Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 44243
2017-12-06
Technical Paper
2017-01-5100
Thorsten Langhorst, Olaf Toedter, Thomas Koch, Patrick Gonner, Matthew Borst, Richard Morton
Abstract Particulates and nitrogen oxides comprise the main emission components of the Diesel combustion and therefore are subject to exhaust emission legislation in respective applications. Yet, with ever more stringent emission standards and test-procedures, such as in passenger vehicle applications, resulting exhaust gas after-treatment systems are quite complex and costly. Hence, new technologies for emission control have to be explored. The application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) as a means to perform exhaust gas after-treatment is one such promising technology. In several publications dealing with NTP exhaust gas after-treatment the plasma state was generated via dielectric barrier discharges. Another way to generate a NTP is by a corona high-frequency discharge. Hence, in contrast to earlier publications, the experiments in this publication were conducted on an operated series-production Diesel engine with an industrial pilottype corona ignition system.
2017-11-27
Technical Paper
2017-01-5022
Sebastian Zirngibl, Stefan Held, Maximilian Prager, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract In order to fulfill future exhaust emission regulations, the variety of subsystems of internal combustion engines is progressively investigated and optimized in detail. The present article mainly focuses on studies of the flow field and the resulting discharge coefficients of the intake and exhaust valves and ports. In particular, the valves and ports influence the required work for the gas exchange process, as well as the cylinder charge and consequently highly impact the engine’s performance. For the evaluation of discharge coefficients of a modern combustion engine, a stationary flow test bench has been set up at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines (LVK) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The setup is connected to the test bench’s charge air system, allowing the adjustment and control of the system pressure, as well as the pressure difference across the particular gas exchange valve.
2017-11-27
Technical Paper
2017-01-7011
Sandip Phapale, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav
Abstract Indian automotive market has grown extremely competitive in the recent past. In order to meet the ever growing expectations of the customers, automobile manufacturers are compelled to offer their products under superior quality with supreme comfort. Customers wish of high levels of tactile comfort in the cabin compartment and effortless operation of peripherals will result in negligible fatigue and a pleasant drive, needs to be duly fulfilled. One has to focus more on Gear shift lever and Steering wheel, which are being the most sensitive tactile points in an automobile. The gear shift lever knob is frequently used and significantly influences the perception of the shift comfort for a driver during actual vehicle application.
2017-11-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-5020
Mark Stuhldreher, Youngki Kim, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba
Abstract As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
2017-11-15
Journal Article
2017-32-0119
Akira Iijima, Takuya Izako, Takahiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Yamashita, Shuhei Takahata, Hiroki Kudo, Kento Shimizu, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Hideo Shoji
Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
2017-11-15
Journal Article
2017-32-0120
Go Asai, Yusuke Watanabe, Shuntaro Ishiguro, Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Yoshimitsu Kobashi
To extend the operational range of premixed diesel combustion, fuel reformation by piston induced compression of rich homogeneous air-fuel mixtures was conducted in this study. Reformed gas compositions and chemical processes were first simulated with the chemistry dynamics simulation, CHEMKIN Pro, by changing the intake oxygen content, intake air temperature, and compression ratio. A single cylinder diesel engine was utilized to verify the simulation results. With the simulation and experiments, the characteristics of the reformed gas with respect to the reformer cylinder operating condition were obtained. Further, the thermal decomposition and partial oxidation reaction mechanisms of the fuel in extremely low oxygen concentrations were obtained with the characteristics of the gas production at the various reaction temperatures.
2017-11-13
Tech Insights
TI-0002
While all-electric aircraft remain at the bleeding edge of the aviation industry, incorporating technologies like proton exchange membrane fuel cells into existing aircraft can result in considerable auxiliary capability with low environmental impact. However, proper consideration must be given to supporting systems to achieve a reliable balance of plant-especially when those systems interface with existing aircraft architectures. The scope of the BoP is to manage and condition the reactant flows to and from the fuel-cell module and to provide power to system components.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0084
Ricardo Gonçalves, Fabio Ferraz
Abstract Currently in Brazilian market we have application of two different fuels in large scale, gasoline with addition of 27% of hydrous ethanol, otherwise known as ethyl alcohol or alcohol and pure hydrous ethanol. These different fuels and their various blends combinations - from 27% (E27) to 100% (E100) of ethanol - make the gases from combustion have different physical characteristics, affecting directly the exhaust system acoustic performance. This study is going to describe the physical differences of the exhaust gases with various blends combination and their respective impact on the exhaust system acoustic performances.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0082
R.B. Obara, L.C. Guedes
Abstract Internet has transformed all industries and the automotive sector is on its list. It is true that manufacturing has experienced great advances in recent years, but the massive use of internet in industry is about to revolutionize it once again. The Internet of Things (IoT), the Big Data Analytics and the use of RFID technology will revolutionize manufacturing, giving to the so called “smart factories” the ability for self-diagnosis, self-configuration and self-optimization. That is what we call Industry 4.0, or the fourth industrial revolution. However, how will Industry 4.0 affect automakers and end users of vehicles? What are the challenges to bring Industry 4.0 innovations to the manufacturing industry? The present work discusses future trends in engine manufacturing, focusing on the quality control of its main components. Also, a fully automated inspection technique for quality control of cylinder bores from internal combustion engines is presented.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0150
Marco Gabaldo, Otávio Rodrigues Barros, Jose Eduardo Mautone Barros
Abstract This study analyzes the design of a two-stage reusable satellite launch vehicle. This launcher was designed to orbit payloads of up to 500 kg to low orbits (LEO). Two RISCRAM™ jet engines (Rocket Ignited Supersonic Combustion Ramjet) power the first stage that is fully reusable. They aspirate atmospheric air and allows speeds of up to Mach 6, below 30 km, and Mach 15 above 40 km of altitude. The second stage is powered by a solid rocket motor that carries the payload at the orbital speed of Mach 24. In this work are presented details of the concept of the vehicle and an economic feasibility analysis of system operation. Launch cost estimative are made and compared to the values of the current satellite launchers that are not reusable. The conclusion of the article is that the proposed system would be able to reduce by an order of magnitude the cost of placing the kilogram of payload in low orbit.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0147
Clayton B. Zabeu, Luana C. X. Camargos, Luiz Rafael Marinsek, Rafael C. R. Berti, Renan L. Nicola, Rafael Serralvo Neto
Abstract The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the automotive sector has demanded an increase in the efficiency of internal combustion engines as well as the use of renewable fuels, with ethanol being one of the most promising fuels. In SI PFI engines, the quality of the air-fuel mixture formed during the injection event is dependent on several factors, such as: physical-chemical properties of the fuel (density, viscosity, surface tension, latent heat of vaporization), interaction between fuel spray and gas flow / pipe walls / back surfaces the intake valves.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0129
Alexandre R. Pinho, Demetrio Vettorazzo Neto, George Ballardie, Rafael Coelho Martinez
Abstract This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks. Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified. Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage. A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0139
Juliano Afonso Tessaro, Allan Raul Silva, Leandro Brasil Araujo, Renan Oliveira Sardim
Abstract Due to the introduction of PROCONVE MAR-I emission regulation, the Brazilian automotive industry developed Diesel engines to comply with this legislation demanding new components to automotive supplier base. However, at the same time this industrial sector was facing a difficult financial situation caused mainly by the crisis that impacted Brazil in last years. In 2015, around 27 local suppliers filed for bankruptcy affecting the whole Automotive Supply Chain. This scenario already represents a problem for current products established in market, but it represents a major challenge for new launches. This paper will discuss how MWM Motores Diesel made sourcing decisions and manage to develop components and suppliers in this harsh scenario, also looking for the supplier base optimization.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0382
Caroline Goulart Campos, André Noronha de Oliveira, Alejandro Oscar Peralta, Ricardo Teixeira da Costa Neto, Aldélio Bueno Caldeira
Abstract In this work, an inverse problem approach is employed to estimate the suspension parameters of a light vehicle based on field tests. The modeling process of a rear-wheel drive (RWD) vehicle is depicted. The model considers only the vertical dynamics of the vehicle. The experimental data were measured by sensors installed on the vehicle during specific road tests in a proving ground. The inverse problem is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), minimizing the quadratic error between experimental data and numerical results of the vehicle simulation. Accuracy, computational time, efficiency and efficacy of the model were compared regarding the behavior of the performance responses of the vehicle measured on the road tests. Throughout this process, the vehicle model was validated to be used in future studies of vehicle dynamics.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0384
Alejandro Oscar Peralta, André Noronha de Oliveira, Caroline Goulart Campos, Ricardo Teixeira da Costa Neto, Aldélio Bueno Caldeira
Abstract The ride comfort study has become increasingly important in vehicle designs. This paper analyzes the ride comfort of an all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicle on different types of pavements. The modeling process of an AWD vehicle is presented at this work, as well as a brief discussion of the international standards on evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). Numerical simulations of the vertical vehicle dynamics, considering ride quality, are performed in different types of pavements. Accuracy, efficiency and efficacy in all cases are compared to the limits set by international standards for whole-body vibration. Throughout this process, the performance of a light vehicle suspension system is validated within the established limits.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0388
Fernanda Pinheiro Martins, Santiago Daniel Martinez Boggio, Pedro Texeira Lacava, Claudia Regina de Andrade, Alexander Penaranda, Maycon Ferreira Silva, Maria Esther Sbampato
Abstract In the last few decades a significant effort has been stablished in the automotive industry as well as in academic community towards increasing the renewable fuels applications in internal combustion engines, such as alcohol and gas derived sources. Meanwhile, turbo charging direct-injection spark-ignition engines have become fundamental features to achieve downsizing purposes, increasing power generation efficiency and attending high restrictive emissions regulations that have being taking place recently. For this study, experimental tests were carried out in a single cylinder research engine considering direct injection (DI) and port fuel injection (PFI) operations with anhydrous ethanol. The aim of this paper is to present a review and conduct further investigation about methodologies applied for imaging post processing considering chemiluminescence technique applied in an optical research engine.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0394
T. A. A. Moreira, T. S. Ferreira, A. J. M. Gurgel, W. N. Silva, F. A. Rodrigues Filho, J. G. C. Baeta
Abstract The automobile industry and its growing commitment to the environment have collaborated in the development of technologies to reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants, including hydrocarbons. Recent works are aimed at the development of the torch ignition in internal combustion engines of the Otto cycle. A prototype characterized by a torch ignition system with fixed geometry of pre-chamber per cylinder, with a volume of 3.66 cm3 and a single nozzle with a diameter of 6.00 mm, fed with homogeneous mixture originating from Combustion chamber. The ignition and injection system was controlled by a reprogrammable electronic management system. The main results were an increase of around 10% in thermal efficiency and reductions of up to 91% in carbon monoxide emissions, but there was a considerable increase in total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0398
Luiz Guilherme de Oliveira e Caldeira, Bruno Cesar Pockszevnicki, Geisiel Moreira de Assis, Daniella Fernanda dos Santos Magalhães
Abstract Aiming the decrease of manufacturing costs, the automotive industry uses Computational Aided Engineering (CAE) and prototype testing for product development. In the field of simulation CAE could be performed using FEA (finite element analysis) or CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic), the last one is the analysis of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated phenomena such as chemical reactions by means of computer-based simulation. One of the most important components of cooling system is a water pump which is evaluated through the fluid dynamic analysis. Therefore, this work aims to analyze the fluid flow inside an automotive water pump considering a three-dimensional steady-state using CFD, but also developing a methodology to evaluate it. The parameters of the analysis and the volumetric mesh were according to the simulated results approached the experimental results.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0403
Daniel Mousinho Lago, Fábio César Miranda de Oliveira, Manoel Fernandes de Oliveira Filho, João Telésforo Nóbrega de Medeiros
Abstract A challenge of the maintenance engineering is to detect future failures and the wear in machine components without interrupting its operation. Doing it in a cheap and simple way is even more challenging. With this purpose, the present study collected the debris expelled in the exhaust pipe of an engine through an innovative device built in the Tribology Study Group of UFRN. It was tested a 5 HP stationary diesel engine working under constant load over 150 hours (non-continuous). The morphology and chemicals compounds of the debris collected by the device were analyzed using Scanning Electrons Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. After the 150 hours of testing, the engine was disassembled and visually inspected. Photos were taken to identify the wear mechanisms present on the piston skirt, piston head, cylinder head and valves. After that, was made a correlation between the collected debris and the wear mechanisms observed in the piston.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0406
Lucas F. Berto, André L. F. Ferreira, Alvaro C. Michelotti, Pedro P. Pastorelli
Abstract In current Internal Combustion Engines (ICE), efforts have been employed in reducing emissions and fuel consumption. One of the alternatives is the reduction of the idling speed of the engines. However, such strategy involves great challenges from the aspect of torsional vibrations in the Front-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) system. Because it is coupled to the largest inertia of the FEAD assembly, the alternator pulley should provide a good vibration attenuation capability. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the development of an automotive component that employs two distinct types of springs: a clutch spring and a torsion spring. These elements are required in alternator pulleys to reduce torsional vibration generated by the crankshaft fluctuation and to avoid damage or durability issue with other components of the FEAD system.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0407
Pedro P. Pastorelli, Alvaro C. Michelotti, André L. F. Ferreira, Lucas F. Berto
Abstract Among the alternatives for solving NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) problems in automobiles, the alternator pulley has become one of the most promising alternatives in the Frond-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) of modern engines. The rigid pulley has evolved from a simple device whose only function is torque transmission to a system with much more complex functions. At this higher level of complexity, many innovative designs have been created, such as pulleys with overrunning function and pulleys with both One-Way Clutch (OWC) and vibration dampening functions, which are devices that require a high level of study in order to guarantee an adequate design of the system for each new application. This paper presents the steps taken in dimensioning two distinct types of springs: a clutch spring and a torsion spring, to be applied in alternator pulleys with OWC and vibration dampening systems.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0427
André N. Aronis, Vitor V. Cogo, Mackilini Dalla Nora, Mario E. S. Martins, Felipe V. Lewiski
Abstract Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have their use highly disseminated in the most diverse operations. Exhaust gaseous emissions and fuel consumption have been on the scope for decades and therefore the necessity for research on more efficient and lower exhaust emission engines has increased. Considering the cost of equipment and software to develop ICE, the use of computational models is a key strategy to evaluate the behavior of the powertrain/vehicle and lower the instrumentation cost. In this sense, the present work shows the development of an algorithm to obtain a high-resolution crank angle (CA) position of an engine by means of a toothed wheel instead of a high-resolution incremental or absolute encoder. As a result, it enabled the analysis of performance and combustion parameters based on in-cylinder pressure signals acquired through a piezoelectric pressure transducer and the angular position of the crank train referenced by a Hall Effect sensor.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0415
Antônio Adalberto Cavalcante M Filho, Iago Henrique Lima Santiago, João Telésforo Nóbrega de Medeiros, Manoel Fernandes de Oliveira Filho
Abstract The atomization process in a Diesel engine is directly involved with its efficiency, emissions and damage. The biodiesel insertion brought with it interactions not expected by the components involved in the injection process and, consequently, different wear mechanisms. This paper aims to evaluate the injector nozzle hole wear and the consequences to the atomized jet profile by using a high-speed camera. The tests were run in a common rail test rig using two injectors, one to each biodiesel formulation during the period of 20 hours, non-continuous, for each one The injection parameters were set to 800 bar, 700 μs and 18 Hz (representing partial load in a usual common rail engine), for the pressure, time and frequency of injection, respectively.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0247
Fernando de Oliveira Junior, Isaac Gentini, Fernando Lepsch, Alex Siegle, Guilherme Torres Ferreira
Abstract The first generation of heated cold start systems for flex fuel vehicles in Brazil were launched in 2009 and have solved most of the issues around the former gasoline sub-tank concept. This new technological approach focused on concerns like the user experience by having the need to fulfill the sub-tank, on complains related to possible old gasoline left inside, in the complexity of the electro mechanic nozzles and other possible improvements. Some years later, the second generation expanded the initial cold start application to a mature drivability enhancement and further possibility of usage as a support for emission reduction. A leaner electronic control and heat sink concept also represented an alternative to the first generation, and an engineered plastic fuel rail replaced the first metallic concept, which was an option to the initial concerns about the combination of high temperatures and fuel.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0250
T. A. A. Moreira, G. S. Paiva, O. A. Anjos, T. S. Ferreira, F. A. Rodrigues Filho, R. M. Valle
Abstract Global trends in the development of spark ignition internal combustion engines lead to the adoption of solutions that reduce CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Downsizing is a well-established path for this reduction, but it is necessary to use other technologies in order to achieve these ever more rigorous levels. A homogeneous torch ignition system is a viable alternative for reducing CO2 emissions with a combined reduction in specific fuel consumption and increased thermal efficiency. Thus a prototype adapted from an Otto engine with four cylinders is used for analysis. The performance and CO2 emission reference data were initially obtained with the baseline engine operating with a stoichiometric mixture. Then for the same conditions of BMEP, angular velocity and gradual lean of the mixture from the stoichiometry, the results of the adapted system are obtained.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0259
Thiago R. V. Silva, José G. C. Baeta, Nilton A. D. Neto, Augusto C. T. Malaquias, Matheus G. F. Carvalho, Fernando R. Filho
Abstract The current energy and climate world condition presents the need for development of increasingly efficient and sustainable internal combustion engines. In order to meet these requirements, environmental regulatory agencies establish long-term goals of fuel consumption and pollutant gases emissions reduction, which in turn lead the engines to a constant evolution. Thus, this work exploits some recent technologies that tend to minimize the environmental impact of the world’s extensive automotive fleet. Among them, direct injection systems, especially with the use of biofuels, such as ethanol, allow the engine to operate under lean stratified conditions through split-injection. This strategy consists to split several times the fuel injection phase, so that an injection portion can be performed at the intake stroke and the other injection portion at the compression stroke.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0266
Thiago R. V. Silva, José G. C. Baeta, Nilton A. D. Neto, Augusto C. T. Malaquias, Matheus G. F. Carvalho, Fernando R. Filho
Abstract The abnormal combustion, such as pre-ignition and knock, are deviations from the controlled combustion process under certain operating conditions, which can result in performance losses and possible damage to the engine. In the SI engines, a pre-ignition event can take place when the flame front is started by any hot spot into the combustion chamber before ignition by the spark plug. The objective of this work is to investigate the use of the Stratified Combustion for Pre-Ignition Suppression (SCPIS) in order to reduce this undesirable phenomenon, especially under high load operating conditions. The results were obtained through dynamometric tests on a downsized ethanol SIDI engine, and considered satisfactory in terms of maximizing the fuel conversion efficiency.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0264
Thiago R. V. Silva, José G. C. Baeta, Nilton A. D. Neto, Augusto C. T. Malaquias, Matheus G. F. Carvalho, Fernando R. Filho
Abstract The downsized ethanol Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) engine has proven to be one of the most promising concepts to reduce both the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. In addition to this engine concept, the use of Fully Variable Camshaft Timing (FVCT) can provide the Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (I-EGR) into the combustion chamber. The Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (Cooled - EGR) technique, has been adopted in order to reduce the NOx formation rate. However, through the FVCT system, acceptable levels of charge dilution by I-EGR can be achieved resulting in less fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. In this paper, the I-EGR technique has been investigated by carrying out an experimental analysis of a downsized ethanol SIDI engine running on boosted and unboosted conditions. The results at part load operation present a gain on fuel conversion efficiency due to the I-EGR dilution and the use of de-throttling technique.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0272
Victor Hugo de Castro Lima, Carlos Alberto Gomes Júnior, Márcio Expedito Guzzo, Thiago Rodrigo Vieira da Silva, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta, Fernando Antonio Rodrigues Filho
Abstract The growing demand for more efficient and less polluting engines has lead the scientific community to further develop the road map engine technologies, including direct fuel injection. Direct injection research demands the investigation of spray formation and its characteristics. The present work performs the characterization of the macroscopic parameters of ethanol sprays (E100) produced with a fuel gauge pressure of 80 bar and gauge back pressures of 0, 5 and 10 bar. The sprays analysis was performed using high speed filming by means of Shadowgraph technique. Computational routines of matrix analysis were applied to measure the spray cone angles, penetration and penetration rate. The spray visualization demanded an experimental apparatus composed of a pressurized cylinder with nitrogen, a fuel tank as pressure vessel, an injection driver equipped with a peak and hold module controlled by a MoteC M84, a Phantom V7.3 high speed camera and LEDs for illumination.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0285
Gabriel Dalmolin, Euler Cássio Tavares de Macedo, Marcelo Geisler de Brito Lira, Nady Rocha
This paper presents the simulation of an electrical traction system using an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) motor using the MATLAB® computational environment. It was developed the analytical model of the entire traction system which consists of a voltage inverter, a AFPM motor, a Field Oriented Control (FOC) control system with a torque reference and the dynamic system of the vehicle. For the simulation, it was considered two distinct scenarios,i.e. a horizontal plane with no inclination and an inclined plane in a way to allow the complete system dynamic comparison. The variables of interest are the electromagnetic torque, the currents in the machine’s terminals and the final vehicle speed, which proved the estimated dynamics.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 44243