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Viewing 1 to 30 of 41201
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2851
Regulatory emission requirements as well as owning and operating cost are primary market drivers for OEMs and component suppliers to focus on more efficient machine technologies. As a result, new technologies are being developed in the area of Hydraulics, Power Trains, Electronics, Engines and controls of these subsystems and components. Some of the technology potentials have been known for quite some time but were only just partially commercialized. Examples of these technologies are: more efficient and electrically controlled hydraulic systems, CVT transmissions, electric drives, reduction in engine speeds including their integration. Although automotive industry has been leading technology developments, in the recent decade significant work has been done in the off-highway applications.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2854
Timothy Opperwall, Andrea Vacca
Hydraulic systems have an important role in both on and off-highway vehicles. Designing for improved noise performance of fluid power systems is an essential part of improving current systems and opening up new areas where fluid power can bring improvements in efficiency and performance. As the technology advances and spreads to lighter applications, the noise generation and propagation due to hydraulic components becomes a primary design concern. The present research includes development of acoustic radiation models for noise radiation from hydraulic pumps and motors. The need for new methods for identification of noise sources and transmission is evident in order to direct future modeling efforts. Discovering the key features of noise generation from both simulation and experimental techniques allows for improved techniques to improve the noise performance of fluid power components and systems.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2881
Dhruv Gupta, Vasu Kumar, Soumya Roy, Naveen Kumar
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man’s energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2880
Fabio Luz Almeida, Philip Zoldak, Marcos de Mattos Pimenta, Pedro Teixeira Lacava
The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables us to predict premature failures and to study new promising and valuable concepts. In industry, numerical simulation usually has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests before spending huge amount of resources on alternatives with less chance to succeed. In the context of an economically committed country, the matter of cargo transportation is of great importance, since it affects the trading of consumer goods between cities, states and their flow towards exportation. Thus, the internal combustion (ICE) Diesel cycle engines play an important role in Brazil, since they are extensively used in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2852
Daniel Ribeiro, Rodrigo Chaves, Rogerio Curty Dias, Gian Marques
In order to evaluate the opportunities to use hybrid concepts for heavy commercial vehicles for emerging markets, MAN Latin America has developed a VW refuse truck with 23t GVW using the hybrid hydraulic technology. In site vehicle tests measurements has indicated a fuel savings up to 25%, which means a reduction around 4.08 liters of diesel/hour or 20 tones CO2/year . Thus, a collaborative cooperation with Rio de Janeiro Sanitation Department (Comlurb) was set for a truck evaluation on a real operation. This 03-month evaluation used one VW 17.280 6x2 hybrid hydraulic refuse truck and other VW refuse truck similar standard diesel. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. Global positioning system logging, fueling, and maintenance records are used to evaluate the performance of this hybrid hydraulic refuse truck.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2792
Olof Erlandsson, Thomas Skare, Arnaud Contet
The automotive industry have become more and more interesting in recovering waste heat from internal combustion engines (ICE) , especially with future, tighter fuel and CO2 emission regulations in sight. Potential systems that recover waste heats have in all in common that they have lower efficiency than the ICE itself (otherwise the use of ICE would be questioned), hence the recovery system also need to expel a lot of waste heat to the surrounding. In this study we consider a simple automotive Rankine waste heat recovery system (WHRS) on a long-haulage truck that transform some of the ICE waste heat into useful energy but it still needs to return remaining heat to the surrounding, either through a direct condenser (CDS) or from an indirect CDS via a Low temperature radiator (LTR) to the surrounding, and this in the regular cooling module of the vehicle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2813
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions, while maintaining durability. This is a potential path to help the US reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe; however, this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2808
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
In recent years, natural gas has been considered a replacement for diesel fuel in large bore engines, due to its low cost, high heating value and widespread availability. Stoichiometric premixed spark-ignition (SI), defined as port-fuel injection (PFI) of natural gas (NG) followed by SI close to top dead center (TDC), has traditionally been used as the main fuel delivery and combustion method for light and medium duty engines. However, premixed SI of NG results in inefficiencies in the intake process and combustion that is knock limited as boost and load are increased. Traditionally, high knock is addressed by spark timing retard. Spark timing retard can lead to misfires and low brake mean effective pressures. Thus premixed SI has limited low load use in heavy duty where compression ignition of diesel fuel remains dominant.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2855
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio Massarotti, Pietro Marani, Carlo Ferraresi
In recent years many studies were performed with the aim of reducing losses and to optimize the oil flow management in complex machines like excavators. One of the most promising ideas is the pump switch, due to the flexibility of switching one or more pumps to serve one actuator, as a function of oil flow request and machine mode. These studies were basically developed in MAHA fluid power center in US and are based on a distribution manifold were hydrostatic transmissions are applied to the different loads. The system presented couples more actuators to every single pumps and offers also cross connections, in order to increase systems flexibility in flow management.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2856
Hongbin Wang, QingHui Yuan, QingHui Yuan, Aaron Hertzel Jagoda
Fuel economy of both highway and off-highway vehicles is a major driver for new technology development. One of the technologies to meet this driver is a digital valve based hydraulic system. Digital valves are high speed on/off valves which are, in this case, using a pulse width modulated duty cycle to control flow. This enables flow control to multiple actuators at varying pressures without the losses associated with conventional throttling based flow control. By sequentially actuating the valves the pump is only connected to one load at any given time, this allows flow sharing from a common fluid power source, such as a pump, to multiple services without utilizing compensators or other metering devices. This also enables advanced control of the flow supplied to a given actuator and allows a different control strategy for each actuator. There is the potential to increase machine productivity through more efficient use of the installed engine power.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emission become necessary part for engines. With the increased levels of complexity, end users also require increased level of quality for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one extreme example is focused on very components’ quality to ensure the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. These measures tighten the component tolerance during manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another extreme example is on the other side of the methodologies spectrum. The methodology is to tailor the engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing difference. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the calibration and validation cost for engines. Given the cost and time constraints, system integration plays an important role in engine development.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2872
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Andrea Cervesato, Carlo Ferraresi
Performance requests and machine automation, in conjunction with new regulations for agriculture, earthmoving and construction machines, represent today the most difficult challenge for machine designers and researchers. Machine control systems complexity and functional safety regulation compliance, are the most complex requirements to deal with in new machines design. The paper describes a steering system design, of a 6 wheels agricultural front articulated self-propelled machine, that must comply with new regulations in terms of functional safety. The vehicle steering is driven by an electro-hydraulic system, totally controlled using by wire electronics; the rear wheels are independently steering and controlled. This architecture requires a too high functional safety performance level.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2902
Songzhi Yang, Dong Wang, Yan Dang, Liguang Li
Based on the real driving condition, this paper investigated the underhood flow field and temperature distribution of a heavy commercial vehicle by utilizing CFD commercial code FLUENT. To guarantee the authenticity of simulation , three kinds of driving conditions namely idling,peak torque, rated power were considered ,detailed computational model including front bumper, grill, cabin, all the underhood and underbody components, taking into account all heat transfer phenomenon including conduction, convection ,radiation in the engine compartment. By analyzing the velocity contour in different sections, underhood temperature field distribution and inlet temperature of condenser, intercooler and radiator, we found that serious air-recirculation existed in engine compartment under idling and peak torque conditions and the temperature of some components have exceeded its normal range in peak torque condition.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2786
Andrei Keller, Sergei Viktorovich Aliukov
In the present paper, it has been done study of different methods of power distribution among the drive wheels of a all-wheel-drive truck, namely: method of periodical action; method of partial solution; method of limit of excessive action; and method of introducing a rigid kinematic connection. Assessment how these methods influence on the performance characteristics of a multi-purpose vehicle has been done. For implementation of the method of periodical action the appropriateness of switching off some of the driving axles is justified. For implementation of the method of partial solution it is developed method of measuring of rational gear ratio of center differential providing the required level of performance of the all-wheel drive truck.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitate operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2790
Kangcheng Wu, Gangfeng Tan, Shubo Fei, Fengming Li, Wei Mao, Yeying Li, Fei Wang, Xintong Wu, Shiqi Gong
Turbocharger technology can improve the vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy effectively and is applied widely nowadays. But because of the pervasive existent of turbocharger delay effect, acceleration delay and insufficient combustion are its disadvantages. By collecting high pressure air which generates due to the inertia of the turbine in the intake passage when the vehicle slows down, air is supplied for the shortage in the intake passage while the vehicle is accelerating ,which can reduce turbocharger delay effect effectively. However, turbocharger delay effect changes a little at high speed and low speed which is subjected to the air inflation and short air-release time.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2725
Amine Nhila, Daniel E. Williams
Over the years, steering systems have evolved from simple manual steering in the early car models to hydraulic power steering in the middle of the 20th century, and eventually to today’s systems where electric power steering is becoming more prevalent, specifically in light vehicles such as passenger cars. However, due to their relative low power density, electrical steering systems did not gain much traction in heavy vehicles, at least not as the sole source of power assistance. As a result of their higher power density, hydraulic power steering systems remain the main solution for steering heavy vehicles. Nonetheless, when these systems were first designed energy savings, and CO2 emissions were not a major concern while fuel prices were relatively low. Consequently, today’s state-of-the-art steering systems are not as efficient as they can be, and thus cause higher emissions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2757
Deepak Anand Subramanian, Nithya Sridhar, N. Obuli Karthikeyan, V. Srinivasa Chandra
The Indian automotive sector is experiencing a major shift, focusing predominantly towards the levels of quality, reliability and comfort delivered to the customer. Since the entry of global players into the market, there is a rising demand for timely product launches with utmost priority to reliability. In any vehicle, suspension plays a critical role in transferring the road inputs onto the vehicle components, therefore, responsible for both ride comfort and load transfer. Engine mount, being an integral part of this system, takes care of isolating the inertial forces between the engine and the chassis. This project details on how testing can aid in reducing the launch time as well as ensuring desired degree of reliability. It proposes a methodology to formulate a life model for the engine mount considering various combinations of predictor parameters affecting its performance over its design life.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2889
R. Saravana Venkatesh, Sunil Pandey, Sathyanandan Mahadevan
In heavy duty diesel engines, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is often preferred choice to contain NOx emissions. Critical to such EGR fitted engines is the design of air intake pipe and intake manifold combination in view of proper EGR gas mixing with intake air. The variation in EGR mass fraction at each intake ports should be as minimal as possible and this variation must be contained within +/- 10% band to have a minimal cylinder to cylinder variation of pollutants. EGR homogeneity for various intake configurations were studied using 3D CFD for a 4 cylinder 3.8 L diesel fuel, common rail system, turbocharged and intercooled heavy duty engine. Flow field was studied in the computational domain from the point before EGR mixing till all the four intake ports. EGR mass fraction variation at each intake port was calculated from this analysis after carrying out an experimental validation of the CFD model.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2882
Abhishek Shah, R. R. Karthick, Aravindan V, Sanjay Phegade, Sappani Murugesh
Today the entire world is facing many serious problems namely population explosion, pollution and increasing fuel Prices. Increasing fuel prices is due to the depletion of non-renewable sources of energy, which will adversely affect automotive industry in very near future. Thus it's our responsibility to optimize vehicle fuel economy as much as possible and reduce the CO2 released by the vehicle. This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator & condenser fan motor according to air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator and condenser fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using AC asynchronous motors (generation and motoring action) in radiator, condenser and blower motors.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2846
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles. The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could diagnose parameters variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A sliding mode controller (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moment among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FDD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2791
Srinivas Anantharaman, Manoj Baskaran
Nozzles tip Temperature (NTT) of an injector is a critical parameter for an engine as far as reliability of engine is concerned. It is required to ensure that the injectors operate under its operational limit because higher operating temperatures would result in enlargement of the nozzle spray tip, resulting in higher through flow, producing more undesirable power. This could result in failure of other components in the engine. In this paper we identify the various parameters that are critical for NTT and thereby predict the NTT by having the known input parameters. Response surface methodology and artificial neural network are used to identify the parameters, estimate the significance of each parameter and predict the NTT. Based on this analysis, even without the use of an instrumented injector NTT can be predicted at various working conditions of the vehicle on different terrains.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2761
Boris Belousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Sergei Naumov, Vitalii Stepnov, Anna Klimachkova
An electro-hydraulic servo system makes the basis for a mechatronic locomotion module (LM) and for a complex comprising an LM and an undercarriage of a vehicle. The servo system of the wheel module/LM complex is a combination of the information and power channels of the electro-hydraulic wheel drive within the steering system. A combination of the servo systems makes up a complex of servo systems of the steering system of the multi axis wheel mover of the vehicle. Theoretical and experimental studies of the functioning all-wheel steering were aimed on substantiation the rational algorithmic maintenance of the automatic control system. The results of the study allowed formulating the basic principles of designing and calculating the functionality algorithms for the steering system of the complex of mechatronic modules of the multi-axis vehicle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2782
Sergei Viktorovich Aliukov, Andrei Keller, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract Free-wheel mechanisms transmit rotary motion in only one direction. They are widely used, for example, in hydraulic transformers, pulsed continuous transmissions, inertial automatic torque transformers, electrical starters for motors, and metal- and wood-working drives. Unfortunately, existing free-wheel mechanisms are insufficiently reliable and durable and in many cases limit the reliability of the drive as a whole. Thus, the insufficient life of free-wheel mechanisms delays the use of inertial automatic continuous transmissions, which have many benefits over existing transmissions. In most known free-wheel mechanism, the whole torque is transmitted through locking elements such as balls, rollers, eccentric wheels, pawls, slide blocks, and wedges, whose operation at large loads may limit the life of the mechanism.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2805
Valerii Naumov, Yuri Pogulyaev, Rustam Baytimerov, Dmitry Chizhov
A new fuel supply system (FSS) for a diesel engine is suggested that allows controlling the pressure of the pre- and post-main injections, and changing the pressure curve of the main injection. The system comprises a pump-injector unit with an independent pressure control and a needle. The driving cam of the pump-injector unit is designed so that the downward plunger speed is constant. Due to this fact, the pressure in the high-pressure chamber of the pump-injector unit may also be constant and adjustable by means of a piezoelectric pressure-regulating valve (PRV). The PRV connects the high-pressure chamber of the pump-injector unit with the FSS. The passage area of the PRV depends on the voltage fed to the piezoelectric drive. Thus, by varying the voltage, we can change the pressure in the high-pressure chamber. The needle of the pump-injector unit is controlled hydraulically by a two-position valve. The valve drive can be of solenoid, piezoelectric or mechanical type.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2814
Rakhesh Bharathan
Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM from engine exhaust of a diesel engine is an interesting area of research due to the implementation of stringent emission regulations all over the world. Cost involved in expensive after treatment systems such as DPF and SCR necessitate minimization of engine out pollutants. With minimum engine out emission achieved through engine hardware and combustion parameter optimization, possibility of elimination or downsizing of the after treatment system can be explored. The paper presents the effect of fuel injection parameters and EGR rate on exhaust emission of a boosted diesel engine. Effects of parameters such as rail pressure, pilot-post injections, SOI, EGR rate and EGR temperature on a 4 cylinder two valve direct injection diesel engine is studied. Present study reveals the possibility of elimination of after treatment systems at BS IV level with optimization of engine hardware and combustion parameters.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2816
Andrei Radulescu, Leighton Roberts, Eric Yankovic
Cylinder deactivation (CDA) is an effective method to adjust the engine displacement for maximum output and improve fuel economy by adjusting the number of active cylinders in combustion engines. A Switching Roller Finger Follower (SRFF) is an economic solution for CDA that minimizes changes and preserves the overall width, height, or length of Dual Overhead Cam (DOHC) engines. The CDA SRFF provides the flexibility of either transferring or suppressing the camshaft movement to the valves influencing the engine performance and fuel economy by reducing the pumping losses. This paper addresses the performance and durability of the CDA SRFF system to meet the reliability for gasoline passenger car engines. Extensive tests were conducted to demonstrate the dynamic stability at high engine speeds and the system capacity of switching between high and low engine displacement within one camshaft revolution.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2818
Scott Shafer
Abstract All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2824
Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang, Naiwei Zou, Chen Yu, Zhao Yunfeng, Albert Luo
Abstract Understanding the complex and dynamic nature of wheel-loader's operation requires a detailed system model. This paper describes the development of a conventional wheel-loader's system model that can be used to evaluate the transient response. The model includes engine details such as a mean value engine model, which takes into account turbocharger dynamics and engine governor controller. This allows the model to predict realistic performance and fuel consumption over a drive cycle. The wheel-loader machine is modeled in LMS Amesim® and the engine governor controller is modeled in Matlab/SIMULINK®. In order to simplify the model, hydraulic loads from the boom / bucket mechanism, steering and cooling fan are modeled as hydraulic load inputs obtained from typical short V-drive cycle. Critical wheel-loader drive cycle inputs into the model have been obtained from testing and have been used to validate the system response and cycle fuel consumption.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2809
Sajit Pillai, Julian LoRusso, Matthew Van Benschoten
Abstract Cylinder deactivation was evaluated both analytically and experimentally on a six cylinder diesel engine to understand potential fuel economy and emission improvements. The benefits of cylinder deactivation in Spark Ignited (SI) engines are well documented, however there is little information on the application of the technology for diesel engines. The analytical model was evaluated at low load, steady state conditions. The modified baseline model that includes cylinder deactivation maintains comparable emission levels through the optimization of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT). The results demonstrated reductions in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and higher exhaust gas temperatures for low and part load operating points. An experimental test validated the analytical results. Disabling fuel injectors and the valve train on half of the engine's cylinders allowed for the implementation of cylinder deactivation.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 41201