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WIP Standard
2014-08-18
This SAE Standard is intended to be used as a guide for manufacturers and users of general purpose industrial machines to provide a reasonable degree of protection for personnel during normal operation and servicing. This document excludes skid steers which are covered by SAE J1388. Avoidance of accidents also depends upon the care exercised by such persons (see SAE J153). Inclusion of this standard instate, federal, or any laws or regulations where flexibility of revision is lacking is discouraged.
WIP Standard
2014-07-18
The terms included in the Glossary are general in nature and may not apply to all manufacturers’ systems. All terms in Section 3 apply to automotive inflatable restraint systems in general which are initiated by an electric or mechanical stimulus upon receipt of a signal from a sensor. These terms are intended to reflect existing designs and the Glossary will be updated as information on other types of systems becomes available. Appendix A is included to identify terminology that is no longer in common use or specifically applicable to inflatable restraint systems, but was published in the December 2001 version of SAE J1538.
Standard
2014-07-11
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a general overview of oxygen systems for general aviation use. Included are a brief review of the factors and effects of hypoxia, system descriptions, and mission explanations for system or component selection, and techniques for safe handling of oxygen distribution systems.
Standard
2014-07-09
The guidelines for operator and bystander protection in this recommended practice apply to towed, semimounted or mounted flail mowers and flail power rakes when powered by a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kw (20 hp), intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries and along roadways and highways. The use of the word "industrial" is not to be confused with "in-plant industrial equipment". This document does not apply to: 1. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. 2. Machines designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. 3. Self powered or self propelled mowers or mowing machines. Where other standards are referenced, such reference applies only to the document identified, not revisions thereof. 1.1 Purpose—To establish guidelines for operator and bystander protection for flail mowers and flail power rakes whose intended use falls within the scope of this document.
Standard
2014-07-09
This SAE Standard establishes performance criteria for towed, semi-mounted, or mounted and arm type rotary mowers with one or more blade assemblies of 77.5 cm blade tip circle diameter or over, mounted on a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kW, intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries, and along roadways and highways. The use of the word “industrial” is not to be confused with “in-plant industrial equipment.” This document does not apply to: a. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption, or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. b. Equipment designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. c. Self-powered or self-propelled mowers or mowing machines.
Standard
2014-07-02
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies performance requirements for the strength of seat belt anchorages attached to vehicle structure or to the seat assemblies as installed in the motor vehicle. (This document supersedes the Performance Requirements Section of SAE J787b.) Design recommendations and test procedures are specified in SAE J383 and SAE J384, respectively.
Standard
2014-06-24
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) applies to performance and testing of solid chemical oxygen generators which produce oxygen at essentiall ambient pressure for use aboard aircraft whose cabin pressure altitude does not exceed 40,000 ft (about 12,200 m). Portable chemical oxygen devices are covered by AS1303.
Standard
2014-06-20
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design guidance and a method for testing thermal performance of airplane in-flight food storage carts. It is noted that thermal performance criteria is not part of AS8056.
WIP Standard
2014-06-16
This recommended practice is a source of information for body and trim engineers and represents existing technology in the field of on-highway vehicle seating systems. It provides a more uniform system of nomenclature, definitions of functional requirements, and testing methods of various material components of motor vehicle seating systems.
WIP Standard
2014-06-09
This document recommends contents for Emergency Medical Kits, including medications and instrumentation, intended for use on passenger-carrying aircraft serviced by at least 1 flight attendant. Recommended practices for carriage of, access to, and maintenance of Emergency Medical Kits are also included.
Standard
2014-06-04
Illustrations used here are not intended to include all existing industrial or agricultural machines, or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been picked to describe the principles to be used in applying this standard. Purpose—This Standard provides names of many of the major components and parts peculiar to agricultural and industrial rotary, flail and sickle bar type mowers. NOTE—Where two part names are shown separated by a slash, the first name is the preferred terminology.
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design and location of flight attendant stations, including emergency equipment installations at or near such stations, so as to enable the flight attendant to function effectively in emergency situations, including emergency evacuations. Recommendations regarding design of flight attendant stations apply to all such stations; recommendations regarding location apply to those stations located near or adjacent to floor level exits.
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides information and recommended guidelines for handling carry-on baggage prior to emergencies and during the emergency evacuation of transport category aircraft. Recommendations are provided on limiting the size, amount, and weight of carry-on baggage brought into the cabin, improved stowage of carry-on baggage to minimize hazards to passengers in flight and during emergency evacuations, and procedures to ensure carry-on baggage is not removed during an emergency evacuation.
Standard
2014-04-14
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality,serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thang Nguyen, Stuart Wooters
As software (SW) becomes more and more an important aspect of embedded system development, project schedules are requiring the earlier development of software simultaneously with hardware (HW). In addition, verification has increasingly challenged the design of complex mixed-signal SoC products. This is exacerbated for automotive safety critical SoC products with a high number of analogue interfaces (sensors and actuators) to the physical components such as an airbag SoC chipset. Generally, it is widely accepted that verification accounts for around 70% of the total SoC development. Since integration of HW and SW is the most crucial step in embedded system development, the sooner it is done, the sooner verification can begin. As such, any approaches which could allow verification and integration of HW/SW to be deployed earlier in the development process and help to decrease verification effort, (e.g.: accelerate verification runs) are of extreme interest. In the described context, this paper addresses not only the design and verification challenges of such embedded systems but also proposes a new development, verification and validation workflow using an FPGA-based SoC Emulation System with synthesizable analogue functional stubs and a risk minimizing analogue test chip, which emulates and partially implements respective mixed-signal behavior of the ASIC SoC hardware.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jean Razafiarivelo, Youssef Bouri
In the sensitive automotive applications like the safety restraint systems (SRS), twisted lines can be used to link the components of the system because of their property of reduction of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling. Compared to the parallel lines, the twisted lines present the drawback to consume more copper in their manufacturing due to the greater length of their conductors. A parametric study based on the numerical modeling and the measurement of twisted lines is conducted in order to analyze the effect of the twisting pitch and of the untwisted part of these lines on the level of EMI coupling. This study will enable to optimize these two parameters in order to reduce the level of EMI coupling as well as the length of the conductors of the lines.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Janet Brelin-Fornari, Sheryl Janca
Abstract The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has utilized a two part sled fixture to evaluate a near side test protocol for child restraint systems (CRS). The test was designed to impact the CRS with a fixed door at nearly 20 mph. This paper examines the affects of various fixture parameters on the acceleration and velocity profiles of the two part system during the impact event. It was determined that the kinematic time histories are sensitive to crush energy dissipation (as evaluated with variance in aluminum honeycomb volume) and fixture weight. It was also determined that payload weight, impact speed, and impact plane alignment have a small effect on the acceleration and velocity profiles. Even though the kinematics of the secondary carriage was small with the change in the impact plane alignment, it was determined that the CRS utilized in the standard test would have a 23% reduction in impact energy when compared to the CRS with the impact planes aligned.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Baeyoung Kim, Kangwook Lee, Jeong Keun Lee, June-Young Song
Abstract The role of CAB is protecting the passenger's head during rollover and side crash accidents. However, the performance of HIC and ejection mitigation has trade-off relation, so analytical method to satisfy the HIC and ejection mitigation performance are required. In this study, 3 types of CAB were used for ejection mitigation analysis, drop tower analysis and SINCAP MDB analysis. Impactor which has 18kg mass is impacting the CAB as 20KPH velocity at six impact positions for ejection mitigation analysis. In drop tower analysis, impactor which has 9kg mass is impacting the CAB as 17.7KPH velocity. Acceleration value was derived by drop tower analysis and the tendency of HIC was estimated. Motion data of a vehicle structure was inserted to substructure model and the SID-IIS 5%ile female dummy was used for SINCAP MDB analysis. As a result, HIC and acceleration values were derived by MDB analysis. As a result of ejection mitigation analysis, the impactor was ejected in type 1 of the CAB but the impactor was not ejected in type 2 and type 3.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lotta Jakobsson, Magdalena Lindman, Anders Axelson, Bengt Lokensgard, Mats Petersson, Bo Svanberg, Jordanka Kovaceva
Run off road events are frequent and can result in severe consequences. The reasons for leaving the road are numerous and the sequence the car is exerted to differs in most events. The objective of this study is to identify different situations and mechanisms both in respect to accident avoidance and occupant protection and to present test methods addressing the different identified mechanisms of run off road occupant safety. Mechanisms and influencing factors are identified using statistical and in-depth crash data as well as driving data. There are a number of reasons for leaving the road; driver fatigue, driver distraction and inadequate speed in relation to the traffic situation to mention a few. An outline of principle test methods for evaluating technology assisting the driver to stay on the road is presented in relation to the identified situations and mechanisms. Crash test methods for some typical run off road scenarios are suggested. Important occupant protection aspects concern mainly occupant retention as well as vertical loading through the seat.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Todd MacDonald, Moustafa EL-Gindy, Srikanth Ghantae, Sarathy Ramachandra, David Critchley
Abstract A performance investigation of Front Underride Protection Devices (FUPDs) with varying collision interface is presented by monitoring occupant compartment intrusion of Toyota Yaris and Ford Taurus FEA models in LS-DYNA. A newly proposed simplified dual-spring system is developed and validated for this investigation, offering improvements over previously employed fixed-rigid simplified test rigs. The results of three tested collision interface profiles were used to guide the development of two new underride protection devices. In addition, these devices were set to comply with Volvo VNL packaging limitations. Topology optimization is used to aid engineering intuition in establishing appropriate load support paths, while multi-objective optimization subject to simultaneous quasi-static loading ensures minimal mass and deformation of the FUPDs. While a new FUPD is developed and tested which highlights benefits of deflecting the passenger vehicle in small overlap cases, a dual stage FUPD is proposed revealing potential benefits in utilizing the radiator to absorb some collision energy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sebastian Karwaczynski, Mehmet H. Uras
This work is based on a current project funded by the United States Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and is being conducted with the Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ground Systems Survivability (GSS) Team and Paradigm Research and Engineering. The focus of this project is to develop an advanced and novel sensing and activation strategy for Pyrotechnic Restraint Systems, Air Bags and other systems that may require activation. The overriding technical challenge is to activate these systems to effectively protect the Soldier during blast events in addition to Crash, Rollover and Other Injury Causing events. These activations of Pyrotechnic systems must occur in fractions of milliseconds as compared to typical automotive crashes. By investigating systems outside of typical accelerometer based applications and activations, the potential exists to exploit systems that require little power, are self-contained and provide the required output for the desired result.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Monica Majcher, Hongyi Xu, Yan Fu, Ching-Hung Chuang, Ren-Jye Yang
Vehicle restraint system design is a difficult optimization problem to solve because (1) the nature of the problem is highly nonlinear, non-convex, noisy, and discontinuous; (2) there are large numbers of discrete and continuous design variables; (3) a design has to meet safety performance requirements for multiple crash modes simultaneously, hence there are a large number of design constraints. Based on the above knowledge of the problem, it is understandable why design of experiment (DOE) does not produce a high-percentage of feasible solutions, and it is difficult for response surface methods (RSM) to capture the true landscape of the problem. Furthermore, in order to keep the restraint system more robust, the complexity of restraint system content needs to be minimized in addition to minimizing the relative risk score to achieve New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) 5-star rating. These call for identifying the most appropriate multi-objective optimization algorithm to solve this type of vehicle restraint system design problem.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Grant Hankins, Kenneth Krajnik, Bradley Galedrige, Shahab Sakha, Peter Hylton, Wendy Otoupal
Abstract A number of performance and safety related aspects of motorsports have begun to receive increased attention in recent years, using the types of engineering analysis common to other industries such as aerospace engineering. As these new engineering approaches have begun to play a larger role in the motorsports industry, there has been an increase in the use of engineering tools in motorsports design and an increase in the inclusion of motorsports in the engineering education process. The design, modeling, and analysis aspects of a recent project examining the design of roll cages for American short-track open-wheel racing cars will be discussed in this paper. Roll cage structures were initially integrated into cars of this type in the 1960s. Countless lives have been saved and serious injuries prevented since the introduction of cages into these types of cars. However, the general configuration of these cages has not seen significant change or improvement in the four decades since their introduction.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tau Tyan, Jeff Vinton, Eric Beckhold, Xiangtong Zhang, Jeffrey Rupp, Nand Kochhar, Saeed Barbat
The objective of this paper focused on the modeling of an adaptive energy absorbing steering column which is the first phase of a study to develop a modeling methodology for an advanced steering wheel and column assembly. Early steering column designs often consisted of a simple long steel rod connecting the steering wheel to the steering gear box. In frontal collisions, a single-piece design steering column would often be displaced toward the driver as a result of front-end crush. Over time, engineers recognized the need to reduce the chance that a steering column would be displaced toward the driver in a frontal crash. As a result, collapsible, detachable, and other energy absorbing steering columns emerged as safer steering column designs. The safety-enhanced construction of the steering columns, whether collapsible, detachable, or other types, absorb rather than transfer frontal impact energy. Recently, more advanced steering column designs with adaptive features, mechanically or pyrotechnically activated, have been introduced for different crash conditions, including different crash severity, occupant mass/size, seat position and seatbelt usage.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jeong Keun Lee, Byung-Jae Ahn, Ye Ri Hong
Abstract In current inflatable curtain airbag development process, the curtain airbag performance is developed sequentially for the airbag coverage, FMVSS 226, FMVSS 214 and NCAP. Because the FMVSS 226 for the ejection mitigation and the NCAP side impact test require the opposite characteristics in terms of the dynamic stiffness of the inflatable curtain airbag, the sequential development process cannot avoid the iteration for dynamic stiffness optimization. Airbag internal pressure characteristics are can be used to evaluate the airbag performance in early stage of the development process, but they cannot predict dynamic energy absorption capability. In order to meet the opposite requirements for both FMVSS 226 and NCAP side impact test, a test and CAE simulation method for the inflatable curtain airbag was developed. The purpose of this study is to standardize the test setup for comparing the energy absorption capability of inflatable curtain airbag and to make criteria for meeting both FMVSS 226 and NCAP early in the program.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Stacy M. Imler, Michelle F. Heller, Christine C. Raasch, Heather N. Watson, Ke Zhao
Abstract The risk of sustaining injury in rear impact collisions is correlated to collision severity as well as other factors such as restraint usage. The most recent National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data available (1997 to 2011) were analyzed to identify accidents involving passenger vehicles that have experienced an impact with a principal direction of force (PDOF) between 5:00 and 7:00, indicating a rear impact collision. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used as an injury rating system for the involved vehicle occupants who were at least sixteen years old and were seated in the outboard seating positions of the front row. These data were further analyzed to determine injury risk based on resultant delta-V and restraint system use. Each body region (head, spine, thorax, abdomen, upper extremity, and lower extremity) was considered separately. Risk of injury for each of these regions was examined based on delta-V, which is an indicator of crash severity in the absence of intrusion into the occupant compartment.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
William N. Newberry, Stacy Imler, Michael Carhart, Alan Dibb, Karen Balavich, Jeffrey Croteau, Eddie Cooper
Abstract It is well known from field accident studies and crash testing that seatbelts provide considerable benefit to occupants in rollover crashes; however, a small fraction of belted occupants still sustain serious and severe neck injuries. The mechanism of these neck injuries is generated by torso augmentation (diving), where the head becomes constrained while the torso continues to move toward the constrained head causing injurious compressive neck loading. This type of neck loading can occur in belted occupants when the head is in contact with, or in close proximity to, the roof interior when the inverted vehicle impacts the ground. Consequently, understanding the nature and extent of head excursion has long been an objective of researchers studying the behavior of occupants in rollovers. In evaluating rollover occupant protection system performance, various studies have recognized and demonstrated the upward and outward excursion of belted occupants that occurs during the airborne phase of a rollover, as well as excursion from vehicle-to-ground impacts.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mark William Arndt, John Wiechel
Abstract Assuming rigid body motion, recorded acceleration and recorded roll rates at the center of gravity, equations are used to calculate the local three-dimensional accelerations at hypothetical seating positions' Emergency Locking [seat belt] Retractors (ELR) during a steer induced rollover crash. For a threshold of 0.7 g, results demonstrated that intervals in the vehicle's response that may cause the ELR's inertial sensor to move into a neutral zone were limited to localized high magnitude negative vertical acceleration events during the rollover segment with a median duration of 4 ms, average duration of 4.8 ms and a maximum calculated duration of 31.7 ms. Changing the threshold to 0.35 g reduced the interval count by 70 percent and maximum duration by approximately 50 percent. Since a retractor in an interval when an inertial sensor may move into a neutral position will unlock only after belt retraction and at an acceleration ratio below its threshold, the duration that a retractor may be unlocked was probably less than the duration of an interval when a vehicle's response would allow an inertial sensor to move into a neutral zone.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, Don Krueger
First required in 1970 in NASCAR® (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) the driver's window safety net or driver's window net has continually evolved and improved. The driver's window net has played an important role in protecting race car drivers from injury. Driver's window nets were originally used to help keep the driver's upper torso, head and arms inside the interior of the race vehicle during crashes. As restraint systems were improved, the role of the driver's window net in stock car racing has transitioned to keeping flailing hands inside the interior of the car while also serving as a shield to protect the driver from intruding debris. This paper describes three separate window net and window net mounting tests and the use of these tests to design an improved window net mounting system. Also shown are test results of previously used window net mounting systems and the improved NASCAR system which has been incorporated into the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup, Nationwide Series, and Camping World Truck Series vehicles.
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