describes the development of a semi-automated end-of-line driveline system balance tester for an automotive assembly plant. The overall objective was to provide final quality assurance for acceptable driveline noise and vibration refinement in a rear wheel drive vehicle. The problem to be solved was how to measure the driveline system unbalance within assembly plant constraints including cycle time, operator capability, and integration with a pre-existing vehicle roll test machine. Several challenging aspects of the tester design and development are presented and solutions to these challenges are addressed. Major design aspects addressed included non-contacting vibration sensing, data acquisition/processing system and vehicle position feedback.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2336
Anastasios Arvanitis, Jeff Orzechowski, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy
Abstract Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
Abstract NHTSA issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate countermeasures that can minimize the likelihood of a complete or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this safety ruling is the Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an optimized concept SABIC with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements. The simulated SABIC is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle. The improved performance included: minimization of the test results variability and the optimization of the ejection mitigation performance of the SABIC.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0363
Vasanth Balashunmuganathan, Ramakrishna Nukala, Sathishkumar Sampath Kumar, Murali Govindarajalu
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the person while driving. Visibility through the side windows will be poor when the mist is not cleared to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don't clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. The methodology for optimizing the demister outlet located at side door trim has been discussed. Detailed studies are carried out for creating a parametric modeling and optimization of demister outlet design for meeting the target velocity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0421
Hye Seong Heo, Christoph Pannemann, Yun Kyu Choi, Achim Strass
Abstract This paper presents a reliability study of a directly cooled IGBT module after a test drive of 85,000 Km in a fuel cell electric vehicle, as well as of an indirectly cooled IGBT module after a test drive of 200,000km in a hybrid car on public roads. At the end of the test drive, the inverter units were disassembled and analyzed with regard to the lifetime consumption. First, electrical measurements were carried out and the results were compared with the ones obtained directly after module production (End of Line test). After that, ultrasonic microscopy was performed in order to investigate any delamination in the solder layers. As a third step, an optical inspection was performed to monitor damages in the housing, formation of cracks or degradation of wire bonds. The results show none of the depicted failure modes could be found on the tested power modules after the field test. Obviously, no significant life time consumption could be observed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Abstract System dynamics modeling of complex processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service, is an efficient approach for assessing value potential of different business transformation alternatives at small and large enterprises. Process elements such as generation of concepts, detailed designs, pilot level plant trials, etc. can be modeled including first-pass work, testing and review, rework identification and defect fixing, along with release readiness, staffing, schedule pressures, overtime and many other business metrics. Enterprise level processes, with their complex logic loops, can be represented as a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, whose solutions can reveal the intricate underlying dynamics. Design of experiments, performed on the system dynamics models representing the business processes, are an inexpensive way of gaining insights into the impact of interactions between the numerous process control variables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0431
KI Woo Sung, Jong Gurl Kim, Dae-Un Sung, Hye Mi Kim
Abstract This study examined various warranty data analysis methods to identify and study the one most suitable for Hyundai Motor warranty data. The drawbacks of the conventional life table method were overcome to develop an analysis method optimized for vehicle characteristics. The proposed method was examined for its suitability to various applications, such as providing the information necessary for determining the service life of parts, verifying the effects of design changes, and designing warranty and maintenance policies. The analysis data used in this study were derived from the 10-year powertrain parts warranty data of vehicles sold in the USA, South Korea, and China.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Abstract An accurate bushing model is vital for vehicle dynamic simulation regarding fatigue life prediction. This paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, which gives high precision and fast simulation. The ABM is a time-domain model targeting for vehicle durability simulation. It dynamically captures bushing nonlinearities that occur on stiffness, damping and hysteresis, through a time-history-based fitting technique, compensated with frequency dependency functionality. Among the simulated and test-collected bushing loads, good correlations have been achieved for elastomer bushings and hydraulic engine mounts and validated with a random excitation signal. This ABM model has been integrated into a virtual shaker table (from a parallel project) as the engine mount model to simulate the mount load, and has shown acceptable prediction on fatigue damage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0582
Deepak Ranjan Bhuyan, Sreekanth Netapalli, Sathya Dev, Soundarya Srinivasan
Abstract Springback prediction for stamped components is a challenging task for Automotive Industry. Automotive Manufacturers are working to reduce the springback effect of sheet metal stampings caused due to elastic behavior of materials with the help of changes to manufacturing process and part geometry. Recent development in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) studies made it possible for the industry to rely on stamping simulation. There is always a gap between the springback predicted from stamping simulation and the actual stamped part. Currently FEA techniques are trying to close this gap. The objective of this study is to minimize this gap using DFSS method for predicting the springback and optimizing the simulation parameters with the help of LS-Dyna FEM tool. The behavior of material with different simulation parameters has been studied in this paper and the ones that best correlate with actual data are identified.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge Jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng Jiang, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Chang
Abstract An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customers into engineering languages. In other words, transfer the wants of customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire of customer wants for a CUV (Crossover Utility Vehicle) is created and processed. Using QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and modified KANO model, the relative important degree is obtained from the original relative important degree of customer wants surveyed. Since some information gained is uncertain and the questionnaire sample is limited, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced, which calculates the competitive important degree of customer wants, then the final important degree of customer wants is gained by integrating the relative important degree and the competitive important degree.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
Abstract A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts - especially Powertrain ones - with accuracy down to 0.1 μm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non-contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because it has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of this system. In this research, the durability test mode of a new Adaptive Front Lighting System (AFLS) with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as a new light source has been developed for a new large luxury sedan vehicle. First of all, the failure mode effect was analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal, vibrational, operational and electrical loads were investigated. The Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) technique was used to collect the vibration and temperature of an AFLS in a proving ground. The vibration test mode was designed by a Power Spectral Density (PSD) approach. The customer usage data was used for making the target cycles of operational movement such as swiveling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0639
Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Abstract This research proposes the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict the road input for road load data generation for variants of a vehicle as vehicle parameters are modified. This is important to the design engineers while the vehicle variant is still in the initial stages of development, hence no prototypes are available and accurate proving ground data acquisition is not possible. ANNs are, with adequate training, capable of representing the complex relationships between inputs and outputs. This research explores the implementation of the ANN to predict road input for vehicle variants using a quarter vehicle test rig. The training and testing data for this research are collected from a validated quarter vehicle model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1613
Nikhil Bolar, Thomas Buchler, Allen Li, Jeff Wallace
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. The three key requirements of structural performance evaluation for vehicle development are NVH, durability and safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Abstract Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma (DFSS) and finite element analysis are used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
Abstract End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU's in order to ensure correct functioning of its intended functionality. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. On one hand, faster production demands require these tests and its framework to be designed in a time optimized manner. On the other hand, increase in ECU functionality translates to an increase in test's functional coverage, requiring more time. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production. Availability of multicore microcontrollers with increase in clock speed can increase the performance of end of line tests, but design challenges e.g. synchronization do not guarantee a linear performance increase. Therefore, design of test execution framework is absolutely critical to increase performance of test execution.
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