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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1742
Arnab Ganguly, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Tanmay Santra
India is considered to have one of the maximum two wheeler density in the world. Hence, all the scooter and bike manufacturers are striving to keep their market share by quickly bringing quality products with high mileage at a cheap price tag. With emission norms becoming stringent day by day, they should take care of every detail in the engine driving their vehicles. So today's engineer must be efficient and they must be able to refine and improve the technologies they use, faster and with greater accuracy than ever before. Focus of this paper is on reducing a two wheeler Cylinder Bore deformation through CAE simulation, which, in extreme conditions was observed to cause engine seizure. Bore deformation is of great significance to the overall performance of an engine in terms of oil consumption, blowby, emissions and influences piston dynamics to a great extent. They are however, difficult to measure and the deformation, being in micron level, are often prone to misinterpretation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1725
Gerhard Konrad Flores
The use of Form Honing contributes to energy efficiency of modern combustion engines, especially the reduction of CO2. Until now the production of combustion engines required cylindrical bores with high shape and surface quality. This machined macro form is not maintained for the function of the motor due to mechanical and thermal influences. During operation they cause complex distortion mechanisms that significantly deviate from the desired cylinderform. Therefore, a Form Honing process is developed that does not produce the cylindrical bore form as its goal, but instead achieves the expected uncylindrical deformations, so that under specific operating conditions the quasi cylindrical bore geometries are achieved. Furthermore, the current development of Form Honing considers the friction of the piston skirt of the cylinders operating temperature, with specific clearance in the lower part of the bore. This is possible without impairment of the NVH behavior of the engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1720
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Silvia Marelli, Massimo Capobianco
Downsizing is widely considered one of the main path to reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition internal combustion engines. As known, despite the reduced size, the required torque and power targets can be attained thanks to an adequate boost level provided by a turbocharger. However, some drawbacks usually arise when the engine operates at full load and low speeds. In fact, in the above conditions, the boost pressure and the engine performance is limited since the compressor experiences close-to-surge operation. This occurrence is even greater in case of extremely downsized engines with a reduced number of cylinders and a small intake circuit volume, where the compressor works under strongly unsteady flow conditions and its instantaneous operating point most likely overcomes the steady surge margin. In the paper, both experimental and numerical approaches are followed to describe the unsteady behavior of a small in-series turbocharger compressor.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1721
Harold Edward McCormick, John Crain, William Pisoni, Manas Lakshmipathy
It is well established that variances in cylinder bore surface finish influence oil consumption, wear, and scuffing. Recently published studies indicate oil consumption is a significant contributor to preignition in small high power density engines. It is also known that oil consumption leads to preignition in natural gas engines. Using a 3-D Surface Finish Analysis System on an engine cylinder bore to quantify the honed surface provides multiple benefits in engine development. The resultant improved cylinder bore surface will minimize oil consumption. 3-D surface finish analysis has proven to provide much higher quality surface finish data as compared to the historic industry standard, a 2-D Profilometer. Far fewer measurements are required for statistical confidence when using a 3-D surface finish analysis when compared to 2-D surface finish analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1718
Jan Macek, Zdenek Zak, Oldrich Vitek
Aiming at high low-end ICE torque with turbocharged and massively downsized engines revitalized high pulsation exhaust manifolds, which improve exhaust gas energy transfer especially while engine runs at reduced speed. The lack of turbine maps if twin scroll or divided scroll is used for radial turbine stator entry is well-known. The remedy is not simple. The measurements of maps for twin-entry turbines are costly and time consuming. Any lookup-map based interpolation suffers from lack of physical fundamentals, since the mixing processes take place inside a turbine at governing pressure differences significantly different from turbine inlet pressures. The paper describes a way to a 1-D central streamline model of a radial turbine flow suitable for twin-scroll description based on approximation to real physics of flow mixing and energy transformation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1719
Daniel Pachner, Lukas Lansky, David Germann, Markus Eigenmann
Turbocharger maps measured on the gas stand are commonly used to represent turbine and compressor performance. The maps are useful source of information for mean value modeling, engine calibration optimization, virtual sensing and feedback control design. For some tasks, representing the maps by fitted functional forms can be more convenient than using the interpolation of the map data directly. The functional representation usually allows for wider extrapolation ranges and more reliable application of numerical optimization methods. Several functional forms have been proposed for compressor map modeling, often based on empirical polynomial models. However, most successful models are based rational polynomials of dimensionless head and flow parameters (Winkler, Jensen). The turbines are usually modeled as orifices, or orifices with variable cross-section in case of variable nozzle (VNT) turbines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1716
Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek, Jiri Klima, Martin Vacek
The proposed paper deals with an optimization of a highly-turbocharged large-bore gas SI engine. Only steady state operation (constant engine speed and load) is considered. The results are obtained by means of simulation using complex 0-D/1-D engine model including the control algorithm. Different mixture composition concepts are considered to satisfy TA Luft norm (different levels of TA Luft NOx limit are evaluated) – fresh air and external cooled EGR is supposed to be the right way while optimal EGR level is to be found. Considering EGR circuit, 5 different layouts are tested to select the best desing. As the engine control is relatively complex (2-sage turbocharger group, external EGR, compressor blow-by, controlled air excess), 5 different control means of boost pressure were considered. Each variant (based on above mentioned possibilities) is optimized in terms of compressor/turbine size (swallowing capacity) to obtain the best possible BSFC.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1717
Li-Chun Chien, Matthew Younkins, Mark Wilcutts
Dynamic skip fire is a control method for internal combustion engines in which engine cylinders are selectively fired or skipped to meet driver torque demand. Each cylinder is operated at or near its best thermal efficiency and flexible control of acoustic and vibrational excitations is achieved. In this type of engine operation, fueling, and possibly intake and exhaust valves of each cylinder are actuated on an individual firing opportunity basis. The implementation and benefits of this system have been described in several previous papers. This paper describes engine thermofluid modeling for this type of operation for purposes of air flow and torque prediction. Airflow dynamic and thermodynamic results for skip fire engine operation are presented and compared with experimental data under several different firing sequences. Unique impacts of dynamic skip fire on air estimation, and performance parameters are discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1738
Dileep Namdeorao Malkhede, Hemant Khalane
Due to reciprocating nature of IC engine, flow physics in intake manifold is complex and has significant effect on volumetric efficiency. Variable length intake manifold technology offers potential for improving engine performance. This paper therefore investigated effect of intake length on volumetric efficiency for wider range of engine speeds. For this purpose 1-D thermodynamic engine model of a single cylinder 611cc standard CFR engine capable of predicting pressure pulsations in the intake was developed. For validation, pressure pulsations were predicted at two different locations on intake manifold and compared against test data. This model was used to predict volumetric efficiency for different intake lengths and engine speeds. Volumetric efficiency was found to be a function of both engine speed and intake length, more so at higher engine speeds. FFT analysis of intake pressure pulsations during suction stroke and intake valve closed phase was carried out separately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1736
Justin Cartwright, Ahmet Selamet, Robert Wade, Keith Miazgowicz, Clayton Sloss
The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a Ford 2011 3.5L TiGTDI engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm for a total of 12 engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 degC and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1729
Chenle Sun, Zhe Wang, Zhaolei Yin, Tong Zhang
The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system is a generating unit with high power density, high efficiency and low emission for the range-extended electric vehicle, which directly transforms the chemical energy of the fuel into the electric energy. The integrated system starts with the linear generator, which shows the advantages of speed and efficiency, as well as the core technology for emission reduction during the starting process and the prerequisite to guarantee the steady operation of the system. This paper focuses on the starting process of the linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system. Pursuant to the starting requirements of the linear internal combustion engine, the starting process that adopts the linear generator as a drive motor is analysed, obtaining the fewest driving cycle and the energy pipeline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1726
Ajay Paul John, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
With the rapid growth of the two-wheeler industry, particularly in developing nations like India China etc., cost effective innovations and First Time Right designs are the fronts where the vehicle manufacturers are trying to compete. Piston is a very important part of the engine design as it contributes a significant amount to engine friction and engine noise. Piston scuffing is a common engine problem where there is a significant material loss at the piston and the Liner which could drastically affect the performance and the longevity of the involved components. For this study a small air cooled gasoline engine piston was taken in which significant wear patterns were noticed on its skirt. Also in this engine, the engine block is made of aluminium alloy with a cast iron sleeve acting as liner.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1687
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limits the relative utility of EVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high power public charging availability combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and EVs could be marginalized. Herein we quantify the relationships between EV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating EVs operated to real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). Under support from the U.S.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1686
Takamitsu Tajima, Wataru Noguchi, Tomohisa Aruga
We studied a method for realizing an unlimited driving range for an Electric Vehicle (EV) by supplying power and charging simultaneously while the vehicle is being driven. This method, powering and charging at the same, time mitigates the primary concerns associated with an EV. In addition, we discuss the results of driving tests where we were able to reach an unlimited driving range. The greatest concern attributed to EVs is their short driving range when compared to gasoline vehicles. The direct supply of power to the vehicles from infrastructure during operation has been proposed as one means of addressing this issue. However, if non-contact (wireless) power supply is employed, the realization of this technology is said to require another 100 years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1688
Eric Wood, Jeremy S. Neubauer, Evan Burton
With support from the Vehicle Technologies Office in the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed BLAST-V—the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high resolution spatial-temporal travel histories has enabled BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper will present simulation outputs from BLAST-V quantifying the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available level 2 electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing level 2 EVSE will also be used as an input to BLAST-V with resulting vehicle utility compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1685
Omar Abu Mohareb, Phan-Lam Huynh, Hans-Christian Reuss, Michael Grimm, A. Al-Janabi
This paper addresses the performance and potential of using electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states. The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) in cooperation with Dhofar University in Salalah has established this research project, where several tests have been performed to study the performance of electric vehicles in the Gulf Arab states in general and in Oman in specific. This will give a deep insight of the electric vehicles use possibilities, in addition to the fuel saving potentials and environmental effects by using both electric vehicles and renewable energy charging stations. A survey with a questionnaire of 30 questions was carried out and distributed over 320 candidates representing population distribution in Salalah.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1699
Kan Zha, Stephen Busch, Paul Miles, Sameera Wijeyakulasuriya, Saurav Mitra, P. K. Senecal
Asymmetrical in-cylinder flow structure has been reported in previous studies in a small-bore Diesel engine. It has been demonstrated that this flow field asymmetry leads to an asymmetrical mixture preparation process. To understand the evolution of this asymmetry, it is necessary to characterize the in-cylinder flow over the full compression stroke. Moreover, since bowl-in-piston cylinder geometries can substantially change the in-cylinder flow, characterization of these flows in light-duty engines requires the use of geometrically correct pistons. In this work, a realistic flow has been realized via a transparent piston top with the conventional re-entrant bowl geometry. However, optical distortion caused by the complex bowl geometry greatly complicates the analysis of images taken through the bottom of the piston; for example in the measurement of swirl-plane velocities using particle image velocimetry (PIV).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1636
Asuka Takasaki, Takashi Inoue, Kazumitsu Sugano, Koji Nagata
Recently, an important policy for automobile manufactures is to develop vehicles with high fuel efficiency and clean emissions to prevent global warming. Engine efficiency has the greatest potential for fuel economy improvement, and there are various methods for improving. One engine technology used to improve fuel efficiency is downsizing engine displacement and adding a turbocharger. Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a turbocharged engine for the Lexus NX200t. A turbocharger for downsized engines reduces engine displacement without changing a vehicles rank. To countermeasure the reduction of engine torque resulting from downsizing a gasoline engine, torque is recovered by use of a turbocharger. Although both improvement of fuel efficiency and power performance can be achieved by turbocharging, driveability might decrease seen as non-linear acceleration characterized as a lag followed by a sudden and large increase of engine output torque. 
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1637
SeungBum Kim, SeongMin Park, DongUk Han
This paper focuses on the vehicle test result of the US fuel economy test cycles such as FTP75, HWY and US06 with model based Cooled EGR system. Cooled EGR SW function was realized by Model Based Development (internal rapid prototyping) using iRPT tool. With EGR, mixing exhaust gas with clean air reduces the oxygen concentration in the cylinder charge, as a result, the combustion process is slowed, and the combustion temperature drops. This experiment confirmed that the spark timing was more advanced without knocking and manifold pressure was increased in all cases with EGR. A positive potential of fuel economy improvement on FTP mode, US06 mode have seen in this experiment but not for HWY where the engine load is quite low and the spark advance is already optimized. As a result, fuel economy was increased by maximum 3.3% on FTP, 2.7% on US06, decreased by 0.3% on HWY mode respectively with EGR.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1634
Toru Ishino, Shinichi Takai
Transmission and vehicle control technology is advancing, and the shift operation format for the electronic gear selector is currently diverging from typical shifters, such as the shift lever located near the center console. As a result, automobile manufacturers find technical solutions that bridge the gear selection operations desired by drivers and the technical demands arising from control. A pushbutton-type electronic control gear selector device was developed with a differing operation direction for each gear operation. This enables instinctive operation that makes it easy for drivers to master the shift operation for each driving gear, while providing the same operating capability as a typical shift device. This new electronic control gear selector is scheduled for .
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1632
Karim Bencherif, Dirk von Wissel, Lukas Lansky, Dejan Kihas
Over the past few years, innovative engine layouts have enabled significant fuel consumption and pollutant emissions reduction. An exponential growth in powertrain control strategies complexity has accompanied these achievements. As a result, controls and calibration development time and effort have become an important issue in powertrain design. One illustration of this complexity is the Diesel Diesel Particulate Filters; the main issue for these devices is the periodical regeneration necessary to eliminate the accumulated soot. The challenging enhancement of the regeneration event can be achieved with a better regeneration temperature control. In this paper, we describe the DPF regeneration process, the main constraints, identification tests and a simulation comparison of two control solutions based on model based approach to DPF thermal control during regeneration DPF.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1630
Wolfgang Ebner, Michael Stolz, Markus Bachinger, Evgeny Korsunsky
To reach more and more stringent emission regulations (especially lower CO2 targets) vehicle manufacturers need to optimize every single component like engine and transmission but also to develop totally new powertrain concepts. The development of a complete new powertrain is very expensive. Companies try to find solutions to electrify the existing powertrain designs to take advantage of reusing big parts. Depending on system requirements electrification of a powertrain ranges from partly electrified (micro- and mild-hybrid) to complete electrified vehicles (full-hybrid, electric vehicle). A key factor to reduce the fuel consumption lies in optimal control of the entire interconnected powertrain. This work focuses on the efficient connection and coordination of control units with respect on hybrid functions. To use this concept with different powertrain topologies and electrification variants a generic approach is selected.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1644
Huan Li
Key Words Diesel engine; Cylinder-by-cylinder variations; Cylinder-by-cylinder control; Torsional vibration Research Objective During the engine working process, the differences of each cylinder’s fuel injection quantity and the manufacturing deviations of mechanical parts will lead to cylinder-by-cylinder variations. It will bring about a large torsional vibration angular displacement of low-frequency and large fluctuation of the engine speed, especially in the idle condition. As a result, it brings down the engine performance and shortens the lifetime of the engine. In order to reduce the bad influences coming with the cylinder-by-cylinder variations, a detection method and an control algorithm of the variations need to be proposed. Methodology The traditional detection methods and control algorithms of cylinder-by-cylinder variations have been researched through literature survey.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1640
Farraen Mohd Azmin, Richard Stobart
Design of Experiments (DOE) introduced a number of design types such as space filling design and optimal design. However, optimal design type is best for a system with high prior knowledge. Meanwhile, space filling design is good for unknown systems which is normal for engine calibration process. Space filling is a design type that randomly spread test points in an engine operating envelope. There are several types of space filling designs such as Latin Hypercube Sampling, Lattice and Stratified Latin Hypercube. However, these designs have a weakness for engine calibration applications. Engine testing for model based calibration can be demanding in terms of resources and time. Ideally, it would be better to have a design that can support constructive model building where a calibration engineer can spend most of the day running a block of engine test and later for the rest of the time modeling the engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1641
Hardik N. Lakhlani
Now day’s technology is changing day by day and with that customer expectation is increasing day by day. Generally customers relate their reputation with their vehicle. Smoke coming out of vehicle affects badly on the reputation of the customer that’s why today’s customer wants smoke free vehicle during transient condition. Low Air Fuel Ratio leads to smoke due to rich combustion mixture. Smoke could be generated due to turbo leg, sudden acceleration, gear changing, cold condition, altitude etc. During sudden acceleration, turbo leg leads to rich mixture which is favorable condition for smoke generation. It’s difficult to reduce turbo leg in waste gate type turbocharger while maintaining EGR requirement in EGR based Engine. Smoke can be optimized by controlling fuelling in sudden acceleration or in transient condition. However it will adversely impact on vehicle pick up and can improve fuel economy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1638
Dejan Kihas, Michael R. Uchanski
Due to stringent emissions regulations, engine-out NOx has emerged as a critical signal for control and on-board diagnosis (OBD) of diesel engines and their aftertreatment systems. A physical NOx sensor mounted upstream of NOx aftertreatment devices often provides this essential signal. Recently, numerous researchers and OEMs have used on-ECU computations to estimate the engine-out NOx level. Such work is typically undertaken to either improve OBD monitors or to lower bill of material cost by removing the sensor. These on-ECU NOx estimators are sometimes called inferential sensors or virtual sensors. This paper reviews the literature on-ECU embedded NOx inferential sensors in order to paint a picture of the current state of the art and to identify directions for future work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1639
Indranil Brahma, Odinmma Ofili, Matthew Campbell, Henrique chiang, Vincent Giralo, Peter Stryker, Daniel Johnson, Aaron Clark
EGR flow rate measurements on production engines are commonly made using orifices or flow nozzles. These devices increase the exhaust pressure resulting in an increase in fuel consumption. Further, the discharge coefficient of these devices have been experimentally determined and tabulated as a function of Reynolds number in published literature only for steady sate flow, and not pulsating flow that occurs in engines. In this work the pressure drop across the EGR cooler (∆P) has been investigated for its ability to predict mass flow rate in conjunction with the inlet temperature measurement. It has been shown that an equivalent discharge coefficient can be defined for the entire EGR cooler, and that this discharge coefficient is a function of the Reynolds number at the inlet of the cooler. Steady state measurements have been made over a variety of speeds and loads and all the data have been shown to collapse onto one single curve when plotted against Reynolds number.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1620
Feilong Liu, Jeffrey Pfeiffer
Low Pressure Cooled EGR (LPC EGR) brings a significant fuel economy and knock suppression benefit to modern boosted downsized spark ignition engine. As prerequisite to design an engine control system for LPC EGR, this paper presents a development of a set of estimation algorithms to accurately estimate the flow rate, pressure states and thermal states of the LPC EGR related conponents. Also, as LPC EGR becomes tightly integrated with other part of engine management system, this paper also presents experimental result focusing on the characterization of the impact of LPC EGR on engine torque control and exhaust component temperature estimation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1618
Ke FANG, Zongyan Li, Andrew Shenton, David Fuente, Bo Gao
Black Box Dynamic Modelling of a Gasoline Engine for Constrained Model-Based Fuel Economy Optimization Ke Fang (a), Zongyan Li(b), Tom Shenton(c), David Fuente(a), Bo Gao(a) a. AVL Powertrain UK b. University of Loughborough c. University of Liverpool New environmental legislation on emission and fuel efficiency targets increasingly requires good transient engine performance and this in turn means that the previously acceptable static engine calibration and control methodologies based on steady-state testing must be re-placed by dynamical optimization using dynamical models. Although many advances have been made in predictive models for internal combustion engines, the phenomena involved are so many, complex and nonlinear that dynamical black-box models typically employing neural network structures must be determined from system identification through experimental testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1617
Brien Fulton, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Jon Dixon, Daniel Roettger, Simon Petrovic, Andres Arevalo
Exhaust pressures (P3) are easy parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature environment that the exhaust system creates, makes the implementation of the exhaust pressure sensor a costly endeavor. Accurate exhaust pressure inputs in vehicle and engine control systems are important for performance, fuel economy, emissions, OBD monitoring and aftertreatment control. The contention with modelling exhaust pressure is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. The paper presents a turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 40626