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Viewing 211 to 240 of 43643
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0559
Lucas Eder, Constantin Kiesling, Peter Priesching, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer
Abstract Using natural gas as a fuel in internal combustion engines is a promising way to obtain efficient power generation with relatively low environmental impact. Dual fuel operation is especially interesting because it can combine the safety and reliability of the basic diesel concept with fuel flexibility. To deal with the greater number of degrees of freedom caused by the interaction of two fuels and combining different combustion regimes, it is imperative to use simulation methods in the development process to gain a better understanding of the combustion behavior. This paper presents current research into ignition and combustion of a premixed natural gas/air charge with a diesel pilot spray in a large bore diesel ignited gas engine with a focus on 3D-CFD simulation. Special attention was paid to injection and combustion. The highly transient behavior of the diesel injector especially at small injection quantities poses challenges to the numerical simulation of the spray.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0561
Federico Perini, Kan Zha, Stephen Busch, Rolf Reitz
Abstract In this work, linear, non-linear and a generalized renormalization group (RNG) two-equation RANS turbulence models of the k-epsilon form were compared for the prediction of turbulent compressible flows in diesel engines. The object-oriented, multidimensional parallel code FRESCO, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was used to test the alternative models versus the standard k-epsilon model. Test cases featured the academic backward facing step and the impinging gas jet in a quiescent chamber. Diesel engine flows featured high-pressure spray injection in a constant volume vessel from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), as well as intake flows in a high-swirl diesel engine. For the engine intake flows, a model of the Sandia National Laboratories 1.9L light-duty single cylinder optical engine was used.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0564
Prithwish Kundu, Muhsin Ameen, Umesh Unnikrishnan, Sibendu Som
Abstract Modeling unsteady turbulent flame development in lifted spray flames is important as a strong correlation exists between pollutant formation and the transient flame features such as auto-ignition, flame propagation and flame stabilization. Detailed chemistry mechanisms with large number of species are required to resolve the chemical kinetics accurately. These factors make high-fidelity simulation of engine combustion computationally expensive. In this work, a turbulent combustion model is proposed based on tabulation of flamelets. The aim is to develop a comprehensive combustion modeling approach incorporating detailed chemistry mechanisms, turbulence models and highly resolved grids leveraging the computational cost advantage of tabulation. A novel technique of implementing unsteady flamelet libraries without the use of progress variables is implemented for igniting sprays called Tabulated Flamelet Model (TFM).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0567
Andrea Twellmeyer, Fabian Kopple, Bernhard Weigand
Abstract Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines as its combustion is fuel-efficient and lean in carbon dioxide compared to gasoline. The high octane number of methane gives rise to significant increase of the thermodynamic efficiency due to higher possible compression ratios. In order to use this potential, new stratified mixture formation concepts for CNG are investigated by means of numerical fluid simulations. For decades RANS methods have been the industry standard to model three-dimensional flows. Indeed, there are well-known deficiencies of the widely used eddy viscosity turbulence models based on the applied Boussinesq hypothesis. Reynolds stress turbulence models as well as scale resolving simulation approaches can be appealing alternative choices since they offer higher accuracy. However, due to their large computing effort, they are still mostly impractical for the daily use in industrial product development processes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0565
Ji Yu, Motoyuki Abe, Yoshihiro Sukegawa
Abstract We developed a numerical method for PFI engine, which would take complex intake-port phenomena into consideration. Numerical study for PFI engine has additional difficulty compared with that for GDI engine, because in-cylinder distribution of mixture is strongly affected by remaining fuel in intake-port. The new simulation method proposed in this paper has adopted split calculation of two steps. Fuel distribution in intake-port is calculated in the first step, and then this result of adhered and floating fuel distribution in intake-port is used as boundary and initial conditions in the next step. Together these two steps realize accurate in-cylinder mixture distribution prediction. According to experimental verification, the new method showed a capability to predict accurate liquid film distribution with less calculation cost. And then we applied the method into the investigation for optimum injection strategy to improve engine performance and to reduce emission.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0568
Valentina Fraioli, Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio, Giacomo Belgiorno, Marianna Migliaccio
Abstract The adoption of gaseous fuels for Light Duty (LD) engines is considered a promising solution to efficiently reduce greenhouse gases emissions and diversify fuels supplies, while keeping pollutants production within the limits. In this respect, the Dual Fuel (DF) concept has already proven to be, generally speaking, a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the Heavy-Duty (HD) engines category. Despite this, some issues still require a technological solution, preventing the commercialization of DF engines in wider automotive fields, including the release of high amounts of unburned species, possibility of engine knock, chance of thermal efficiency reduction. In this framework, numerical simulation can be a useful tool, not only to better understand specific characteristics of DF combustion, but also to explore specific geometrical modifications and engine calibrations capable to adapt current LD architectures to this concept.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0601
Huayi Li, Kenneth Butts, Kevin Zaseck, Dominic Liao-McPherson, Ilya Kolmanovsky
Abstract The development of advanced model-based engine control strategies, such as economic model predictive control (eMPC) for diesel engine fuel economy and emission optimization, requires accurate and low-complexity models for controller design validation. This paper presents the NOx and smoke emissions modeling of a light duty diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. Such emission models can be integrated with an existing air path model into a complete engine mean value model (MVM), which can predict engine behavior at different operating conditions for controller design and validation before physical engine tests. The NOx and smoke emission models adopt an artificial neural network (ANN) approach with Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) architectures. The networks are trained and validated using experimental data collected from engine bench tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0604
Christian Friedrich, Yves Compera, Matthias Auer, Gunnar Stiesch, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract Improving fuel efficiency while meeting relevant emission limits set by emissions legislation is among the main objectives of engine development. Simultaneously the development costs and development time have to be steadily reduced. For these reasons, the high demands in terms of quality and validity of measurements at the engine test bench are continuously rising. This paper will present a new methodology for efficient testing of an industrial combustion engine in order to improve the process of decision making for combustion-relevant component setups. The methodology includes various modules for increasing measurement quality and validity. Modules like stationary point detection to determine steady state engine behavior, signal quality checks to monitor the signal quality of chosen measurement signals and plausibility checks to evaluate physical relations between several measurement signals ensure a high measurement quality over all measurements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0609
Pan Song, Shugang Xie, Yuan Zhong, Bolin Gao
Abstract This paper presents a unified creep-speed controller specifically designed for the automated parking system of an automated manual transmission vehicle, whereby the engine management system, transmission control unit, and electronic stability control system can work cooperatively and harmoniously within the same control framework. First, a novel reference speed generator is designed and employs sinusoidal functions to produce the speed profile based on the maneuver-dependent distances computed by a path planner, such that the lag in vehicle response during start-up can be effectively reduced. Second, a well-tuned PID controller is adopted to determine the resultant longitudinal force in attempt to follow the reference speed and eliminate the distance error during the parking maneuvers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0588
Adithya P Reddy Ranga, Gopichandra Surnilla, Joseph Thomas, Ethan Sanborn, Mark Linenberg
Abstract Dual fuel injection systems, like PFI+DI (port fuel injection + direct injection system) are being increasingly used in gasoline engine applications to increase the engine performance, fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. At a given engine operating condition, the air/fuel error is a function of the fraction of fuel injected by each of the fuel systems. If the fraction of fuel from each of the fuel system is changed at a given operating condition, the fuel system error will change as well making it challenging to learn the fuel system errors. This paper aims at describing the adaptive fueling control algorithm to estimate the fuel error contribution from each individual fuel system. Considering the fuel injection system slope errors to be the significant cause for air-fuel errors, a model structure was developed to calculate the fuel system adaptive correction factor as a function of changing fraction of fueling between the fuel systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0589
Shigeru Itabashi, Eiji Murase, Hiroya Tanaka, Masaaki Yamaguchi, Tomokazu Muraguchi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new series of engines under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy, which aims to satisfy customer requirements for both fun-to-drive dynamic performance and better fuel economy by adopting a high-speed combustion concept to improve thermal efficiency and specific power. This new engine series achieves a maximum engine thermal efficiency of 40%, a specific power ratio of 60 kW/l, and lower emissions by combining high-speed combustion and a high compression ratio with a high-tumble intake port, high-energy ignition coil, high-pressure multi-hole nozzle direct injector, and new electrical variable valve timing (VVT). The first engine in this series is a new 4-cylinder 2.5-liter gasoline naturally aspirated engine for use in passenger cars alongside a new TNGA 8-speed automatic transmission, which was introduced for minivans and SUVs in the U.S. market in 2016.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0594
Baitao Xiao, Erik Hellstrom, Yan Wang, Julia Buckland, Mario Santillo
Abstract Turbocharger compressors are susceptible to surge – the instability phenomena that impose limitations on the operation of turbocharged engines because of undesired noise, engine torque capability constraints, and hardware strain. Turbocharged engines are typically equipped with a binary compressor recirculation valve (CRV) whose primary function is to prevent compressor surge. Calibration of the associated control strategy requires in-vehicle tests and usually employs subjective criteria. This work aims to reduce the calibration effort for the strategy by developing a test procedure and data processing algorithms. An automated calibration for CRV control is developed that will generate a baseline calibration that avoids surge events. The effort to obtain the baseline calibration, which can be further fine-tuned, is thereby significantly reduced.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0627
Bo Yang, Peter Woyciesjes, Aleksei Gershun
Abstract In this paper, new test results in the use of electrochemical techniques to measure corrosion in extended life engine coolants are presented. Corrosion protection performance of the engine coolants (including both fresh coolants and simulated used coolants) for typical cooling system metals under heat rejecting and heat accepting surface corrosion conditions for both general corrosion and localized corrosion are measured under conditions similar to the ones encountered in vehicle engine cooling systems as a function of immersion time. Fleet tests of the coolants were also conducted. They are used to provide support on the electrochemical test methodologies adopted. The effective use of electrochemical techniques to aid the development of the next generation of extended life coolant technologies with improved corrosion protection performance and a longer service life will be demonstrated and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0624
Jiaxin Liu, Sicheng Qin, Yankun Jiang, Shumo He
Abstract In this work, a XD132 Road Roller from XCMG in China was employed as a research basis to study the heat exchange performance of the heat dissipation module under varied working conditions. The module in the XD132 consists of a cooling fan and three radiators. At first, the numerical investigation on the elementary units of radiators was performed to obtain Colburn j factor and Fanning friction f factor, which were used for the ε-NTU method to predict the radiator performance. The fan was numerically tested in a wind test tunnel to acquire the performance curve. The performance data from both investigations were transformed into the boundary conditions of the numerical vehicle model in a virtual tunnel. A field experiment was carried out to validate the simulation accuracy, and an entrance coefficient was proposed to discuss the performance regularity under four working conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0636
Vijai Shankar Bhavani Shankar, Nhut Lam, Arne Andersson, Bengt Johansson
Abstract The concept of double compression, and double expansion engine (DCEE) for improving the efficiency of piston reciprocating engines was introduced in SAE Paper 2015-01-1260. This engine configuration has separate high, and low pressure units thereby effectively reducing friction losses for high effective compression ratios. The presence of an additional expander stage also theoretically allows an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the combustion heat release rate so as to achieve better optimum between heat transfer, and friction losses. This paper presents a 1-D modeling study of the engine concept in GT-Power for assessing the sensitivity of engine losses to heat release rate. The simulations were constrained by limiting the maximum pressure to 300 bar.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0634
Schoeffmann Wolfgang, Helfried Sorger, Siegfried Loesch, Wolfgang Unzeitig, Thomas Huettner, Alois Fuerhapter
Abstract In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the internal combustion engine. In addition to further optimization of the combustion processes and the reduction of mechanical losses in the thermal- and energetic systems, the introduction of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the measure with the highest potential for fuel economy improvement. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system described in this paper is a 2-stage variation of the conrod length and thus the Compression Ratio (CR).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0631
David C. Ogbuaku, Timothy Potter, James M. Boileau
Abstract The need to increase the fuel-efficiency of modern vehicles while lowering the emission footprint is a continuous driver in automotive design. This has given rise to the use of engines with smaller displacements and higher power outputs. Compared to past engine designs, this combination generates greater amounts of excess heat which must be removed to ensure the durability of the engine. This has resulted in an increase in the number and size of the heat exchangers required to adequately cool the engine. Further, the use of smaller, more aerodynamic front-end designs has reduced the area available in the engine compartment to mount the heat exchangers. This is an issue, since the reduced engine compartment space is increasingly incapable of supporting an enlarged rectangular radiator system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0629
John Kuo, George Garfinkel
Abstract Thermal modeling of liquid-cooled vehicle traction battery assemblies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) usually involves large models to accurately resolve small cooling channel details, and intensive computation to simulate drive-cycle transient solutions. This paper proposes a segregated method to divide the system into three parts: the cells, the cold plate and the interface between them. Each of the three parts can be separated and thermally characterized and then combined to predict the overall system thermal behavior for both steady-state and transient operating conditions. The method largely simplifies battery thermal analysis to overcome the limitations of using large 3D CFD models especially for pack level dynamic drive cycle simulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0623
Zun Wang, Yi Zhang, Christophe lenormand, Mohammed Ansari, Manuel Henner
Abstract Radiator thermal cycle test is a test method to check out the robustness of a radiator. During the test, the radiator is going through transient cycles that include high and low temperature spikes. These spikes could lead to component failure and transient temperature map is the key to predict high thermal strain and failure locations. In this investigation, an accurate and efficient way of building a numerical model to simulate the transient thermal performance of the radiator is introduced. A good correlation with physical test result is observed on temperature values at various locations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0620
Chandrakant Parmar, Sethuramalingam Tyagarajan, Sashikant Tiwari, Ravindra Thonge, S Arun Paul
Abstract The engine compartment of passenger car application contains various source which radiates the produced heat and raises the temperature level of the compartment. The rise in compartment temperature increases the body temperature of individual component. The rise in body temperature of critical components can endanger the durability or functionality of the specific component or a system in which it operates. The aim of this paper is to strategize thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and its components of a vehicle having radiator and cooling fan mounted in front. An additional ventilation fan with speed sensor is fitted alongside rear mounted engine and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU to protect critical components like HT cables, alternators, ECUs, wiring harness etc. from thermal damage. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal of ventilation fan to ensure the intended operation of the ventilation fan.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0659
Jaal Ghandhi, Kenneth Seonguk Kim
Abstract Cycle-to-cycle variation in combustion phasing and combustion rate cause knock to occur differently in every cycle. This is found to be true even if the end gas thermo-chemical time history is the same. Three cycles are shown that have matched combustion phasing, combustion rate, and time of knock onset, but have knock intensity that differs by a factor of six. Thus, the prediction of knock intensity must include a stochastic component. It is shown that there is a relationship between the maximum possible knock intensity and the unburned fuel energy at the time of knock onset. Further, for a small window of unburned energy at knock onset, the probability density function of knock intensity is self similar when scaled by the 95th percentile of the cumulative distribution, and log-normal in shape.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0645
Jeremy Galpin, Thierry Colliou, Olivier Laget, Fabien Rabeau, Gaetano De Paola, Pascal Rahir
Abstract In spite of the increasingly stringent emission standards, the constant growth of road traffic contributes to climate change and induces detrimental effects on the environment. The European REWARD project (REal World Advanced Technologies foR Diesel Engines) aims to develop a new generation of Diesel engines complying with stricter post Euro 6 legislation and with lower CO2 emissions. Among the different technologies developed, a fuel-efficient two-stroke Diesel engine suited for C-segment passenger cars will be designed and experimentally evaluated. One major challenge for two-stroke engines is the achievement of an efficient scavenging. As the emptying of the in-cylinder burnt gases and the filling by fresh gases is performed at the same time, the challenge consists in removing as much burnt gases as possible while avoiding the by-pass of fresh air toward the exhaust line.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0661
Michael Pamminger, James Sevik, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Carrie Hall
Abstract Natural Gas (NG) is an alternative fuel which has attracted a lot of attention recently, in particular in the US due to shale gas availability. The higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio, compared to gasoline, allows for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions throughout the entire engine map. Furthermore, the high knock resistance of NG allows increasing the efficiency at high engine loads compared to fuels with lower knock resistance. NG direct injection (DI) allows for fuel to be added after intake valve closing (IVC) resulting in an increase in power density compared to an injection before IVC. Steady-state engine tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped with gasoline (E10) port-fuel injection (PFI) and NG DI to allow for in-cylinder blending of both fuels. Knock investigations were performed at two discrete compression ratios (CR), 10.5 and 12.5.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0640
Robert Wade, Steven Murphy, Paul Cross, Craig Hansen
Abstract The Variable Displacement Supercharger (VDS) is a twin helical screw style compressor that has a feature to change its displacement and its compression ratio actively during vehicle operation. This device can reduce the parasitic losses associated with supercharging and improve the relative fuel economy of a supercharged engine. Supercharging is a boosting choice with several advantages over turbocharging. There is fast pressure delivery to the engine intake manifold for fast engine torque response providing the fun to drive feel. The performance delivered by a supercharger can enable engine fuel economy actions to include engine downsizing and downspeeding. The cost and difficulty of engineering hot exhaust components is eliminated when using only an air side compressor. Faster catalyst warm up can be achieved when not warming the turbine housing of a turbocharger.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0637
Yan Zhang, Ziyu Wang, Honglin Bai, Chao Guo, Jinlong liu, Yufeng Li
Abstract Mechanical load and thermal load are the two main barriers limiting the engine power output of heavy duty (HD) diesel engines. Usually, the peak cylinder pressure could be reduced by retarding combustion phasing while introducing the drawback of higher thermal load and exhaust temperature. In this paper, Miller cycle with late intake valve closing was investigated at high speed high load condition (77 kW/L) on a single cylinder HD diesel engine. The results showed the simultaneous reduction of mechanical and thermal loads. In the meanwhile, higher boosting pressure was required to compensate the Miller loss of the intake charge during intake and compression process. The combustion temperature, cylinder pressure, exhaust temperature and NOx emission were reduced significantly with Miller cycle at the operating condition. Furthermore, the combustion process, smoke number and fuel consumption were analysed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0638
Neerav Abani, Nishit Nagar, Rodrigo Zermeno, Michael chiang, Isaac Thomas
Abstract Heavy-duty vehicles, currently the second largest source of fuel consumption and carbon emissions are projected to be fastest growing mode in transportation sector in future. There is a clear need to increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions for these engines. The Opposed-Piston Engine (OP Engine) has the potential to address this growing need. In this paper, results are presented for a 9.8L three-cylinder two-stroke OP Engine that shows the potential of achieving 55% brake thermal efficiency (BTE), while simultaneously satisfying emission targets for tail pipe emissions. The two-stroke OP Engines are inherently more cost effective due to less engine parts. The OP Engine architecture presented in this paper can meet this performance without the use of waste heat recovery systems or turbo-compounding and hence is the most cost effective technology to deliver this level of fuel efficiency.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0702
Raouf Mobasheri, Mahdi Seddiq
Abstract The simultaneous effects of pilot fuel quantity and pilot injection timing on engine performance and amount of pollutant emission have been computationally investigated in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine. In this study, a modified parameter called “Homogeneity Factor of in-cylinder charge (HF)” has been applied to analyze the air-fuel mixing and combustion processes. For this purpose, the simulated results has been firstly compared with the experimental data and a good agreement has been achieved for simulating the in-cylinder pressure and the amount of pollutant emissions. Then, nine different strategies based on two variables (the amount of fuel mass in pilot and main injection as well as the dwell between two injections) have been investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0693
Seungwoo Kang, Wonkyu Cho, Choongsik Bae, Youngho Kim
Abstract This paper investigated the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics of a light-duty diesel engine with 250 MPa injection. The engine used for the experiment was the 0.4L single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The diesel fuel injection equipment was operated under 250MPa injection pressure. Three injectors with nozzle hole number of 8 to 10 were compared. As the nozzle number of the injector increased, the orifice diameter decreased 105 μm to 95 μm. The ignition delay was shorter with larger nozzle number and smaller orifice diameter. Without EGR, the particulate matter(PM) emission was lower with larger nozzle hole number. This result shows that the atomization of the fuel was improved with the smaller orifice diameter and the fuel spray area was kept same with larger nozzle number. However, the NOx-PM trade-offs of three injectors were similar at higher EGR rate and higher injection pressure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0698
Thomas Koerfer, Dean Tomazic, Werner Bick, Christoph Menne, Michael Franke
Abstract In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0696
Yu Zhang, Steven Sommers, Yuanjiang Pei, Praveen Kumar, Alexander Voice, Michael Traver, David Cleary
Abstract This research investigates the combustion characteristics and engine performance of a conventional non-ethanol gasoline with a research octane number of 91(RON 91) and a higher reactivity RON80 gasoline under mixing-controlled combustion. The work was conducted in a model year 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine. A split fuel injection strategy was developed to address the long ignition delay and high maximum pressure rise rate for the two gasoline fuels. Using the split fuel injection strategy, steady-state NOx sweeps were conducted at 1375 rpm with a load sweep from 5 to 15 bar BMEP. At 5 and 10 bar BMEP, both gasolines consistently exhibited lower soot levels than ULSD with the reduction more pronounced at 5 bar BMEP. 3-D CFD combustion simulation suggested that the higher volatility and lower viscosity of gasoline fuels can help improve the in-cylinder air utilization and therefore reduce the presence of fuel-rich regions in the combustion chamber.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 43643