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2017-08-29
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9450
Ali Reza Taherkhani, Carl Gilkeson PhD, Philip Gaskell PhD, Rob Hewson PhD, Vassili Toropov PhD, Amin Rezaienia PhD, Harvey Thompson
This paper investigates the optimization of the aerodynamic design of a police car, BMW 5-series which is popular police force across the UK. A Bezier curve fitting approach is proposed as a tool to improve the existing design of the warning light cluster in order to reduce drag. A formal optimization technique based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and moving least squares (MLS) is used to determine the control points for the approximated curve to cover the light-bar and streamline the shape of the roof. The results clearly show that improving the aerodynamic design of the roofs and offer an important opportunity for reducing the fuel consumption and emissions for police vehicles. The optimized police car has 30% less drag than the non-optimized counter-part.
2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9075
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh, Romi Boimer
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and the unstable fuel prices have increased the sales of electric vehicles. Energy-efficient routing for electric vehicles requires novel algorithmic challenges because traditional routing algorithms are designed for fossil-fueled vehicles. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, alongside the uncertainty make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a solution to the energy-efficient routing problem for electric vehicles using ant colony optimization. Simulation and real-world test results demonstrate savings in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when driven on the generated routes. Real-world test results revealed more than 9% improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when driven on the recommended route rather than the routes proposed by Google Maps and MapQuest.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9076
Ioannis Karakitsios, Evangelos Karfopoulos, Nikolay Madjarov, Aitor Bustillo, Marc Ponsar, Dionisio Del Pozo, Luca Marengo
The aim of this paper is to introduce a complete fast dynamic inductive charging infrastructure from the back-office system (EV management system) up to the Electric Vehicle (EV) (inductive power transfer module, positioning mechanism, electric vehicle modifications) and the EV user (User interface). Moreover, in order to assess the impact of the additional demand of inductive charging on the grid operation, an estimation of the 24-hour power profile of dynamic inductive charging is presented considering, apart from the road traffic, the probability of the need for fast charging, as well as the specifications of the proposed solution. In addition, an energy management system is presented enabling the management of the operation of the inductive charging infrastructure, the interaction with the EV users and the provision of demand response services to different stakeholders.
2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0242
Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this talk we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0243
Zhenghui Sha, Veronica Saeger, Mingxian Wang, Yan Fu, Wei Chen
For achieving viable mass customization of products, product configuration is often performed that requires deep understanding on the impact of product features and feature combinations on customers’ purchasing behaviors. Existing literature has been traditionally focused on analyzing the impact of common customer demographics and engineering attributes with discrete choice modeling approaches. This paper aims to expand discrete choice modeling through the incorporation of optional product features, such as customers’ positive or negative comments and their satisfaction ratings of their purchased products, beyond those commonly used attributes. The paper utilizes vehicle as an example to highlight the range of optional features currently underutilized in existing models. First, data analysis techniques are used to identify areas of particular consumer interest in regards to vehicle selection. 
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0312
ZiQiang Sheng, Pankaj Mallick
For many reasons, the well-known Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is still widely used by sheet metal forming industry and academia to identify stretching failure. Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. Under proportion strain path assumption, a method to calculate Forming Limit Curve (FLC) by using tension test only is derived from this DFC. The method was validated by calculating FLCs for several sheet metal materials different in grades and initial sheet thickness. The calculated FLCs are further used to predict failure in drawing processe. Comparison shows that the prediction by using those calculated FLCs matches quite well with experimental observations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0292
Ana M. Djuric, Ruth Urbanic
Additive manufacturing process planning is in its infancy. Many new additive manufacturing platforms are being developed using a robotic based system for the positioning. It is proposed to use a collaborative robot solution to teach a ‘median line’ based travel path for a bead deposition based system. In lieu of machining a block to result in a thin-walled component, thin walls can be built up using laser cladding or a similar process to generate a near net shape. Then this can be used as a stock model for machining. The logic for these tool paths is challenging algorithmically, but a process designer may have a solution in mind that it would be easier to teach; hence, integrating collaborative robots as part of the solution to generate the data required for the deposition system. Traditional robot systems require you to know the solution approach, while the manual teaching involves intuition, and personal experience.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0331
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su, HongTae Kang
Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0316
Kiran Mallela, Andrey Ilinich, S Luckey, Danielle Zeng, Yuan Gan
Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0371
Raju Gandikota, Amit Nair, Kurt Miller
Testing elastomeric materials that undergo large strains pose challenges especially when establishing failure criteria. The failure criterion for composites and polymers based on finite elasticity published byFeng (1) requires testing under uni-axial and bi-axial stretching modes. The classic inflation of a circular disk for bi-axial stretch mode poses stability and safety challenges. The test can also be sensitive to end constraints resulting in failure of materials at the constraints. Bi-axial stretching with a hemispherical punch is explored in this work. The bi-axial stretching allows controlled and repeatabletesting. It establishes clear and reliable failure mechanism of the material at the poles. Through a combination of testing and numerical methods, the stretch ratios and its relation to failure has been established.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0364
Hiroko Ohtani, Kevin Ellwood, Gustavo Pereira, Thiago Chinen, Siddharthan Selvasekar
A variety of performance fluids and lubricants are used in automobiles and in automotive manufacturing processes. These include engine oils, driveline fluids, paints, forming lubricants, and many others. Controlling the rheological properties of these fluids is crucial to achieve desired performance and product qualities. In this study, we have applied Extensional Rheometry to gain a new insight on the performance of automotive fluids. Traditionally, rheological experiments focused on the study under shearing flow. However, the real operations contain both shear and ‘extensional’ (or ‘elongational’) flow components. In this paper, we have investigated the extensional behavior of automotive fluids using a Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometer. (The extensional viscosity express how “sticky” the fluid is, whereas shear viscosity means how “slimy” the fluid is.)
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0480
Mingde Ding
For structural application, composite parts structure is much more affected by load cases than steel part structure. Engine room bracket of EV, which is structural part and is used to bear Motor Controller, Charger and so on, has different load cases for different EV. Three commonest load cases that are Case 1: bearing 65kg (without suspension part), Case 2: bearing 68kg(including 3.5kg suspension part) and Case 3: bearing 70.1kg (including 5.6kg suspension part). According to topology optimization, structurel 1 was obtained, and then CAE analysis including (strength, stiffness and model) was carried out for abovement three load cases. For Case 1 and Case 2, the analysis result can meet the requirement. However, for Case 3, the stiffness and model analysis result can not satisfy the requirement. To meet the analysis result of Case 3, Structure 1 was optimized and structure 2 was obtained. The CAE analysis was conducted and the results can satisfy the requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0852
Sathya prasad Potham, Le Zhao, Seong-Young Lee
This paper aims to present the results of numerical modeling and simulation of evaporation of single and multiple spherical n-heptane droplets impinging on a hot wall at a temperature above the Leidenfrost temperature at atmospheric pressure. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is chosen for tracking the liquid gas interface and an open source CFD software, OpenFOAM, is chosen for modeling and simulations. The capability of VOF method implemented in interDyMFoam solver of OpenFOAM to simulate hydrodynamics during droplet-droplet interaction and droplet-film interaction is explored. The in-built solver is used to simulate problems in isothermal conditions and the simulation results are compared qualitatively with the published results to validate the solver. A numerical method for modeling heat and mass transfer during evaporation is implemented in conjunction with the VOF.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0996
Sebastian Gramstat, André Cserhati, Matthias Schroeder
Since particle emissions from combustion engines have been reduced during the last decades, the importance of non-exhaust emission sources, such as airborne brake dust, tyre pollution, etc., is increasing. Unlike the powertrain, a conventional vehicle brake is an open system and the sampling of the emitted particles becomes a complex process. The presented study introduces a particular measurement setup for brake particle emission investigations. Beside a brake dynamometer, two solid particle counting systems (SPCS) were used to determine the emitted particle numbers. It must be mentioned that both devices were modified prototypes with a cut-off of 10 nm. During the studies an 18” two-piston frame-design brake caliper, in combination with low-steel brake linings and cast-iron brake discs, was used. As a first result it is shown that the employed setup and test procedure revealed a stabilised behaviour after a few test runs in terms of emitted particle numbers and friction conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0984
Wenran Geng, Diming Lou, Ning Xu
Recently Hybrid Electric Buses have been widely used in China. In order to study their emissions reduction effects, the exhaust emissions of an in-use diesel-electric hybrid bus have been evaluated both over China City Bus Cycles (CCBC) on chassis dynamometer and on the road using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). The diesel-electric hybrid bus adopts a coaxial parallel mode hybrid system and is driven by electric motor at 0~20km/h while engine keeps idling. Only if the vehicle speed exceeds 20km/h, engine and electric motor will provide driving force together, which leads to more violent transient conditions of engine. Firstly, exhaust emissions of the diesel-electric hybrid bus and a Chinese V stage bus with traditional powertrain have been tested on heavy chassis dynamometer over CCBC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1089
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Exhaust Gas Recirculation system (EGR) has been used for years for NOx emissions control in commercial vehicle applications. Emissions limits are tighter with every regulation while durability requirements are increasing, so EGR systems manufacturers must be able to provide high performance and robust designs even with high thermal loads. Commercial vehicle market is characterized by lower production rates than passenger car programs, but same engine has multiple applications with totally different engine calibrations. In some cases it is necessary to design two or more EGR systems for an engine platform, with the consequent impact on cost and development timeline. The optimal design of and EGR system needs to take into consideration several topics related with performance and durability: efficiency and pressure drop, fouling, boiling, thermal fatigue, vibrations, pressure fatigue and corrosion among others.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1460
Nitesh Jadhav, Linda Zhao, Senthilkumar Mahadevan, Bill Sherwood, Krishnakanth Aekbote, Dilip Bhalsod
The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1363
James F. Krier, Paul Weindorf
Modern automotive cockpit design trends have increased the number of displays and the locations and manner in how they are packaged. One theme in particular is the packaging of the displays in novel locations that may be marginal in terms of dynamic stability during road load vibrations. Examples of this include mirror or deployable displays that adjust their position in the vehicle. The image of the display may be partially or fully blurred during vibration events which can produce a poor HMI experience. This paper will present the results of a HMI study that that evaluated the readability of different sizes and contrast ratios of TFT color display graphics via jury evaluation during varying vibration acceleration and frequency levels in a controlled lab environment. The result of this study was identification of minimum natural frequencies and maximum acceleration levels for the display mounting structure as a function of display graphics size and contrast ratios.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1672
Siddartha Khastgir, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Stewart Birrell, Sean Redmond, Ross Addinall, Paul Jennings
The advent of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving has offered a new challenge for functional verification and validation. The explosion of the test sample space for possible combinations of inputs needs to be handled in an intelligent manner to meet cost and time targets for the development of such systems. Various test methods like VEHiL (Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop), Vehicle-in-the-Loop and Co-ordinated automated driving have been developed for validation of ADAS and autonomous systems. Increasingly, driving simulators are being used for testing ADAS and autonomous systems as they offer a safer and a more reproducible environment for verifying such systems. While each of these test methods serves a specific purpose, they have a common challenge between them. All of these methods require the generation of test scenarios for which the systems are to be tested.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 170240