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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Adam Fogarty, Kevin Oswald
In order to continue the effort of converting traditional internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles into hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), it is important to consider a variety of design architectures in which hybrid-electric operation is achieved. Such architectures include power split, parallel, and series. Of the previously stated architectures, the Purdue EcoMakers of the EcoCar 2 international Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) have chosen a parallel-through-the-road architecture for their 2013 Chevrolet Malibu provided by General Motors. From this, the Purdue EcoMaker vehicle design will be used as a case study for the design challenges and optimization strategies that are experienced when choosing this specific architecture for a light-duty passenger vehicle. This paper will focus on the design procedure and structural analysis of the custom rear suspension cradle created by the Purdue EcoMakers. Additionally, this paper will consider the benefits and practicality of using the structure of the custom suspension cradle as a design format for future suspension cradles to be used in light-duty passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andreas Kiep, Marco Puerschel
Abstract The amount of electronics in vehicles is increasing, so is the amount of power electronics circuits, like inverters for electric motor drives or dc/dc converters. The muscles of these circuits are power transistors like MOSFETs and IGBTs - in each circuit are several of them. While MOSFETs and IGBTs have advanced over the years in terms of their performance, their wide product spectrum and feature spectrum as well as cost, they are still not unbreakable, but semiconductors which are more sensitive to electrical or thermal overstress than, a relay for instance. Especially electrical overstress, like overvoltage or over current, may damage a power transistor within a short time frame. Hence, electrical overstress must be avoided when designing the power electronics circuit. However, even a power transistor in a carefully designed power electronics circuit, may still be exposed to over current, short circuit, over voltage, over temperature and so forth. This may damage the power transistor and may have severe consequences for the application.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jürgen Fabian, Mario Hirz, Klaus Krischan
Discussions about the optimal technology of propulsion systems for future ground vehicles have been raising over the last few years. Several options include different types of technologies. However, those who are advocating conventional internal combustion engines are faced with the fact that fossil fuels are limited. Others favor hydrogen fuel as the solution for the future, either in combination with combustion engines or as an energy carrier for fuel cells. In any case, the production and storage of hydrogen is an ongoing challenge of numerous research works. Finally, there are battery-electric or hybrid propulsion systems in use, gaining more and more popularity worldwide. Ongoing advances in power electronics help to improve control systems within automotive applications. New developed or designed components enable more efficient system architectures and control. This paper includes a detailed comparison of different electric drive technologies, e.g. a DC motor, an asynchronous and synchronous motor in battery-electric or hybrid drivetrain configurations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chen Wang, Zhiguo Zhao, Tong Zhang, Xianjun Dai, Xiyue Yuan
Abstract Several types of power-split hybrid transmissions are outlined and the strengths and weaknesses of typical compound power-split prototype designs are summarized in this paper. Based on an modified Ravigneaux gear set, a novel compound power-split hybrid transmission with compact mechanical structure is presented, its dynamic and kinematic characteristics in equations and operating modes are described, and then equivalent lever diagrams are used to investigate the proposed compound power-split device. Control strategies in different operating modes are discussed with the simplified combined lever diagram, and a global optimization method is implemented to find the optimum operation point for the hybrid powertrain. To evaluate the fuel economy of a hybrid car equipped with this hybrid transmission, a forward powertrain simulation model is developed and real vehicle performance tests are conducted in the chassis dynamometer. Simulations and test results show that the proposed hybrid transmission can improve the efficiency of the powertrain and demonstrate lower fuel consumptions than the corresponding conventional vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tim Fischer, Stefan Mueller
Abstract The domains of powertrain and brake systems are continuously merging due to the integration of electric drives and their ability to generate high acceleration and recuperative torque. However, high recuperative torque might lead to a locking motor and consequently cause a stability issue in electric and hybrid vehicles. This paper focuses on the special case of recuperation by coasting; i.e., the torque request is set after releasing the accelerator pedal. In this case the mechanical brake is not used. For off-highway vehicles this new feature in the inverter will suppress the slipping and locking up of the tires, without the need of additional external sensors. Slipping of the tires, e.g. when the tires lose grip, can occur due to excessive torque from the motor. In this case the motor torque exceeds the minimum feasible deceleration torque, given by road friction. We have developed a new non-linear control approach, which limits the requested torque directly inside the inverter (power electronic control unit).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Binghua Pan, Chee Keng Yeo
Power electronics products such as inverters and converters involve the use of Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) between high power packages and a heat exchanger for thermal management. Conventional TIMs such as thermal greases, gels, solders and phase change materials (PCMs) face challenges to meet the need of these products to operate reliably at much higher temperatures. This has driven the development of new TIMs such as Transient Liquid Phase Sintering (TLPS) Conductive Adhesives. TLPS adhesives have been developed for many potential applications due to various advantages like lead free, flux-less and particularly their low temperature processability, which enables the use of heat sensitive components in the design. With all these motivations, a project was launched and completed to assess TLPS adhesives as a unique TIM for high temperature automotive applications due to its high bulk thermal conductivity and metallic joint formation at interfaces. This paper reports the evaluation of three different TLPS conductive adhesives with different formulations.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Richard Ambroise
The power plant is the area in an aircraft where they are a lot of power conversion. The power plant is the core of the aircraft from energy point of view. The engines allow to take off but not only, it also provides energy to the aircraft from many different manners. They are electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, …. The power plant is definitively a power generator but also a power consumer. Since now some years, the power electronic technology is spread into the aircraft. One can say that some pedigree has been collected with this technology embedded to the aircraft. For the power plant domain, it is different. This technology is really not usual for use. Our environment is really not friendly and even if the integration of the power converters has been improved over the last years, there is not a lot of space around the engines. These are probably the mains reason of the low deployment of the power electronic in this domain but not only. The reliability of the thrust function is expected to be very high; of course, for safety point of view but also for cost point of view.
Technical Paper
2013-01-09
Prakash S
As we all know the price of Cu alloy keep on increasing trend and in few products like motors, generators and power electronics. Cu price plays a vital role in determining the cost. Particularly in power electronics products for the hybrid electric vehicles the electrical/thermal conductivity property of Cu alloy needs to be enhanced since of high voltage requirement within a small space. Many research activities are ongoing to enhance the properties of Cu metal by addition of various alloys compositions. In addition to that the extra-ordinary properties of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) were main focus for science and technology. Few successful attempts have been made for Copper-Carbon nanotube (Cu-CNT) composites by powder metallurgy techniques, also it was reported the issues on the detoriation of the CNT's properties due to mechanical working. We employed electroplating method to prepare Cu-CNT composites wherein no mechanical working done on CNT, also the homogenous dispersion of CNT made on the Cu metal surfaces.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Michael Ballas, Fred Potter
Aircraft-level health management requires effective management of data flow. As future aircraft adopt conditioned base maintenance (CBM) and/or integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) protocols, there is need to manage infinitely more data communication on and off the aircraft. This paper explores the idea of employing an Electronic Power Distribution System (EPDS) as a “network backbone” for aircraft-level prognostics. Using EPDS to capture and distribute this data provides a practical solution that minimizes system hardware on future CBM/IVHM enabled aircraft. Employing the Electronic Circuit Breaker (ECB) in a more enhanced sensor state and as a data communication tool, provides tremendous value given its multipurpose capability. A “distributed” electronic power distribution architecture, is comprised of groupings of remotely operated electronic circuit breakers (ECBUs), System Control Interface Units (SCIUs), primary power distribution units (PDU), bus transfer contactors, and so on, all of which will play a future role in aircraft level health management.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Serhiy Bozhko, Tao Yang, Greg Asher
The paper deals with the development of active front-end rectifier model based on dynamic phasors concept. The model addresses the functional modeling level as defined by the multi-layer modeling paradigm and is suitable for accelerated simulation studies of the electric power systems under normal, unbalanced and line fault conditions. The performance and effectiveness of the developed model have been demonstrated by comparison against time-domain models in three-phase and synchronous space-vector representations. The experimental verification of the dynamic phasor model is also reported. The prime purpose of the model is for the simulation studies of more-electric aircraft power architectures at system level; however it can be directly applied for simulation study of any other electrical power system interfacing with active front-end rectifiers.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Tao Yang, Greg Asher, Serhiy Bozhko
The more-electric aircraft (MEA) is the major trend for airplanes in the next generation. Comparing with traditional airplanes, a significant increase of on-board electrical and electronic devices in MEAs has been recognized and resulted in new challenges for electrical power system (EPS) designers. The design of EPS essentially involves in extensive simulation work in order to ensure the availability, stability and performance of the EPS under all possible operation conditions. Due to the switching behavior of power electronic devices, it is very time-consuming and even impractical to simulate a large-scale EPS with some non-linear and time-varying models. The functional models in the dq0 frame have shown great performance under balanced conditions but these models become very time-consuming under unbalanced conditions, due to the second harmonics in d and q axes. The dynamic phasor (DP) technique has been proposed to solve that problem. The DP technique is naturally a frequency-domain analysis method and has been successfully applied in modeling electromagnetic machines, flexible AC transmission systems, etc.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Brice R. McPherson, Robert Shaw, Jared Hornberger, Alex Lostetter, Roberto Schupbach, Brad Reese, Ty McNutt, Takukazu Otsuka, Yuki Nakano, Takashi Nakamura
The demands for high-performance power electronics systems are rapidly surpassing the power density, efficiency, and reliability limitations defined by the intrinsic properties of silicon (Si)-based semiconductors. The advantages of silicon carbide (SiC) are well known, including high temperature operation, high voltage blocking capability, high speed switching, and high energy efficiency. These advantages, however, are severely limited by conventional power packages, particularly at temperatures higher than 175\,DC and ≻100 kHz switching speeds. Here, APEI, Inc., presents the design process and testing data of its newly developed high performance HT-2000 SiC power module for extreme environment systems and applications. This advanced power module, targeted for high performance commercial and industrial systems such as hybrid electric vehicles or renewable energy applications, implements a novel low parasitic packaging approach that enables high switching frequencies in excess of 100 kHz.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Steve Majerus, Daniel Howe, Steven Garverick, Walt Merrill, Kenneth Semega
Four application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which provide sensing, actuation, and power conversion capabilities for distributed control in a high-temperature (over 200°C) environment are presented. Patented circuit design techniques facilitate fabrication in a conventional, low-cost, 0.5 micron bulk Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) foundry process. The four ASICs are combined with a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to create a distributed control node. The design and performance over temperature of the control system is discussed. Various applications of the control system are proposed. The authors also discuss various design techniques used to achieve high reliability and long life.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Dennis P. Shay, Clive A. Randall
Mn and/or rare earth-doped xCaTiO₃ - (1-x)CaMeO₃ dielectrics, where Me=Hf or Zr and x=0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 were developed to yield materials with room temperature relative permittivities of Εr ~ 150-170, thermal coefficients of capacitance (TCC) of ± 15.8% to ± 16.4% from -50 to 150°C, and band gaps of ~ 3.3-3.6 eV as determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Un-doped single layer capacitors exhibited room temperature energy densities as large as 9.0 J/cm₃, but showed a drastic decrease in energy density above 100°C. When doped with 0.5 mol% Mn, the temperature dependence of the breakdown strength was minimized, and energy densities similar to room temperature values (9.5 J/cm₃) were observed up to 200°C. At 300°C, energy densities as large as 6.5 J/cm₃ were measured. These observations suggest that with further reductions in grain size and dielectric layer thickness, the xCaTiO₃ - (1-x)CaMeO₃ system is a strong candidate for integration into future power electronics applications. To further improve the high temperature, high field reliability of these material systems, rare earth donor doping has been utilized.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Hideo Matsuki, Kensaku Yamamoto, Masanori Nagaya, Hiroki Watanabe, Eiichi Okuno, Toshimasa Yamamoto, Shoichi Onda
This paper describes the reliability of silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET. We clarified the relation between the lifetime of the gate oxide and the crystal defects. We fabricated MOS diodes using thermal oxidation and measured their lifetimes by TDDB (Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown) measurement. The wear-out lifetime is sufficient for hybrid vehicle but many MOS diodes broke in shorter time. The breakdown points were defined by Photo-emission method. Finally, we classified the defects by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). A TSD (Threading Screw Dislocation) plays the most important role in the lifetime degradation of the gate oxide. The lifetime of the gate oxide area, in which a TSD is included, is shorter by two orders of magnitude than a wear-out breakdown. The mechanism by which threading dislocations degrade the gate oxide lifetime was not discovered. To explain the degradation, we assumed two models, the shape effect and the oxide quality degradation.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Jan Vetrovec, Amardeep Litt
We have previously reported on the development of a novel active heat sink (AHS) for high-power electronic components offering unparalleled capacity in high-heat flux handling and temperature control. AHS employs convective heat transfer in a working fluid circulating in a miniature closed and sealed flow loop. High flow velocity, good flow attachment, and relatively high thermal conductivity of working fluid lead to ultra-low thermal resistance around 0.1 deg C/W. AHS appears very suitable for directly interfacing a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) inverter to engine coolant loop. Alternatively, AHS may be used to interface inverter electronics to an air-cooled heat exchanger. As a result, the traditional dedicated liquid coolant loop for thermal management of the inverter can be eliminated, the inverter subsystem can be greatly simplified, and the power train electronics made much more compact. Our previous work focused on AHS with working fluids based on liquid metals. This paper reports on AHS development testing with water-based working fluid, which are more suitable for automotive applications.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Prakash H. Desai, Sean Bartolucci, Marzia Fatema, Ronald Weiss
GM has recently developed two kinds of vehicle electrification architectures. First is VOLTec, a heavy electrification architecture, and second is eAssist, a light electrification architecture. An overview, of IGBT power modules & inverters used in VOLTec and eAssist, is presented. Alternative power modules from few cooperative suppliers are also described in a benchmarking study using key metrics. Inverter test set up, procedure and instrumentation used in GM Power Electronics Development Lab, Milford are described. GM electrification journey depends on Power Electronics lab' passive test benches; double pulse tester, inductive resistive load bench and active emulator test cell without electric machines. Such test benches are preferred before dyne test cells are used for inverter software/hardware integration and motor durability tests cycles. Specific test results are presented. Power modules reliability tests; power cycle, intermittent operation life and thermal air shock, as specified by GM and performed by Tier 1/2 suppliers are also described.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Tom Owen
This paper presents a summary of several projects investigating the power generation and demand profiles of UAV power systems for the purposes of increasing overall system effectiveness. With an increasing presence of advanced energy generation and storage devices in UAV power architectures such as fuel cells, photovoltaics, super capacitors, etc., and an increasing potential to dynamically control a UAV system's load profiles, mission effectiveness can be substantially improved via intelligent power management techniques as well as through traditional efficiency improvements. Load scheduling, power smoothing and dynamic mission planning can all introduce energy saving and optimization opportunities, particularly when the characteristics of system loads can be matched with the energy storage and generation of the system. Traditionally, the biggest drain on an electric UAV system is the main propulsion system, however initial investigations into a typical mini UAV platform (≺20 kg) have indicated that a complex communication architecture and payload can present an energy drain of a comparable magnitude.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Serhiy Bozhko, Tao Yang, Greg Asher, Patrick Wheeler
This paper summarizes recent activities undertaken in the University of Nottingham towards development of simulation tools for accelerated simulation studies of complex aircraft electric power systems. The more-electric aircraft (MEA) is a major trend in aircraft electric power system (EPS) engineering that results in a significantly increased number of power electronic driven loads onboard. Development and assessment of EPS architectures, ensuring system integrity, stability and quality performance under normal and abnormal scenarios requires extensive simulation activity. Increased power electronics can make the simulation of a total EPS impractical due to large computation time or even numerical non-convergence due to the model complexity. Hence there is a demand for accurate but time-efficient modeling techniques for MEA EPS simulations. The paper focuses on the development of a modeling approach based-on functional representation of individual power system units to allow for fast simulation of a full generator-to-load power system under both normal and fault conditions.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
David Sheridan, Jeff Casady, Michael Mazzola, Robin Schrader, Volodymyr Bondarenko
The SiC Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) technology has continued to mature, allowing for a wider range of product offerings that are expected to play an important role in the future aerospace and hybrid vehicle system designs. This paper will give an overview of vertical trench SiC JFET technology detailing the high-temperature dc characteristics of the discrete devices also show power module switching behavior up to 100A. Additional characterization of the all-SiC power modules used as solid-state circuit breakers will be given.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Daniel Izquierdo Gil, Andres Barrado, Cristina Fernandez, Marina Sanz, Antonio Lazaro
There is a clear trend to increase the use of electrical systems in aircrafts, leading to a growing demand for electrical power in the aircraft. This increasing power consumption has resulted in increasing DC voltage levels, to reduce energy losses and the size of wiring, as a result of the reduced current levels. However, traditional protections such as circuit breakers are not adequate for the protection of the new systems in high DC voltage, and consequently it is necessary to introduce new technologies in the field of protection devices. One of these is the Solid State Power Controller (SSPC), which combines the functions of connecting loads to the busbars and protecting electrical installations against overload and short circuits. On the other hand, within these electrical systems, the connection of certain loads, such as very capacitive ones, implies the need to develop new control strategies to improve the connection process by SSPCs. This paper presents and analyzes a new advanced control strategy that optimizes the connection of very capacitive loads using SSPCs.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt, J. Timothy Alt
Modern aerospace power systems commonly make use of uncontrolled rectifiers to satisfy many power conversion needs on board the aircraft. Whilst being highly accurate, an analytically detailed simulation of the aircraft power system, which includes all electric machine dynamics, semiconductor switching states, and power system dynamics, is often very computationally demanding. Average-value models of power electronic converters, with their reduced computational requirement, offer one potential solution to this issue. However, of the many converter topologies presented in the literature, average-value models of uncontrolled diode rectifiers are perhaps the most challenging to develop. The dependence of the rectifier's operating state on its loading conditions and the surrounding network topology complicates the derivation of average-value models. As a result, multiple methods, often with unique attributes, have been published, many of which are accurate only for certain modes of operation.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Alioune Cissé, Gregor Massiot, Catherine Munier, Paul-Etienne Vidal, Francisco Carrillo, Marcelo Iturriz
This paper presents the development of a high density packaging technology for wide band gap power devices, such as silicon carbide (SiC). These devices are interesting candidates for the next aircraft power electronic converters. Effectively they achieve high switching frequencies thanks to the low losses level. High switching frequencies lead to reduce the passive components size and to an overall weight reduction of power converters. Moreover, SiC devices may enable operation at junction temperatures around 250°C. The cooling requirement is much less stringent than for usual Si devices. This might considerably simplify the cooling system, and reduce the overall weight. To achieve the integration requirements for SiC devices, classical wire bonding interconnection is replaced by a stacked packaging using bump interconnection technologies, called sandwich. These technologies offer two thermal paths to drain heat out and present more power integration possibilities. To make reliable sandwich packaging, high temperature solder alloys using low temperature processes are evaluated.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Nicolas Delalandre, Vincent Ayel, Jacques Salat
“More electric” aircraft requires more power electronics integration. Traditional cooling systems reach their maximal performances because of too high thermal dissipation of these components. Thanks to their heat transport capacity and their passive pumping, two-phase fluid capillary pumped loops appear among identified alternative solutions. Before being used in aircrafts, some investigations are needed to estimate the ability of these systems to ensure thermal transfer under harsh environment: vibrations, accelerations, cooling temperature range … If lots of steady state modeling are available in the literature, few transient models exist. However, transient phases set the main problem for two-phase fluid capillary pumped loops in airplane environment. This paper proposes a transient thermohydraulic modeling approach of a capillary pumped loop developed for gravitational applications: the Capillary Pumped Loop for Integrated Power (CPLIP). As hydraulic transfers are the driving phenomena during transient states, the present model transcribes accurately the fluid mechanical aspects.
Technical Paper
2011-10-06
Vivek Venkobarao, Venkatasubramaniyan Kuppusamy
The paper presents a methodology to identify the most appropriate algorithm for the analysis of this nonlinear instability, and to devise a novel control technique for damping the instabilities and ensuring orderly operation of the system with an improved energy savings. The control is digital in nature and can easily be implemented using digital signal processors (DSPs). In addition to superiority in performance, fault diagnostic and failure are easier using the proposed control method.
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Takashi Tsuji, Akimasa Kinoshita, Noriyuki Iwamuro, Kenji Fukuda, Hiroshi Kimura
The 1200V class silicon carbide Schottky barrier diodes were designed and fabricated. The drift layer resistance was reduced in order to realize low forward voltage drops. Since the low drift layer resistance led to the low breakdown voltage, the avalanche withstanding capability should be enhanced not to cause the destructive breakdown. By means of the optimized device design, we succeeded to realize the low forward voltage drop while maintaining the high avalanche withstanding capability. The forward voltage drops at 200A/cm° were 1.35V at 25°C and 1.63V at 175°C, respectively. The avalanche withstanding capability was more than 3500mJ/cm₂ at 25°C. By substituting SiC-SBDs for Sipin diodes, the estimated total power loss of the module comprised by Si-IGBTs and the diodes was reduced by 35%. We could also confirm that no failures happened after long term reliability tests.
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Hitoshi Miyata, Chinao Yamaike, Toshifumi Kurata, Eikou Gonda
Many studies on Electric Vehicle (EV), recently, are actively proceeded as one of the solutions of environmental problem. We are aiming at constructing vector control system for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) that is employed a small EV for our test bed. In the vector control, since fundamental equations of IPMSM in stationary coordinate are transformed into rotational coordinate, IPMSM that is one of the AC motor is considered DC motor and various calculations are simplified. In order to apply the vector control, high resolution rotor position sensor is indispensable to detect precise information on rotor position and speed. However, position sensor of our IPMSM can detect 60[deg] at a minimum. Therefore in this study we examined a driving method of IPMSM by using information from low resolution position sensor combining with speed observer. Moreover, we have analyzed control system considering output voltage error that is a property of inverter. As a result our new method has improved speed response of the vector control system of the IPMSM.
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Tatsuo Teratani
In the twenty-first century, the development of vehicles has been proceeding towards electronics, electric propulsion and system integration in 5 big trends. Environment, Safety, Market Change, Energy Security and Natural Resources. Especially, “Electric Propulsion of Vehicles” is rapidly accelerated for countermeasure of global warming. In this paper, we will propose the current status analysis for automotive high power supply voltage and classification for future view of HEV(Hybird Electric Vehicle). PHEV(Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) and EV(Electric Vehicle).
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Mitsuaki Hirakawa, Masao Nagano, Satoshi Hashino, Toshihisa Shimizu
The development of Li-ion battery performance in next ten years will encourage improving a power density of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A higher voltage system with a boost voltage converter is favorable for the EV system if the converter has large power in small size. For increasing the converter power density, interleaved topologies using close-coupled inductors are shown to be superior. The inductor set of 3-phase type is proved to be smaller in size and lose less power in comparison to that of 2-phase type for high powered EV system having a 200∼400 volt battery. The prototype 3- phase converter using IGBT with 15 kHz switching frequency achieved a power density of 21.4 kW/liter at 120 kW output on a boost ratio of 1.38 with 98.0% efficiency, which also achieved more than 97% efficiency in a frequent usage zone.
Technical Paper
2011-01-19
Sardar Arghya, Mubashir Sajid
The increased adoption of electric propulsion in road transport is viewed as a potential solution to the concerns over increasing environmental pollution, and energy security. The technology advances in power electronics and energy storage technologies promises to bring plug-in electric vehicles (both battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) into the commercial domain. Many vehicle manufacturers have planned to introduce their vehicles in the market within the next 3 years. However, charging of plug-in electric vehicles can potentially increase peak power demand on power distribution network, and may have impact on various grid assets including thermal loading, voltage, unbalance, losses etc. In order to estimate the potential impacts, we must estimate the additional power demands and its temporal variations due to charging of plug-in electric vehicles. A scenario-based analysis of the impact on the electric power grid has been taken, with Delhi as a case example case.
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