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Viewing 1 to 30 of 41171
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2795
Jayesh Mutyal, Sourabh Shrivastava, Rana Faltsi, Markus Braun
Stringent diesel emissions standards forcing a constant reduction in discharges of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Current state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions are falling short of achieving these limits. Engine manufacturers are looking at different ways to meet the emission norms. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is emerging as preferred technology for meeting stringent NOx emission standards across the world. SCR system designers face several technical challenges, such as avoiding ammonia slip, urea crystallization, low temperature deposits and other potential pitfalls. Simulation can help to develop a deep understanding of these technical challenges and issues, identify root causes and help develop better designs to overcome them. This paper describes the modeling approach for Urea-Water-Solution spray and its interaction with canister walls and exhaust gases.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2806
Sam Barros, Naag Piduru, William Atkinson
Introducing water in a diesel engine has been known to decrease peak combustion temperatures and decrease NOx emissions. This however has been limited to stationary and marine applications due to the requirement of a separate water tank and thereby a two-tank system. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels produce between 1.35 and 2.55 times their mass in water. Techniques for extracting this water from the exhaust flow of an engine have been pursued by the United States department of defense (DOD) for quite some time, as they can potentially reduce the burden of having to supply front line troops with drinking water. Such a technology could also be of value to engine manufacturers as it could enable water injection for performance, efficiency and emissions benefits without the drawbacks of a two-tank system.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2811
Tingjun Hu, Ho Teng, Xuwei Luo, Chun Lu, Jiankun Luo
When highly boosted, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines can have torque curves comparable to those of light-duty (LD) diesel engines. Hence, applications of TGDI engines have been considered to be extended from passenger cars to LD vehicles, such as Ford F150 and E150. Most modern TGDI engines employ homogeneous mixture combustion with an injection pressure  150 bar typically. Under this combustion mode, two challenges having to be faced in the engine development are: 1) fuel dilution of the crankcase oil due to interactions of fuel sprays with the cylinder wall as a result of spray impingement on the cylinder wall or on the piston top when the fuel demand is high or fuel condensation during the warmup phase; 2) low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) at high loads and low speeds, which often leads to a severe knock combustion known as the super knock. It is widely believed that LSPI is triggered by self ignition of oil particles entered the engine cylinder.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2814
Rakhesh Bharathan
Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM from engine exhaust of a diesel engine is an interesting area of research due to the implementation of stringent emission regulations all over the world. Cost involved in expensive after treatment systems such as DPF and SCR necessitate minimization of engine out pollutants. With minimum engine out emission achieved through engine hardware and combustion parameter optimization, possibility of elimination or downsizing of the after treatment system can be explored. The paper presents the effect of fuel injection parameters and EGR rate on exhaust emission of a boosted diesel engine. Effects of parameters such as rail pressure, pilot-post injections, SOI, EGR rate and EGR temperature on a 4 cylinder two valve direct injection diesel engine is studied. Present study reveals the possibility of elimination of after treatment systems at BS IV level with optimization of engine hardware and combustion parameters.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2846
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles. The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could diagnose parameters variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A sliding mode controller (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moment among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FDD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2902
Songzhi YANG, Dong Wang, Yan Dang, Liguang Li
Based on the real driving condition, this paper investigated the underhood flow field and temperature distribution of a heavy commercial vehicle by utilizing CFD commercial code FLUENT. To guarantee the authenticity of simulation , three kinds of driving conditions namely idling,peak torque, rated power were considered ,detailed computational model including front bumper, grill, cabin, all the underhood and underbody components, taking into account all heat transfer phenomenon including conduction, convection ,radiation in the engine compartment. By analyzing the velocity contour in different sections, underhood temperature field distribution and inlet temperature of condenser, intercooler and radiator, we found that serious air-recirculation existed in engine compartment under idling and peak torque conditions and the temperature of some components have exceeded its normal range in peak torque condition.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emission become necessary part for engines. With the increased levels of complexity, end users also require increased level of quality for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one extreme example is focused on very components’ quality to ensure the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. These measures tighten the component tolerance during manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another extreme example is on the other side of the methodologies spectrum. The methodology is to tailor the engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing difference. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the calibration and validation cost for engines. Given the cost and time constraints, system integration plays an important role in engine development.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2790
Gangfeng Tan, Kangcheng Wu
Turbocharger technology can improve the vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy effectively and is applied widely nowadays. But because of the pervasive existent of turbocharger delay effect, acceleration delay and insufficient combustion are its disadvantages. By collecting high pressure air which generates due to the inertia of the turbine in the intake passage when the vehicle slows down, air is supplied for the shortage in the intake passage while the vehicle is accelerating ,which can reduce turbocharger delay effect effectively. However, turbocharger delay effect changes a little at high speed and low speed which is subjected to the air inflation and short air-release time.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2889
Saravana Venkatesh R, Sunil Pandey, Sathyanandan Mahadevan
In heavy duty diesel engines, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is often preferred choice to contain NOx emissions. Critical to such EGR fitted engines is the design of air intake pipe and intake manifold combination in view of proper EGR gas mixing with intake air. The variation in EGR mass fraction at each intake ports should be as minimal as possible and this variation must be contained within +/- 10% band to have a minimal cylinder to cylinder variation of pollutants. EGR homogeneity for various intake configurations were studied using 3D CFD for a 4 cylinder 3.8 L diesel fuel, common rail system, turbocharged and intercooled heavy duty engine. Flow field was studied in the computational domain from the point before EGR mixing till all the four intake ports. EGR mass fraction variation at each intake port was calculated from this analysis after carrying out an experimental validation of the CFD model.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2731
Xingjian Gu, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
As a new form of electric vehicle, four-wheel-independent electric vehicle inherits a large number of advantages of in-wheel motor drive electric vehicle for the huge difference from the traditional vehicle in mechanical structure. The vehicle is driven by four in-wheel motors and the steering system is controlled by X-By-Wire (XBW). Steering system is liberated from traditional mechanical steering mechanism and forms an advanced vehicle with all-wheel independent driving, braking and steering. Compared with conventional vehicles, it has more controllable degrees of freedom. The integrated vehicle dynamics control systems help to achieve the steering, driving and braking coordinated control and improve the vehicle’s handling stability and safety. In order to solve the problem of lacking of vehicle state information in the integrated control, some methods are used to estimate the vehicle state of four-wheel-independent electric vehicles with XBW.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2872
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Andrea Cervesato, Carlo Ferraresi
Performance requests and machine automation, in conjunction with new regulations for agriculture, earthmoving and construction machines, represent today the most difficult challenge for machine designers and researchers. Machine control systems complexity and functional safety regulation compliance, are the most complex requirements to deal with in new machines design. The paper describes a steering system design, of a 6 wheels agricultural front articulated self-propelled machine, that must comply with new regulations in terms of functional safety. The vehicle steering is driven by an electro-hydraulic system, totally controlled using by wire electronics; the rear wheels are independently steering and controlled. This architecture requires a too high functional safety performance level.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2793
Ashutosh Patil, Hemant Raibagkar, Chandrashekhar Patil
Now-a-days there is a trend of engine downsizing driven by emission norms and a race to deliver engine power and torque similar to that being developed by multi cylinder engines. Thus, engines are running on higher temperatures making the engine cooling system vulnerable. Degassing tank is one of the solutions to resolve the problems pertaining to engine cooling system. The main function of degassing tank also known as de-aeration tank, hot bottle, expansion tank is to remove the entrapped gases/air from the engine cooling system. This paper discusses the design case study for such a degassing tank on one of the SUV vehicle. Keywords- Degassing tank, De-aeration tank, Hot Bottle, Expansion tank, Coolant Recovery system
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2851
Regulatory emission requirements as well as owning and operating cost are primary market drivers for OEMs and component suppliers to focus on more efficient machine technologies. As a result, new technologies are being developed in the area of Hydraulics, Power Trains, Electronics, Engines and controls of these subsystems and components. Some of the technology potentials have been known for quite some time but were only just partially commercialized. Examples of these technologies are: more efficient and electrically controlled hydraulic systems, CVT transmissions, electric drives, reduction in engine speeds including their integration. Although automotive industry has been leading technology developments, in the recent decade significant work has been done in the off-highway applications.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2761
Boris Belousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Sergei Naumov, Vitalii Stepnov, Anna Klimachkova
An electro-hydraulic servo system makes the basis for a mechatronic locomotion module (LM) and for a complex comprising an LM and an undercarriage of a vehicle. The servo system of the wheel module/LM complex is a combination of the information and power channels of the electro-hydraulic wheel drive within the steering system. A combination of the servo systems makes up a complex of servo systems of the steering system of the multi axis wheel mover of the vehicle. Theoretical and experimental studies of the functioning all wheel steering were aimed on substantiation the rational algorithmic maintenance of the automatic control system. The results of the study allowed formulating the basic principles of designing and calculating the functionality algorithms for the steering system of the complex of mechatronic modules of the multi axis vehicle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2768
Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, Matthew W. Spears
Alternative Vehicle Certification Procedure Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, and Matthew Spears U.S. Environmental Protection Agency The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have issued the first-ever U.S. regulatory program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and improve the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles in 2011. Under this rule, vehicles are certified by using agencies’ Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM), while the engine is certified by either using SET cycle for tractor engines or FTP cycle for vocational engines. In this paper, an alternative certification approach is explored, which would allow both the vehicle and engine compliance process to use the same driving cycles. It also explores how the range of vehicle configurations can be defined and selected in a generic form.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2782
Sergei Viktorovich Aliukov, Alexander Alyukov
Free-wheel mechanisms transmit rotary motion in only one direction. They are widely used, for example, in hydraulic transformers, pulsed continuous transmissions, inertial automatic torque transformers, electrical starters for motors, and metal- and wood-working drives. Unfortunately, existing free-wheel mechanisms are insufficiently reliable and durable and in many cases limit the reliability of the drive as a whole. Thus, the insufficient life of free-wheel mechanisms delays the use of inertial automatic continuous transmissions, which have many benefits over existing transmissions. In most known free-wheel mechanism, the whole torque is transmitted through locking elements such as balls, rollers, eccentric wheels, pawls, slide blocks, and wedges, whose operation at large loads may limit the life of the mechanism.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2786
Andrei Keller, Sergei Viktorovich Aliukov
In the present paper, it has been done study of different methods of power distribution among the drive wheels of a all-wheel-drive truck, namely: method of periodical action; method of partial solution; method of limit of excessive action; and method of introducing a rigid kinematic connection. Assessment how these methods influence on the performance characteristics of a multi-purpose vehicle has been done. For implementation of the method of periodical action the appropriateness of switching off some of the driving axles is justified. For implementation of the method of partial solution it is developed method of measuring of rational gear ratio of center differential providing the required level of performance of the all-wheel drive truck.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2801
Zhiqiang Hu, Gangfeng Tan, Yuandong Liu
The hydraulic retarder, which is an important auxiliary brake, has been widely used in heavy vehicles. Under the non-braking working condition, the air resistance torque in the working chamber, which is formed for the rotor of hydraulic retarder stirs the air, causes pumping loss. This research designs a new hydraulic retarder, which the helium is charged into working chamber through closed loop gas system under non-braking working condition, can reduce the parasitic power loss of transmission system. First, under non-braking working condition, the resistance characteristics are analyzed based on the hydraulic retarder pumping model; Then, considering some parameters, such as the volume of chambers and the initial gas pressure, the working chamber gas charge model is established, and the transient gas charge characteristics are also researched under non-braking working condition.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2725
Amine Nhila, Daniel Williams
Over the years, steering systems have evolved from simple manual steering in the early car models to hydraulic power steering in the middle of the 20th century, and eventually to today’s systems where electric power steering is becoming more prevalent, specifically in light vehicles such as passenger cars. However, due to their relative low power density, electrical steering systems did not gain much traction in heavy vehicles, at least not as the sole source of power assistance. As a result of their higher power density, hydraulic power steering systems remain the main solution for steering heavy vehicles. Nonetheless, when these systems were first designed energy savings, and CO2 emissions were not a major concern while fuel prices were relatively low. Consequently, today’s state-of-the-art steering systems are not as efficient as they can be, and thus cause higher emissions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2798
Madhushankar Palanisamy, Jeffrey Lorch, Russell J. Truemner, Brian Baldwin
Modern diesel systems have come to rely on fuel systems with the capacity for high injection pressures. The benefits of such high pressures include improved tolerance for EGR, reduced emissions and improved performance. Current production fuel systems have typical capacities to 2500bar, when a decade ago 1800 bar was a typical limit. Following this trend, the current investigation investigates the effect of injection pressures up to 3000 bar on a 1.5L single cylinder research engine. The injector nozzles tested include two variations in flow rate, the number of holes, and spray cone angle. In addition to fuel injection pressure, the effects of intake swirl, excess-air ratio, EGR, and injection timing are evaluated at speed and load points representative of A100, B100, and C100 test conditions of the U.S. EPA on-highway 13 Mode test cycle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2850
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Daniel Barba, Jeffra Rockwell
The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National Center for Advanced Technology (NCAT), located at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has been known for its development and demonstration of numerous low-greenhouse gas and fuel efficient series hydraulic hybrid drivetrain technologies and their application in commercial vehicles. Advances in these very fuel efficient hydraulic hybrid vehicle technologies have led the industry to begin manufacturing these exciting new technologies for both the commercial truck and non-road equipment markets, with development activities continuing in other markets including light-duty vehicles. The commercial emergence of these very low-greenhouse gas emitting hybrids led EPA to decide that the time had come to wind down its leadership role in developing and demonstrating these very fuel efficient technologies.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2852
Daniel Ribeiro, Rodrigo Chaves, Gian Marques, Rogerio Curty Dias
In order to evaluate the opportunities to use hybrid concepts for heavy commercial vehicles for emerging markets, MAN Latin America has developed a VW refuse truck with 23t GVW using the hybrid hydraulic technology. In site vehicle tests measurements has indicated a fuel savings up to 25%, which means a reduction around 4.08 liters of diesel/hour or 20 tones CO2/year . Thus, a collaborative cooperation with Rio de Janeiro Sanitation Department (Comlurb) was set for a truck evaluation on a real operation. This 03-month evaluation used one VW 17.280 6x2 hybrid hydraulic refuse truck and other VW refuse truck similar standard diesel. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. Global positioning system logging, fueling, and maintenance records are used to evaluate the performance of this hybrid hydraulic refuse truck.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2853
Enrique Busquets, Monika Ivantysynova
Over the last decade, a number of hybrid architectures have been proposed with the main goal of minimizing energy consumption of off-highway vehicles. One of the architecture subsets which has progressively gained attention is hydraulic hybrids for earth-moving equipment. Among these architectures, hydraulic hybrids with secondary-controlled drives have proven to be a reliable, implementable, and highly efficient alternative with the potential for up to 50% engine downsizing when applied to excavator truck-loading cycles. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) robust linear control strategies have been developed by the authors’ group with notorious improvements on the control of the state of charge of the high pressure accumulator. Nonetheless, the challenge remains to improve the actuator position and velocity tracking.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2854
Timothy Opperwall, Andrea Vacca
Hydraulic systems have an important role in both on and off-highway vehicles. Designing for improved noise performance of fluid power systems is an essential part of improving current systems and opening up new areas where fluid power can bring improvements in efficiency and performance. As the technology advances and spreads to lighter applications, the noise generation and propagation due to hydraulic components becomes a primary design concern. The present research includes development of acoustic radiation models for noise radiation from hydraulic pumps and motors. The need for new methods for identification of noise sources and transmission is evident in order to direct future modeling efforts. Discovering the key features of noise generation from both simulation and experimental techniques allows for improved techniques to improve the noise performance of fluid power components and systems.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2855
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio massarotti, pietro marani, Carlo Ferraresi
In recent years many studies were performed with the aim of reducing losses and to optimize the oil flow management in complex machines like excavators. One of the most promising ideas is the pump switch, due to the flexibility of switching one or more pumps to serve one actuator, as a function of oil flow request and machine mode. These studies were basically developed in MAHA fluid power center in US and are based on a distribution manifold were hydrostatic transmissions are applied to the different loads. The system presented couples more actuators to every single pumps and offers also cross connections, in order to increase systems flexibility in flow management.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2856
Hongbin Wang, Ojas Patil, QingHui Yuan, Aaron Hertzel Jagoda
Fuel economy of both highway and off-highway vehicles is a major driver for new technology development. One of the technologies to meet this driver is a digital valve based hydraulic system. Digital valves are high speed on/off valves which are, in this case, using a pulse width modulated duty cycle to control flow. This enables flow control to multiple actuators at varying pressures without the losses associated with conventional throttling based flow control. By sequentially actuating the valves the pump is only connected to one load at any given time, this allows flow sharing from a common fluid power source, such as a pump, to multiple services without utilizing compensators or other metering devices. This also enables advanced control of the flow supplied to a given actuator and allows a different control strategy for each actuator. There is the potential to increase machine productivity through more efficient use of the installed engine power.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2805
Valerii Naumov, Yuri Pogulyaev, Rustam Baytimerov, Dmitry Chizhov
A new fuel injection system for a diesel engine is suggested that allows controlling the pressure of the pre- and post-main injections, and changing the pressure curve of the main injection. The system comprises a pump-injector unit with an independent pressure control and a needle. The driving cam of the pump-injector unit is designed so that the downward plunger speed is constant. Due to this fact, the pressure in the high-pressure chamber of the pump-injector unit may also be constant and adjustable by means of a piezoelectric pressure-regulating valve (PRV). The PRV connects the high-pressure chamber of the pump-injector unit with the fuel supply system (FSS). The passage area of the PRV depends on the voltage fed to the piezoelectric actuator. Thus, by varying the voltage, we can change the pressure in the high-pressure chamber. The needle of the pump-injector unit is controlled hydraulically by a two-position valve.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2821
Xuan Feng, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang, Travis Anderson, Justin Blomenberg
Diesel-electric powertrains are used by a variety of industrial machines and marine vessels. In such a powertrain configuration, a diesel engine coupled with an electrical generator provides power to electric motors that drive the application. Fuel consumption of such applications account for a majority of the operating cost, and even a small reduction in the percentage of fuel used can translate into considerable cost savings. Hence, methodologies and technologies that can deliver fuel economy improvements are a central focal point for many industries like mining haul trucks, locomotives and marine vessels. This paper describes an ALD methodology applicable to such machines. The case of a mining haul truck application has been used for purposes of illustration. A Matlab/Simulink based model has been developed at Cummins to represent a generic machine with diesel electric powertrain.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2823
Uriy Usinin, Sergey . Gladyshev, Maxim Grigoryev, Alexander Shishkov, Evgeny Belousov, A..M. Zhuravlev, Anton Bychkov, Dmitry Sychev
It is offered the traction electric drive of the active trailer for transportation long pipes with big diameter. The active trailers are necessary at a building of oil pipe lines and gas-mains in trackless conditions and marshland. Due to the electric drive, the pass ability of trailer is sharply increased on marshland conditions and drive control of trailer is facilitated. The specified attractive qualities appear, if wheels of the trailer are driven by individual electric motors, and the mechanical kinematic circuit of drive contains only one-stage. The power of the electric drive will take 20-25 % from rated power of the basic trailer drive, and the electric drives have expanded speed regulation range. For decision of such a task, it is used the method of two-diapason regulation of the torque. But such approach demands application of electric machines with the big factor of an overload on the torque (up to 10 times of the nominal torque).
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2824
Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang, Naiwei Zou PhD, Chen Yu, Zhao Yunfeng, Albert Luo
This paper describes the development of a conventional wheel loader’s system model that can be used to evaluate the transient response. The wheel loader machine is modeled in Siemens’ AMESim® and the engine governor controller is modeled in Matlab/SIMULINK®. Understanding the complex wheel loader’s operation requires a detailed system model. The model includes engine details such as a mean value engine model, which takes into account turbocharger dynamics and engine governor controller. This allows the model to predict realistic performance and fuel consumption over a drive cycle. In order to simplify the model, hydraulic loads from the boom / bucket mechanism, steering and cooling fan are modeled as hydraulic load inputs obtained from typical short V-drive cycle. Critical wheel loader drive cycle inputs into the model have been obtained from testing and have been used to validate the system response and cycle fuel consumption.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 41171