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2016-04-12
Technical Paper
2016-01-7000
Daniel P. Malone, John F. Creamer
In 1966, Congress boldly reshaped the American approach to road safety and thereby established the United States as the worldwide leader in vehicle safety. Congressional action led to the establishment of the Department of Transportation, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, and the motor-vehicle safety defects and recall system. However, the safety environment that gave rise to these responses has evolved substantially. Fifty years later, the United States is unable to properly regulate rapidly advancing safety technologies, and the recall system is wholly unsuited to ensuring the safety of software-driven systems. Congress must act to update the road safety system in order to enable the United States to meet the challenges and seize the opportunities of the new transportation era.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0154
Pritesh Jain, Purushottam Bhumre, Saakshi Jain
Abstract This paper describes the Common Automobile Program (CAP) that can be implemented to improve mass transportation. CAP is the use of automated electric vehicles using smart navigation and control technologies to improve mass transportation. In CAP, common vehicles are used by different passengers, thus, reducing the on-road traffic and also the parking space required. Various low-cost stations are to be built along specified paths and the vehicle can be used at the convenience of the commuter. Currently, buses and trains require the passengers to wait at the station and a significant amount of time is spent at intermediate stops. The vehicle in CAP runs directly from origin to destination and also eliminates the waiting time at stations. Passengers do not wait for vehicles; instead vehicles wait for the passengers. The journey starts as the passenger enters the station and selects the destination.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1721
Wachira Nilprapunt, Angkee Sripakagorn
Abstract Urban Mobility is one of the most critical issues at the present. Public transport in connection with feeder bus system is proposed to be one of the main solution. Chulalongkorn University has a fleet of electric feeder bus in operation for a few years now. The fleet service is, however, to be improved because of current limitations in battery energy capacity and long battery charging time. This paper aims to examine the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the electric feeder buses using various types of energy storage. The results on the sensitivity analysis highlight the major parameters that exert strong influence in the TCOs. The fast charging system using supercapacitor battery bus shows the lowest TCO for the present bus fleet. The travel distance (km/year) and operational years were illustrated to be the top two parameters that exert major influence towards the TCO.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1718
Thitipat Thitacharee, Angkee Sripakagorn
Abstract The utility of energy efficiency and zero-emission of electric vehicles leads the way to electrify the urban public transport bus networks in many cities around the world. The purpose of this paper is to study the operational feasibility of transition the existing conventional combustion bus fleet to Electric bus fleet. The analysis is based on the data of the bus operation in Bangkok, Thailand. Traffic congestion as occurred in Bangkok is considered in the analysis. This research is focused on Fast charging technology of Electric vehicles. Instead of slow-charging overnight, Fast-charging is used during the regular layover time of the bus operation which is called Opportunity charging. The opportunity charging allows to extend the driving range of the electric buses which is a prominent problem of electric vehicles.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0357
Bruno Scarano Paterlini, Ricardo Moreira Vaz, Kleber Nogueira Hodel, Paschoal Federico Neto, Armando Laganá, Leopoldo Rideki Yoshioka
Abstract The several problems and bottlenecks faced users public transport users in big cities are a common knowledge. Among them agencies responsible for public transport recognize the lack of centralized control, the under and over supply, the lack of information to users and the non-compliance of scheduled trips. In order to work identified problems improving cities like Recife and São Paulo are testing systems named as embedded technology that integrate the use of GPS, cameras, centralized monitoring among others, retarding a deeper coverage compared to systems previously used. The main objectives are the comfort and safety increase of users and the freight logistics improvement. This paper presents the technologies being tested in Brazil through successful models applied in countries as Spain and Colombia, as well as the scope of bids and proposals for improvement of public transport.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2300
Robert Fiedler, Chadwyck Musser, Petr Cuchý
Abstract This paper addresses the NVH design of a light rail vehicle whose maximum allowable interior SPL levels at certain speeds are regulated and may vary between countries, states, and cities. The objective of this study was to predict sound pressure levels (SPL) at several interior locations across a wide range of frequencies and estimate if the current design configuration will meet the noise level limits. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was used to predict interior SPL and to understand and rank the various noise contribution paths and give a better understanding of the physics of transmission and what types of design changes are most effective to reduce the overall interior SPL to meet targets. A typical light rail vehicle is composed of a frame-like structure covered by lightweight panels and with interior panels that are increasingly made from composites, sandwich, laminated, or honeycomb materials or extruded panels.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0031
Jung-Ok (Jo) Kuys, Gavin Melles, Scott Thompson-Whiteside, Ajay Kapoor
Abstract The Malaysia National Automotive Policy (NAP 2014) focuses on the systemic changes needed for the country to develop a competitive and sustainable automotive manufacturing sector. Alternative electric vehicles (EV) -including the public transport sector, in particular buses - forms part of this strategy. This also features in the Transport Scenarios for the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan for 2020. Kuala Lumpur's population is expected to reach 10 million by 2020, the current public transport system is beset by problems, e.g. route congestion, a growing trend of private car ownership among a rising middle-class, and a range of environmental and infrastructure issues which must be challenged. A human-centred design approach to public transport focuses on developing (future) scenarios to accommodate the 2020 economic, environmental and social considerations building on Design for Sustainability (DfS), user needs, behaviour change and inclusivity principles.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-36-0205
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Abstract The growing concentration of population in world metropolis caused by increasing urbanization rates has pushed the demand for high capacity and efficient public transport systems. At the same time, environmental concerns have led to increasingly stricter emission standards. In this context, transit authorities have become strongly focused on making their bus fleets more efficient and cleaner, by incorporating new alternative fuels and clean propulsion technologies. This has led to increased interest in electric driven technologies, with their intrinsic efficient, quiet and environment friendly features. Trolleybuses, a well proven mature electric technology already adopted in some cities, although efficient and clean, are burdened by high infrastructure costs and operational inflexibility.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0463
Clive D'Souza
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of low- floor bus seating configuration, passenger load factor (PLF) and passenger characteristics on individual boarding and disembarking (B-D) times -a key component of vehicle dwell time and overall transit system performance. A laboratory study was conducted using a static full-scale mock-up of a low-floor bus. Users of wheeled mobility devices (n=48) and walking aids (n=22), and visually impaired (n=17) and able-bodied (n=17) users evaluated three bus layout configurations at two PLF levels yielding information on B-D performance. Statistical regression models of B-D times helped quantify relative contributions of layout, PLF, and user characteristics viz., impairment type, power grip strength, and speed of ambulation or wheelchair propulsion. Wheeled mobility device users, and individuals with lower grip strength and slower speed were impacted greater by vehicle design resulting in increased dwell time.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0081
Federico Millo, Rocco Fuso, Luciano Rolando, Jianning Zhao, Andrea Benedetto, Filippo Cappadona, Paolo Seglie
Nowadays the increasing demand for sustainable mobility has fostered the introduction of innovative propulsion systems also in the public transport sector in order to achieve a significant reduction of pollutant emissions in highly congested urban areas. Within this context this paper describes the development of the HYBUS, an environmental friendly hybrid bus for on-road urban transportation, which was jointly carried out by Pininfarina and Politecnico di Torino in the framework of the AMPERE project. The first prototype of the bus was built by integrating an innovative hybrid propulsion system featuring a plug-in series architecture into the chassis of an old IVECO 490 TURBOCITY. The bus is 12 meters long and has a capacity of up to 116 passengers in the original layout. The project relied on a modular approach where the powertrain could be easily customized for size and power depending on the specific application.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0067
Arghya Sardar, Sajid Mubashir
Emission reduction and fuel economy are the primary drivers for public transport authorities. Electric propulsion is efficient, and do not produce any local emissions. However, achieving range similar to IC engine vehicles would require large battery pack, and considering this plug-in hybrid technology may be attractive options for public transport buses. Advances in battery technology and power electronics have enhanced the possibility of plug-in hybrid vehicles penetrating market in near future. Rising fuel prices and concerns over green house gases as well as other emissions have made it essential to consider such options seriously. Globally there are many efforts towards development of plug-in hybrid vehicles and Indian vehicle manufacturers have also demonstrated plug-in hybrid buses. Such vehicles can offer higher benefits in Indian congested traffic. However, it is required to evaluate the comparative environmental performance of plug-in hybrid vehicles in life-cycle analysis.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1983
Kazuo Takeuchi, Peer Pfeilmaier, Yasuo Esaki, Eugine Choi
Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0499
Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang
The Taipei Metro is one of the major transportation systems in the Taipei area. Noticeable noise and vibration caught attention during the train turning on a rail with a large angle. The initial investigation indicates the noise occurs between the slewing ring bearing and the friction sets which are located between the body and chassis systems. A study was conducted to identify the root causes. A lab test to duplicate the reported problem observed on the train was established, and a set of experiments were performed in the lab to identify the root causes. Under certain contact conditions, unsmooth turning would occur and cause the noise and vibration. To further identify and understand the root causes. An ADAMS multibody dynamic model which included the slew bearing and friction set was build to perform the train turn motion, and to verify the lab test. Different friction materials were also included in the simulation.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0522
Dominique Collin
The X-NOISE Coordination Action, through its network structure and comprehensive workplan involving expert groups, scientific workshops, stakeholder seminars and a common information system, addresses the aircraft noise challenges set by the ACARE 2020 Vision. To this end, X-Noise undertakes the elaboration and coordination of research strategies, the dissemination of results and the integration of European research activities in the field of air transport related to noise. Over 4 years, the project has involved strong participation from European Union-based organizations as well as significant contribution from international partners, combining the complementary skills and expertise of industry, SMEs, universities and research establishments to cover the whole field of interest.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0550
Aleksandras Jagniatinskas, Oleksandr Zaporozhets, Oleg Kartyshev, Boris Fiks
For assessment of the aircrafts noise impact on the community near to airports the acoustic calculations and measurements may be used. Obtained measurements results show ~1 dBA for LAeq coincidence with calculations results and allow to prepare correct database for practical use under ECAC method. While results of LAmax estimation still remain under investigation. These requirements are important first of all for aircraft, which are designed in FSU, Russian Federation and Ukraine. Their contribution to the aircraft noise impact in airports of FSU countries is still dominant, so their correct input data is still necessary.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0528
T. A. Heleno, P. B. Salazar, J. G. Slama
With the growth of urban areas, the areas adjacent to airports are becoming densely inhabited, causing a big problem known as encroachment. The encroachment occurs when a significant portion of the population is submitted to the adverse effects of noise, even outside the areas of restricted use established by the airport zoning. The metric used for the airport zoning in many countries and in Brazil is the DNL (Day Night Level). This metric is associated to the average sound energy produced by all aeronautical events during a period of 24 hours, with weighting of 10 dB(A) during the night. However, the use of DNL for airport zoning can lead to different results for noise levels, daytime and nighttime, depending on the seasonality of airport activity in those periods. The paper proposes a study of alternatives for the airport zoning based on the Brazilian Standard ABNT/NBR 10151.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0517
P. B. Salazar, T. A. Heleno, J. G. Slama
The objective of this paper is to present a method of determination of airport noise levels and environment noise using computer simulation, thus reducing the need for physical measurements in the areas affected by airport noise. Through the simulations, the hourly airport noise was characterized for a wide range of critical receivers. Levels for airport and environment noise had been calculated, considering that environment noise is generated mostly by the flow of motor vehicles on the nearby roads. From the results of these simulations it was possible to choose points where continuous noise measurements are made. Using the simulated values, we hope to determine a safe and precise way of predicting the noise generated from airports throughout the country minimizing the needs of conducting physical measurements to obtain the noise curves.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0520
Delia Dimitriu, Dragos Munteanu, Octavian Pleter
This paper is assessing two methods that can be used in assessing the airport noise capacity when new operational practices are implemented at a certain airport. The example given is CDA-continuous descent approach implemented at Bucharest Henri Coanda International airport in Romania. A review of the main operational practices related to CDO (Continuous Descent Operations) with relevance for noise and emissions reduction, shows the importance of working in a team when implementing new operational practices, as well as the need to access data either through FDR (flight data recorder) or from measurements. - The example selected explains the difficulties one can have to extract FDR data. Although the authors of this paper benefitted from FDR from TAROM, the Romanian national airline, it was difficult to be extracted, so the assessment of the airport noise capacity focused on monitoring and measurements undertaken under the flight path.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3202
Peter A. Jarvis, Shawn R. Wolfe, Maarten Sierhuis, Robert A. Nado, Francis Y. Enomoto
The air traffic demand on the US national airspace frequently exceeds its available capacity. In current operations, the Air Traffic Service Provider designs and implements air traffic management initiatives with minimal interaction with the airlines. NASA and its partners have developed a new collaborative air traffic flow management concept of operations that involves the users of the airspace to a greater degree. In this paper, we describe an agent-based simulation of the new concept of operations and our planned experimentation to determine if the new concept of operations will lead to better utilization of the national airspace.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3115
Mingyan Li, Casey Fung, Tim Mitchell
{Next-generation network enabled (eEnabled) airplanes will digitally communicate with ground systems continuously at airport, for collection, distribution and loading of airplane data and software parts. Wireless technologies further bring the opportunity of pervasive connection with eEnabled airplane anywhere at airports. However, safety critical airplane information assets mandate secure solutions for eEnabled airplane applications. In this paper, we address the issue of securing wireless eEnabled airplane applications at airports for reliable and safe airplane operation. We identify the special challenges and present research results by comparing the state-of-the-art technologies and proposing the strategy of “defense in depth.”}
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2766
S. Kent Hoekman, A. W. Gertler, A. Broch, C. Robbins, Mani Natarajan
Biodistillate transportation fuels include biodiesel (produced via transesterification of animal fats and vegetable oils) and renewable diesel (produced via catalytic hydroprocessing of the same feedstocks). Production and use of biodistillates are increasing dramatically, both in the U.S. and globally. This paper describes the policy drivers prompting growth of biodistillate fuels in the U.S., Europe, and selected other countries. Trends in fuel production volumes and feedstocks supplies are presented for these fuels. Current feedstocks are dominated by soybean oil in the U.S. and rapeseed oil in Europe. However, there is much interest in developing alternative, non-edible feedstocks such as jatropha and microalgae. Currently, biodiesel is the dominant biodistillate in use, though interest in renewable diesel is increasing. This paper describes different conversion processes used to manufacture these fuels, and discusses the pros and cons of each.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-36-0293
Luciano P. Lukacs, João Vitor Batisti, Luiz Carlos Simões Soares Júnior, Iuri Muniz Pepe
The cargo transportation in Brazil is predominantly done by road, instead of any other means of transportation. It represented more than 35% of the total amount of money spent on goods transportation on that South American country during 2005. Several factors should be taken in consideration in the final cost of this service. We can highlight, for example: poor road quality, cargo robbery, theft of tires, fuel stealing, road accidents, etc. These costs are always reassigned to the final customers. Among that list, one of main factors for increasing transport costs in Brazil is the illicit fuel deviation. In order to reduce this problem, entrepreneurs have adopted several strategies; so far, none of them could come up with an efficient proposal. This paper presents a new tool to assist preventing the fuel stealing issue. It can detect the tank violation, notifying the company when it happened and how much fuel was diverted.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0888
Gene Dixon
This paper compares the follower profiles of transportation industry personnel with other industry groups, principally engineers and DOD personnel. In compiling the comparison, Chaleff’s courageous follower behaviors are used to identify the profiles and identify similarities and diversities. In addition, the paper reports on comparative analysis for follower behaviors, locus of control and the Big Five personality factors from a pilot study.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1544
Alan F. Asay, Ronald L. Woolley
Three full-size sedans were towed to highway speeds along a section of a remote rural highway. Upon release, an automated steering controller steered the vehicles through a series of maneuvers intended to result in rollover. Repeated attempts to roll each vehicle were made until rollover resulted. Non-rollover attempts produced cornering tire marks by the out-of-control vehicle. Out of numerous runs, 3 rollover and 2 non-rollover tests were selected for documentation and analysis. One additional steer-induced rollover test is presented that was conducted along a simulated road section at a closed test-track facility. All six tests presented are instrumented real-world type tests that were later reconstructed based upon the data obtained from on-board instrumentation, videotape, survey measurements, and still photographs obtained of each respective test.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2860
Anita Teo, Kaushik Rajashekara, Jason Hill, Brian Simmers
The potential benefits offered by alternative aircraft taxiing methods without the use of the aircraft's main engines have attracted substantial interest in recent years from the aviation industry as well as the general public. Amongst the proposed aircraft taxiing methods, the electric wheel-drive concept has received the most media attention. As part of ongoing research and development into the More Electric Aircraft (MEA), a study has been conducted to examine the technical feasibility of an electric wheel-drive taxiing system using publicly available aircraft and runway coefficient data. The study shows the potential for overall mission fuel burn reductions, particularly for short haul aircraft with a relatively long taxi time.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0009
David D. Henry
The Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Proof Of Concept program is described. The overall VII system is outlined, and the key individual hardware and software elements are described as implemented in the POC. The POC applications are summarized together with the tests planned for the POC.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1615
Yong Li, Haijie Chen, Tian Tian
A general deterministic hydrodynamic lubrication model [1] was modified to study the interaction between a Twin Land Oil Control Ring (TLOCR) and a liner with cross-hatch liner finish. Efforts were made to customize the general model to simulate the particular sliding condition of TLOCR/liner interaction with proper boundary conditions. The results show that model is consistent, robust, and efficient. The lubricant mass conservation was justified and discussed. Then analysis was conducted on the lubricant transport between the deep grooves/valleys and plateau part of the surface to illustrate the importance of deep grooves in oil supply to the plateau part and hydrodynamic pressure generation. Furthermore, since the TLOCR land running surface is completely flat and parallel to the nominal liner axis, the liner finish micro geometry is fully responsible for the hydrodynamic pressure rise, which was found to be sufficient to support significant portion of the total ring radial load.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1899
Russell Marshall, Steve Summerskill, Mark Porter, Keith Case, Ruth Sims, Diane Gyi, Peter Davis
This paper details the development of our computer based design tool: HADRIAN. Developed to address the area of user accommodation within design and in particular the support for ‘design for all’, HADRIAN provides an integrated database and analysis system. The data element of HADRIAN is an attempt to simplify the understanding and use of ergonomics data by the design community in addition to encouraging empathy with the end user. Anthropometry and functional abilities were collected from 100 individuals many of whom are older or have some form of disability. In addition, behavioural data was collected from the individuals performing common tasks associated with daily living and the use of transport. The individuals in the database effectively form a virtual user group that can then be used to investigate and evaluate a concept design of a product, or environment through a task analysis feature.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0673
Anne Prieur, Frédérique Bouvart, Benoît Gabrielle, Simon Lehuger
The recent development of biofuel production worldwide is closely linked to GHG savings objectives and to regional agricultural policies. Many existing studies intend to evaluate the net non renewable energy and GHG savings associated to the various biofuel production pathways. However, there is no consensus on the results of those studies. The main explanations of variations among the results are the following: energy consumption and GHG emissions of the reference fossil pathway, data used for the representation of farming processes and biofuel production processes, accounting for carbon storage in agricultural soils, reference use of the land, choice of an allocation method in case of coproduction. There is a strong drive in the European Union for a certification on the sustainability of biofuel pathways.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0689
Linda F. Nazar, Si Hyoung Oh
Traditional electrode materials for lithium-ion storage cells are typically crystalline layered structures such as metal oxides, and graphitic carbons. These materials power billions of portable electronic devices in today's society. However, large-scale, high-capacity storage devices capable of powering hybrid electric vehicles (HEV″s) or their plug-in versions (PHEV's) have much more demanding requirements with respect to safety, cost, and the power they must deliver. Recently, nanostructured solid state materials, which are comprised of two more compositional or structural phases, have been found to show exciting possibilities to meet these criteria.
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