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Viewing 1 to 30 of 39866
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Naoya Ito, Akira Terashima, Junki Sahara, Takashi Shimada, Masanori Yamada, Akira Iijima, Tomohiko Asai, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Lean burn is a very effective way to substantially improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. A major issue involved in applying a lean-burn process to a spark-ignition engine is to secure stable ignition and combustion. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is one technology for accomplishing rapid combustion of a lean premixed air-fuel mixture. However, because the mixture is autoignited by piston compression in an HCCI engine, controlling the ignition timing is a crucial issue. In addition, another issue of HCCI engines is the narrow range of stable operation owing to the occurrence of misfiring at low loads and extremely rapid combustion at high loads. As an approach to resolving these issues, this study focused on the use of low-temperature plasma as an ignition technique for inducing stable autoignition in an HCCI engine. Specifically, the use of a streamer discharge was investigated for controlling HCCI ignition and combustion. A continuous streamer discharge was generated in the center of the combustion chamber of a 2-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yudai Yamasaki
Biomass resources have attracted attention for their ability to address global environmental problems and as a potentially clean source of energy. One method of using biomass resources is to supply gasified biomass, which is produced by either a thermochemical or a microbiological reaction, as a fuel for gas engines used in power generation. The problems with using gas fuels in a gas engine, especially syngas produced by a thermochemical reaction, are their lower heat content and the variation in the fuel components. In addition, the enthalpy of syngas has to be exploited to achieve a high thermal efficiency. If this gas is directly supplied to a spark-ignition (SI) engine, such high temperatures can cause knock. On the other hand, HCCI require a pre-mixture at a temperature of approximately 1000 K to achieve auto-ignition with hydrocarbon fuels. These aspects of HCCI engines avoid the knocking that occurs in SI engines using hot syngas. Ultra-lean combustion can be also realized with fuels with a low LHV that contain several non-combustible components, and the enthalpy of syngas contributes to realizing the high-temperature pre-mixture conditions enabling auto-ignition.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Keisuke Mochizuki, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion. In addition, the purpose of using blended gaseous fuels were find out effective use of gaseous fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Cristian Catellani, Marco Ferrari, Paolo Verziagi, Dario Catanese
Most of the handheld application are equipped with a Two stroke SI engine. The advantage of this engine are known but one of the problem of this applications is to design air cooling system with high efficiency. One of the main problem to cool the two stroke engine for hand held applications like chainsaw, brush cutter, blower and so on is obtain compact design of the application but in the mean time to have the correct air flow in all conditions. This paper describes a CFD methodology to optimize the air flow around the two stroke engine and identify the potential improvement of this system to increase the cooling efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Gen Shibata, Ryota Kawaguchi, Soumei Yoshida, Hideyuki Ogawa
The chemical compositions of market gasolines are different depending on the crude oils, refinery processes of oil refineries, and seasons. The combustion characteristics of HCCI engine are very sensitive to the fuel compositions, and a fuel standard for HCCI is needed to achieve the HCCI vehicles on the market in a future. In this paper, the effects of fuel structures on auto-ignition characteristics and HCCI engine performance were investigated. The engine employed in the experiment is a research, single cylinder HCCI engine with a compression ratio of 14.7. The intake manifold was equipped with a heater system allowing control of intake air temperature up to 150 C at 1800rpm. Thirteen kinds of hydrocarbons, which were 4 kinds of paraffines, 3kinds of naphthenes, and 6 kinds of aromatics, were chosen, and the 20vol% of each pure hydrocarbon was blended with the 80vol% of PFR50 fuel respectively. The HCCI engine was operated with the thirteen kinds of fuels under the same equivalence ratio, and the relative ignitability (the HCCI index, defined in this paper) of each hydrocarbon was calculated from HTHR CA10 and evaluated.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
The addressed issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines which should be solved is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that cool flame reactions were induced by increasing boost pressure when gasoline with a Research Octane Number of approximately 90 was used as the test fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alexander Trattner, Helmut Grassberger, Oliver Schoegl, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Helmut Eichlseder, Armin Kölmel, Stephan Meyer PhD, Tim Gegg
One of the most significant current discussions worldwide is the anthropogenic climate change accompanying fossil fuel consumption. Sustainable development in all fields of combustion engines is required with the principal objective to enhance efficiency. This certainly concerns the field of hand-held power tools as well. Today, 2-stroke engines equipped with a carburetor are the most used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. Present engine technology has to be further developed in order to respond to future challenges such as more stringent environmental legislation as well as fuel consumption targets and more demanding customer needs. Diverse solutions are expected in future like electric propulsion, 4-stroke variants, different fuels (LPG, ethanol, etc.), but for some applications the 2-stroke engine will remain the appropriate technology. The research to date has tended to focus on 2-stroke engines with rich mixture setting. In this paper the strengths and weaknesses of leaner respectively lean (over-stoichiometric) operation of 2-stroke engines are discussed.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alex K. Rowton, Joseph Ausserer, Marc D. Polanka, Paul Litke, Keith Grinstead
As internal combustion engines (ICEs) decrease in displacement, their cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio increases. Examining power output of ICEs with respect to cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio shows that there is a dramatic change in power scaling trends at approximately 1.5 cm-1. At this size, thermal quenching becomes the dominant thermal loss mechanism and performance and efficiency characteristics suffer. Furthermore, small ICEs (>1 cm-1) have limited technical performance data compared to ICEs in larger size classes. Therefore, it is critical to establish accurate performance figures for a family of geometrically similar engines in the size class of approximately 1.5 cm-1 in order to better predict and model the thermal losses as well as other phenomena that contribute to lower efficiencies in small ICEs. The engines considered in this scaling study were manufactured by 3W Modellmotoren, GmbH. In particular, they are the 3W-28i, 3W-55i, and 3W-85Xi which have a cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio of 1.81 cm-1, 1.46 cm-1, and 1.28 cm-1 respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Joseph K. Ausserer, Alexander Rowton, Keith Grinstead, Paul Litke, Marc D. Polanka
In this work, in-cylinder pressure was measured in a 55 cc single cylinder, 4.4 kW, two stroke, spark ignition engine. Engines of this size are common in handheld power tools, hobbyist aircraft, and more recently, commercially developed remotely piloted aircraft operated by the government and military. Literature data on adapting performance measurements developed for larger engines to engines of this size is sparse. This work focuses on evaluating two different methods for measuring in-cylinder pressure, a critical parameter for combustion analysis, matching power plants to airframes, and engine optimization. In-cylinder pressure measurements were taken using two different pressure transducers to determine if the performance differences between the two transducers are discernible in a small, spark ignition engine. A Kistler brand measuring spark plug was compared to a Kistler brand flush mount high temperature pressure sensor. Both sensors employ a piezo-electric pressure sensing element and were designed to measure indicated mean effective pressure and to detect knock at high temperature engine conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefan Krimplstätter, Franz Winkler, Roland Oswald, Roland Kirchberger
Graz University of technology has presented several applications of its 2-stroke LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology in the previous years (SAE Paper No´s.: 2005-32-0098, 2006-32-0065, 2008-32-0059, 2010-32-0019). In order to improve the competitiveness of the 2-stroke LPDI technology, an air cooled 50cm³ scooter application has been developed. All previous applications have been liquid cooled. The application demonstrates the EURO 4 (2017) ability of the technology and shows that the 2S-LPDI technology can also be applied to low cost air-cooled engines. Hence the complete scooter and moped fleet can be equipped with this technology in order to fulfil on the one hand the emission standards and on the other hand the COP (conformity of production) requirements of Euro 4 emission stage. The paper will present the Euro 4 results of the scooter and describe the very simple conversion process of the existing carburetor engine to the LPDI version. Euro 4 results can be achieved with conventional exhaust system architecture known form nowadays Euro 2 applications.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ludek Pohorelsky, Pavel Brynych, Jan Macek, Pascal Tribotte, Gaetano De Paola, Cyprien Ternel
The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831.Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L 45kW diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT). New simulations results recommend VNT as it offers a higher potential to reduce BSFC with increase power and low end torque output than the original matching.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Naveen Kumar M G, J M Mallikarjuna, B Sadesh
Although there are many vehicles running on road in India with conventional mixer based Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) fueling and vapor LPG injection systems, they are not much beneficial in terms of fuel economy, running cost, maintenance and also emissions. These fueling systems have their own limitations like improper fuel flow control, leakages, difficult to operate at constant throttle openings due to many reasons. Hence it is very much essential to go for the new way of injecting fuels in different form into the intake manifold or combustion chamber to get the maximum benefits of those fuels at different operating conditions of the engine. Hence there is a new method of injecting LPG, is injecting in its liquid form into the intake manifold. Since LPG is pressurized to maintain it in a liquid form, after injecting it into intake manifold at high pressure compared to gasoline injection, it expands to become gas. During expansion it takes heat from the surroundings, it decreases the temperature at the injection sight and also in its surroundings.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ahmed Hamouda, Ahmed Abdel-Rehim
As the world is going through an evolutionary development in most of the science fields, there was an essential and exceptional demand for higher efficiency power generators to recover the thermal losses. Recently thermoelectric materials have attracted extensive attention for this purpose. The recent advancement in nanotechnology has a remarkable impact on thermoelectric materials development. This resulted in nano structured materials whose thermoelectric properties exhibit a great challenge to its bulk form, such as Silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Silicon nanowires are promising thermoelectric materials as they offer large reductions in thermal conductivity over bulk Si without significant decrease in the electrical conductivity. In the present work silicon nanowires have been implemented in fabricating a thermoelectric device which can be employed in different applications, such as engines, to recover part of the energy lost in these applications. Out of the many methods proposed to produce Nanowires, the most recent one which is the wet chemical etching method has been adopted in the present work.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefania Falfari, Claudio Forte, Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Giulio Cazzoli, Cristian Catellani
Faster combustion and lower cycle-to-cycle variability are the two mandatory tasks in the naturally aspirated engines for lowering the emission levels and for increasing the efficiency. Generally speaking the promotion of a stable and coherent tumble structure is largely believed in literature to enhance the in-cylinder turbulence accelerating combustion process. In small PFI engine layout and weight constraints limit the adoption of more advanced concepts. The turbulence generation process is strictly related to the tumble vortex deformation process: during the compression stroke the tumble vortex is deformed, accelerated and its breakdown in smaller eddies leads to the turbulence enhancement process. The prediction of the final level of turbulence for a particular engine operating point is crucial during the engine design process because it represents a practical comparative means for different engine solutions. The tumble ratio parameter value represents a first step toward the evaluation of the turbulence level at ignition time, but it has an intrinsic limit.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini
In the next future, improvements of direct injection systems for spark-ignited engines are necessary for the potential reductions in fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. The admission and spread of the fuel in the combustion chamber is strictly related to the injector design and performances, such as to the fuel and environmental pressure and temperature conditions. In this paper the spray characterization of a GDI injector under normal and flash-boiling injection conditions has been investigated. A customized sensing of the injector nose permitted the temperature control of the nozzle up to 90 °C while a remote-controlled thermostatic device allowed the fuel heating from ambient to 120 °C. An axially-disposed, 0.200 mm in diameter, single-hole injector has been used with l/d ratio equal to 1 and static flow@100 bar: 2.45 g/s, using iso-octane as mono-component fluid. A 1.0 ms duration single pulse strategy has been adopted at the injection pressure of 10 MPa. The spray evolved in a quiescent optically-accessible vessel pressurize at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 MPa at ambient temperature of the gas (N2).
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Bernard Alsteens PhD
Automotive design is going through one of its most profound changes. Fuel prices and growing environmental concerns have made efficiency the biggest prerogative in vehicle design. Manufacturers of hybrid, electric and conventionally-powered vehicles are experimenting with new designs and materials to decrease weight, or mass, and improve economy. In fact reducing mass is where today’s efficiency battle is being fought. Composite materials can bring significant weight saving in the design. These materials are one of the solutions offered to the designers to achieve new fuel efficiency regulation. New challenge arises in term of design optimization and manufacturing. Shifting from a metal to composite paradigm requires a dedicated tool for composite design in order to take into account the specific composite behavior. Material performance varies widely over the entire part mainly due to the process and the corresponding microstructure. Classical design tools are not able to describe accurately the local composite material behavior, leading to introduction of safety factors and lack of confidence in the design.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Abolfazl Khatib, Hossein Ghomashi
Annular Rotary diesel engine (AR diesel engine) is a newly designed type of diesel rotary engine that cylinder block has been changed to a ring-shaped form around central shaft. Rotary pistons rotate inside the annular cylinder block via a specific working cycle and a transmission mechanism transmits movement of pistons to central shaft. Description of all parts, working cycle, cooling system, lubrication system and sealing of different parts are discussed in this paper. Semi-actual calculation prove huge power and torque are produced in AR diesel engine as compare with similar reciprocating engine while SFC is decreased. The most important pollution factors such as: ineffective heat transfer, destructive effect of crevice volume, deposits and oil film on combustion chamber wall are limited. It leads to less NOx, PM and HC.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Atsushi Maruyama, Gaku Naoe
For a small general purpose engine, the authors have studied about the mechanical noise originating from combustion, which is called “combustion noise”. The Purpose of this study is to clarify the generating mechanism of combustion noise, and the relation between combustion noise and the components design unique to small general purpose engines. In development of internal-combustion engines, the improvement in fuel economy performance is one of the most important issues. For this purpose, various methods to improve combustion efficiency are suggested. However, most of those methods involve the increase in cylinder pressure or rapid combustion, which causes the increase in combustion noise. Therefore, technological development for reducing the combustion noise is also an issue. Although a number of previous papers about combustion noise focused on the engines used for motorcycle or automobile, few papers focused on small general purpose engines. By contrast, this study focuses on the small general purpose engine.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takahiro MASUDA, Kouji SAKAI, Yuki YAMAGUCHI, Jun-ichi KAKU, Hirobumi NAGASAKA
This paper proposes a novel engine starter system composed of a small-power electric motor and simple mechanical devices. The system makes it possible to design more efficient starter-generators than conventional systems, and especially, it is effective to restart engines equipped with idling stop systems. Recently, several idling stop systems have been proposed for motorcycles to achieve intelligent start-up functions and highly-efficient generation. One of challenges of the idling stop systems is downsizing of starter motors. However, there are real limitations to downsize the motors in the conventional idling stop systems, since the systems utilize forward-rotational torque of the motors to compress mixture gas in cylinders. Our study exceeds the limitations of the downsizing by exploiting combustion energy instead of electric energy to run over a first compression top dead center. The starter system described in this paper consists of (A) an electric motor which can rotate a crank shaft both forward and backward, (B) a cam-train to drive an intake valve during an exhaust stroke in a backward rotation, and (C) a control unit to inject and ignite at arbitrary timing.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Patrick Pertl, Philipp Zojer, Michael Lang, Oliver Schoegl, Alexander Trattner, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Nagesh Mavinahally, Vinayaka Mavinahalli
The automotive industry has made great efforts in reducing fuel consumption recently. The efficiency of modern spark ignition (SI) engines has been increased by improving the combustion process and reducing engine losses such as friction, gas exchange and wall heat losses. Nevertheless, further efficiency improvement is indispensable for the reduction of CO2 emissions and the smart usage of available energy. In the previous years the Atkinson cycle realized over the crank train is attracting considerable interest of several OEMs due to the high theoretical efficiency potential. In this publication a crank train-based Atkinson cycle engine is investigated. The researched engine, a 4-stroke 2 cylinder V-engine, basically consists of a special crank train linkage system and a novel mono shaft valve train concept. The idea of a mono shaft valve train mechanism is to realize the valve actuation without the need for separate cam shafts and gears, but via a cam disk rotating crank shaft speed, thus enabling the integration of the cam disk in the crank shaft.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alexander Shkolnik, Mark Nickerson, Nikolay Shkolnik
In this paper, we will present the development of a small (<50cc) rotary diesel internal combustion engine based on the High Efficiency Hybrid Cycle (HEHC). The cycle, which combines compression ignition (high compression ratio), constant-volume (isochoric) combustion, and over-expansion, has a theoretical efficiency of 75% using air-standard assumptions and first-law analysis. A new engine architecture dubbed the 'X' engine was developed to embody this thermodynamic cycle, and simulations show potential brake efficiency exceeding 50%. As this engine does not have poppet valves, and the gas is fully expanded before the exhaust stroke starts, the engine has potential to be very quiet compared to alternative 2-stroke and 4-stroke piston engines. Similar to the Wankel-type rotary engine, the 'X' engine has only two primary moving parts - a shaft, and a rotor, and both engine types will be compact and offer low-vibration operation. Unlike the Wankel, however, the X engine is uniquely configured to adopt the HEHC cycle and its associated efficiency and low-noise benefits.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshitane Takashima, Hiroki Tanaka, Takahiro Sako, Masahiro Furutani
Engines using natural gas as their main fuel are attracting attention for their environmental protection and energy-saving potential. There is demand for improvement in the thermal efficiency of engines as an energy-saving measure, and research in this area is being actively pursued on spark ignition engines and HCCI engines. In spark ignition gas engines, improving combustion under lean conditions such as lean burn and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) is an issue, and many large gas engines use a pre-chamber. The use of the pre-chamber approach allows stable combustion of lean gas mixtures at high charging pressure, and the reduction of NOx emissions.In small gas engines, engine structure prevents the installation of pre-chambers with adequate volume, and it is therefore unlikely that the full benefits of the pre-chamber approach will be derived. However, recent research on pre-chamber plugs suggests that the pre-chamber combustion approach extends the lean limit even when fuel is not supplied to the pre-chamber, and that this limit is not particularly dependent on the large volume of the pre-chamber.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Vipin Sukumaran T., Sumith Joseph
In recent past, the two stroke vehicle manufacturers are continuously motivated to develop extreme low emission vehicle for meeting the requirements of emissions regulations. To achieve this emission compliance, manufacturers have developed engines with better induction system, improved ignition timings, increased compression ratio (C.R) and larger after-treatment devices. As an effect of above changes, engine operating temperatures are quite high which reduces the block-piston life. Even though, typical two stroke engines are forced cooled engines, there is a lot of potential for optimizing block cooling to reduce maximum liner temperature and block gradient for enhancing block-piston durability. This paper presents an experimental study of various measures to reduce liner temperature for a two stroke, single cylinder 70 c.c. engine used for two wheeler application. By studying the cooling air flow around the block and block to interface parts heat transfer, the following parts were redesigned to reduce maximum liner temperature – exhaust gasket, base gasket, cooling fan profile and cooling cowl.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini, Giuseppe Cantore, Enrico Agostinelli
The paper compares two different design concepts for a range extender engine rated at 30 kW at 4500 rpm. The first project is a conventional 4-Stroke SI engine, 2-cylinder, equipped with port injection and a 3-way catalyst. The second is a new type of 2-Stroke loop scavenged SI engine, featuring a direct gasoline injection and a patented rotary valve for enhancing the induction and scavenging process. Air is delivered to the 2-stroke engine by means of a piston pump, arranged as a second cylinder, with its axis at 90° from the main one. In this way, the crankcase and the crankshaft of both analyzed engines may be almost identical, despite the different operating cycle. The combustion system of the 4-Stroke engine is a conventional 4-valve pentroof design, while the 2-Stroke engine has got a hemispheric dome, with close-spaced spark plug and injector. The only valve installed on the 2-Stroke engine is the patented rotary valve, revving at the same speed of the engine. Both power units have been virtually designed with the help of CFD simulation.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Brian Mason, Keith Lawes
For handheld power tools, a four-stroke engine allows compliance with exhaust emissions regulations although four-stroke engines available tend to have unfavourable power to weight. The requirement for a low cost diecast block compromises valve sizes and port flow. While dynamic valve train limitations restrict maximum engine speeds. The use of a rotary valve as opposed to poppet valves avoids these issues and results in an engine with competitive performance. The engine block can be diecast and the engine can operate up to 14,000 rpm without valve related issues. This paper describes the evolution of a rotary valve concept and its application to two 35cc handheld development engines. The HRCV35 is based on a belt driven rotary valve horizontally mounted parallel to the crankshaft axis. The VRCV35 is based on a gear driven rotary valve vertically mounted on the cylinder axis. In both configurations, the rotary valve exposes inlet and exhaust ports providing unrestricted flow. The valve generates turbulence for easy starting and can operate on low volatility fuels such as aviation kerosene or JP8.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Christian Zinner, Reinhard Stelzl, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Leiber, Thomas Schabetsberger
There are several reasons for equipping an internal combustion engine with a turbo charger. The most important motivation for motorcycle use is to increase the power to weight ratio. Additionally, the importance of reducing CO2-emissions is increasing even for power sport applications. These two motives, the CO2 reduction on the one hand and the increase of the power to weight ratio on the other hand, were the main drivers for the presented investigation. Focusing on the special boundary conditions of motorcycles, like the wide engine speed range or the extraordinarily high demands on response behavior, automotive downsizing technologies cannot be transferred directly to this field of application. This led to the main question: Is it possible to design a turbo charged motorcycle engine with satisfactory drivability and response behavior? The layout of a charged motorcycle engine, as presented in two previous papers, was derived by simulation and had to be verified by experimental investigations.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Fino Scholl, Markus Klaissle, Danny Schwarz, Blanca Gimenez
Electrical power and efficiency are decisive factors to minimise payoff time of cogeneration units and thus increase their profitability. The expected tightening of emission standards by the European Union in 2018, however, demands new approaches in engine development to maintain operation of stationary reciprocating gas engines profitable. In the case of small scale cogeneration engines, low-NOx operation and high engine efficiency are frequently achieved through lean burn operation. While further mixture dilution enables future emission standards to be met, it results in poor combustion phasing, reducing engine efficiency as well as engine power. In this work, 1D-CFD and DOE were used as development tools in order to investigate an engine concept that improves the trade-off between engine efficiency, NOx emissions and engine power. The concept combines well-established individual measures such as lean burn operation, overexpanded cycle and a power-optimised intake system. Overexpansion can be realised by advanced or retarded inlet valve closing timing, which is also known as Miller or Atkinson cycle, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Satyanarayana P S, Balasubramanian Loganathan, Dr A Ramesh, V Lakshminarasimhan
Achieving good engine performance and drivability in the entire operating range is a strong customer need in personal transport vehicles, especially two wheelers. Currently all small engines use fixed valve timing and this results in a compromise in engine performance at some speeds. Variable valve timing (VVT) helps to minimise this compromise. Though automotive technologies such as VVT are available for larger vehicles, they are too large, complex and very expensive to adopt in small engines (< 250cc). The challenge, therefore, is to develop a simple, compact and low cost system which can be used without additional controls on existing small two-wheeler engines. In this work, a mechanically variable cam phaser is developed. Mechanically variable cam phasing systems are simple, reliable, and cost-effective, and also offer good control. Phasing of intake, exhaust or both intake and exhaust valve opening can be achieved with such a system. In this design, a cam chain drives the cam sprocket; a pair of pins drive the shaft (intake, exhaust or both) which is to be phased relative to the crankshaft.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for the electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Title: Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers Authors: Schacht, Bretterklieber, Schmidt, Kirchberger Affiliation: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 coming into force 2016 for type approval, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and thus costlier. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered be the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts are likely to appear on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-11-08 and 2012-10-23.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 39866