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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2757
Deepak Anand Subramanian, Nithya Sridhar, Obuli Karthikeyan N, Srinivasa Chandra V
The Indian automotive sector is experiencing a major shift, focusing predominantly towards the levels of quality, reliability and comfort delivered to the customer. Since the entry of global players into the market, there is a rising demand for timely product launches with utmost priority to reliability. In any vehicle, suspension plays a critical role in transferring the road inputs onto the vehicle components, therefore, responsible for both ride comfort and load transfer. Engine mount, being an integral part of this system, takes care of isolating the inertial forces between the engine and the chassis. This project details on how testing can aid in reducing the launch time as well as ensuring desired degree of reliability. It proposes a methodology to formulate a life model for the engine mount considering various combinations of predictor parameters affecting its performance over its design life.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2756
Basaran Ozmen, Mehmet Bakir, Murat Siktas, Dr. Serter Atamer, Dr. Roman Teutsch
Securing the desired durability of suspension components is one of the most important topics for the vehicle designers because these components undergo multiaxial variable amplitude loading in the vehicle. Leaf springs are essential for the suspension system of trucks and should be considered as a security relevant part in the product development phase. In order to guide the engineers in the design and testing department, a simulation method was developed as explained in the paper “Bakir, M., Siktas, M., and Atamer, S., "Comprehensive Durability Assessment of Leaf Springs with CAE Methods," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2297, 2014”. In this new study, the main aim is to present the validation of this newly developed CAE method for the durability of leaf springs depending on the results from testing and measurement in the rough road and test bench.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emission become necessary part for engines. With the increased levels of complexity, end users also require increased level of quality for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one extreme example is focused on very components’ quality to ensure the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. These measures tighten the component tolerance during manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another extreme example is on the other side of the methodologies spectrum. The methodology is to tailor the engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing difference. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the calibration and validation cost for engines. Given the cost and time constraints, system integration plays an important role in engine development.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Cost reduction and cost competitiveness has been emerged as a major strategic tool to an enterprise used to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value creation through simultaneously enriching the Planet, People and the Economy should be the key drivers for cost reduction strategy in the business. The main objective of this paper is to explain the Process & Principles of Cost Reduction in technology transfer to Low Cost emerging economies to achieve Sustainable cost reduction and creating a culture of cost consciousness throughout the organization. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practices the unique process of cost reduction through various tools as, 1. Value Analysis and Value Engineering 2. Cost reduction through productivity improvement 3. Supply Chain Management ( SCM) 4. Lean Manufacturing 5. Total Quality Management (TQM) 6. Control over fixed cost 7. Working capital and funds flow management 8. Inventory management 9.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2758
Zhigang Wei, Robert Rebandt, Michael Start, Litang Gao, Jason Hamilton, Limin Luo
Bench testing is commonly used to construct fatigue design curves, which are used for the durability and reliability assessment of engineering components subjected to cyclic loading. Several criteria, such as R90C90 and R99C50, are widely used in automotive industry to construct fatigue design curves for a typical testing sample allocation, i.e. two stress/load levels and 6 data points at each stress/load levels. In order to reduce the test sample size and associated testing cost, recently, a Bayesian statistics based design curve construction method has been successfully developed. The Bayesian method is based on a large amount of reliable historical fatigue test data, the associated probabilistic distributions of the mean and standard deviation of the failure cycles, and an advanced acceptance-rejection resampling algorithm.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2666
Scott Lambert
The Global Brake Safety Council sees an increase in disc brake pads that are prematurely replaced before the end of the friction lining life cycle, due to: Rust related issues such as separation of friction lining from the disc brake shoe Fluctuation in critical dimensions A leading cause for both issues is the use of mill scale steel, or ‘black steel’ (non-pickled and oiled). In the North American aftermarket, as there are little or no steel specifications for disc brake shoes, black steel is increasingly used. GBSC conducted research of discarded disc brake pads from job-shops and engaged in discussions with metallurgists, major pad manufacturers and OE brake foundation engineers to identify root causes of premature pad replacement and the effects of black steel used for disc brake shoe manufacturing. Mill scale is embedded in and around the bond line of the friction lining and the disc brake shoe, causing a weaker bond, susceptible to rust jacking.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft’s large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all these parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on an aircraft door assembly case study monitoring the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft OEM and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line or plant performance in real time, in addition to automating standardized reporting. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2500
Brigitte Vasques
Authors: Brigitte Vasques (a), A. Mendes (a) a) ApexToolGroup S.N.C. 25, avenue Maurice Chevalier-Z. I. 77330 Ozoir-la-Ferrière (France) brigitte.vasques@apextoolgroup.com Abstract: The drilling of multilayers composite stacks remains a common process in aerospace industry. Research of productive solutions such as one shot and dry drilling operations to avoid reaming and lubrication are contemplated by aerospace customers on titanium multilayers composite applications. Those solutions permit to reduce the number of finishing operation and drilling time. Special ADEs (advanced drilling equipment’s) machines are used to drill aircraft components in limited access areas. Parameters such as cutters, ADE machines, rigidity fixation, drill cutting conditions, chip fragmentation and extraction are related and influence the hole quality. Titanium (TA6V) thickness and cutting configuration influence the cutter wear development.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2388
Luis Rabelo, Tom Clark
For many critical space operation systems, timely recognition of an anomalous condition immediately starts the evaluation process. For complex systems, isolating the fault to a component or subsystem results in corrective action sooner so that undesired consequences may be minimized. These beneficial anomaly detection and fault isolation capabilities are widely recognized and have resulted in the development of innovative techniques for quickly discovering underlying system problems. This paper will address augmenting a legacy system with additional detector/isolator capabilities best suited for that system. A cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank pressurization subsystem (from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pad) is the basis for the model. This system is operated remotely and supports time-critical and high-risk operations making it a good candidate to supplement with this technology. The proposed approach models the existing system using the System Modeling Language (SysML).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2549
Marc-André Léonard, Jean-François Boland, Christophe Jégo, Claude Thibeault
Nowadays, growing complexity in digital systems forces electronic hardware designers to adopt Electronic System Level (ESL) design and verification approach from a high-level perspective. To assess the reliability of a digital hardware design towards cosmic rays effects, this paper proposes a verification methodology based on high abstraction level fault injection simulation using a library of primitives characterized at lower levels. Once created, the designer can reuse this library in order to obtain a reliability report. The novelty of this research resides in the capacity of using an accurate fault injection model in a highly abstracted system description. Combining this accuracy with the use of error pattern classification at low-level, brings a new perspective to the simulation-based fault injection field.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2555
Ephraim Suhir
It has been lately established (see, e.g., [1]) that the continuing trend on miniaturization (Moore’s Law) in IC design and fabrication might have a negative impact on the device reliability, especially when it comes to deep submicron (DSM) technologies. These are characterized by etching thicknesses below 90nm. In order to understand and to quantify the physics underlying this phenomenon, it is natural to proceed from the experimental bathtub curve (BTC), an experimental reliability “passport” of a population of mass produced devices. As is known, this curve considers and reflects the combined effect of two irreversible processes: statistics-related mass-production process and reliability-physics-related degradation (aging) process. The first process results in a decreasing failure rate with time, while the second process leads to an increasing failure rate. It is this second process that should be of major concern to an IC designer and manufacturer.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2526
Borislav Klarin, Thomas Resch, Chiara Sessarego, Giorgio Spanu, Gianni Lamonaca
Modern engines with low number of cylinders (I4, I3, I2) are typically equipped with a mass balancing unit to reduce free mass forces and moments and to keep powerunit vibrations, transferred via the mounts into the chassis, on an acceptable level and by that meet the required comfort quality. Typical disadvantages of mass balancing systems are increased friction, which reduces the engine efficiency, but also space, costs, increased complexity and negative effect on the engine acoustics. Especially the latter is defined by the design of the drive for the balancer unit. In many cases, this is realized by a gear drive, directly driven from the crankshaft. Therefore, special care has to be taken for the layout of this gear(s) to avoid potential rattle, gear tooth failure and negative noise transfer from gear contact to the housing structure (e.g. increased axial excitation due to selection of helix angle).
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2187
Mark A. Gehringer, Keith Thompson
Abstract This paper describes the development of a semi-automated end-of-line driveline system balance tester for an automotive assembly plant. The overall objective was to provide final quality assurance for acceptable driveline noise and vibration refinement in a rear wheel drive vehicle. The problem to be solved was how to measure the driveline system unbalance within assembly plant constraints including cycle time, operator capability, and integration with a pre-existing vehicle roll test machine. Several challenging aspects of the tester design and development are presented and solutions to these challenges are addressed. Major design aspects addressed included non-contacting vibration sensing, data acquisition/processing system and vehicle position feedback.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2336
Anastasios Arvanitis, Jeff Orzechowski, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy
Abstract Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma, Dipu Purushothaman, Darshan Subhash Pawargi, Sukhbir Bilkhu, Brian Beaudet
Abstract NHTSA issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate countermeasures that can minimize the likelihood of a complete or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this safety ruling is the Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an optimized concept SABIC with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements. The simulated SABIC is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle. The improved performance included: minimization of the test results variability and the optimization of the ejection mitigation performance of the SABIC.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0363
Vasanth Balashunmuganathan, Ramakrishna Nukala, Sathishkumar Sampath Kumar, Murali Govindarajalu
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the person while driving. Visibility through the side windows will be poor when the mist is not cleared to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don't clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. The methodology for optimizing the demister outlet located at side door trim has been discussed. Detailed studies are carried out for creating a parametric modeling and optimization of demister outlet design for meeting the target velocity.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0420
Musarrat Jehan, Efstratios Nikolaidis
Abstract There is randomness in both the applied loads and the strength of systems. Therefore, to account for the uncertainty, the safety of the system must be quantified using its reliability. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) is widely used for probabilistic analysis because of its robustness. However, the high computational cost limits the accuracy of MCS. Smarslok et al. [2010] developed an improved sampling technique for reliability assessment called Separable Monte Carlo (SMC) that can significantly increase the accuracy of estimation without increasing the cost of sampling. However, this method was applied to time-invariant problems involving two random variables. This paper extends SMC to problems with multiple random variables and develops a novel method for estimation of the standard deviation of the probability of failure of a structure. The method is demonstrated and validated on reliability assessment of an offshore wind turbine under turbulent wind loads.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0421
Hye Seong Heo, Christoph Pannemann, Yun Kyu Choi, Achim Strass
Abstract This paper presents a reliability study of a directly cooled IGBT module after a test drive of 85,000 Km in a fuel cell electric vehicle, as well as of an indirectly cooled IGBT module after a test drive of 200,000km in a hybrid car on public roads. At the end of the test drive, the inverter units were disassembled and analyzed with regard to the lifetime consumption. First, electrical measurements were carried out and the results were compared with the ones obtained directly after module production (End of Line test). After that, ultrasonic microscopy was performed in order to investigate any delamination in the solder layers. As a third step, an optical inspection was performed to monitor damages in the housing, formation of cracks or degradation of wire bonds. The results show none of the depicted failure modes could be found on the tested power modules after the field test. Obviously, no significant life time consumption could be observed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0447
Venkatesh Agaram, Julian Venegas
Abstract System dynamics modeling of complex processes such as product development, manufacturing, and service, is an efficient approach for assessing value potential of different business transformation alternatives at small and large enterprises. Process elements such as generation of concepts, detailed designs, pilot level plant trials, etc. can be modeled including first-pass work, testing and review, rework identification and defect fixing, along with release readiness, staffing, schedule pressures, overtime and many other business metrics. Enterprise level processes, with their complex logic loops, can be represented as a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, whose solutions can reveal the intricate underlying dynamics. Design of experiments, performed on the system dynamics models representing the business processes, are an inexpensive way of gaining insights into the impact of interactions between the numerous process control variables.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0453
Zhimin Xi, Hao Pan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Abstract To date, model validation metric is prominently designed for non-dynamic model responses. Though metrics for dynamic responses are also available, they are specifically designed for the vehicle impact application and uncertainties are not considered in the metric. This paper proposes the validation metric for general dynamic system responses under uncertainty. The metric makes use of the popular U-pooling approach and extends it for dynamic responses. Furthermore, shape deviation metric was proposed to be included in the validation metric with the capability of considering multiple dynamic test data. One vehicle impact model is presented to demonstrate the proposed validation metric.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0431
KI Woo Sung, Jong Gurl Kim, Dae-Un Sung, Hye Mi Kim
Abstract This study examined various warranty data analysis methods to identify and study the one most suitable for Hyundai Motor warranty data. The drawbacks of the conventional life table method were overcome to develop an analysis method optimized for vehicle characteristics. The proposed method was examined for its suitability to various applications, such as providing the information necessary for determining the service life of parts, verifying the effects of design changes, and designing warranty and maintenance policies. The analysis data used in this study were derived from the 10-year powertrain parts warranty data of vehicles sold in the USA, South Korea, and China.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Abstract An accurate bushing model is vital for vehicle dynamic simulation regarding fatigue life prediction. This paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, which gives high precision and fast simulation. The ABM is a time-domain model targeting for vehicle durability simulation. It dynamically captures bushing nonlinearities that occur on stiffness, damping and hysteresis, through a time-history-based fitting technique, compensated with frequency dependency functionality. Among the simulated and test-collected bushing loads, good correlations have been achieved for elastomer bushings and hydraulic engine mounts and validated with a random excitation signal. This ABM model has been integrated into a virtual shaker table (from a parallel project) as the engine mount model to simulate the mount load, and has shown acceptable prediction on fatigue damage.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0425
Monica Majcher, Zissimos P. Mourelatos, Vasileios Geroulas, Igor Baseski, Amandeep Singh
Abstract Using the total probability theorem, we propose a method to calculate the failure rate of a linear vibratory system with random parameters excited by stationary Gaussian processes. The response of such a system is non-stationary because of the randomness of the input parameters. A space-filling design, such as optimal symmetric Latin hypercube sampling or maximin, is first used to sample the input parameter space. For each design point, the output process is stationary and Gaussian. We present two approaches to calculate the corresponding conditional probability of failure. A Kriging metamodel is then created between the input parameters and the output conditional probabilities allowing us to estimate the conditional probabilities for any set of input parameters. The total probability theorem is finally applied to calculate the time-dependent probability of failure and the failure rate of the dynamic system. The proposed method is demonstrated using a vibratory system.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0438
Ashley Lehman, Vesselin Stoilov, Andrzej Sobiesiak
Abstract This paper describes the application of the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) method [1] to investigate the effect of uncertainty in design parameters on the thermal system performance of vehicle underbody components. The results from this study will pinpoint the design parameters which offer the greatest opportunity for improvement of thermal system performance and reliability. In turn, this method can save engineering time and resources. An analytical model was developed for a vehicle underbody system consisting of a muffler, heat shield, and spare tire tub. The output from this model was defined as the temperature of the spare tire tub. The majority of the input parameters in this model deviate from their nominal values due to environmental factors, wear and ageing, and/or variation in the manufacturing process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0582
Deepak Ranjan Bhuyan, Sreekanth Netapalli, Sathya Dev, Soundarya Srinivasan
Abstract Springback prediction for stamped components is a challenging task for Automotive Industry. Automotive Manufacturers are working to reduce the springback effect of sheet metal stampings caused due to elastic behavior of materials with the help of changes to manufacturing process and part geometry. Recent development in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) studies made it possible for the industry to rely on stamping simulation. There is always a gap between the springback predicted from stamping simulation and the actual stamped part. Currently FEA techniques are trying to close this gap. The objective of this study is to minimize this gap using DFSS method for predicting the springback and optimizing the simulation parameters with the help of LS-Dyna FEM tool. The behavior of material with different simulation parameters has been studied in this paper and the ones that best correlate with actual data are identified.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge Jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng Jiang, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Chang
Abstract An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customers into engineering languages. In other words, transfer the wants of customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire of customer wants for a CUV (Crossover Utility Vehicle) is created and processed. Using QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and modified KANO model, the relative important degree is obtained from the original relative important degree of customer wants surveyed. Since some information gained is uncertain and the questionnaire sample is limited, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced, which calculates the competitive important degree of customer wants, then the final important degree of customer wants is gained by integrating the relative important degree and the competitive important degree.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
Abstract A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts - especially Powertrain ones - with accuracy down to 0.1 μm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non-contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because it has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of this system. In this research, the durability test mode of a new Adaptive Front Lighting System (AFLS) with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as a new light source has been developed for a new large luxury sedan vehicle. First of all, the failure mode effect was analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal, vibrational, operational and electrical loads were investigated. The Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) technique was used to collect the vibration and temperature of an AFLS in a proving ground. The vibration test mode was designed by a Power Spectral Density (PSD) approach. The customer usage data was used for making the target cycles of operational movement such as swiveling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0639
Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Abstract This research proposes the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict the road input for road load data generation for variants of a vehicle as vehicle parameters are modified. This is important to the design engineers while the vehicle variant is still in the initial stages of development, hence no prototypes are available and accurate proving ground data acquisition is not possible. ANNs are, with adequate training, capable of representing the complex relationships between inputs and outputs. This research explores the implementation of the ANN to predict road input for vehicle variants using a quarter vehicle test rig. The training and testing data for this research are collected from a validated quarter vehicle model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1613
Nikhil Bolar, Thomas Buchler, Allen Li, Jeff Wallace
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. The three key requirements of structural performance evaluation for vehicle development are NVH, durability and safety.
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