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2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0145
Kellen Christina Peitl, Caio Márcio de Oliveira Baptista
Abstract The growing demand for lower prices, higher quality and responsiveness is defining the current competitive scenario for all the organizations. Global market is inserted in a context of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Based on that need, the new management directions must be flexible on the product development in order to precisely achieve its target under constant market changes. It is in the daily work processes and routine that the relations between people take place and it happens in all of the hierarchical levels (similar ones and distinguished ones). Organizations are responsible to promote an organizational environment favorable to the sharing relationships, aiming to motivate each employee individually to exchange information, knowledge and experience. The Agile Methodologies appear as an alternative to the traditional methods of development.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0128
André Tognolli, Erica Machado, Fabio Batista, Paulo Mayer, Jamilton Silva, Fernando Utiyke
Abstract Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thus reducing the time and component cost can generate significant levels of competitiveness and quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation, able to predict and quantify the best design of the parking brake cable that although it is flexible, has in its structure composite elements of different mechanical properties. Known difficulty of mathematically predict nonlinear relationships deformation under forces and moments effect was first established, studies based on experimental measurements serve as input parameters for simulating the dynamic behavior of the flexible cable. With the aid of motion making use of NX9 CAD software, it was prepared the dynamic movement that the leaf spring suspension system does.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0126
Milton Monteverde Belli, Ricardo Daldegan
Abstract The development costs that new design requires are subject to everyday discussions and saving opportunities are mandatory. Using CAE to predict design changes can avoid excessive costs with prototypes parts, considering the high reliability those current mathematical models can provide. This paper presents the methodology used during the development of a parabolic leaf spring for the rear suspension of a commercial truck, considering mainly the parabolic profiles and stress distribution on the leaves, calculated using CAE software (ANSYS) and experimental tests to measure the actual stress on each leaf, certifying the correlation between computational calculations and real stress on the parts during bench and vehicle evaluations.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0301
Rafael Bruno, Rafael Dezotti, Paulo Mordente
Abstract Governmental legislation with regards to emissions is an important driver for Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine developments. To reach the targets, in most of cases it is necessary to increase the thermal-mechanical loads, increasing the level of technical demand for the engine components. Besides that, other important aspects drive the engine development, as the cost of ownership, demanding for instance an extended oil draining interval, which leads to harsher environment for the engine components. In order to cope with the modern engine demands, this article presents a piston and piston rings specially designed to meet these targets in a robust way. Starting with the ring pack, CrN based coatings applied by PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) are commonly applied to top ring face to reach durability targets.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0229
Jeeves Lopes dos Santos, Gabriela Vieira, Felype Nery de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Elaine Cristina Guglielmoni Silva, André Rolim Almeida Guimarães, Marcel Liberato Queda
Abstract The automotive industry has been facing a great challenge on the current market. With the rapid advance of technology and the growth complexity of its projects, one question comes up: how to speed up development time, while increasing options for the products, maintaining the quality and keeping the competitiveness at the same time? The answer for this question is not easy and can include several decisions and actions in the whole development process. In this context, partial system virtualization, or even a complete virtualization of systems included in a vehicle, can be used as an important tool to help answer the mentioned question. In other words, the usage of modeled components can help decrease the development time and increase product quality. Besides, this virtualization can be used on different steps during the development of new products or even for the maintenance of those already on the market.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0240
Julio Cesar Lelis Alves, Flavio Koiti Maruyama, Leonardo José Della Volpe, Filipe Fabian Buscariolo, Felipe Magazoni
Abstract Environment concerns lead the automakers to invest resources and put research in engine downsize to reduce carbon emission. Turbo charge is a possibility due to its fuel consumption and emission reduction without compromise the performance. Nowadays, it is becoming common observe high performance small cars due to high torque and power available. In consequence, brake system need to dissipate more kinetic energy without adding mass or costs. Modern passenger cars require a high-speed brake system. To achieve proper brake system cooling, the rotor must be ventilated and designed to optimize the energy dissipated, which is generated by friction between pad and disk. Some approaches consider the rotor as a centrifugal air pump and the design rule is to improve the airflow inside the vanes. The approach considering a brake rotor similar to centrifugal air pump rotor may be considered as limited approach, once it simplifies the heat transfer phenomena inside chamber.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0348
Rafael Kiemo Pfau Santos, Marcus Vinicius Hamann Silveira, Modesto Hurtado Ferrer
Abstract Considering technology development and the raise in computational power, numerical methods became important device in developing new products and in improving existing ones, being a differential for market competition among companies, consequently from the reduction of time and cost in projects. For Student Competition Teams, like Formula and Mini Baja SAE series, the use of simulation is even more important in their vehicle development, due to team limited resources available and their lack of experience. This work has the main goal of presenting the development steps of a structural component of the suspension system, the steering knuckle, for Formula SAE competition vehicles, aided by computational aided engineering. Starting from the geometrical and functional configuration of the vehicle, a multibody model was generated by the Altair Motion View software to simulate high performance maneuvers, and then estimate two cases of loads.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0373
Ana Paula de Sá Santos Rabello, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Abstract Complex and/or highly integrated systems require the evaluation of Dependability (Reliability, Maintainability, Availability, etc.) throughout their life cycle. The designs of these systems have three main sets of activities: managerial, technical and quality. The recent literature suggests that: 1) the growth of the committed project cost is much greater than the cost spent in the initial stages; and also, the cost to eliminate the defects is smaller in the initial stages of project; and 2) the functions, responsibilities, and authorities of Project Management and Systems Engineering are strongly coupled. Thus, based on the recent literature and the INPE´s (National Institute for Space Research) experience, this paper will show a discussion on the interaction between Project Management and Systems Engineering to improve the Dependability of space and automotive projects.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2282
Gen Chen, Wenxin Cai, Jianguang Zhou, Christian Spanner, Heribert Fuchs, Werner Schrei, Karl Weihrauch
Abstract A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2198
Zhihong Li, Guoxiu Li, Lan Wang, Hongmeng Li, Jie Wang, Haizhou Guo, Shuangyi He
Abstract The electromagnetic valve driving mechanism is the significant equipment, which plays a vital role in the unit pump injection system; therefore, the performance of the electromagnetic valve directly influences the function of the control system. Based on the operation conditions of the unit pump injection system, a steady electromagnetic valve model was modified to study the influence factors of electromagnetic force and the best combination to get the maximum electromagnetic force. The validation model was verified by experiment. The effects of some crucial parameters upon the electromagnetic force were investigated in the present paper, (including working airspace, magnetic pole’s cross-sectional area, coil position, coil turn, the armature thickness). The results show that the electromagnetic force of the solenoid valve enhanced with the increase of driving current and with the decrease of working airspace.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2184
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Daniela Tufano
Abstract Nowadays, the development of a new engine is becoming more and more complex due to conflicting factors regarding technical, environmental and economic issues. The experimental activity has to comply with the above complexities, resulting in increasing cost and duration of engine development. For this reason, the simulation is becoming even more prominent, thanks to its lower financial burden, together with the need of an improved predictive capability. Among the other numerical approaches, the 1D models represent a proper compromise between reliability and computational effort, especially if the engine behavior has to be investigated over a number of operating conditions. The combustion model has a key role in this contest and the research of consistent approaches is still on going. In this paper, two well-assessed combustion models for Spark Ignition (SI) engines are described and compared: the eddy burn-up theory and the fractal approach.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2414
Dongsheng Zhang, Qilong Lu, Michael Kocsis, Ian Gilbert, Marc Megel, Xihao Liu, Jiaxin Gu, Qingyan Liu, Yanming He
Abstract The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2413
Peter King
Abstract A four-chamber Otto cycle rotary engine, the Szorenyi Rotary Engine, has been invented and developed by the Rotary Engine Development Agency (REDA) in Melbourne, Australia. The engine concept has been awarded a U.S. Patent (Number 6,718,938 B2). A prototype engine has been constructed and a successful proof-of-concept engine test was achieved in 2008. The stator of the Szorenyi engine is a similar shape to a Wankel engine. However, the geometric shape of the engine rotor is a rhombus, which deforms as it rotates inside the contour of the mathematically defined stator. This geometry translates to a rotary engine with four combustion chambers. Each revolution of the crankshaft produces one revolution of the rotor; a complete engine cycle in each of the four chambers; and therefore four power strokes. In contrast, the Wankel engine produces one power stroke per crankshaft revolution.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2434
Srinivasan Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
Abstract Traditionally driveline ratios are selected based on trial and error method of proto vehicle testing. This consumes lot of time and increases overall vehicle development effort. Over last few decades, simulation-based design approach has been extensively used to alleviate this problem. This paper describes torque converter and final drive ratio (FDR) selection at concept phase for new Automatic Transmission (AT) vehicle development. Most of the critical data required for simulating vehicle performance and fuel economy (FE) targets were not available (e.g. shift map, clutch slip map, pedal map, dynamic torque, coast down, etc.) at an initial stage of the project. Hence, the risk for assuming right inputs and properly selecting FDR/Torque converter was particularly high. Therefore, a validated AVL Cruise simulation model based on an existing AT vehicle was used as a base for new AT vehicle development to mitigate the risk due to non-availability of inputs.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2009
Kuiyuan Guo, Yan Yan, Juan Shi, Runqing Guo, Yuguang Liu
Abstract In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2046
Pejman Akbari, Ian Agoos
Abstract The Wave Disk Engine (WDE) is a novel engine that has the potential for higher efficiency and power density of power-generation systems. A recent version of wave disk engine architecture known as the two-stage WDE has been studied to address existing challenges of an existing WDE. After describing the engine operation, a cold air-standard thermodynamic model supporting the physical phenomena occurring inside the device is introduced to evaluate performance of the engine. The developed model is general and does not depend on the shape of the wave rotor, it can be applied to radial and axial combustion wave rotors integrated with turbomachinery devices. The analysis starts with predicting internal waves propagating inside the channels of the engine and linking various flow states to each other using thermodynamics relationships. The goal is to find analytical expressions of work output and efficiency in terms of known pressure and temperature ratios.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2086
Justin Lo
Abstract The fast growth of air traffic and the need for lighter and more fuel efficient aircraft is driving the ramp-up of important new aircraft programs. These increases in production rates are driving manufacturers to seek out robust and reliable installation systems. They must also adapt to the unique requirements of composite materials that now have an increasingly important place in the aerospace industry. Moreover, environmental constraints continue to evolve and drive new regulations, such as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) in Europe. As an example, this regulation is leading to the adoption of non-chromate surface treatments and paints for most applications. The legacy generation of fasteners does not comply with all of these new requirements.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2064
Parvez Alam M, Dinesh Manoharan, Satheesh Chandramohan, Sabarish Chakkath, Sunil MAURYA
Abstract In the present market, multiple sophisticate and expensive Thrust Test Rigs for Brushless Motors (BLDC Motor) are available making it impossible to conduct such thrust analysis on a regular and cost effective basis. Moreover the present test rigs are incapable to measure high Thrust values. This needs specialized thrust testing rig which is more expensive. This paper aims at Design & Development of the Small Scale Test Rig Setup for measurement of the thrust of any Brushless DC motor and helps in refining the Selection of motor and propeller. This is a set up based on cost efficiency factor to implement such rigs, test and for comparing the static thrust produced by the BLDC motor. The fairly simple construction contains a weighing machine, a Tachometer and a Wattmeter to measure the Thrust, RPM and the Current Drawn respectively, and provide comprehensive, accurate and efficient data coming from the BLDC Motor including the Propeller and Electronic Speed Control (ESC).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0174
Laura Tribioli, Paolo Iora, Raffaello Cozzolino, Daniele Chiappini
Abstract This paper describes the energy management controller design of a mid-sized vehicle driven by a fuel cell/battery plug-in hybrid powertrain, where an experimentally validated high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell model is used. The power management strategy results from the application of the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle, where the optimal control parameter is derived in order to minimize fuel consumption under certain constraints. In particular, the vehicle is also equipped by an autothermal reformer and, in order to minimize the hydrogen buffer size, the control algorithm is subject to constraints on the maximum hydrogen buffer level. The effectiveness of the system is analyzed when feeding the autothermal reformer with different hydrocarbon fuels and over different driving conditions. The obtained solutions are compared in terms of hydrogen consumption, fossil fuel consumption, system efficiency, money saving and equivalent CO2 emissions.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0159
Davide Di Battista, Marco Di Bartolomeo, Carlo Villante, Roberto Cipollone
Abstract Internal combustion engines are actually one of the most important source of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions. In particular, on-the-road transportation sector has taken the environmental challenge of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and worldwide governments set up regulations in order to limit them and fuel consumption from vehicles. Among the several technologies under development, an ORC unit bottomed exhaust gas seems to be very promising, but it still has several complications when it is applied on board of a vehicle (weight, encumbrances, backpressure effect on the engine, safety, reliability). In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model of an ORC unit bottomed a heavy duty engine, used for commercial vehicle, has been developed.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0044
Jeremy Rochussen, Jeff Son, Jeff Yeo, Mahdiar Khosravi, Patrick Kirchen, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan
Abstract Alternative fuel injection systems and advanced in-cylinder diagnostics are two important tools for engine development; however, the rapid and simultaneous achievement of these goals is often limited by the space available in the cylinder head. Here, a research-oriented cylinder head is developed for use on a single cylinder 2-litre engine, and permits three simultaneous in-cylinder combustion diagnostic tools (cylinder pressure measurement, infrared absorption, and 2-color pyrometry). In addition, a modular injector mounting system enables the use of a variety of direct fuel injectors for both gaseous and liquid fuels. The purpose of this research-oriented cylinder head is to improve the connection between thermodynamic and optical engine studies for a wide variety of combustion strategies by facilitating the application of multiple in-cylinder diagnostics.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0151
Matteo De Cesare, Nicolo Cavina, Luigi Paiano
Abstract New gasoline engine design is highly influenced by CO2 and emission limits defined by legislations, the demand for real conditions fuel economy, higher torque, higher specific power and lower cost. To reach the requirements coming from the end-users and legislations, especially for SI engines, several technologies are available, such as downsizing, including turbocharging in combination with direct injection. These technologies allow to solve the main issues of gasoline engines in terms of efficiency and performance which are knocking, part-load losses, and thermal stress at high power conditions. Moreover, other possibilities are under evaluation to allow further steps of enhancement for the even more challenging requirements. However, the benefits and costs given by the mix of these technologies must be accurately evaluated by means of objective tools and procedures in order to choose among the best alternatives.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0152
Mirko Baratta, Daniela Misul, Jiajie Xu, Alois Fuerhapter, Rene Heindl, Cesare Peletto, Jean Preuhs, Patrick Salemi
Abstract Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0147
Marco Chiodi, Andreas Kaechele, Michael Bargende, Donatus Wichelhaus, Christian Poetsch
Abstract In the competition for the powertrain of the future the internal combustion engine faces tough challenges. Reduced environmental impact, higher mileage, lower cost and new technologies are required in order to maintain its global position both in public and private mobility. For a long time, researchers have been investigating the so called Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) that promises a higher efficiency due to a rapid combustion - i.e. closer to the ideal thermodynamic Otto cycle - and therefore more work and lower exhaust gas temperatures. Consequently, a rich mixture to cool down the turbocharger under high load may no longer be needed. As the combustion does not have a distinguished flame front it is able to burn very lean mixtures, with the potential of reducing HC and CO emissions. However, until recently, HCCI was considered to be reasonably applicable only at part load operating conditions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1959
Abhishek Taluja, Simson T. Wilson, Santosh Lalasure, K. Rajakumar
The Ride Comfort has always been an important attribute of a vehicle that gets trade-off with handling characteristics of a vehicle. However, to cater the growing customer requirements for better ride comfort in a vehicle without compromising on other attributes, evaluating and achieving optimal ride comfort has become a significant process in the vehicle development. In the current engineering capability and virtual engineering simulations, creating an accurate and real time model to predict ride comfort of a vehicle is a challenging task. The qualitative evaluation of ride attributes has always been the proven conventional method to finalize the requirements of a vehicle. However, quantitative evaluation of vehicle ride characteristics benefits in terms of target setting during vehicle development process and in robust validation of the final intended product against its specifications.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1933
Alberto Boretti
Abstract The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1869
Glenn Pietila, Gang Yin, Branton Dennis IV
Abstract During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1777
Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1753
Jack Hall Riddle, Ya-Juan Bemman, Tom Frei, Sihui Wu, Ishang Padalkar
Abstract Demands for engines to operate at low-frequency firing order are increasing in the automotive market. This requirement is driven by consumer and regulatory demand for vehicles which are more efficient in the use of fuel. As a result, engine and transmission technologies have been developed which permit operation of engines with fewer cylinders at increasingly low RPM’s. The resulting low frequency exhaust noise is more difficult to attenuate than in vehicles in years past. At the same time, vehicles often have less packaging space for mufflers, when larger volume would otherwise be needed to attenuate at lower frequencies. A further challenge is the demand for increasingly refined performance sounds from the exhaust systems of premium cars despite the technical obstacles involved in even maintaining sound quality. Finally, legally permissible sound levels are decreasing in some markets. These market and regulatory demands require new solutions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0023
Naoya Tsuchiya, Tomohisa Kishigami, Eiichirou Kawakami
Abstract In-vehicle network communication is evolving faster speeds and higher performance capabilities, connecting the information possessed by ECU and sensors with the in-vehicle electronic systems which are continuing to develop. With the evolution of the complicated networks, it is becoming difficult to develop them without many verification of actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means required at the logic level or physical level for a network verification through ECU design, virtual verification in the whole vehicle is difficult due to speed increases and the sheer size of the system. Therefore, it is only applicable for systems which are limited to a domain or an area, and flexible and timely utilization would be difficult due to the changes in specifications.
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