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Viewing 1 to 30 of 42091
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9144
Marc-Olivier Lacerte, Gabriel Pouliot, Jean-Sébastien Plante, Philippe Micheau
Electric Vehicles (EVs) with single-ratio gearbox provide high levels of smoothness, but using multi-speed gearbox can provide significant benefits in terms of vehicle acceleration, top speed, powertrain cost, mass, and energy consumption. In particular, Automated Manual Transmissions (AMTs) have characteristics of smooth shifts without torque interruption when coupled to a torque bypass clutch. However, conventional friction clutches are not best suited as torque bypass clutches because of their limited controllability and because large amount of heat must be dissipated to slow down the motor during gearshifts. This paper studies the feasibility of a seamless AMT architecture for EVs and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) using an eddy current torque bypass clutch that is highly controllable, robust, low cost, and has no wearable parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0798
Ravichandra S. Jupudi, Charles E.A. Finney, Roy Primus, Sameera Wijeyakulasuriya, Adam E. Klingbeil, Bhaskar Tamma, Miroslav K. Stoyanov
Cost- and emissions-reduction pressures are driving engine manufacturers to consider fuel substitution in heavy-duty diesel internal combustion engines. One promising application is that of large-bore, medium-speed engines such as those used in locomotives. These engines could be operated either in diesel-only mode or operated with premixed natural gas ignited by a pilot flame of compression-ignited direct-injected diesel fuel. With realistic natural gas substitution levels in the fleet of locomotives currently in service, such fuel substitution could result in billions of dollars of savings annually in the US alone. However, under certain conditions, dual-fuel operation can give rise to unstable combustion, resulting in cyclic variations in cylinder pressure and work extraction. In certain situations, the CCV of dual-fuel operation can be notably higher than that of diesel-only combustion under similar operating conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0782
Chaitanya Kavuri, Sage Kokjohn
Past research has shown that reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion offers efficiency, NOx and soot advantages over conventional diesel combustion at mid load conditions. However, at high load and low speed conditions, the chemistry time scale of the fuel shortens and the engine time scale lengthens. This mismatch in chemistry and engine timescales makes operation at high load and low speed conditions difficult. High levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to extend the chemistry timescales; however, this comes at the penalty of increased pumping losses. In the present study, targeting the high load – low speed regime, computational optimizations of dual fuel RCCI combustion were performed at 20 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and 1300 rev/min. The two fuels used for the study were gasoline (low reactivity) and diesel (high reactivity). The effects of intake pressure and EGR on combustion and emissions were studied.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0771
Silvana Di Iorio, Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Methane is a promising fuel for internal combustion engine because of its environmental friendly characteristics and renewable nature. It can be used in existing compression ignition engine through dual fuel technology. This paper deals with the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a small compression ignition engine modified to operate in diesel/methane dual fuel mode. The engine is a three-cylinder, 1028 cc of displacement, equipped with a common rail injection system and a diesel oxidation catalyst. A gas injector was set up in the intake manifold and it was managed by an external delay unit. Experiments were carried out at different engine speeds and loads. For each engine operating conditions, a part of the total load was supplied by the diesel combustion and the remaining by methane. Thermodynamics analysis of the combustion phase was performed by in-cylinder pressure signal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0632
Domenico Crescenzo, Viktor Olsson, Javier Arco Sola, Hongwen Wu, Andreas Cronhjort, Eric Lycke, Oskar Leufven, Ola Stenlaas
Due to demanding legislation on exhaust emissions for internal combustion engines and increasing fuel prices, automotive manufacturers have focused their efforts on optimizing turbocharging systems. Turbocharger system control optimization is difficult: Unsteady flow conditions combined with not very accurate compressor maps make the real time turbocharger rotational speed one of the most important quantities in the optimization process. This work presents a methodology designed to obtain the turbocharger rotational speed via vibration analysis. Standard knock sensors have been employed in order to achieve a robust and accurate, yet still a low-cost solution capable of being mounted on-board. Results show that the developed method gives an estimation of the turbocharger rotational speed, with errors and accuracy acceptable for the proposed application. The method has been evaluated on a heavy duty diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0674
Macklini Dalla Nora, Thompson Lanzanova, Yan Zhang, Hua Zhao
With the introduction of fuel economy or CO2 emissions legislation in Europe and many countries, there has been extensive research on developing high efficiency gasoline engines by means of the downsizing technology. Engine downsizing is typically achieved by combining direct fuel injection, variable valve actuation, boosting technologies and improved quality fuels in four-stroke poppet valve engines. Under this approach the engine operation is shifted towards higher load regions where pumping and friction losses have a reduced effect, so improved efficiency is achieved with smaller displacement engines. However, to ensure the same full load performance of larger engines the charge density needs to be increased, which raises concerns about structural stresses and abnormal combustion at high in-cylinder pressures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0697
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Ludovica Luise, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Even more attention was paid to the direct injection (DI) system in spark ignition (SI) engines. DI allows to achieve improved efficiency. Nevertheless, the less time for fuel evaporation and mixing with respect to PFI engines as well as the larger fuel impingement, results in larger HC and CO emissions as well as particle emissions. PFI SI engine are characterized by low exhaust emissions but at the same time by lower engine performance. In this paper was investigated the effect of the O2 addition on engine performance and emissions. The experimental investigation was carried out in a small single-cylinder, PFI SI four-stroke engine. The engine emissions were characterized by means of gaseous analyzers and a smokemeter. Particle size distribution function was measured in the size range from 5.6 to 560 nm by means of an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). The investigation was carried out at different engine speeds.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0647
Azmi Osman, M. Khairul Arif Muhammad Yusof, Mohammad Rafi
Additional fuel consumption reduction during the NEDC test cycle and real life driving can be effectively achieved by quickly raising the temperatures of the powertrain’s parts, oils and coolant closer to the optimal operating temperatures. In particular, the engine cooling system today must play a bigger role in the overall thermal management of the powertrain’s fluids and metals during warm-up, idle and severe operating conditions. In responding to these additional requirements, the previously proposed cost effective split cooling system has been further evolved to expedite the powertrain’s warming up process without compromising the overall heat rejection performance during severe operating conditions. In achieving these warming and cooling functions, the coolant flow rate in the cylinder head is almost stagnant when the single thermostat is closed and at its maximum when the thermostat is fully opened.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0735
J. Javier Lopez, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, David Villalta, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Engine-out soot emissions are the result of a complex balance between in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation. Soot is formed in the diffusion flame, just after the lift-off length. Size and mass of soot particles increases through the diffusion flame and finally they are partially oxidized at the flame front. Therefore, engine-out soot emissions depend on the amount of soot formed and oxidized inside the combustion chamber. There is a considerable amount of work in the literature on characterization of soot formation. However, there is a clear lack of published research related to the characterization of soot oxidation. Thus, the main objective of the current research is to provide more knowledge and insight into the soot oxidation processes. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used. In particular, in- cylinder optical thickness (KL) was quantified with an optoelectronic sensor that uses two-color thermometry.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0933
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Maxime Launois, Ru-Fen Liu, Pardha Maram
In the context of evolving market conditions, the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles but a period of rapidly evolving engine development, constrained tailpipe regulations and material supply issues present a unique challenge to catalyst developers. In this regard, CDTi is mainly focused on design and development of copper-free spinel oxide based Zero-precious metal (ZPGM) and spinel synergized precious metal (SPGM) with ultra-low presence of PGM to achieve highly beneficial emission performance improvements. The copper-free transition metal based spinel ZPGM catalysts shows improved thermal stability and redox reversibility compared to the copper based ZPGM materials. Fundamental studies of microstructure of spinel by high resolution TEM confirmed the aging stability of new developed spinel composition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1119
Prashant Jha
The Concept of Automatic Transmission is ubiquitous and ever increasing as they offer an ease of operation. Implementation of automatic Transmission in manual gear boxes however is relatively new. Based on Fuzzy Logic a Shift Schedule has been developed for Automatic Manual Transmission (AMT), to estimate various loads and resistances incurred by road Gradients and Loading conditions. A Shift Schedule has been designed in accordance with vehicle speed, road loads and throttle valve opening. This will ultimately result in an automatic gear box with improvement in shift quality and prudent Gear shift irrespective of rider competence. This Shift Schedule control method significantly reduces Gear hunting at variable gradients and at different loading conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1109
Okumura Naotoshi
Transmission structure and specifications ・Technology for transmission efficiency improvement ・Development of new control to improve drivability A new generation CVT with auxiliary gear box has been developed and started to be sold in the market. It has wider ratio coverage than previous generation and lower friction realized by several technologies, such as hydraulic control system improvement, oil pump loss reduction, friction reduction of ball bearing with seal , and some other technologies. Ratio shifting control and auxiliary gear box shifting control has been improved and newly developed controls are also introduced together with torque converter lock up clutch control improvement . Those new controls improved vehicle drivability and performance. In this presentation, the outline of the new generation CVT with auxiliary gear box will be explained and topics of new technologies will also be highlighted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1050
Vikas V Thorat, Girish Khairnar, Saurav Chatterjee, Jagrit Shrivas, Vishwakarma Diwakar, Sandip Chaudhari
In India, there is a constant rise in demand for three wheelers as they are cheap and convenient mode of transport and also suitable for heavy city traffic & narrow roads due to their small and modular vehicle structure. From last few decades, Greaves is playing a major role in providing single cylinder engines (Diesel/ CNG) for three wheelers in the market. In view of the changing dynamics of fuel prices in India, where the gap between diesel and petrol prices are shrinking, people are once again shifting their preferences towards the gasoline vehicles to en-cash a better cost advantage as compared to diesel vehicles. By considering this market Scenario, Greaves has developed dedicated Gasoline engine compliance with BS-III emission norms for three wheeler application. In the era of electronization, demand for electrical auxiliaries on engine is considerably expanding. To cater to this requirement, higher output Flywheel mounted alternator (FMA) is explored and introduced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1055
Ashwini Agarwal, Andrew Lewis, Sam Akehurst, Chris Brace, Yash Gandhi, Gary Kirkpatrick
Range extended electric vehicles (REEV) are gaining popularity due to their simplicity, reduced emissions and fuel consumption when compared to parallel or series/parallel hybrid vehicles. The range extender ICE can be optimised to a number of steady state points which offers significant improvement in overall exhaust emissions. One of the key challenges in such vehicles is to reduce the overall powertrain costs, and OEMs providing REEVs such as the BMW i3 have included the range extender as an optional extra due to increasing costs on the overall vehicle price. This paper discusses the development of a low cost auxiliary power unit (APU) for the range extender application utilising a well optimised production automotive two cylinder gasoline engine. The 624 cc production engine was further optimised given the project constraints of low cost changes to suit a range extender application.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1056
Vikas Kolage, Santosh Madireddy
The heart and soul of any fuel based automobile is its engine, which forms the powerhouse generating energy required for movement. Since its inception, it forms the most crucial part of any vehicle. It is therefore safe to say that necessity driven innovations are aimed at engine and its related components than any other aggregate of an automobile. The laws of physics which provide this power also constraint the applicability of engines in automobiles. Due to the oscillating motion generated inside cylinders, forces of imbalance are prevalent throughout the mechanism. While primary forces are usually done and dealt by placing counterweights on crankshaft, secondary forces are eliminated through various different accepted measures. The elimination of imbalances isn’t enough to reduce the shake of an engine and hence we need Engine Mounts for this purpose. They absorb the vibrations produced and eliminate chances of coupling and superposition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1014
Shyam K. Menon, Himakar Ganti, Chris Hagen
Natural gas is an attractive option for transportation applications in the United States due to its abundant availability and potential for reduced emissions. The scarcity of refueling resources imposes a barrier to widespread use of natural gas in internal combustion engines. A novel bi-modal engine under development is capable of operating in a compressor mode and provide refueling capabilities without any supplemental devices thus overcoming the infrastructure based limitations. As part of this development, a multi-cylinder production engine was acquired and its intake modified to allow for one cylinder to perform compression. This system was tested with accompanying plate heat exchangers that allow for cooling of the compressed gas.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1177
Aditya Dhand, Keith Pullen
There are different types of energy storage devices which are used in today’s hybrid and electric vehicles. Batteries, ultra capacitors and high speed flywheels are the most commonly used ones. While batteries and supercapacitors store energy in the form of electric energy, the flywheel (FW) is the only device that keeps the energy stored in the original form of mechanical energy the same as the moving vehicle. The flywheel needs to be coupled to the driveshaft of the vehicle in a manner which allows it to vary its speed independently of the moving vehicle in order to vary its energy content. In other words a continuously variable transmission (CVT) is needed. The common mechanical variators used in automotive applications, namely the rolling traction drives and the belt drives, have the disadvantage that their speed ratio range defined as the maximum to minimum speed ratio is generally not sufficient for flywheel energy storage system (FESS).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0584
Vesselin Krassimirov Krastev, Gino Bella
Turbulence modeling is a key aspect for the accurate simulation of ICE related fluid flow phenomena. RANS-based turbulence closures are still the preferred modeling framework among industrial users, mainly because they are robust, not much demanding in terms of computational resources and capable to extract ensemble-averaged information on a complete engine cycle without the need for multiple cycles simulation. On the other hand, LES-like approaches are gaining popularity in recent years due to their inherent scale-resolving nature, which allows the detailed modeling of unsteady flow features such as cycle-to-cycle variations in a DI engine. An LES requires however multiple simulated engine cycles to extract reliable flow statistics, which coupled to the higher spatial and temporal resolution compared to RANS still poses some limits to a wider application of such methodology on realistic engine geometries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1221
Kiyoshi Ito, Takumi Shibata, Takashi Kawasaki
Drive motors such as for hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles require windings that can endure use at high voltages. The winding is the main part for which insulation needs to be assured in the motor operating environment. In addition, consideration should also be given to insulation damage during molding. Conventional motors generally secure insulation by using the two parts of the winding and insulating paper to assure insulation. However, this increases the motor space factor and hinders size reduction. A new high-voltage winding formed by molding extruded resin onto an enamel insulating layer was developed to reduce the number of insulating parts and enhance motor performance. Extrusion molding of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin onto an insulating layer realized a winding that can withstand the molding load during motor manufacture, secures durability for the automobile motor operating environment and can maintain high-voltage characteristics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1235
Johannes Gragger, Alessandro Zanon, Michele De Gennaro, Jonathan Juergens, Antonio Fricassè, Luca Marengo, Igor Olavarria, Jutta Kinder
The widespread of hybrid and battery electric vehicles is vital for the future low-carbon mobility. In this context the delivery of affordable and efficient electric motor technologies together with high energy density storage devices are key aspects to enable the mass market take-off of electrified vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results and design features of an innovative and rare-earth free electric motor technology based on the synchronous reluctance machine concept. This technology is capable to provide sufficient power density and higher driving cycle energy efficiency compared to the current state-of-the-art rare-earth permanent magnet synchronous machines used for automotive applications. The motor is designed to be integrated within a hatchback rear driving axle vehicle, achieving the maximum energy efficiency in urban operational conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0659
Alok Warey, Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Michael Potter, Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini
Two-stroke diesel engines could be a promising solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of two-stroke engines in achieving a substantial reduction in CO2 emissions compared to four-stroke diesel baselines. As part of this study 1-D models were developed for loop scavenged two-stroke and opposed piston two-stroke diesel engine concepts. Based on the engine models and an in-house vehicle model, projections were made for the CO2 emissions for a representative light-duty vehicle over the New European Driving Cycle and the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure. The loop scavenged two-stroke engine had about 5-6% lower CO2 emissions over the two driving cycles compared to a state of the art four-stroke diesel engine, while the opposed piston diesel engine had about 13-15% potential benefit.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0765
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in Diesel engines. In this context, straight-run naphtha, a refinery stream directly derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. The current study is one step further toward naphtha-based fuel to power compression ignition engines. The potential of a cetane number 25 fuel (CN25), resulting from a blend of hydro treated straight-run naphtha CN35 with unleaded non-oxygenated gasoline RON91 is assessed. For this purpose, investigations are conducted on multiple fronts, including experimental activities at the injection test bed, in an optically accessible vessel and on a single cylinder engine. CFD simulations are also developed to provide relevant explanations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1022
Ahsanul Karim, Anthony Morelli, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte, Robert Wade
The use of Swirl-Vanes or Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) in gas engines is well-known and has demonstrated their ability to improve compressor surge margin at low flow rates. But, the use of swirl-vanes is not too common in large diesel engine turbo-chargers where compressor housing inlet has some form of Casing–Treatment (CT). Ford engineers tested swirl-vanes in a diesel engine turbocharger where the compressor inlet had a ported shroud casing-treatment and the experimental data showed no improvement in the surge margin. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate reasons why the surge margin did not improve after introducing swirl-vanes at the compressor inlet. The CFD results showed strong interactions between swirling flow at the compressor inlet and flow stream coming out of the compressor inlet casing-treatment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1041
Hiep Hoang Tran
Developing electric supercharger of two stage boosting system with turbocharger for different downsized gasoline engine B. Richards1, K. Gray1, H. Tran1, M. Bassett2, J. Hall2 1: Aeristech Limited, Unit G, Princes Drive Industrial Est, Coventry Rd, Kenilworth, CV8 2FD, UK. 2: MAHLE Powertrain Limited, Costin House, St. James Mill Road, Northampton, NN5 5TZ, UK. Abstract Extreme engine downsizing is a modern solution aimed towards the goal of meeting new emissions regulations for internal combustion engines. A higher percentage downsized engine will produce less CO2 and, by extension, a higher boost level is required to generate high engine torque performance. The transient load step of a higher boost system at low RPM is currently an issue for conventional boosting. Aeristech has developed an electric supercharger for a two stage boosting system with conventional turbocharger for a new type of downsized gasoline engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0664
Ahmed E. Hassaneen, Wael I. A. aly, Gamal Bedair, Mohammed Abdussalam
The thermal performance of an ammonia–water-hydrogen absorption refrigeration system using the waste exhaust gases of an internal combustion diesel engine as energy source was investigated experimentally. An automotive engine was tested in a bench test dynamometer, with the absorption refrigeration system adapted to the exhaust pipe via a heat exchanger. The engine was tested for different torques (15 N.m, 30 N.m, and 45 N.m). The exhaust gas flow to the heat exchanger built on the generator was controlled manually using two control valves. The refrigerator reached a steady state temperature between 10 and 14.5°C about 3.5 hours after system start up, depending on engine load. The maximum coefficient of performance was 0.10 obtained for the optimized exhaust mass flow case at torque 30 Nm after 3hrs from system startup.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1237
Vaheed Nezhadali, Lars Eriksson
Increasing legislative demands for the reduction of emissions and also the ever-growing interest for fuel consumption reduction in the automotive industry encourages the development of new technologies in the automotive industry such as powertrain hybridization. However, existence of an electric power source in addition to the traditional internal combustion engine in the powertrain opens up the space for innovations and improvement in the control of transmission systems. In heavy duty applications such as trucks, gearshifting can be performed using engine torque control techniques and automated manual transmission (AMT) systems. For this, during a gearshift, engine torque is reduced to zero in order to synchronize the speed on the input and output sides of the transmission. However, in case of a heavily loaded truck going uphill, the zero torque periods can result in engine stall after the gearshift considering engine acceleration limitations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1107
Jing Yuan
The belt clutching CVT drive has been developed for the scooter application. It utilizes the belt as a clutching mechanism instead of the traditional centrifugal clutch that is commonly employed in conjunction with the driven clutch of the drive train. By eliminating the centrifugal clutch, 48% mass reduction of the driven clutch has been achieved as well as cost saving. By placing the belt clutching directly at the engine crankshaft, fast throttle response and better vehicle acceleration/deceleration have been attained. The belt clutching mechanism demands a better performance belt to withstand the additional clutching induced wear and tear. The newly developed carbon cord belt, G ForceTM C12, meets the challenge. The common edge cord pull-out failure mode is eliminated, and the overall wear is improved. An analytical program PTWork has been developed and proven to be instrumental in integrating CVT clutch hardware with the CVT belt.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1243
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Mattia Venditti
An unsupervised machine-learning technique aimed at the identification of the optimal rule-based control strategy has been developed for a complex not-plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The approach is based on a preliminary identification of the optimal control strategy, which is carried out by means of a benchmark optimizer, based on the deterministic dynamic programming technique, for different driving scenarios. The optimization is carried out by selecting the optimal values of the control variables (i.e., transmission gear and power flow) in order to minimize fuel consumption, and taking into account several constraints in terms of NOx emissions, battery state of charge and battery life consumption. The results of the benchmark optimizer are then processed with the aim of extracting a set of optimal rule-based control strategies, which can be implemented onboard in real-time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0863
In spark ignition engines, the nozzle design, fuel pressure, injection timing, and interaction with the cylinder/piston walls govern the evolution of the fuel spray inside the cylinder before the start of combustion. The fuel droplets, hitting the surface, may rebound or stick forming a film on the wall, or evaporate under the heat exchange effect. The face wetting results in a strong impact on the mixture formation and emission, in particular, on particulate and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior, atomization, and vaporization of impinging sprays on the metal surface. A mono-component fuel, iso-octane, was adopted in the spray-wall studies inside an optically-accessible quiescent chamber by imaging procedures using a Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up in combination with a high-speed C-Mos camera.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0921
Ashok Kumar, Kristopher Ingram, Deepesh Goyal, Krishna Kamasamudram
Vanadia based Selective Catalytic Reduction (V-SCR) catalysts are widely used to meet NOx emissions over off-road diesel engines in North America and both on-road and off-road diesel engines in Europe and rest of the markets. Even though Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts offer higher NOx conversion as compared to V-SCR at lower temperatures, sulfur poisoning of Cu-zeolite leads to a significant decrease in NOx conversion and desulfation (deSOx) temperatures in excess of 500C are needed to restore its performance. Wide-spread application of V-SCR is found in off-road applications due to their resistance to poisoning by sulfur that eliminates the need for periodic thermal management (TM) for deSOx. Several applications with V-SCR catalysts operate below 300C in conditions that are conducive to carbonaceous deposits formation due to the presence of unburned HCs in the exhaust gas.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 42091