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Viewing 1 to 30 of 457
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1809
Dhanesh Purekar
Abstract Engine noise is one of the significant aspects of product quality for light and medium duty diesel engine market applications. Gear whine is one of those noise issues, which is considered objectionable and impacts the customer’s perception of the product quality. Gear whine could result due to defects in the gear manufacturing process and/or due to inaccurate design of the gear macro and micro geometry. The focus of this technical paper is to discuss gear whine considerations from the production plant perspective. This includes quick overview of the measurement process, test cell environment, noise acceptance criteria considerations. A gear whine case study is presented based on the data collected in the test cell at the engine plant. Gear whine data acquired on current product and next generation of prototype engines is analyzed and presented. This paper concludes by highlighting the lessons learned from the case study.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0248
Fabian Jorg Uwe Koark, Arvind Korandla
Abstract Motivation - Ambiguous product targets, a global market, innovation pressure, changing process requirements and limited resources describe the situation for engineering management in the most R&D organizations. Achieving complex objective with limited resources is a question of performance. Performance in engineering departments is highly correlated to the existing capability of the engineering staff. When the reduction of engineering effort in development projects becomes additional goal for the management, an increase of engineering productivity is required. International engineering sites are established globally to push the capacity limits and to increase the productivity by the accessing big employment markets of engineering talents. By solving the conflict of limited resources and complex engineering goals, a need organizational challenge occurs - global co-engineering.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1732
Payodh Dwivedi
Abstract The conventional hybrid engine faces one major problem i.e. high cost of production. Although hybrid engines, in many sense proved to be highly efficient and environmental friendly, but high cost of production makes them less feasible and limits their applications. This problem is overcome by a new design in which instead of having Internal Combustion(IC) engine and electric motor separately, these two are incorporated under same housing. This involves a different working mechanism of electric motor which is as described below- This mechanism is applied to a normal engine which has two or more than two cylinders in any configuration or orientation. Taking example of In-line four cylinder engines as it is most widely used. In this the two cylinders work on conventional internal combustion mechanism, but the other two cylinders are electric cylinder and works on electricity.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0233
Weihong Guo, Shenghan Guo, Hui Wang, Xiao Yu, Annette Januszczak, Saumuy Suriano
Abstract The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The proposed method extends the basic attributes control charts with the following key elements: optimal feature subset selection considering multiple features and correlation structure, balancing the type I and type II errors in decision making, on-line process monitoring using adaptive modeling with control charts, and diagnostic performance assessment using shift and trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0242
Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
Abstract Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this work we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0515
Ana Carolina Rodrigues Teixeira, José Ricardo Sodré, Lilian Lefol Nani Guarieiro, Erika Durão Vieira, Fabiano Ferreira de Medeiros, Carine Tondo Alves
Abstract In a scenario with growing population, increasing demand for energy and volatile prices of fossil fuel, there is a high incentive for the use of biofuels, especially those produced from waste material. In this context, second and third generation bioethanol (2G/3G) are interesting alternatives, as they can be produced from different raw material such as corn and rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, waste from pulp industry and microalgae. This paper presents an overview of the available technologies for both 2G and 3G bioethanol production, including lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, biocatalysts and cogeneration processes.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0169
Emilio C. Baraldi, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract The competition among automotive industries increases each year worldwide. Among their diverse needs, what can be highlighted are: market expansion, model diversification, competitive prices, customer-recognized quality, new products release in shorter time periods, among others. The occurrence of flaws that might compromise the health or safety of the product’s user is admittedly one of the largest issues for any manufacturer, especially if these flaws are identified after its commercialization (recall). In this work, a study on recall in the automotive industry in the Brazilian market will be presented, comprising the years of 2013 and 2014. Reasons and causes of recall are addressed, based on the sample of the aforementioned research, with special emphasis on flaws derived from the production process. The conclusion at the end of the work is that the final assembly in the automotive manufacturing process is what requires more attention from engineering area.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0171
Leandro Brasil Araujo, Juliano Tessaro, Renan Sardim
Abstract Due to financial global crisis started in 2008 and intensified in the past years in Brazil, the maintenance of a good company’s financial situation is a big challenge and it is more relevant in actual moment. Because of expected turbulent scenario for the next years, it is necessary to adopt strategies to mitigate risks that involve Supply Chain impacting industrial production. In this way, it is crucial adopt strategies and actions that assist to evaluate the performance of suppliers and its associate potential financial risk, what can be considered a companies’ success differential factor during crisis period as well. In this scenario, MWM Motores Diesel adopts an internal process of monitoring the risk of suppliers based on internally developed tools and others available at market.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2114
Matthias Meyer
Carbon composites have been on an odyssey within the past 15 years. Starting on the highest expectations regarding the performance, reality was hitting a lot of programs hard. Carbon composites were introduced on a very high technical level and industry has shown of being capable to handle those processes in general. In particular, production never sleeps and processes undergo a continuous change. Within these changes costs remain the most critical driver. As products are improving during their lifetime, they usually increase the degree of complexity, too. According to the normal cost improvement, this has drastic consequences for production. When setting up the first generation of composite production, the part being produced has been in the centre of attention.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2121
Pavel Lykov, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Artem Leyvi, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Alexey Shultc
Abstract The copper-nickel alloys are widely used in various industries. The adding of nickel significantly enhances mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and thermoelectric properties of copper. The technology was proposed of production of copper-nickel composite micro-powders by the gaseous deposition of nickel on the surface of copper powder. The vaporization of nickel was implemented by using magnetron. The relationship between mode of processing and the ratio of phases in the powder was investigated. The proposed method allows to modify the powder surface without deformation of the particles. The possibility of using of obtained composite powder in selective laser melting (SLM) was evaluated. It is assumed that the structure of the obtained composite material (SLM) will have inclusions of nickel and continuous chain of copper. This structure will have high mechanical properties and high electrical conductivity.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8128
Vladimir G. Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Zahid A. Godzhaev, Valentin M. Kryazhkov, Gennagy S. Gurulev
Abstract The objective of this study is to identify the most popular agricultural tractor models in Russia by their engine ratings and countries of origin. This review presents an analysis of changes in the composition of engine-ratings and sales volume of agricultural tractors in the Russian market between 2008 and 2014. Including knock-down kits, the countries of origin are Russia, the CIS-countries and non-CIS Countries. The variety of manufacturers, highlight the leading international companies which have supplied up to 200 units is discussed. The papers shows that CIS-manufactured tractors represent the greatest number in the market - up to 57 per cent, tractors from non-CIS countries occupy up to 12 per cent of the market, and the number of Russian models is quite limited - 3.0 per cent in 2012 and 3.4 per cent in 2014.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2137
Simon Kothe, Sven Philipp von Stürmer, Hans Christian Schmidt, Christian Boehlmann, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Abstract Strong market growth, upcoming global competition and the impact of customer-requirements in aerospace industry demand for more productive, flexible and cost-effective machining systems. Industrial robots have already demonstrated their advantages in smart and efficient production in a wide field of applications and industries. However, their use for machining of structural aircraft components is still obstructed by the disadvantage of low absolute accuracy and adverse reaction to process loads. This publication demonstrates and investigates different methods for performance assessment and optimization of robot-based machining systems. For conventional Cartesian CNC machining systems several methods and guidelines for performance assessment and error identification are available. Due to the attributes of a common 6-axis-robot serial kinematics these methods of decoupled and separated analysis fail, especially concerning optimization of the system.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2112
Hilmar Apmann
Abstract As a new material FML, made by aluminum foils and Glasfiber-Prepreg, is a real alternative to common materials for fuselages of aircrafts like monolithic aluminum or CFRP. Since experiences within A380 this material has some really good advantages and develops to the status as alternative to aluminum and composite structures. To become FML as a real alternative to aluminum and carbon structures there are many things to improve: design, material, costs and process chain. So following one of the main goals for an industrial application for high production rates of aircrafts is the automation of production processes inside the process chain for FML-parts like skins and panels for fuselages. To reach this goal for high production rates first steps of automation inside this new process chain have been developed in the last two years. Main steps is the automated lay-up of metallic foils and Glasfiber-Prepreg.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0271
David A. Warren
Abstract The objective of the paper is to outline the steps taken to change the reliability and maintenance environment of a plant from completely reactive to proactive. The main systems addressed are maintenance function fulfillment with existing staffing; work order management, planning, and scheduling; preventive maintenance (PM) definition and frequency establishment; predictive maintenance (PdM) scheduling and method definition; and shutdown planning and execution. The work order management methods were evaluated and modified to provide planning and scheduling of work orders on a weekly basis. The computerized maintenance and management system (CMMS) was updated to automatically insert work orders into the backlog of work for completion. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed and the results of the FMEA led to implementation of the following PM and PdM activities: vibration analysis, thermal imaging, and temperature monitoring.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1380
S. Khodaygan, Amir Ghasemali, Hamed Afrasiab
Abstract One of the most important characteristics of industrial products, especially mechanical set-ups, is considering the tolerances of production and assembly of these set-ups, which directly influences the products’ operations. In sheet metal structures, due to the high flexibility of the sheets, the errors appeared while assembly will be as highly influential as the errors due to the production tolerance of the sheets. As a result, having a comprehensive model which could analyze the assembly process of these structures and also clarifies the relation between the tolerance of the parts and the ultimate changes of the set-up will be of considerable importance. During the assembly process, the contact effect between the components is inevitable. If such effect is not considered, the contact surfaces will permeate. The purpose of this paper is to present a method to analyze the tolerance of flexible sheet structures, considering the contact effect between surfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1347
S. Khodaygan
Abstract Fixtures play a key role in locating workpieces to manufacture high quality products within many processes of the product lifecycle. Inaccuracies in workpiece location lead to errors in position and orientation of machined features on the workpiece, and strongly affect the assemblability and the final quality of the product. The accurate positioning of workpiece on a fixture is influenced by rigid body displacements and rotations of the workpiece. In this paper, a systematic approach is introduced to investigate the located workpiece position errors. A new mathematical formulation of fixture locators modeling is proposed to establish the relationship between the workpiece position error and its sources. Based on the proposed method, the final locating errors of the workpiece can be accurately estimated by relating them to the specific dimensional and geometric errors or tolerances of the workpiece and the related locators.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0335
Samuel M. Odeyinka, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract Inverse kinematic solutions of six degree of freedom (DOF) robot manipulation is a challenging task due to complex kinematic structure and application conditions which affects and depend on the robot’s tool frame position, orientation and different possible configurations. The robot trajectory represents a series of connected points in three dimensional space. Each point is defined with its position and orientation related to the robot’s base frames or users teach pendant. The robot will move from point to point using the desired motion type (linear, arc, or joint). This motion requires inverse kinematic solution. This paper presents a detailed inverse kinematic solution for Fanuc 6R (Rotational) robot family using a geometrical method. Each joint angular position will be geometrically analyzed and all possible solutions will be included in the decision equations. The solution will be developed in a parametric manner to cover the complete Fanuc six DOF family.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Abstract Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0336
R.J. Urbanic, R. Hedrick, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0344
Mohamed El-Sayed
Abstract Success in lean product realization depends on the ability to specify value from the voice of the customer at the beginning of the process. Value streaming, is therefore essential for assuring that the specified value is being pursued and achieved throughout the process. During lean implementation, however, it is usually assumed that nothing but value will be streamed if wastes are eliminated using value stream mapping. While waste elimination is necessary to make the process leaner and facilitate value streaming it is not sufficient for assuring that specified value is being streamed without structured and formalized participation of customers. With current structure of product realization processes, the voice of the customer is provided during the planning phase at the beginning of the process and customer satisfaction feedback is provided after product launch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0329
Piyush Bubna, Michael P. Humbert, Marc Wiseman, Enrico Manes
Abstract Conventional car manufacturing is extremely capital and energy-intensive. Due to these limitations, major auto manufacturers produce very similar, if not virtually identical, vehicles at very large volumes. This limits potential customization for different users and acts as a barrier to entry for new companies or production techniques. Better understanding of the barriers for low volume production and possible solutions with innovative production techniques is crucial for making low volume vehicles viable and accelerating the adoption of new production techniques and lightweight materials into the competitive marketplace. Additive manufacturing can enable innovative design with minimal capital investment in tooling and hence should be ideal for low and perhaps high volume parts. For this reason, it was desired to evaluate potential opportunities in manufacturing automotive parts with additive techniques.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2495
N.D. Jayaweera, L.U. Subasinghe, H.G.A.R. Gajanayaka
Abstract Modern aerospace industry is continuously seeking new technologies due to potential increase in demand for new aircrafts which are to be produced on a single production line while reducing model changeover time and improving quality of the assembly process. In mass volume production, this can be achieved by fixing a large number of similar components using special-purpose jigs and fixtures. This type of jigs and fixtures can be largely found in Aerospace industry. In low volume production, improvement of re-configurable fixturing systems becomes a favourable way to reduce the cost of production per unit. A re-configurable fixturing system consists of standard components that can be used to satisfy different fixturing requirements. These fixtures are reusable and this enhances their flexibility and reduces the time and cost of development. It also offers the benefit of eliminating the need for dedicated tooling, dedicated fixturing, associated storage and floor space.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2515
Adlai Felser, Peter B. Zieve, Bryan Ernsdorff
Abstract A new style of rivet injector is in production use on a variety of fastening machines used by major aircraft manufacturers. In this injector the opposing sides of the rivet guide blocks are attached to the arms of a parallel gripper. We have implemented the parallel gripper in both vertical axis and horizontal axis riveting applications. It is equally effective in both orientations. We have implemented the parallel gripper rivet injector on headed rivets, threaded bolts, ribbed swage bolts and unheaded (slug) rivets.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2507
Rainer Mueller, Aaron Geenen, Matthias Vette
Abstract The automation of assembly processes in aircraft production is, due to technological and organizational boundary conditions, very difficult and is subject to technological challenges and economical risks. The technological challenges are especially the large product dimensions as well as the high amount of variants. At the same time, aircrafts are produced in low quantities with inflexible and expensive fixtures. As part of the research projects TRSE (semi-automated robot welding for single item production) and 4by3 (Modularity, Safety, Usability, Efficiency by Human-Robot-Collaboration) at ZeMA, the goal is to develop new process technologies, planning tools and adequate equipment in order to enable efficient and customized automation for various production processes. The human-robot-cooperation is an approach to a required, adjusted and flexible automation. Worker and robot work together without a separating protection device in an overlapping workspace.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2619
Karl-Otto Strömberg, Stefan Borgenvall, Mohamed Loukil, Bertrand Noharet, Carola Sterner, Magnus Lindblom, Orjan Festin
Abstract Lightweight Production Technology (LWPT) is today a well-established technology in the automotive industry. By introducing light weight fixtures manufactured from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) in aeronautical applications, new challenges as well as possibilities of in-situ health monitoring emerges. The present paper present results from experimental investigations using optical fibers with multiplex Bragg gratings (FBG) as strain gauges in an industrial CFRP fixture. Fixtures were manufactured of laminates made from CFRP. Measurements have been performed on a single CFRP beam with dimensions (8000 × 500 × 500 mm), used as a structural part in a larger assembly (9000 × 4000mm). The optical fibers were placed in between two laminates on two sides of the beam. The measurement data from the FBGs were compared and correlated to the measured displacements of the beam and the applied loads.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft's large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on a proof of concept for an aircraft fuselage assembly to monitor the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line and plant performance in real time. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2601
Zhejun Yao, Wiltrud Weidner, Robert Weidner, Jens Wulfsberg
Abstract Despite the increasing application of automated systems, manual tasks still plays an important role in industrial production. The intelligence and flexibility of human enable quick response and adaptive production for the individual requirements and the changes in market. Moreover, some manufacturing tasks with sensible and high-value components (e.g., in electronic and aircraft production) requires attentive manual handling. Regarding the requirement of increasing productivity as well as ergonomic improvement and the aging of the employees, there is a significant need for technologies which support the staff individually by performing tasks. Human Hybrid Robot, a hybrid system with direct coupling (serial and/or parallel) of human and mechatronic elements, is a new trend in application of robotic technologies for supporting manual tasks. It realizes a synchronous and bidirectional interaction between human and mechatronic and/or mechanic elements in the same workspace.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2616
Richard Lindqvist, Tobias Jansson
Abstract The scope and purpose of this paper is to give input and propose solutions to the creation of an efficient and productive geometrical measurement planning process. The case study outline what is important and how to identify and determine the preconditions and input data which is required to start the preparation and planning activities of geometrical measurements. That is why the following three main research and development questions should be answered: Firstly; What is the need and why does an efficient and productive geometrical measurement planning process contribute to decrease cost upstream as well as downstream in terms of reduced lead times in measurement planning process work? Secondly; Why are reduced uncertainties related to geometrical; functionality, specification and verification, important? And how are they linked to each other and how can they be theoretically modeled and defined in terms of uncertainties?
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2617
Raimund Loser, Michael Kleinkes
Abstract Industrial robots are well introduced into automated production processes. Their mechanical design is dominated by some major key factors like required flexibility, different payload demands, working range, working speed, combination with different working tools and robot costs. The final achieved position accuracy of the robot tool centre point (TCP) is based on the combination of these key factors. In general, the smallest movement steps and the repeatability of robots are much lower than the absolute achievable accuracy. The positioning results and especially the programmed paths of the TCP show relatively large differences between the programmed nominal paths related to the final achieved movements in reality. These differences can be detected using the Absolute Tracker with its very high dynamic performance, especially if the 6DoF capability is included.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 457