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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2325
Midhat Talibi, Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos
The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels presents an alternative to the current production of renewable fuels for IC engines from food crops. However, realising the potential for reductions in net CO2 emissions through the utilisation of, for example, waste biomass for sustainable fuel production requires that energy and resource inputs into such processes be minimised. This work therefore investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of five intermediate platform molecules potentially derived from lignocellulosic biomass: gamma-valerolactone (GVL), methyl valerate, furfuryl alcohol, furfural and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF). The study was conducted on a naturally aspirated, water cooled, single cylinder spark-ignition engine. Each of the platform molecules were blended with reference fossil gasoline at 20 % wt/wt.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2429
Felix Leach, Martin Davy, Adam Weall, Brian Cooper
Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2201
Zhongye Cao, Tianyou Wang, Kai Sun, Lei Cui
In uniflow scavenged two-stroke marine diesel engines, the main function of scavenging process is to replace the burned gas with fresh charge. It is integral to the subsequent combustion process, thereby affecting the engine's fuel economy, power output and emission performance. In this paper, a complete working cycle of 6S35ME engine of MAN Diesel&Turbo was simulated by using the CFD software CONVERGE with full engine geometry including intake and exhaust ports. The simulation based on RANS and standard k-epsilon model was in good agreement with experiment. Based on the above calibrated model, the influence of exhaust valve closing (EVC) timing and swirl ratio on the scavenging process were investigated.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2197
Vignesh Pandian Muthuramalingam, Anders Karlsson
Owing to increased interest in blended fuels for automotive applications, a great deal of understanding is sought for the behavior of multicomponent fuel sprays. This sets a new requirement on spray model since the volatility of the fuel components in a blend can vary substantially. It calls for careful solution to implement the differential evaporation process concerning thermodynamic equilibrium while maintaining a robust solution. This work presents the Volvo Stochastic Blob and Bubble (VSB2) spray model for multicomponent fuels. A direct numerical method is used to calculate the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets. The multicomponent fuel model is implemented into OpenFoam CFD code and the case simulated is a constant volume combustion vessel. The CFD code is used to calculate liquid penetration length for surrogate diesel (n-dodecane)-gasoline (iso-octane) blend and the result is compared with experimental data.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2291
Sandro Gail, Takashi Nomura, Hitoshi Hayashi, Yuichiro Miura, Katsumi Yoshida, Vinod Natarajan
In emerging markets, Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology retains a higher market share than Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) technology. In these markets fuel quality remains a concern even despite an overall improvement in quality. Typical PFI engines are sensitive to fuel quality regardless of brand, engine architecture, or cylinder configuration. One of the well-known impacts of fuel quality on PFI engines is the formation of Intake Valve Deposits (IVD). These deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to a deterioration of engine performance. IVD formation mechanisms have been characterized in previous studies. However, no test is available on a state-of-the-art engine to study the impact of fuel components on IVD formation. Therefore, a proprietary engine test was developed to test several chemistries. Sixteen fuel blends were tested. The deposit formation mechanism has been studied and analysed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2224
Paul Freeland
REVISED ABASTRACT 4/7/2017 The challenges of maintaining continuous improvements in air quality, manage the earth’s energy resources, and to control atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, whilst supplying ever increasing global sales volumes mean that ever more detailed understanding and optimisation of powertrain systems is required. Downsizing, electrification and traffic flow management all have very important parts to play in achieving these goals, but can still only modify the outputs of the basic propulsion units, and methods to improve the efficiency, cleanliness and flexibility of powertrains remains a vital development requirement. The paper explores the fuel consumption benefits available from de-throttling technologies that can help to bring gasoline engine efficiency on a par with that of diesel engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2198
Zhihong Li, Guoxiu Li, Lan Wang, Hongmeng Li, Jie Wang, Haizhou Guo, Shuangyi He
The electromagnetic valve driving mechanism is the significant equipment, which plays a vital role in the unit pump injection system; therefore, the performance of the electromagnetic valve directly influences the function of the control system. Based on the operation conditions of the unit pump injection system, a steady electromagnetic valve model was modified to study the influence factors of electromagnetic force and the best combination to get the maximum electromagnetic force. The validation model was verified by experiment. The effects of some crucial parameters upon the electromagnetic force were investigated in the present paper, (including working airspace, magnetic pole’s cross-sectional area, coil position, coil turn, the armature thickness). The result shows that the electromagnetic force of the solenoid valve enhanced with the increasing driving current and reduced with the decreasing of working condition.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2204
Hoon Lee, Kwangwoo Jeong, Sanghoon Yoo, Byungho Lee, Sejun Kim
Hyundai Motor Company recently developed a multi-way, electrical coolant valve for engine thermal management module. The main purposes of the system that replaces a mechanical thermostat are to boost fuel economy by accelerating warm-up and to enhance thermal efficiency by actively controlling engine operating temperature. The electrical valve controls the amount of coolant flow to components such as oil heat exchanger, heater core, and radiator, while providing separate cooling for engine block and head. The coolant flow is modulated by varying the valve angle actuated with an electric motor. The system operates under a thermal management strategy that consists of multiple phases including zero coolant flow mode, and for those phases that require coolant temperature control, a feedback algorithm is designed for the flow control.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2202
Shiyou Yang
This work presents an application of two sub-models relative to chemical-kinetics-based turbulent pre-mixed combustion modeling approach on the simulation of burn rate and emissions of spark ignition engines. In present paper, the justification of turbulent pre-mixed combustion modeling directly based on chemical kinetics plus a turbulence model is given briefly. Two sub-models relative to this kind of pre-mixed combustion modeling approach are described generally, including a practical PRF (primary reference fuel) chemical kinetics mechanism which can correctly capture the laminar flame speed under a wide range of Ford SI (spark ignition) engines/operating conditions, and an advanced spark plug ignition model which has been developed by Ford recently.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2205
Velmurugan M A, MahendraMohan Rajagopal
Agricultural tractors are often subjected to various applications like front end loading work, cultivation work, where frequent forward and reverse gears are needed. Most of Indian agricultural tractors are equipped with mechanical transmission system which demands repeated clutching and de-clutching operation for such applications resulting in increased operator fatigue and lesser productivity. Also need of electronics in Indian agricultural industry for better farm mechanization is growing high. This research work depicts development of electronic bi-directional shifting (power shuttle) control design and calibration for farm vehicle fitted with wet clutch transmission.This research also reduces operator fatigue via frequent directional shift through electronic transmission. The control system is designed without any electronic interfacing with engine and also provides clutch-less gear shifting and auto-launch which offers ease to drive even for novice driver.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2442
Bingqing Xiao, Wei Wu, Jibin Hu, Shihua Yuan, Chenhui Hu
The prediction of temperature distribution and variation of oil-cooled sliding disk pair is essential for the design of wet clutches and brakes in vehicle transmission system. A heat transfer model is established in the study and some fluid-solid coupled heat transfer simulations are performed to investigate the thermal behaviors of wet clutch during sliding. Both cooling liquid and grooved solid disks are contained in the heat transfer model and the heat convection due to the cooling liquid in the radial grooves is also considered by fluid-solid coupled transient heat transfer simulations. The temperature distribution and variation of the grooved disk are discussed and analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the temperature distribution on the grooved disk is nonuniform. The temperature within the middle radius area is higher than that in the inner and outer radius area. The outer radius temperature is higher than the inner radius temperature at the contact face.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2239
Andreas Glawar, Fabian Volkmer, Pauline Ziman, Adrian Groves, Roger Cracknell
Port fuel injected (PFI) technology remains the most common fuel delivery type present in the marketplace for gasoline spark ignition engines. Although increasingly stringent tailpipe CO2 targets in some markets are driving the industry towards more efficient direct injection (DI) technology, in the light of ever increasing vehicle lifetimes, a legacy vehicle fleet featuring PFI technology will remain in the marketplace for decades to come. This is especially the case in some Asian markets where PFI technology is still prominent, although DI technology adoption is starting to catch up. PFI engines can, in the presence of lower quality fuels and lubricants, build up harmful deposits on a range of critical engine parts including in the fuel injectors, combustion chamber and on inlet valves. Inlet valve deposits (IVDs) in more severe cases have been associated with drivability issues such as engine stumble and engine hesitation on sudden acceleration.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2275
Chen Yang, Weixin li, Jiandong Yin, Yuan Shen
Abstract: In order to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations and reduce fuel consumption, development of modern powertrain is becoming more complicated, combining many advanced technologies. Gasoline engine downsizing is already established as a proven technology to reduce vehicle fleet CO2 emissions. Compressed natural gas (CNG) offers increased potential to further reduce both tailpipe CO2 and other regulated exhaust gas emissions without compromising driving performance. In this study, a turbocharged CNG port fuel injection (PFI) engine was developed based on gasoline version. Making most use of positive fuel properties of CNG, the paper quantifies the performance characteristics of downsized CNG engine considering reduced knock sensitivity, adaption of compression ratio and combustion efficiency. While peak cylinder pressure was controlled below 120bar, peak torque 180Nm, same level as gasoline variant, was realized from 3000rpm.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2309
hua Wen, Shuaishuai Liang, Peng Chen, Guangjun Jiang
In this paper, a contrast experiment has been carried out for discussing the phenomenon of fuel dripping at the end of injection by using the different nozzles with varied materials. The experiment results show that the nozzle deformation has an important effect on the fuel dripping at the end of injection. The duration of the fuel shut-off process with the steel nozzle which producing smaller deformation is shorter than the polymethyl methacrylate nozzle. The mass of fuel dripping with the steel nozzle is less. For implementing a deep analysis on the experimental phenomenon about the fuel dripping with the polymethyl methacrylate nozzle, a three dimensional numerical simulation research was carried out for analyzing the influence of fuel flow inside nozzle on the solid deformation and stress distribution of the nozzle by using Fluid-Structure-Interaction method.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2323
Lei Li, Kai Sun, Jianyu Duan
Butanol is a promising alcohol fuel. Previous studies in flames and diesel engines showed different trends in sooting tendencies of the butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol). However, the impact of butanol isomers on the particulate emissions of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines has not been reported. This work examined the combustion performance and particle number emissions of a GDI engine fueled with gasoline/butanol blends at steady state modes. Each isomer was tested at the blend ratio 10% to 50% by volume. Spark timings for all the fuels were set to obtain the maximum break torque, i.e. the MBT spark timings. Results showed that the particle number concentration could be reduced significantly with the increasing butanol content for all the isomers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2226
Edward S. Richardson, Bruno S. Soriano, Mathew Middleton, Michael J. Gill
Cylinder deactivation enables improvements in fuel economy in spark-ignition engines by reducing pumping losses during part load operation. The efficiency benefits of a new intake valve system that enables cycle-by-cycle deactivation of different cylinders is investigated in this study. The system minimises the need for throttling by varying the fraction of strokes that are deactivated in order to vary engine output. The intake valve system involves two intake valves in series, with a fast solenoid-actuated valve upstream of a conventional cam-actuated intake valve. Compared to conventional cam-actuated valves, the new valve system has potential to achieve very rapid closing rates with a high degree of flexibility in respect of the timing of inlet valve closure. The fuel economy benefits provided by a number of valve control strategies are evaluated using a one-dimensional modelling approach, considering a vehicle following the New European Drive Cycle.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2457
Rickard Arvidsson, Tomas McKelvey
A two dimensional Forward Dynamic Programming algorithm is evaluated in a series hybrid drive-train with the objective to minimize fuel consumption when look ahead information is available. The algorithm is compared to one dimensional approaches where the engine is operated at it’s optimum efficiency line in sustain with load following power demand, or with constant load in the optimum operating point where the system efficiency is highest. The work have included the engine speed target and generator power as control signals in a full drive train simulation model which is based on the Volvo Car Corporation VSIM tool. Lowest fuel consumption is obtained by the two dimensional approach, with 12% less fuel consumed in fuel consumption for the drive cycle analyzed compared to when the engine is operated at the maximum efficiency and even more fuel could be gained compared to the load following approach.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2359
Yaodong Hu
Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with P2 configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption test methods and its limits of the third stage will be introduced and explained in detail. Then, the quasi static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC cycle are built.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2259
Tianpu Dong, Fujun Zhang, Hongli Gao, Sufei Wang, Yidong Fei
The diesel low temperature combustion(LTC) can keep high efficiency and produce low emission. It has been widely studied at home and abroad in recent years. The combustion control parameters such as injection pressure, injection timing, intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure, intake temperature and so on, have an important influence on the combustion and emission of diesel LTC. In order to realize different combustion modes and combustion mode switch of diesel engine, it is necessary to accurately control the injection parameters and intake parameters of diesel engine. In this work, the effect of intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure and intake temperature on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel LTC were analyzed by experimental study. Combustion performance and emission characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, temperature, heat release rate, NOx and soot emission are presented and discussed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2363
Murugesa Pandian M, Anand Krishnasamy
The major limitations in a conventional high temperature diesel combustion are higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particular matter (PM) emissions and a trade-off between them. Advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies are proposed to simultaneously reduce NOx and PM emissions to near zero levels along with higher thermal efficiencies. Various LTC strategies including Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), Stratified Charge Compression Ignition (SCCI) and High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) are proposed so far to achieve near zero NOx and PM emissions along with higher thermal efficiencies. Each of these LTC strategies have their own advantages and limitations interms of precise ignition control, achievable load range and higher unburned emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2364
Jiaqiang Li, Chao He, Jianwei Tan, Zihang Peng, Zidi Li, Wei Chen, Shijie wang
Urea selective catalytic reduction is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea selective catalytic reduction process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and provides to catalysts to reduce NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12℃. For preventing deposits formation, the aqueous urea solution is difficult to be injected into the exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200℃. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2365
Murugesa Pandian M, Anand Krishnasamy
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve higher thermal efficiencies along with ultra low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions. Small single cylinder diesel engines of air-cooled type are finding increasing applications in the agriculture pump-set and small utility power generation owing to their lower cost and fuel economy advantages. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under RCCI combustion mode with a newly designed cylinder head to accommodate a high pressure, fully flexible electronically controlled direct diesel fuel injection system, a low pressure gasoline port fuel injection system and an intake air pre heater.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2367
Ganesan Mahadevan PhD, Sendilvelan Subramanian
Control of harmful emissions during cold start of the engine has become a challenging task over the years due to the ever increasing stringent emission norms. Positioning the catalytic converter closer to the exhaust manifold is an efficient way of achieving rapid light-off temperature. On the other hand, the resulting higher thermal loading under high-load engine operation may substantially cause thermal degradation and accelerate catalyst ageing. The objective of the present work is to reduce the light-off time of the catalyst and at the same time reduce the thermal degradation and ageing of the catalyst to the minimum possible extent by adopting an approach with Dynamic Catalytic Converter System (DCCS). The emission tests were conducted at the cold start of a 4 cylinder spark ignition engine with DCCS at different positions of the catalyst at no load conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2368
Wenji Song, Weiyong Tang, Bob Chen, Jiapeng zhang
The 4JB1 diesel engine originated from Isuzu has large share in the China light duty truck market. However, the tightened NOx emission target enforced by NS-V legislation compared with NS-IV regulatory standard is very challenging for this engine platform which originally adopted the DOC+POC catalyst layout. Furthermore, combustion characterization of this type engine leads to high soluble organic fration (SOF) content in engine out particulates, which requires the catalysts in the exhaust after-treatment system (ATS) to deliver high SOF conversion efficiency in order to meet the regulation limit for particulate matters (PM). In this paper, an innovative DOC+V-SCR exhaust catalyst layout with DOC+V-SCR is introduced. The front DOC is specially formulated with optimized PGM (Platinum Group Metal) loading which ensures effective SOF oxidation while keeping sulfuric acid and sulfate generation minimal.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2381
Kristian Hentelä, Ossi Kaario, Vikram Garaniya, Laurie Goldsworthy, Martti Larmi
In the present study, a new approach for modelling emissions of coke particles or cenospheres from large diesel engines using HFO (Heavy fuel oil) was studied. The used model is based on a multicomponent droplet mass transfer and properties model that uses a continuous thermodynamics approach to model the complex composition of the HFO fuel and the resulting evaporation behavior of the fuel droplets. Cenospheres are modelled as the residue left in the fuel droplets towards the end of the simulation. The mass-transfer and fuel properties models were implemented into a cylinder section model based on the Wärtsilä W20 engine in the CFD-code Star CD v.4.24. Different submodels and corresponding parameters were tuned to match experimental data of cylinder pressures available from Wärtsilä for the studied cases. The results obtained from the present model were compared to experimental results found in the literature.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2405
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vectors used in the transport sector but these fuels associated to CI engines are nowadays often criticized. Nevertheless, engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants. CI engines, with gasoline-like fuels, are a promising way for NOx and particulates emission abatement while keeping lower CO2 emission. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigations of pollutants are mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied the behavior of low RON gasoline soot generated with a CI engine. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of such fuel/engine technology on the HC emissions and on the DOC behavior. HC speciation is performed upstream and downstream DOC. Warm-up and efficiency are also tested for different operating conditions. Then, exothermal capacities are considered to ensure high level of temperature for DPF regeneration.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2386
Naoki Ohya, Kohei Hiyama, Kotaro Tanaka, Mitsuru Konno, Atsuko Tomita, Takeshi Miki, Yutaka Tai
Diesel engines have better fuel economy over comparable gasoline engines and useful for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, to meet stringent emission standards, the technology for reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust needs to be improved. A conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and an urea-SCR catalyst. Recently, more stringent regulations have led to the development of SCR systems with a larger volume and increased the cost of such systems. In order to solve these problems, an SCR catalyst coated on DPF (SCR/DPF) is proposed. An SCR/DPF system has a lower volume and cost compared with the conventional SCR system. The SCR/DPF catalyst has two functions: one is combustion of PM and the other is reduction of NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2426
Zhiming Zhang, Weimin wang, Jiangtao Wang, Jiming Zhang, Yuanda Chen, Wenlong zhang, Guofang Yang, Fugui Fan, Wenxiang Zhang, Fengqin Huang, Xiangwang Li
Turbo-charged GDI technology is more and more widely used, which can meet the high demand of the engine performance and efficiency, but the resulting reliability and NVH issues also need to be paid attention to. Traditional NVH performance is mostly based on the experience design, repeatable test, which leads to longer development period, high cost, and also ineffective results. Along with the development of the simulation technology, NVH performance simulations play more important role in engine vibration and noise prediction. Usually The Force response analysis is used to compare the NVH performance of the engine structure, considering the standard excitation. Currently, dynamic analysis of the crank train, valve train, and piston can be carried out, and then the whole engine vibration and airborne noise can be predicted directly, considering different speed and load. In this paper, The NVH performance of a turbo-charged GDI engine is studied based on the simulation and experiment.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2195
Mei Wang, Xianyin Leng, Zhixia He, Shengli Wei, Liang Chen, Yu Jin
The spark-ignited pre-chamber stratified combustion system is one of the most effective way to expand lean-burn ability and improve the performance of a natural gas engine. For these pre-chamber engine, the geometrical structure of orifices between the pre- and main chamber play a significant role on the gas flow and flame propagation behaviors. The present study aims at investigating the effects of the orifice number and diameter on the combustion characteristics for a Shengdong T190 engine. Various geometrical structure for pre-chamber orifices were designed, offering variations in the number of orifices (2 to 6), and in the diameter of orifices (1.66mm to 4.98mm). A non-dimensional parameter β was employed to characterize the relative flow area of the orifices in the design. CFD simulations of combustion processes for these designs were carried out using a simplified chemical reaction kinetic model for methane.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2260
Weiwei Fan, Ming Jia, Yachao Chang, Yaopeng Li
The chemical kinetic mechanism determines the ignition timing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. The correlation between the ignition delay in shock tubes and HCCI engines under different operating conditions was studied with the reduced mechanism of a primary reference fuel (PRF) composing of n-heptane and iso-octane. According to the similarity analysis of the sensitivity coefficient, the operating conditions which affect the similarity factor are recognized. The results indicate that, under the conditions of high pressures and the negative temperature coefficient region of the ignition delay in shock tubes, the importance of each reaction on the ignition delay in shock tubes is similar to that in HCCI engines. Furthermore, it is concluded that the effect of the ambient temperature on the ignition delay is more obvious than that of the equivalent ratio and the ambient pressure.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 37912

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