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Viewing 1 to 30 of 40122
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0132
Ajay Paul John, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Prashant Bhavsar
Valve Train noise is a very important issue plaguing most of the engines and especially gasoline engines as they do not have Hydraulic Lash Adjuster (HLA). This study was conducted on a small Air cooled motorcycle gasoline engine with over head cam shafts. The rocker arm was a roller follower type. Commercially available Numerical codes were used to simulate the kinematic and the dynamic behaviour of the valve train. In the dynamic model the 3D FE model of the rocker arm was included to take into consideration the dynamic stiffness variation the rocker arm. A 3D spring model was also included for better simulation accuracy. How the effect of the design of the cam profile and the ramp affects the tappet noise was understood. Accelerometers were mounted on the cylinder head of the engine and the tappet noise from the valve train system was measured.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0178
Usman Ali Mohammed, Nitin Gokhale, Sujit Pardeshi, Uday Gokhale, M N Kumar
The stringent emission norms and increasing demand for engines with higher power density lead to an extensive investigation of parameters affecting combustion performance. Recent emission norms have forced the engine manufacturers to reduce the Particulate matter (PM) emissions along with other emissions substantially. In order to achieve lo PM emissions the lubrication oil consumption need to be controlled by optimizing piston group design with low liner bore distortion. Bore Distortion is the deviation of actual profile from perfect circular profile at any plane perpendicular to axis of cylinder. Liner bore distortion in engines causes number of problems like deterioration of piston ring performance, liner-ring conformability issues, high lubricating oil consumption and emissions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0198
Rushikesh Dakhore, Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar, Dattatray B. Hulwan
To meet stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, design of piston cavity geometry perform a defining role in air motion, fuel air mixing, combustion and emission formation. A study is performed with the objective to have a better tradeoff between NOx, PM and fuel consumption for a Medium duty, constant speed diesel engine operated with Mechanical fuel injection system. Through simulations in 3D CFD tool the effect of piston cavity geometry on performance and emission of diesel engine is investigated and then validated with actual experimentation. In this exercise efforts are made to reduce emissions in a direct injection diesel engine by changing the piston cavity geometry. The piston cavity geometry and dimensions like torus radius, pip region, cavity lip area, and impingement area have an effect on emission formation. The target was to deliberately split the fuel spray and have a better utilization of available air.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0109
Prashant Kumar Sharma, Suryanarayanan Venkatachalam, Pradeep Paulraj, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe, Senthur Pandian
As the number of vehicles and environment pollution is increasing day by day, the emission regulation gets more stringent by the emission regulation authorities. Oxides of Nitrogen gases are one of the most harmful emissions from the IC Engines. In EURO 5 regulation NOx emission value is 0.18g/km for passenger cars which is further reduced to 0.08 g/km in EURO 6 regulation for CI engines. In order to achieve these NOx limits SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology is used for CI engines. In SCR technology the reduction of NOx is done through aqueous urea solution injected in exhaust stream. The composition of aqueous urea solution is 62.5% water and 32.5% is urea. After injection, this aqueous urea solution disintegrated into Ammonia and carbon dioxide by Thermolysis and Hydrolysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0128
MR Vikram, Ramesh Patil, Shashidhar Chattanahalli, Vijay H Meti
TORSIONAL VIBRATION DAMPER DEVELOPMENT FOR EMERGING MARKET RWD VEHICLE Vikram MR, Ramesh Patil, Vijay Meti, Shashidhar Chattanahalli General Motors Technical Centre India Automotive manufacturers are facing unprecedented cost challenge across globe. Market requirement has become very competitive with demand for higher performance and low cost solutions. This is encouraging automotive manufacturers to develop dampers with local suppliers, as there is huge component cost advantage and also logistic cost savings. However, in emerging markets, supplier capability to develop the component for solving particular NVH problem of OEM is not matured as compared to developed market suppliers. Challenge lies with auto makers to develop supplier, who can give right performance, durability and lower cost components.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0129
Kapil Gupta, MR Vikram, Eugenio Manta
ABSTRACT A turbocharger unit mainly consists of a centrifugal compressor and a turbine coupled together by a solid shaft. This is employed to boost the charge air pressure of engine. Turbocharging in modern diesel and gasoline engines have become a common and essential operation to result higher power outputs, lower emissions, improved efficiency and refinements from a similar capacity of naturally aspirated engine. The automotive turbocharger system is a source of synchronous and asynchronous noises which are particularly very disturbing for the passengers. This need to be eliminated or reduced for passenger comfort. Subjectively, a high whistle noise was audible at passenger cabin during in mid-rpm range drive in all gears in a 4 cylinder diesel vehicle. Objective noise and vibration data confirm the issue as unbalance whistle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0126
Prince Shital, Chiranjit Ghosh, Harveen Talwar, Avnish Gosain, Praneet Shanker Dayal
Three-cylinder Engine without balancer shaft is a recent trend towards development of lightweight and fuel-efficient power train for passenger car. In addition of that, customer's expectation of superior NVH inside driver cabin is increasing day by day. Engine mounts address majority of the NVH issues related to transfer of vibration from engine to passenger cabin. Idle vibration isolation for a three-cylinder engine is a challenging task due to possibility of overlapping of Power train’s rigid body modes with engine's firing frequency. This Overlapping of rigid body modes of power train can be avoided either by modifying mount characteristic or by changing the position of mounts based on multi body dynamics (MBD) simulation. This paper explains about two types of engine mounting system for a front-wheel drive transversely mounted three-cylinder engine. The base vehicle was having three-point mounting system i.e. all three engine mounts were pre-loaded.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0207
Kamran Hashmi, D Radhakrishna
Abstract This paper deals with the application of 1-D simulation technique for prediction of engine performance at high altitudes. 1-Dimensional (1-D) engine simulation is an important tool for engine development activities. Engine design through simulation can substantially cut down time needed to execute experiments and prototyping, as todays softwares can simulate most of the experiments.This approach was applied for simulation of a spark-ignited engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).A detailed 1-D thermodynamic model was prepared for the engine configuration in Ricardo WAVE environment; different simulation runs were executed and then performance parameters like brake power, torque, specific fuel consumption, BMEP, in-cylinder pressure etc were predicted. A predicted performance shall always be co-related with test results for correct interpretation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0033
Mirko Leesch, Jörg Müller, Jens Liebold
The paper will deal with a new forward-looking 7-speed hybrid dual-clutch transmission for transverse applications. The new base system realizes 7 well stepped forward speeds with only 2 shafts. The space of the usually third shaft is used for the e-motor or the mechanical reverse speed. The e-motor and reverse speed integration is modular by using identical parts and a common flange on the transmission housing. The direct connection of the e-motor to the differential helps to avoid additional gear set loads and efficiency losses. Finally such modular transmissions will help to reduce development und production costs in future.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0039
Naresh G. Gandhi, Yogesh Aghav, Nitin Gokhale, M N Kumar
Development trend in diesel engines is to downsize and develop more power from same size of engine. This requires additional air flow and hence increased boost pressure ratio (BPR). With increased brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the altitude capability of engine reduces. This paper presents a novel approach to estimate the altitude capability of engine and calculate deration factor. As the altitude above sea level increases, ambient pressure decreases, air becomes thinner. For same altitude ambient temperature also varies as per seasonal changes. This results in change (reduction) in ambient air density. This reduction has significant effect on turbocharger (TC), Intercooler and engine performance. Beyond a limiting altitude, engine performance shall be compromised to avoid any damage to engine and its components.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0032
Raimund Ellinger, Edoardo Morra, Steffen Daum, Johannes Schauer, Gebhard Woentner
Best fuel efficiency is one of the core requirements for commercial vehicles in India. Due to the high Diesel prices this requirement is beside reliability and durability very important for end customers when deciding for a new truck or bus. Consequently it is a central challenge for commercial vehicle OEMs to optimize the whole powertrain, hence match the engine, transmission and rear axle specifications best to the defined application. The consequent high number of possible commercial powertrain combinations of engine, transmission and rear axle specifications requests for an efficient and effective development methodology based on system simulations. With this, the most suitable powertrain specifications, meeting all end customer requirements can be ensured.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0029
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Umashanker Gupta, Swapnil Vyas
Proper sealing of engine is very important parameter in engine design. Even small amount of gas leakage from the engine can affect the overall performance of the engine during operation. There are two important factors in enhancing the efficiency of the sealing of the gasket are right tightening torque of bolts & gasket design. In this study, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket, and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions, such as cold assembly, hot assembly, cold start, and hot firing, is simulated by commercial tool, based on the finite element method (FEM). The results shows that the efficiency of the sealing of the cylinder head gasket depends on the tightening torque of the hold-down bolts, without taking into consideration any thermal load resulting from the temperature distribution in the cylinder head.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0055
Chinmaya Mishra, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar, Nitin Katiyar
Plant origin vegetable oils are long considered as a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine applications. However, higher viscosity and density compounded with poor cold flow properties of these oils lead to serious operational and durability problems in diesel engines like injector chocking, higher deposit formations, poor combustion characteristics etc. In this context, application of additives in neat vegetable oil to enable them for engine application seem to present a promising alternative for rural stationary diesel engines where the complex transesterification process for biodiesel production from vegetable oils is not feasible. In the present study, Calophyllum vegetable oil was blended with 10%, 20% and 30% by volume of Isopropyl alcohol and named as CI10, CI20 and CI30 respectively. Neat diesel was named as D100.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0063
Jurgen De Kimpe, Serge Lievens, Shengchun Yan
This paper describes the properties of an engine coolant that uses a potassium propionate solution as base fluid. Although alternatives for ethylene glycol are known, e.g. propylene glycol and glycerin, the use of a salt based coolant for high temperature applications has seldom been considered as a viable option due to the intrinsic corrosiveness of such salt solutions. The salt based coolant offers freezing as well as boiling protection and has thermal properties that allow for usage in standard combustion engines. Volumetric heat capacity and viscosity are very similar to glycol based analogues, while its thermal conductive is substantially higher. Thermal experiments indicate that the potassium propionate coolant is highly effective in suppressing localized boiling phenomena. Due to its chemical nature the coolant has superior oxidation stability. The coolant has the further advantage of being readily biodegradable and has a low toxicity.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0146
Dhanashri Ravikiran Desai, Suhas Suryawanshi, Bhalchandra Deshmukh
Paper Number Study of Eddy Current Principle and Clutch Mechanism for Fan Drive on Canopied Diesel Power Generator Performance Dhanashri R Desai, S.P.Suryawanshi, B.S.Deshmukh Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. Pune, India V. N. Kapatkar Sinhgad College of engineering, Pune, India Copyright © 2014 SAE International ABSTRACT Developing countries always rely on the alternate source of power generation to have the uninterrupted power supply. Diesel Power generator is one of the solutions in meeting the uninterrupted power requirement. In India, Power generating sets are having stringent emission norms and also the present government policies of removing subsides from Diesel fuel adding the additional burden on operating cost. As such researcher has a tough task to design the product considering the stringent requirement of legislation and performance. The main focus of this research work is to address performance necessities and the noise legislation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0020
Santhosh Thomas, Deepak Garg, Ajay Kumar, Shailender Sharma
Cycles to cycle variations are always a cause for concern in port fuelled SI engines. Earlier studies in this field suggest that cycle by cycle variations in the position and growth rate of flame kernel has a significant role in the cycle by cycle variations in the pressure curves. Researchers are always interested in understanding the fluid flow and combustion characteristics in a running engine to study these variations in detail. Due to its simplicity in adaptation, fiber optic spark plug enables the researchers to study the effects of charge motion on the developing flame kernel at relatively less cost and effort. In this paper 8 channel fiber optic spark plug was used to measure and understand the flame kernel development. Flush mounted pressure transducer were also installed to measure the in cylinder pressure data so as to analyze various combustion parameters.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0038
Suramya Naik, Fabien Redon, Gerhard Regner, John Koszewnik
With mounting pressure on Indian manufacturers to meet future fuel economy and emissions mandates—including the recently passed Corporate Average Fuel Consumption (CAFC) standards for light-duty vehicles—many are evaluating new technologies. However, to provide an economically sustainable solution, these technologies must increase efficiency without increasing cost. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, standards is the opposed-piston engine. Widely used in the early 20th century for on-road applications, the opposed-piston engine was eventually removed from on-highway applications due to challenges with emissions and oil control. Recent advancements in computer-aided engineering tools combined with state-of-the-art engineering practices have enabled Achates Power to develop a modern opposed-piston diesel engine architecture that is clean, significantly more fuel efficient and less expensive to manufacture than today’s four-stroke engines.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0065
Muzaffar Ali Quazi, Shalabh Parashar
The performance of internal combustion engines should be improved depending on some technological requirements and rapid increase in the fuel expenses. On the other hand, the improvements in engine materials are forced by using alternative fuels and environmental requirements. Therefore, the performances of engine materials become increasingly important. Experimental research of insulated diesel engine incorporating thermal barrier coating (TBC) has produced controversial result. Some publication report that engine efficiency increases with insulation, while other argue that efficiency decreases. There are report also presenting a mixed picture. This Paper presents comparative analysis of heat release in base line and insulated(Piston crown with plasma sprayed zirconia coating) diesel engine. The coating system effects on the fuel consumption, the power and the combustion efficiency, pollution contents and the fatigue lifetime of engine components.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0142
Muzaffar Ali Quazi, Shakti Kumar Singh, Mangeshkumar Jadhao
Abstract In meeting the stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, the design of the piston bowl and the nozzle configuration perform a defining role. This paper elaborates the experimental work conducted for combustion optimization with combinations of piston bowl, intake port swirl and injector specifications in 3.68 l off road diesel engine. Through simulations the best option had been carried out parametrically, investigate the influence of piston bowl geometry and nozzle characteristics on the performance of the combustion system. Then experimental tests were carried out, the influence of the nozzle cone angle, hydraulic flow rate, number of holes and their combination were determined using systematic parameter variations with selected piston bowl designs. The performance of the various hardware configurations were evaluated based on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption values.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0202
Mahesh Patwardhan, Jagannath M Paranjpe, Sushil S Ramdasi, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth, Neelkanth V Marathe, Prasad Bhat
Use of Non Linear Analysis in Powertrain Design for Prediction of Cylinder Bore Distortion, Design changes for Reduction along with Experimental Validation M.A. Patwardhan, J. M. Paranjpe, S.S. Ramdasi, N.V. Karanth, N.V. Marathe, ARAI Pune Abstract The work presented in this paper deals with the use of non-linear FEA simulation in powertrain development. Prediction of cylinder bore distortion early in the design stage significantly affects overall performance of engine as bore distortion directly affects oil consumption, blowby and emission. The paper presents a methodology for predicting bore distortion with an objective of achieving improved performance of powertrain.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0213
Christoph Poetsch, Peter Priesching, Henrik Schuemie, Reinhard Tatschl
The operation of spark-ignition engines (SI-engines) is characterized by a non-repeatability of the instantaneous combustion rate of the individual engine cycles at nominally identical engine operating parameters, commonly referred to as cyclic combustion variability (CCV). CCV are responsible for the engine knock behavior and the related engine performance and fuel consumption. In the present work, a scalable simulation methodology is presented that enables the analysis of CCV and their impact on engine efficiency and fuel consumption on component, sub-system and system level. On the component level, a 3D-CFD Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is used for the calculation of multiple engine cycles in order to analyze the impact of the flow field and mixture formation on the cycle-resolved flame propagation and hence on the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Abstract Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0108
Vijay Narkhede, Dinesh Kumar, R M Cursetji, Touquire A Sidiquie
Abstract Diesel engines are becoming popular because of more fuel efficient and durability. While the CO and HC impurities are significantly lower than in gasoline engines, the design strategies for reduction of Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Oxides remain a major challenge for environment. The work mainly focused on reduction of NOx from diesel engines using SCR technology under Indian driving conditions and furl availability. With BS III/IV fuel available in the country, the catalyst system of choices the Vanadia Tungsten Titania (VWT) system because of its proven resistance to Sulfur poisoning. However, under urban driving conditions on Indian roads, the major obstacle is the low engine out temperatures which are below the normal operating temperature window (200 to 450 °C) of VWT - SCR.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0120
Sohan Sontakke, Pankaj Kumar
The Performance of Electric Hybrid Transmission system is controlled by Electronic control unit (ECU). ECU Casing, which packages Printed circuit board (PCB) with components soldered on both sides, have to protect the PCB and components from • Thermal Damage • Dust and Water ingress • Vibrations in the vehicle • Air-Pressure fluctuations Paper enlightens Product development Architecture of ECU Casing explaining all Phases of product cultivation from processing of inputs till validation of the product. Requirement Analysis being first phase, analyses all PCB requirements, mechanical requirements related to product certification. Architecture Conceptualization being second phase, analyses layout optimization, Material Category, Manufacturing Category, Production Process, Material Grade. Design being third phase, analyses all aspects of Engineering Design, Manufacturing Design, and Feasibility Design.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0022
Rakesh Mulik, Sushil S Ramdasi
Abstract In the pursuit of design and development of efficient, reliable and durable system and components for modern engines, there is a need to understand complications involved in building mathematical models for simulation. Valve train and timing drive systems are having higher rankings for addressing these attributes. Hence, a new comprehensive multi body dynamics model is built and equations are solved by state-variable approach. Model developed is validated and in order to probe into details of Hydraulic Lash Adjuster (HLA) behavior and coupled analysis of timing chain drive systems for valve train system, simulation is carried out to freeze design options. Engine timing drives used in engines are one of the most critical systems. Timing chains are preferred widely in modern high speed engines as compared to timing belts and gear drives. In spite of advantages of chain drive systems, their complex dynamic behavior is not well researched.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0024
Sivanesan Murugesan, Lakshmikanthan Chinnasamy, Abhijeet Patil
Abstract Appropriate test cycle is required for engine testing. To do so, a new methodology is developed for deriving Engine Test Cycle based on real world duty cycle. Transient speed and load is to be collected from the functional engine on the field. The duty cycle for cyclic operation will be developed from the actual transient speed and load conditions. An iterative process and the comparison of chi-square statistical data is used to categorize typical microtrips, segments of engine operation collected during performance of certain activities. Different microtrips of all activities were combined together to make up a cycle of operation and test cycle as well. These data's are compared to statistical data which is used to illustrate the raw data. On successful comparison, the transient test cycle is validated on the test bed. To facilitate further engine testing, the cycle is transformed into a schedule of torque and speed points at One second intervals.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0025
Sireesha Mandagaddi
Abstract In diesel systems, compression ratio(CR) is one of the key parameters which plays an important role in its performance. The volume of air that is sucked into the cylinder and which will be further compressed in compression stroke depends on the swept volume due to the piston movement from Top Dead centre (TDC) to Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) within the cylinder. The increase in CR through increase in the swept volume without changing either cylinder or piston sizes and without altering the TDC position will be very useful. The author proposes two schemes based on variable ConRod (Connecting Rod) and Movable Crank Pin approaches to realize the increase in CR. The author also touches upon the scope of varying the CR in these schemes.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0031
Alberto Boretti, Joseph Scalzo
Abstract The present paper is an introduction to a novel rotary valve engine design addressing the major downfalls of past rotary valves applications while permitting the typical advantages of the rotary valves. Advantages of the solution are the nearly optimal gas exchange, mixture formation, ignition and combustion evolution thanks to the large gas exchange areas from the two horizontal valves per engine cylinder, the good shape of the combustion chamber, the opportunity to place a direct fuel injector and a spark or jet ignition device at the centre of the chamber. The novel engine design also permits higher speed of rotation not having reciprocating poppet valves and the reduced friction losses of the rotating only distribution. This translates in better volumetric efficiencies, combustion rates and brake mean effective pressures for improved power density and fuel efficiency. Additional advantages are the reduced weight and the better packaging.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0030
Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar
Abstract Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets are upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines above 75 kW up to 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to European Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0041
Andrea Bertola, Reinhold Dolt, Jens Höwing
Abstract Spark plugs with integrated pressure transducer, also called measuring spark plugs, are suitable for measuring cylinder pressure in gasoline and gas engines without the need to provide an additional bore in the cylinder head. Various changes to the original spark plug occur when a pressure sensor is integrated in the body of the spark plug such as the spark position and the maximum diameter of the isolator. This article shows the results that can be achieved in respect of the spark and measurement function on a state-of-the-art, turbocharged, directly-injected gasoline engine with homogeneous mixture operation by comparing the original spark plugs with measuring spark plugs. To this end, various engine operating points were carried out at full and partial load by varying the lambda and spark ignition timing, which were assessed as a reference based on water-cooled pressure sensors.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 40122