This Aerospace Recommended Practice provides technical and application information needed by the designers of aircraft electric systems and support equipment for the selection of overcurrent protective devices. It provides definitions to permit comparisons of various electric circuit protective devices. Included also are recommended procedures for periodic inspection.
Bibliography of References Pertaining to The Effects of Oxygen on Ignition and Combustion of Materials
The scope of this document is to provide a list of documents of types pertaining to the effects of oxygen on ignition and combustion of materials. Consolidating these references in one place makes it easier to find documents of this type as these references are difficult to locate.
The purpose of this standard is to establish optimum standards for crew demand and pressure-breathing oxygen mask assemblies for use by crew members in civil aircraft. This standard covers both general type and quick-donning type mask assemblies in the following classes: a. Class A, oronasal, demand b. Class B, oronasal, pressure-demand c. Class C, full face, demand d. Class D, full face, pressure-demand
Oxygen Equipment, Provisioning and Use in High Altitude (to 40,000 ft.) Commercial Transport Aircraft
The purpose of this Report was to provide guidance to the commercial transport aviation industry in the selection and usage of oxygen equipment for high altitude transport aircraft. This Report reflects the consensus of views of the various parts of the industry contacted. The document is based on sound engineering and physiological principles and research data. The recommendations embodied in this document are applicable to commercial transport aircraft for operations between 8,000 and 40,000 ft. altitude.
Abstract Federal Motor Carrier Safety Requirement (FMCSR) 393.76(h) states that “a motor vehicle manufactured on or after July 1, 1971 and equipped with a sleeper berth must be equipped with a means of preventing ejection of the occupant of the sleeper berth during deceleration of the vehicle.”  Furthermore, this standard requires that “the restraint system must be designed, installed and maintained to withstand a minimum total force of 6,000 pounds applied toward the front of the vehicle and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.”  Today, sleeper berths are equipped with sleeper restraint systems that function to contain the sleeper occupant inside the sleeper berth during reasonably foreseeable crashes. To assess the effectiveness of sleeper restraint systems, computer simulation models of the sleeper cab environment and these restraint systems were developed, with a simulated supine occupant in the sleeper. The model was evaluated using two different rollover crash scenarios.
Abstract Nowadays, a lightweight component design plays a significant role in both cost of a vehicle and fuel economy in competitive heavy duty truck industry. This paper describes the optimization study of an Anti-Roll Bar (ARB) bracket used in a heavy duty truck. ARB system is used to avoid rolling of a vehicle. In order to measure real forces acting on ARB links, calibration study is performed in laboratory conditions. According to this study, measured strains are correlated with theoretical strain-force curve. After the correlation study, fatigue based topology optimization is made on ARB cast iron bracket according to correlated Road Load Data (RLD) which is performed at Proving Ground. Most of the optimization studies in the literature depend on maximum static loading condition. However, many components or structures in the industry subjected to fluctuating loads when they are in service condition. Small loads in a fluctuating load domain may cause potential danger in the design because there will be damage accumulation on the part when those loads are repeated.
Solid chemical oxygen supplies of interest to aircraft operations are 'chlorate candles' and potassium superoxide (KO(sub)2). Chlorate candles are used in passenger oxygen supply units and other emergency oxygen systems, such as submarines and escape devices. Potassium superoxide is not used in aircraft operations but is used in closed-cycle breathing apparatus. Characteristics and applications of both are discussed, with emphasis on chlorate candles.
Abstract This paper summarizes the Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This paper covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies' to exchange messages and to perform audio tests of both inbound and outbound channels. This paper describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.
This SAE Standard is intended to be used as a guide for manufacturers and users of general purpose industrial machines to provide a reasonable degree of protection for personnel during normal operation and servicing. This document excludes skid steers which are covered by SAE J1388. Avoidance of accidents also depends upon the care exercised by such persons (see SAE J153). Inclusion of this standard instate, federal, or any laws or regulations where flexibility of revision is lacking is discouraged.
The terms included in the Glossary are general in nature and may not apply to all manufacturers’ systems. All terms in Section 3 apply to automotive inflatable restraint systems in general which are initiated by an electric or mechanical stimulus upon receipt of a signal from a sensor. These terms are intended to reflect existing designs and the Glossary will be updated as information on other types of systems becomes available. Appendix A is included to identify terminology that is no longer in common use or specifically applicable to inflatable restraint systems, but was published in the December 2001 version of SAE J1538.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a general overview of oxygen systems for general aviation use. Included are a brief review of the factors and effects of hypoxia, system descriptions, and mission explanations for system or component selection, and techniques for safe handling of oxygen distribution systems.
This SAE Standard establishes performance criteria for towed, semi-mounted, or mounted and arm type rotary mowers with one or more blade assemblies of 77.5 cm blade tip circle diameter or over, mounted on a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kW, intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries, and along roadways and highways. The use of the word “industrial” is not to be confused with “in-plant industrial equipment.” This document does not apply to: a. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption, or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. b. Equipment designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. c. Self-powered or self-propelled mowers or mowing machines.
The guidelines for operator and bystander protection in this recommended practice apply to towed, semimounted or mounted flail mowers and flail power rakes when powered by a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kw (20 hp), intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries and along roadways and highways. The use of the word "industrial" is not to be confused with "in-plant industrial equipment". This document does not apply to: 1. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. 2. Machines designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. 3. Self powered or self propelled mowers or mowing machines. Where other standards are referenced, such reference applies only to the document identified, not revisions thereof. 1.1 Purpose—To establish guidelines for operator and bystander protection for flail mowers and flail power rakes whose intended use falls within the scope of this document.
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies performance requirements for the strength of seat belt anchorages attached to vehicle structure or to the seat assemblies as installed in the motor vehicle. (This document supersedes the Performance Requirements Section of SAE J787b.) Design recommendations and test procedures are specified in SAE J383 and SAE J384, respectively.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) applies to performance and testing of solid chemical oxygen generators which produce oxygen at essentiall ambient pressure for use aboard aircraft whose cabin pressure altitude does not exceed 40,000 ft (about 12,200 m). Portable chemical oxygen devices are covered by AS1303.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design guidance and a method for testing thermal performance of airplane in-flight food storage carts. It is noted that thermal performance criteria is not part of AS8056.
This recommended practice is a source of information for body and trim engineers and represents existing technology in the field of on-highway vehicle seating systems. It provides a more uniform system of nomenclature, definitions of functional requirements, and testing methods of various material components of motor vehicle seating systems.
This document recommends contents for Emergency Medical Kits, including medications and instrumentation, intended for use on passenger-carrying aircraft serviced by at least 1 flight attendant. Recommended practices for carriage of, access to, and maintenance of Emergency Medical Kits are also included.
Illustrations used here are not intended to include all existing industrial or agricultural machines, or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been picked to describe the principles to be used in applying this standard. Purpose—This Standard provides names of many of the major components and parts peculiar to agricultural and industrial rotary, flail and sickle bar type mowers. NOTE—Where two part names are shown separated by a slash, the first name is the preferred terminology.
Safety Considerations of Carry-On Baggage Relating to the Emergency Evacuation of Transport Category Aircraft
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides information and recommended guidelines for handling carry-on baggage prior to emergencies and during the emergency evacuation of transport category aircraft. Recommendations are provided on limiting the size, amount, and weight of carry-on baggage brought into the cabin, improved stowage of carry-on baggage to minimize hazards to passengers in flight and during emergency evacuations, and procedures to ensure carry-on baggage is not removed during an emergency evacuation.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design and location of flight attendant stations, including emergency equipment installations at or near such stations, so as to enable the flight attendant to function effectively in emergency situations, including emergency evacuations. Recommendations regarding design of flight attendant stations apply to all such stations; recommendations regarding location apply to those stations located near or adjacent to floor level exits.
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality,serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Advanced Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Materials, Restraints, and Structures for Enhanced Automotive Safety and Weight Reduction, 2014
This technical paper collection covers papers with an emphasis on, but not limited to, innovative ideas to enhance automotive safety with improved material constitutive modeling, analysis method developments, simulation and pre/post processing tools, optimization techniques, crash code developments, finite element model updating, model validation and verification techniques, dummies and occupants, restraint systems, passive safety as well as lightweight material applications and designs.
Abstract This work describes the design and testing of side underride protection devices (SUPD) for tractor-trailers and straight trucks. Its goal is to reduce the incompatibility between small passenger cars and these large vehicles during side collisions. The purpose of these crash attenuating guards is to minimize occupant injury and passenger compartment intrusion. The methods presented utilize a regulation previously created and published for testing the effectiveness of these devices based on the principles of a force application device already implemented in the Canadian rear underride guard regulation. Topology and multi-objective optimization design processes are outlined using a proposed design road map to create the most feasible SUPD. The test vehicle in question is a 2010 Toyota Yaris which represents the 1100C class of vehicle from the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). Since the tractor-trailers and straight trucks utilize different structural components, separate concepts must be generated to accommodate each individual application.
Abstract A number of performance and safety related aspects of motorsports have begun to receive increased attention in recent years, using the types of engineering analysis common to other industries such as aerospace engineering. As these new engineering approaches have begun to play a larger role in the motorsports industry, there has been an increase in the use of engineering tools in motorsports design and an increase in the inclusion of motorsports in the engineering education process. The design, modeling, and analysis aspects of a recent project examining the design of roll cages for American short-track open-wheel racing cars will be discussed in this paper. Roll cage structures were initially integrated into cars of this type in the 1960s. Countless lives have been saved and serious injuries prevented since the introduction of cages into these types of cars. However, the general configuration of these cages has not seen significant change or improvement in the four decades since their introduction.
Dual Stage Front Underride Protection Devices (dsFUPDs): Collision Interface and Passenger Compartment Intrusion
Abstract A performance investigation of Front Underride Protection Devices (FUPDs) with varying collision interface is presented by monitoring occupant compartment intrusion of Toyota Yaris and Ford Taurus FEA models in LS-DYNA. A newly proposed simplified dual-spring system is developed and validated for this investigation, offering improvements over previously employed fixed-rigid simplified test rigs. The results of three tested collision interface profiles were used to guide the development of two new underride protection devices. In addition, these devices were set to comply with Volvo VNL packaging limitations. Topology optimization is used to aid engineering intuition in establishing appropriate load support paths, while multi-objective optimization subject to simultaneous quasi-static loading ensures minimal mass and deformation of the FUPDs. While a new FUPD is developed and tested which highlights benefits of deflecting the passenger vehicle in small overlap cases, a dual stage FUPD is proposed revealing potential benefits in utilizing the radiator to absorb some collision energy.
Abstract The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has utilized a two part sled fixture to evaluate a near side test protocol for child restraint systems (CRS). The test was designed to impact the CRS with a fixed door at nearly 20 mph. This paper examines the affects of various fixture parameters on the acceleration and velocity profiles of the two part system during the impact event. It was determined that the kinematic time histories are sensitive to crush energy dissipation (as evaluated with variance in aluminum honeycomb volume) and fixture weight. It was also determined that payload weight, impact speed, and impact plane alignment have a small effect on the acceleration and velocity profiles. Even though the kinematics of the secondary carriage was small with the change in the impact plane alignment, it was determined that the CRS utilized in the standard test would have a 23% reduction in impact energy when compared to the CRS with the impact planes aligned.
Equivalency or Compromise? A Comparative Study of the Use of Nylon 6,6 and Polyester Fiber in Automotive Airbag Cushions
Abstract Changes in the automotive supply chain over the past several years were brought about by global economic pressures, and forced some materials into tight supply as the industry started its recovery. One such material is polyamide 6,6 fiber (PA 6,6) used for airbags, which was in tight supply in 2008-09. This, with the availability of new low temperature inflators caused some airbag module manufacturers to revisit the use of polyester (PET), which had been used sporadically and in small quantities since the 1970s, although the overwhelming majority of airbags used PA 6,6. Over the last several years PET has been adopted for use in a small number of airbag programs to reduce supply concerns, but this use has come with performance tradeoffs of higher weight, lower tear and seam properties, and other changes. Still, the lower polymer cost of PET has driven a wider evaluation. Polyamide 6,6 and polyester are not equivalent fibers, and differences in thermal capacity, toughness, modulus, and other properties result in different fabric performance.
Abstract 2013 and 2014 Ford Flex vehicles and airbag control modules with event data recorders (EDRs) were tested to determine the accuracy of speed and other data in the steady state condition, to evaluate time reporting delays under dynamic braking conditions, and to evaluate the accuracy of the stability control system data that the module records. This recorder is from the Autoliv RC6 family and this is the first known external research conducted on post 49CFR Part 563 Ford EDRs. The vehicle was instrumented with a VBox and a CAN data logger to compare external GPS based speeds to CAN data using the same synchronized time base. The vehicle was driven in steady state, hard braking, figure 8 and yaw conditions. The Airbag Control Module (ACM) was mounted onto a moving linear sled. The CAN bus data from driving was replayed as the sled created recordable events and the EDR data was compared to the reference instrumentation. The accuracy and timing of the data on a second stability control CAN bus was verified, and the transfer function between the CAN bus data and the EDR data was mapped, such that EDR data from any set of CAN data can be predicted.