Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 101
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9145
Abdullah AL-Refai, Osamah Rawashdeh, Rami Abousleiman
Abstract Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicles, cell phones, and many other applications. Charging these batteries is a delicate process because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and, most importantly, the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of special importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management capabilities. In this paper, three common charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, the time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging methods were considered.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1220
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja M. Rahman, Peter Savagian, Robert Dawsey
Abstract The Cadillac CT6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power-split transmission architecture utilizes two motors. One is an induction motor type while the other is a permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motor type referred to as motor A and motor B respectively. Bar-wound stator construction is utilized for both motors. Induction motor-A winding is connected in delta and PMAC motor-B winding is connected in wye. Overall, the choice of induction for motor A and permanent magnet for motor B is well supported by the choice of hybrid system architecture and the relative usage profiles of the machines. This selection criteria along with the design optimization of electric motors, their electrical and thermal performances, as well as the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance are discussed in detail. It is absolutely crucial that high performance electric machines are coupled with high performance control algorithms to enable maximum system efficiency and performance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1223
Yukiya Kashimura, Yuki Negoro
Abstract A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling Diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1229
Douglas Cesiel, Charles Zhu
Abstract The electric vehicle on-board charger (OBC) is responsible for converting AC grid energy to DC energy to charge the battery pack. This paper describes the development of GM’s second generation OBC used in the 2016 Chevrolet Volt. The second generation OBC provides significant improvements in efficiency, size, and mass compared to the first generation. Reduced component count supports goals of improved reliability and lower cost. Complexity reduction of the hardware and diagnostic software was undertaken to eliminate potential failures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0015
Eldad Palachi, Fariz Saracevic, Amit Fisher
Abstract Connected vehicles provide suppliers and OEMs new opportunities to improve their customer experience and offer new services. Yet, in this new era of Internet of Things (IoT), OEMs and suppliers are expected to expand their engineering efforts beyond the vehicle itself. We present a new Rapid Application Development (RAD) service offered by IBM, called IBM Internet of Things Workbench. This is a visual tool, offered as an IBM Bluemix service that allows engineers to design and simulate the overall architecture and interactions between the various IoT entities such as devices, cloud applications and services, mobile clients and asset management systems. IoT Workbench abstracts the messaging details and generates code skeletons for the cloud applications as well as for simulating devices. It also provides the device simulation to allow for the application testing before the actual devices are available and the requirements for the various devices are validated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0022
Kenta Morishima, Shigeru Thomas Oho, Satoshi Shimada
Abstract A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations. The microcontroller program, which was written in binary digital codes, was executed step-by-step as the virtual ECU simulation went on. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1232
Peng Yi, Zechang Sun, Xinjian Wang
Abstract Different choices of IGBTs’ switching frequency of the PMSM inverter used in vehicle lead to different energy loss of the inverter. Meanwhile, they lead to different phase current harmonics, which result in different energy loss of the PMSM. Compared with traditional switching frequency design method, the optimal design method considers the loss of the PMSM as well as the inverter, proposing a minimum system loss switching frequency design method. Firstly, by establishing the IGBT model (Hefner Model) and the PMSM analytical model, obtain PMSM phase currents under different switching frequencies through simulating. The inverter energy loss is obtained at the same time. Then, the phase currents under different conditions are applied to the finite element model to obtain the distribution of the magnetic field strength H and the magnetic induction B, so that the PMSM loss can be calculated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1233
Kensuke Sasaki, Apoorva Athavale, Brent Gagas, Takashi Fukushige, Takashi Kato, Robert Lorenz
Abstract Variable flux permanent magnet synchronous machines (VFPMSMs) have been designed by using finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate speed-torque capability considering requirement for magnetization state (MS) manipulation. However, due to its unique characteristic to change the MS, numerous combinations of design parameters need to be evaluated to achieve a final design. To accelerate the design process, this paper presents a method that consists of an equivalent magnetic circuit model and a process to obtain magnet width and thickness that satisfy target maximum torque and power factor (P.F.) capability. This model includes magnet operating point analysis under given magnet width and thickness condition to achieve target MS and avoid demagnetization at full load. This analysis provides desired stator magnetomotive force, magnet and stator induced flux linkage. Therefore, expected torque and P.F. capability is calculated.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1234
Toshikazu Sugiura, Atsushi Tanida, Kazutaka Tamura
Abstract The adoption of silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors is regarded as a promising means of improving the fuel efficiency of all types of electrically powered vehicles, including plug-in, electric, fuel cell, and hybrid vehicles (PHVs, EVs, FCVs, and HVs). For this reason, adoption in a wide variety of vehicles is currently being studied, including in the fuel cell (FC) boost converter of an FC bus. The FC boost converter controls the output voltage of the FC up to 650 V. In this research, SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SiC-SBDs) were adopted in the upper arm of an FC boost converter. Since the forward voltage (Vf) of SiC-SBDs is smaller than conventional Si-PiN diodes (Si-PiNDs), the conduction loss of SiC-SBDs is correspondingly smaller. Recovery loss can also be reduced by at least 90% compared to Si-PiNDs since the recovery current of SiC-SBDs is substantially smaller.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1235
Johannes Gragger, Alessandro Zanon, Michele De Gennaro, Jonathan Juergens, Antonio Fricassè, Luca Marengo, Igor Olavarria, Jutta Kinder
Abstract The widespread of hybrid and battery electric vehicles is vital for the future of low-carbon mobility. In this context the delivery of affordable and efficient electric motor technologies together with high energy density storage devices are key aspects to enable the mass market take-off of electrified vehicles. The objective of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results and design features of an innovative and rare-earth free electric motor technology based on the synchronous reluctance machine concept. This technology is capable to provide sufficient power density and higher driving cycle energy efficiency compared to the current state-of-the-art rare-earth permanent magnet synchronous machines used for automotive applications. The motor is designed to be integrated within a hatchback rear driving axle vehicle, achieving the maximum energy efficiency in urban operational conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1224
Yosuke Osanai, Masaki Wasekura, Hideo Yamawaki, Yusuke Shindo
Abstract Reducing the loss of the power control unit (PCU) in a hybrid vehicle (HV) is an important part of improving HV fuel efficiency. Furthermore the loss of power devices (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and diodes) used in the PCU must be reduced since this amounts to approximately 20% of the total electrical loss in an HV. One of the issues for reducing loss is the trade-off relationship with reducing voltage surge. To restrict voltage surge, it is necessary to slow down the switching speed of the IGBT. In contrast, the loss reduction requires the high speed switching. One widely known method to improve this trade-off relationship is to increase the gate voltage in two stages. However, accurate and high-speed operation of the IGBT gate control circuit is difficult to accomplish. This research clarifies a better condition of the two-stage control and designed a circuit that improves this trade-off relationship by increasing the speed of feedback control.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1221
Kiyoshi Ito, Takumi Shibata, Takashi Kawasaki
Abstract Driving motors for hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles require magnet wires that can endure use at high voltages of 650 V or more. The magnet wire is a main motor component with the electromagnetic steel sheets and magnets. Conventional motors generally assure insulation by using the two parts of the magnet wire and insulate paper. But this increases the motor space factor and hinders weight reduction. A new magnet wire with high insulation performance was used by forming thermoplastic resin onto an enameled layer in order to reduce the number of insulating parts and enhance motor performance. The magnet wire (High-Voltage Wire: HVW) composed of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) resin . HVW can withstand the forming load during motor manufacture, secures durability for the automobile motor operating environment (Automatic Transmission Fluid: ATF), high temperatures) and can maintain high-voltage characteristics.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0197
Nithin Alex John, Mona Sherki, Sanjay A Patil
Abstract New generation automobiles are equipped with power windows which eases the passenger’s effort in moving the vehicle windows up and down. Many of them are stuffed with advanced features like automatic up/down option for ensuring functionality with a single press of the switch. Even though it adds comfort to driver & passenger, inadvertent use of power window can be fatal if a person’s body part gets trapped inside. An effective solution for this problem is anti-pinch mechanism, which releases the object safely just when it gets trapped. It detects the object trapped and immediately moves the window down so that trapped object will get released easily. The anti-pinch algorithm used in this project is based on the “Method of Monitoring Movable Element”, method monitor traveling distance of a power window pane. In order to achieve this different from conventional techniques we are using Ultrasonic sensor.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2412
Tao Yang, Serhiy Bozhko, Greg Asher
This paper aims to develop a general functional model of multi-pulse Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units (ATRUs) for More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) applications. The ATRU is seen as the most reliable way readily to be applied in the MEA. Interestingly, there is no model of ATRUs suitable for unbalanced or faulty conditions at the moment. This paper is aimed to fill this gap and develop functional models suitable for both balanced and unbalanced conditions. Using the fact that the DC voltage and current are strongly related to the voltage and current vectors at the AC terminals of ATRUs, a generic functional model has been developed for both symmetric and asymmetric ATRUs. The developed functional models are validated through simulation and experiment. The efficiency of the developed model is also demonstrated by comparing with corresponding detailed switching models. The developed functional model shows significant improvement of simulation efficiency, especially under balanced conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1202
Weimin Zhang, Saeed Anwar, Daniel J. Costinett, Fred Wang
Abstract A cost-effective SiC based hybrid switch and an improved inductor design procedure for boost converter in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are presented in this paper. The feasibility of a hybrid switch using low power SiC MOSFET and high power Si IGBT is investigated to provide a cost-effective and failure-resistant method to employ the fast switching characteristics of SiC devices. The operation of the hybrid switch is tested in double pulse test experiment and compared with the single IGBT. Additionally, the boost inductor design is discussed, which allows the optimization of weight and power loss across different core materials. An improved powder core inductor design procedure is presented to avoid the iterative design procedure provided by the manufacture. Both the powder material and nanocrystalline material are considered in the inductor design procedure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1203
Subhashree Rajagopal, Sebastien Desharnais, Balamurugan Rathinam, Upendra Naithani
Abstract Electromagnetic brakes are found in a variety of applications. They offer tremendous advantages including: absence of fading, high braking torque and controllability. However they suffer from decreasing torque at low and high speeds. In this study, a novel concept of permanent magnet eddy-current brake is proposed that maintains a flat braking torque profile over a broad speed range. The principle is analytically investigated and numerically validated through finite element simulations using MAXWELL. It is demonstrated that a usably flat braking torque profile can be achieved by altering the path of eddy-currents by magnetic field orientation, thereby affecting the apparent rotor resistance.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1201
Mohammad Anwar, Monty Hayes, Anthony Tata, Mehrdad Teimorzadeh, Thomas Achatz
Abstract The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1209
Zhengyu Liu, Thomas Winter, Michael Schier
Abstract This paper presents the development of a novel direct coil cooling approach which can enable high performance for electric traction motor, and in further significantly reduce motor losses. The proposed approach focuses on bypassing critical thermal resistances in motor by cooling coils directly in stator slots with oil flow. Firstly, the basic configuration and features are shown: sealed stator slots to air gap, pressure reservoirs on both side of the slots and slot channels for oil flow. The key to enhance thermal performance of the motor here is based on introducing fluid guiding structure in the slot channels. Next, heat transfer in the channel with guiding structure is investigated by CFD and compared with bare slot channel without guiding structure. For studying the effectiveness of proposed cooling concept, numerical analysis is conducted to compare it with HEV favored oil impingement cooling.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2117
Michael L. Zierolf, Thomas Brinson, Andrew Fleming
Abstract Recent emphasis on optimization of engine technologies with ancillary subsystems such as power and thermal management has created a need for integrated system modeling. These systems are coupled such that federated design methods may not lead to the most synergetic solution. Obtaining an optimal design is often contingent on developing an integrated model. Integrated models, however, can involve combining complex simulation platforms into a single system of systems, which can present many challenges. Model organization and configuration control become increasingly important when orchestrating various models into a single simulation. Additionally, it is important to understand such details as the interface between models and signal routing to ensure the integrated behavior is not contaminated or biased. This paper will present some key learnings for model integration to help alleviate some of the challenges with system-based modeling.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2113
Fei Gao, Serhiy Bozhko, Greg Asher
Abstract Stability is a great concern for the Electrical Power System (EPS) in the More Electric Aircraft (MEA). It is known that tightly controlled power electronic converters and motor drives may behave as constant power loads (CPLs) which may produce oscillations and cause instability. The paper investigates the stability boundaries for dc multi-source EPS under different power sharing strategies. For each possible strategy the corresponding reduced-order models are derived. The impedance criterion is then applied to study the EPS stability margins and investigates how these margins are influenced by different parameters, such as main bus capacitance, generator/converter control dynamics, cabling arrangements etc. These results are also illustrated by the root contours of reduced-order EPS models. Theoretical results achieved in the paper are confirmed by the time-domain simulations.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2181
Christopher Ian Hill, Chris Gerada, Paolo Giangrande, Serhiy Bozhko
Abstract This paper presents the initial development of a Modelica Library for Electro-Mechanical Actuator system analysis. At present two main system components are described, these are the Power Electronic Converter and Electric Machine, although further components will be added. These models provide the user with the ability to simulate Electric Machine and Power Electronic Converter systems including physical effects, losses and fault conditions. Established modelling programs such as Saber and MATLAB SimPowerSytems are often unable to provide all the aspects required to accurately simulate real systems in an easy to use, flexible manner. Therefore this paper shows how Modelica has been used to create versatile models able to simulate many practical aspects such as Power Electronic Converter losses and Power Electronic Converter faults, Electric Machine losses and Electric Machine faults.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2176
Niloofar Rashidi Mehrabadi, Bo Wen, Rolando Burgos, Dushan Boroyevich, Chris Roy
Abstract The development of the concepts, terminology and methodology of verification and validation is based on practical issues, not the philosophy of science. Different communities have tried to improve the existing terminology to one which is more comprehensible in their own field of study. All definitions follow the same concept, but they have been defined in a way to be most applicable to a specific field of study. This paper proposes the Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) framework applicable to power electronic systems. Although the steps are similar to the VV&UQ frameworks' steps from other societies, this framework is more efficient as a result of the new arrangement of the steps which makes this procedure more comprehensible. This new arrangement gives this procedure the capability of improving the model in the most efficient way.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2139
Serhiy Bozhko, Seang Shen Yeoh, Fei Gao, Tao Yang, Christopher Hill
Abstract The paper reports the control design for an aircraft electric starter-generator system based-on high-speed permanent magnet machine operated in a flux-weakening mode and controlled by an active front-end rectifier. The proposed system utilizes advances of modern power electronics allowing the use of novel machine types and the introduction of controlled power electronics into the main path of energy flow. The paper focuses on control design for such system and includes development of flux weakening control of high-speed permanent magnet machine and droop control of the system output dc-link current. The achieved analytical design results and the expected system performance are confirmed by time-domain simulations.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2141
Christine Ross, Michael Armstrong, Mark Blackwelder, Catherine Jones, Patrick Norman, Steven Fletcher
Abstract The Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) concept uses gas turbine engines as prime movers for generators whose electrical power is used to drive motors and propulsors. For this NASA N3-X study, the motors, generators, and DC transmission lines are superconducting, and the power electronics and circuit breakers are cryogenic to maximize efficiency and increase power density of all associated components. Some of the protection challenges of a superconducting DC network are discussed such as low natural damping, superconducting and quenched states, and fast fault response time. For a given TeDP electrical system architecture with fixed power ratings, solid-state circuit breakers combined with superconducting fault-current limiters are examined with current-source control to limit and interrupt the fault current.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2156
Arthur V. Radun
Abstract There is a continuing need to simulate power electronic circuits that include magnetic components. It is necessary to determine the interaction of the magnetic component with the rest of the power electronic system so that a dynamic circuit model of the magnetic components including material saturation and iron losses is required. Also, the magnetic component model must be valid when the magnetic component's excitation is not sinusoidal. A dynamic magnetic circuit model derived from Maxwell's equations along with useful theorems for building circuit models from the structure of the magnetic device is reviewed. The developed circuit models are general including magnetic saturation and iron losses. Simulation results for a DC/DC converter employing a conventional gapped inductor and a gapped coupled inductor are presented.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2104
Jon Zumberge, John Mersch
Cost and performance requirements are driving military and commercial systems to highly integrated, optimized systems which require more sophisticated, highly complex controls. To realize benefits and make confident decisions, the validation of both plant and control models becomes critical. To quickly develop controls for these systems, it is beneficial to develop models and determine the uncertainty of those models so as to predict performance and stability. A process of model validation for a boost circuit based on acceptance sampling is presented here. The validation process described in this paper includes the steps of defining requirements, performing a screening and exploration of the system, completing a system and parameter identification, and finally executing a validation test. To minimize the cost of experimentation and simulation, design of experiments is used extensively to limit the amount of data taken without losing information.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2120
Jennifer C. Shaw, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
Abstract Radical new electrically propelled aircraft are being considered to meet strict future performance goals. One concept design proposed is a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) aircraft that utilises a number of electrically driven propulsors. Such concepts place a new and significant reliance on an aircraft's electrical system for safe and efficient flight. Accordingly, in addition to providing certainty that supply reliability targets are being met, a contingency analysis, evaluating the probability of component failure within the electrical network and the impact of that failure upon the available thrust must also be undertaken for architecture designs. Solutions that meet specified thrust requirements at a minimum associated weight are desired as these will likely achieve the greatest performance against the proposed emissions targets.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2213
Noriko Morioka, Hidefumi Saito, Norio Takahashi, Manabu Seta, Hitoshi Oyori
Abstract Electrical power management is a key technology in the AEA (All-Electric Aircraft) system, which manages the supply and demand of the electrical power in the entire aircraft system. However, the AEA system requires more than electrical power management alone. Adequate thermal management is also required, because the heat generated by aircraft systems and components increases with progressive system electrification, despite limited heat-sink capability in the aircraft. Since heat dissipation from power electronics such as electric motors, motor controllers and rectifiers, which are widely introduced into the AEA, becomes a key issue, an efficient cooling system architecture should be considered along with the AEA system concept. The more-electric architecture for the aircraft has been developed; mainly targeting reduced fuel burn and CO2 emissions from the aircraft, as well as leveraging ease of maintenance with electric/electronic components.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2115
Brian C. Raczkowski, Benjamin Loop, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Oleg Wasynczuk, Sean Field, Jason Gousy
Abstract Future more electric aircraft (MEA) architectures that improve electrical power system's (EPS's) source and load utilization will require advance stability analysis capabilities. Systems are becoming more complex with bidirectional flows from power regeneration, multiple sources per channel and higher peak to average power ratios. Unknown load profiles with large transients complicate common stability analysis techniques. Advancements in analysis are critical for providing useful feedback to the system integrator and designers of multi-source, multi-load power systems. Overall, a framework for evaluating stability with large displacement events has been developed. Within this framework, voltage transient bounds are obtained by identifying the worst case load profile. The results can be used by system designers or integrators to provide specifications or limits to suppliers. Subsystem suppliers can test and evaluate their design prior to integration and hardware development.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2111
Shweta Sanjeev, Goutham Selvaraj, Patrick Franks, Kaushik Rajashekara
Abstract The transition towards More Electric Aircraft (MEA) architectures has challenges relating to integration of power electronics with the starter generator system for on-engine application. To efficiently operate the power electronics in the hostile engine environment at high switching frequency and for better thermal management, use of silicon carbide (SiC) power devices for a bi-directional power converter is examined. In this paper, development of a 50 kVA bi-directional converter operating at an ambient temperature of about 2000C is presented. The design and operation of the converter with details of control algorithm implementation and cooling chamber design are also discussed.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 101

Filter