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Viewing 61 to 90 of 43870
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0162
Harald Stoffels, Jens Dunstheimer, Christian Hofmann
The application of a turbocharger, having an electric motor/generator on the rotor was studied focusing on the electric energy recuperation on a downsized gasoline internal combustion engine, using 1D-calculation approaches. Using state-of-the art optimization techniques, the settings of the valve timing was optimized to cater for a targeted pre-turbine pressure and certain level of residual gases in the combustion chamber to avoid abnormal combustion events. Subsequently, a steady-state map of the potential of electric energy recuperation was performed while considering in parallel different efficiency maps of the potential generator and a certain wastegate actuation strategy. Moreover, the results were taken as input to a WLTP cycle simulation in order to identify any synergies with regard to fuel economy.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0163
Apostolos Pesiridis, Angelo Saccomanno, Raffaele Tuccillo, Alfredo Capobianco
The automotive industry is under increasing pressure to reduce emissions in order to comply with regulations emanating from the Kyoto Protocol, a universally acknowledged treaty aiming at reducing exhaust gas emissions. In order to achieve the required future emission reduction targets, further developments on gasoline engines are required. One of the principal technologies being implemented to achieve this goal is engine downsizing. Engine downsizing by definition requires some form of boosting and turbocharging is widely adopted as it is a cost effective method to achieve the downsizing an engine whilst reducing exhaust gas emissions, reducing fuel consumption and practically maintaining prior performance targets. For these reasons, turbocharging is becoming an increasingly popular technology with automotive engine manufacturers. Despite the wide spread of this technology, there are still drawbacks present in current turbocharging systems.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0164
Erik Svensson, Lianhao Yin, Per Tunestal, Marcus Thern, Martin Tuner
The engine concept Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has proved higher efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and spark ignition gasoline engines (SI). The relatively simple implementation of the concept is an advantage, however, high pumping losses has made its use challenging in multi-cylinder heavy duty (HD) engines. With high rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the charge and hence limit the combustion rate, the resulting exhaust temperatures are low. The selected boost system must therefore be efficient which could lead to large, complex and costly solutions. In the presented work experiments and modeling were combined to evaluate different turbocharger configurations for the PPC concept. Experiments were performed on a multi-cylinder Scania D13 engine. The engine was modified to incorporate long route EGR and a single stage turbocharger, however, with externally compressed air being optionally supplied to the compressor.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0167
Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Rinaldini, Tommaso Savioli, Giuseppe Cantore, Alok Warey, Michael Potter, Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Sandro Balestrino
A CFD study on a 2-stroke (2-S) opposed piston high speed direct injection (HSDI) Diesel engine is reported in this work. The engine main features (bore, stroke, port timings, et cetera) were defined in a previous stage of the project, with the support of CFD-1D engine simulations and empirical hypotheses. The current analysis is focused on the assembly made up of scavenge ports, manifold and cylinder. The first step of the study consisted in the construction of a parametric mesh on a simplified geometry. Two geometric parameters and 3 different operating conditions were considered. A CFD-3D simulation by using a customized version of the KIVA-4 code was performed on a set of 243 different cases, sweeping all the most interesting combinations of geometric parameters and operating conditions. The post-processing of this huge amount of data allowed us to define the most effective geometric configuration, named baseline.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0158
Teresa Castiglione, Giuseppe Franzè, Angelo Algieri, Pietropaolo Morrone, Sergio Bova
The paper shows how specific requirements of the cooling system of an ICE can be met by actuating the coolant flow rate independently of engine speed, by means of an electric pump and of an ad-hoc developed control system. Given that the proposed methodology is valid for each condition, in the present paper the focus is on the engine operating under fully warmed conditions, with the aim to keep the wall temperature into the prescribed limits, with the lowest possible coolant flow rates. This goal is achieved by properly defining the controller parameters. The developed controller is based on the Robust Model Predictive Control approach, which makes use of a lumped parameter model of the engine cooling system. The model also includes the radiator-thermostatic valve-fan block and incorporates the nucleate boiling heat transfer regime.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0160
Mario Marchetti, Riccardo Russo, Salvatore Strano, Mario Terzo
Magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) appear particularly functional for automatic clutch applications due to their capability of rapidly increasing their shear strength when subjected to a magnetic field, and being a viscous fluids when the magnetic field is turned off. They have been investigated since the late 1940s and are employed in different operating modes: in particular, the shear mode is adopted in clutches and brakes. In addition to the controllable property, they have the advantage, with respect to conventional clutches, of not requiring axial loading and the absence of wear. The activity described in this paper has been carried out in the framework of a funded project aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a controllable water pump based on an integrated MRF clutch.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0159
Davide Di Battista, Marco Di Bartolomeo, Carlo Villante, Roberto Cipollone
Internal combustion engines is actually one of the most important source of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions. In particular, on-the-road transportation sector has taken this environmental challenge and worldwide governments set up regulations in order to limit the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles. Among the several technologies under development, an ORC unit bottomed exhaust gas seems to be very promising, but it still has several complications when it is applied on board of a vehicle (weight, encumbrances, backpressure effect on the engine, safety, reliability). In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model of an ORC unit bottomed a heavy duty engine, used for commercial vehicle, has been developed. The model is completed with the sizing of the two exchangers involved in the ORC plant: the heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) and the condenser.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0161
Noboru Uchida, Hideaki Osada
It can’t be avoided reducing heat loss from in-cylinder wall for further improvement in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Especially for diesel engines, spray flame interference on the cavity and piston top wall during combustion period could be a major cause of the heat loss. To reduce heat transfer between hot gas and cavity wall, thin Zirconia layer (0.5mm) on the cavity surface of the forged steel piston was firstly formed by thermal spray coating aiming higher surface temperature swing precisely synchronized with flame temperature near the wall resulting in the reduction of temperature difference. However, no apparent difference in the heat loss was observed. On the contrary, BTE was deteriorated by the increase in other energy losses. To find out the reason why heat loss was not so improved, direct observation of flame impingement to the cavity wall was carried out with the top view visualization technique, for which one of the exhaust valves was modified to a sapphire window.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0157
Wolfgang Gross, Ahmad Rabanizada, Konstantin Markstädter, Harald Stoffels, Michael Bargende, Adrian Rienäcker
High combustion pressure in combination with high pressure gradient, as they e.g. can be evoked by high efficient combustion systems and e.g. by alternative fuels, acts as broadband excitation force which stimulates natural vibrations of piston, conrod and crankshaft during engine operation. Starting from the combustion chamber the assembly of piston, conrod and crankshaft and the main bearings represent the system of internal vibration transfer. To generate exact input and validation values for simulation models of structural dynamic and elastohydrodynamic coupled multi-body systems, experimental investigations are done. These are carried out on a 1.5-l inline four cylinder Euro 6 Diesel engine. The modal behavior of the system was examined in detail in simulation and test as a basis for the investigations. In an anechoic test bench combustion pressure, airborne and structure-borne noises are measured to identify the engine´s vibrational behaviour.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0156
Minh Khoi Le, Srinivas Padala, Atsushi Nishiyama, Yuji Ikeda
The Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI) was developed to create microwave plasma for the improvement of ignition inside combustion engines. The MDI plasma discharge is generated using the principle of microwave resonance with microwave (MW) originating from a 2.45 GHz semiconductor oscillator; it is then further enhanced and sustained using MW from the same source. The flexibility in the control of semiconductors allows multiple variations of MW parameters for MDI, which in turn, affects the resonating plasma characteristics and subsequently the combustion performance. In this study, a wide range of different controlling parameters of MDI and MW signal were selected for a parametric study of the generated Microwave Plasma. Schlieren imaging of the MDI-ignited propane flame were carried out to assess the impact on combustion quality of different MW parameters combinations.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0155
Marc Sens, Michael Guenther, Matthias Hunger, Jan Mueller, Sascha Nicklitzsch, Ulrich Walther, Steffen Zwahr
The combination of geometrically variable compression (VCR) and early intake valve closure (EIVC) proved to offer high potential for increasing efficiency of gasoline engines. While early intake valve closure reduces pumping losses, it is detrimental to combustion quality and residual gas tolerance due to a loss of temperature and turbulence. Large geometric compression ratio at part load compensates for the negative temperature effect of EIVC with further improving efficiency. By optimizing the stroke/bore ratio, the reduction in valve cross section at part load can result in greater charge motion and therefore in turbulence. Turbocharging means the basis to enable an increase in stroke/bore ratio, because the drawbacks at full load resulting from smaller valves can be only compensated by additional charge pressure.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0154
Ruud Eichhorn, Michael Boot, David Smeulders, Michel Cuijpers
The Free Space Parameter (FSP) is evaluated as a predictor for the efficiency of a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT). Experiments show an optimum value at 2 times the vane height. However, the optimum was found to be dependent on the pressure ratio, yielding an optimum closer to 2.5 at pressures of 2 and 2.5 bar. After this validation the FSP of a conventional VGT is evaluated and an attempt is made to improve the efficiency of this turbine using the FSP. A new geometry is proposed which yields more favorable FSP values. Experiments show that at the original design point the efficiency is unchanged. However, at both larger and smaller nozzle area’s the turbine efficiency improves as predicted by the FSP values. A relative efficiency improvement of 3 to 28 % is attained.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0153
Sergey Shcherbanev, Alexandre De Martino, Andrey Khomenko, Svetlana Starikovskaia, Srinivas Padala, Yuji Ikeda
Requirements for reducing consumption of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as reducing emissions force the scientific community to develop new ignition systems. One of possible solutions is an extension of the lean ignition limit of stable combustion. With the decrease of the stoichiometry of combustible mixture the minimal size of the ignition kernel (necessary for development of combustion) increases. Therefore, it is necessary to use some special techniques to extend the ignition kernel region. Pulsed microwave discharge allows the formation of the ignition kernels of larger diameters. Although the microwave discharge igniter (MDI) was already tested for initiation of combustion and demonstrated quite promising results, the parameters of plasma was not yet studied before. Present work demonstrates the results of the dynamics of spatial structure of the MDI plasma with nanosecond time resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0152
Mirko Baratta, Daniela Misul, Jiajie Xu, Alois Fuerhapter, Rene Heindl, Cesare Peletto, Jean Preuhs, Patrick Salemi
The present paper is the outcome of the research activity carried out by Centro Ricerche Fiat, Politecnico di Torino, Delphi and AVL within the Gason research project of the EC (H2020 program). The overall goal of the research project is to develop CNG-only SI engines which are able to comply with post-EuroVI emission regulations and 2020+ CO2 emission targets, with reference to the new homologation cycle and real driving conditions. The work presented in this paper aimed at developing a small displacement turbocharged engine, which combines the advanced VVA MultiAir system for the air metering with the direct injection of natural gas. The activity focused on the development and fluid-dynamic characterization of the gaseous-fuel injector. Moreover, the combined use of CFD analysis and optical-access PLIF experimental techniques allowed the design of the combustion chamber to be optimized from the mixture formation point of view.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0151
Matteo De Cesare, Nicolo Cavina, Luigi Paiano
New gasoline engine design is highly influenced by CO2 and emission limits defined by legislations, the demand for real-conditions fuel economy, higher torque, higher specific power and lower costs. Downsizing concepts, including turbocharging in combination with direct injection, have contributed significantly to the recent improvement of gasoline engines. However, other technologies are under evaluation to allow further steps of enhancement for the even more challenging requirements. The main issues of gasoline engines in terms of efficiency and performance are knocking, part-load losses, and thermal stress at high power conditions. This work presents a comparison at concept level between the main technologies that are currently being developed, considering not only the technical benefits, but also their cost-effectiveness.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0150
Srinivas Padala, Minh Khoi Le, Atsushi Nishiyama, Yuji Ikeda
Recent trend in gasoline-powered automobiles focuses heavily on reducing the CO2 emissions and improving fuel efficiency. Part of the solutions involve changes in combustion chamber geometry to allow for higher turbulence, higher compression ratio which can greatly improve efficiencies. However, the changes are limited by the ignition-source and its location constraint, especially in the case of direct injection SI engines where mixture stratification is important. A new compact microwave plasma igniter based on the principle of microwave resonance was developed and tested for propane combustion inside a constant volume chamber. The igniter is constructed from a thin ceramic panel with metal inlay tuned to the corresponding resonance frequency. The discharge is initiated by microwave coming from an antenna that was connected to a semiconductor microwave oscillator.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0149
Fabian Hoppe, Matthias Thewes, Joerg Seibel, Andreas Balazs, Johannes Scharf
Gasoline engine powertrain development for 2025 and beyond is focusing on finding cost optimal solutions by balancing electrification and combustion engine efficiency measures. Besides Miller cycle application, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and variable compression ratio, the injection of water has recently gained increased attention as a promising technology for significant CO2 reduction. This paper gives deep insight into the fuel consumption reduction potential of direct water injection. Single cylinder investigations were performed in order to investigate the influence of water injection in the entire engine map. In addition, different engine configurations were tested to evaluate the influence of the altering compression ratios and Miller timings on the fuel consumption reduction potential with water injection.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0148
Srinivas Padala, Shashank Nagaraja, Yuji Ikeda, Minh Khoi Le
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proven to be very beneficial for fuel economy improvement as well as knock and emissions reduction. Combining with lean burning, it can help modern gasoline engines to become cleaner, more efficient and meeting the stringent emissions limit. However, there is a practical limit for lean mixture and EGR percentage for current engine due to many constraints, one of which being the ignition source. The Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI), which generates, enhances and sustains plasma discharge using microwave (MW) resonance was tested to assess its ability in extending these limits. A combination of high-speed Schlieren imaging and pressure measurements were performed for propane-air mixture combustion inside a constant volume chamber to compare the dilution and lean limit between MDI and traditional spark plug. Nitrogen addition was carried out during mixture preparation to simulate the dilution condition of EGR.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0147
Marco Chiodi, Andreas Kaechele, Michael Bargende, Donatus Wichelhaus, Christian Poetsch
In the competition for the powertrain of the future the internal combustion engine faces tough challenges. Reduced environmental impact, higher mileage, low cost and new technologies are required to maintain its global position in public and private mobility. For decades researchers have been investigating the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) promising higher efficiency due to the rapid combustion and therefore low exhaust gas temperatures. Consequently there is no need for a rich mixture to cool the turbocharger under high load. As the combustion does not have a distinguished flame front it is able to burn very lean mixtures, reducing HC and CO emissions. However, until recently, HCCI was considered to be only applicable as a part load process. The 3D engine development tool QuickSim which has been developed at the FKFS in Stuttgart is able to simulate the entire flow path of the engine, including conventional and HCCI combustion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0146
Vincent Raimbault, Jerome Migaud, David Chalet, Michael Bargende, Emmanuel Revol, Quentin Montaigne
Upcoming regulations and new technologies are challenging the internal combustion engine and increase the pressure on car manufacturers to further reduce powertrain emissions. Indeed, RDE pushes engineering to keep low emissions not only at the bottom left of the engine map but in the complete range of load and engine speeds. This means for gasoline engines that the strategy used to increase the low end torque and power while moving out of lambda one conditions is no longer sustainable. For instance scavenging, which helps to increase the enthalpy at the turbine at low engine speed cannot be applied and thus leads to a reduction in low-end torque. Similarly, enrichment to keep the exhaust temperature sustainable in the exhaust tract components cannot be applied any more. The proposed study aims to provide a solution to keep the low end torque while maintaining lambda at 1. The tuning of the air intake system helps to improve the volumetric efficiency using resonance charging effects.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0144
Carlo Beatrice, Maria Antonietta Costagliola, Chiara Guido, Pierpaolo Napolitano, Maria Vittoria Prati
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most effective emission control device for reducing particle emissions (both in mass, PM, and number, PN) from diesel engines, however many studies have reported elevated emissions of nanoparticles (<50 nm) during its regeneration. In this paper the results of an extensive literature search are presented (about 150 reports and scientific papers). During DPF active regeneration most of the literature studies show an increase in the number of the emitted nanoparticles of about 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the normal operating conditions. Many factors can influence their amount, size distribution, chemical-physical nature (volatiles, semi-volatiles, solid) and the duration of the regenerative event: i.e. DPF load and thermodynamic conditions, lube and fuel sulfur content, engine operative conditions, PN sampling and measurement methodologies.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0143
Sathaporn Chuepeng, Kampanart Theinnoi, Manida Tongroon
The combustion in reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) mode of diesel engine have been gained more attention as one among other strategies to increase operating range for premixed combustion and to improve fuel economy. A low reactivity fuel such as high octane number fuel, alcohol blends for example, is early fumigated (or injected) and premixed with air prior to induction to the combustion chamber. Later on adjacent to the end of the compression stroke, the diesel fuel as a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the homogeneous pre-mixture and ignited. This can also promote lower nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. The main aim of this work is to characterize the combustion phenomena and particulate matter in nano-size from the RCCI engine using neat hydrous ethanol as the low reactivity fuel.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0141
Riccardo Amirante, Elia Distaso, Silvana Di Iorio, Davide Pettinicchio, Paolo Sementa, Paolo Tamburrano, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
It is common knowledge that of all the regulated automotive emissions, particulate emissions are most difficult to quantify as they comprise a complex mixture of particles of varying size and composition, each of which may be influenced by many external factors including engine technology, fuel composition, air-to-fuel ratio, lubricant oil, after-treatment and the act of measurement itself. The aim of the present work is to provide further guidance into better understanding the production mechanisms of such emissions in spark-ignition engines fueled with compressed natural gas. In particular, extensive experimental investigations were designed with the aim to isolate the contribution of the fuel from that of lubricant oil to particle emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0139
Francesco Barba, Alberto Vassallo, Vincenzo Greco
The aim of the present study is to improve the effectiveness of the engine and aftertreatment calibration process through the critical evaluation of several methodologies available to estimate the soot mass flow produced by diesel engines and filtered by Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). In particular, the focus of the present study has been the development of a reliable simulation method for the accurate prediction of the engine-out soot mass flow starting from Filter Smoke Number (FSN) measurements executed in steady state conditions, in order to predict the DPF loading considering different engine working conditions corresponding to NEDC and WLTP cycles. In order to achieve this goal, the study was split into two parts: - Correlation between ‘wet soot’ (measured by soot filter weighing) and the ‘dry soot’ (measured by the Micro Soot Sensor MSS).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0137
Zhen Zhang, Luigi del Re, Richard Fuerhapter
During transients, engines tend to produce substantially higher peak emissions which are the longer the more important as the steady state emissions are better controller. To this end, they must be measurable in an adequate time scale. While for most emissions there are commercially available sensors of sufficient speed and performance, the same is not true for soot, especially for production engines. Against this background, in the last years we have investigated together with a supplier of measurement systems the possible use of a 50Hz sensor based on LII and of the same size of a standard oxygen probe, and the results were very positive, showing that the sensor could recognize transient changes undetected by conventional measurement systems (like AVL Opacimenter or Microsoot) but confirmed e.g. by incylinder 2 color spectroscopy. The higher speed is also due to the position, as the sensor can be mounted above or below the turbine in a turbocharged CI engine.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0135
Shuxia Miao, Lin Luo, Yan Liu, Zhangsong Zhan
New emissions regulations of light-duty vehicles (China 6) will be implemented in China from July 1, 2020. This standard includes two stages, China 6a and China 6b, in which the PM limits of 4.5 mg/km and 3.0 mg/km are introduced respectively, the PN limit is set to be 6×10e11 #/km for both stages. The WLTC testing cycle will be implemented in China 6 regulation as well. In this study a light-duty vehicle satisfying China 6(b) emission standards was developed by improving the engine raw emissions, optimizing the calibration and adding a coated GPF to the after-treatment system. The impacts of ash content and consumption of engine oil and the fast ash accumulation to vehicle emissions and backpressure were analyzed through dynamometer testing. The vehicle after-treatment system was then designed and developed to meet China 6(b) emission standards. The characteristics of soot accumulated through mimicking routine driving under cold environments were tested.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0132
Martin Großbichler, Zhen Zhang, Philipp Polterauer, Harald Waschl
To meet current legislation limits, modern diesel engines already achieve very low raw emission levels and utilize additional components for aftertreatment. However, during fast transients still undesired emission peaks can occur for both soot and NOx. These are caused by differences in the in-cylinder conditions between the quasi steady state engine calibration and the transient engine operation, e.g. during tip-ins. These effects become more and more important in view of future RDE emission test cycles. In this work a case study is performed to analyze the potential reduction of transient soot emissions during a specified engine maneuver. An additional target is to investigate potential benefits of a novel in-situ soot sensor based on the Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) principle which offers a high temporal resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0130
Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Marco Benegiamo, Sergio Camporeale, Daniela Ingrosso
Nowadays, In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors (ICPS) have become a mainstream technology that promises to change the way the engine control is performed. Among all the possible applications, the prediction of raw (engine-out) NOx emissions would allow to eliminate the NOx sensor currently used to manage the after-treatment systems. In the current study, a semi-physical model already existing in literature for the prediction of engine-out nitric ox-ide emissions based on in-cylinder pressure measurement has been improved; in particular, the main focus has been to improve nitric oxide prediction accuracy when injection timing is varied. The main modification introduced in the model lies in taking into account the turbu-lence induced by fuel spray and enhanced by in-cylinder bulk motion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0131
Sergio Mario Camporeale, Patrizia D. Ciliberti, Antonio Carlucci, Daniela Ingrosso
The incoming PostEuro6 regulation and the on-board diagnostics -OBD- pushes the research activity towards the set-up of even more efficient after treatment systems. Nowadays, the most common after treatment system for NOx reduction is the selective catalytic reactor –SCR- . This system requires as an input the value of engine out NOx emission –raw- in order to control the Urea dosing strategy. In this work, a grey box NOx raw emission model based on in-cylinder pressure signal (ICPS) is validated on two standard cycles: MNEDC and WLTC using an EU6 engine at the test bench. The overall results show a maximum relative error of the integrated cumulate value integral of 12.8% and 17.4% for MNEDC and WLTC respectively. In particular, the instantaneous value of relative error is included in the range of ± 10% in the steady state conditions while during transient conditions is less than 20% mainly.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0128
Lauretta Rubino, Jan Piotr Oles, Antonino La Rocca
Environmental authorities such as EPA, VCA have enforced stringent emissions legislation governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere. Of particular interest is the challenges introduced by the limit on particulate number (PN) counting (#/km) and real driving emissions (RDE) testing; with the Euro 6c emissions legislation being shortly introduced for the gasoline direct injection engines. Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered to be the most immediate solution. While engine calibration and testing over the NEDC allows the limits to be met, real driving emission and cold start represent a challenge. The present work focuses on an experimental durability study on road under real word driving conditions. Two set of experiments were carried out. The first study analyzed a Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) (2,4 liter, diameter 5,2” round) installed in underfloor (UF) position driven for up to 200.000 km.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 43870