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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0392
Dae-Un Sung, James Busfield, Yong Hyun Ryu
The vehicle elastomeric components such as engine mounts are aged and degraded by environmental loads during long term usage. These make the degradation of vehicle driving performance comparing with a new condition. In this study, the degradation of NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) of used vehicles was analyzed. The main cause could be identified by the analysis of elastomers’ vibration insulation property changes. The properties changes of aged engine mounts were analyzed and compared with initial properties. The accelerated laboratory aging test mode was developed for simulating the degradation of engine mounts. Moreover, parametric study was carried out. The engineering design parameters of elastomers such as volume, thickness and loading types were identified to improve the thermal aging phenomenon.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0781
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
In recent years, natural gas has been considered a replacement for diesel fuel in large bore engines, due to its low cost, high heating value and widespread availability. Stoichiometric premixed spark-ignition (SI), defined as port-fuel injection (PFI) of natural gas (NG) followed by SI close to top dead center (TDC), has traditionally been used as the main fuel delivery and combustion method for light and medium duty engines. However, premixed SI of NG results in inefficiencies in the intake process and combustion that is knock limited as boost and load are increased. Traditionally, high knock is addressed by spark timing retard. Spark timing retard can lead to misfires and low brake mean effective pressures. Thus premixed SI has limited low load use in heavy duty where compression ignition of diesel fuel remains dominant.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0865
Mark Walls, Michael Joo, Michael Ross
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is commonly known as autogas when used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. Autogas is primarily made up of propane, but can contain small amounts of butane, methane and propylene. Autogas is not a new fuel for internal combustion engines, but as engine technology evolves, the properties of autogas can be utilized to improve engine and vehicle efficiency. With support from the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed testing to quantify efficiency differences with liquid autogas direct injection in a modern downsized and boosted direct-injected engine using the production gasoline fuel injection hardware. Engine dynamometer testing demonstrated that autogas produced similar performance characteristics to gasoline at part load, but could be used to improve brake thermal efficiency at loads above 12 bar BMEP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1226
Nurani Chandrasekhar, Chun Tang, Natee Limsuwan, Joel Hetrick, Jacob Krizan, Zhichun Ma, Wei Wu
Noise and Vibration signature of an electric machine is an outcome of complex interaction between various source level disturbances like torque ripple and radial magnetic force and the surrounding structure to which the motor is attached. These can be radiated directly from the motor housing and also can be transmitted through the structural attachments (stator bolts, mounts etc.). The stator excitation current is not perfectly sinusoidal but contains different levels of harmonics. Harmonics impact Torque ripple, which in turn could translate into undesirable Motor noise. This paper addresses the impact of torque ripple on Motor whine noise. In this work, the electric machine torque ripple was computed based on the stator current that was measured during Motor dyno testing at prescribed torque and speed levels. The Motor NVH under specific torque levels was measured through testing in an anechoic transmission dynamometer cell.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0405
Tianqi Lv, Xingxing Feng, Peijun Xu, Yunqing Zhang
Several constitutive models which capture the amplitude and frequency dependency of filled elastomers are implemented for the conventional engine mounts of automotive powertrain mounting system (PMS). Firstly, a multibody dynamic model of a light duty truck is proposed, which includes 6 degrees of freedom (DOFs) for the PMS. Secondly, several constitutive models for filled elastomers are implemented for the engine mounts of the PMS, including nonlinear elastic model, frictional derivative viscoelastic model, general Maxwell chains, Coulomb-type friction, Berg’s friction model, common Kelvin-Voigt model etc. The nonlinear behavior of dynamic stiffness and damping of the mounts are investigated. Thirdly, simulations of engine vibration dynamics are presented and compared with these models and the difference between common Kelvin-Voigt model and other constitutive models are observed and analyzed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0738
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion has the potential to utilise alternative fuels such as alcohols. PCCI combustion emits significantly lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) and resulted thermal efficiency similar to conventional CI engines. However, PCCI combustion cannot be used in production grade engines due to its incapability to operate at high engine loads. This study focussed on development of hybrid combustion engine, which can operate in both combustion modes such as CI combustion as well as PCCI combustion mode. Hybrid combustion system was controlled by an open ECU, which varied the fuel injection parameters for mode switching between CI and PCCI combustion modes. At low-to-medium engine loads, engine was operated in PCCI combustion mode and at higher engine loads ECU automatically switched the engine operation in CI combustion mode.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0381
L. Karhik, R. Dinesh Kumar, E. Prasanna Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra
This abstract report on data acquisition procedure followed for a critical metal bumper to be used for a commercial application and consequently the validation methodology and defining the target duration based on life of the vehicle. Covariance is considered to be a major phenomenon in proving ground data acquisition and it is be maintained less than 0.05. In this project, importance of covariance in data acquisition studied before simulation of acquired data. In addition to that, multiple testing conditions like uni-axial and bi-axial carried out to achieve failure. Proving ground tracks data is used for bi-axial vibration test and constant spectrum signal of 5 Hz to 40 Hz & 3g acceleration is used for uni-axial vibration test. Target hours for uni-axial test (Z direction) are arrived using pseudo damage calculation which helps a lot in accelerating the test duration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1245
Takamitsu Tajima, Hideki Tanaka, Takeo Fukuda, Yoshimi Nakasato, Wataru Noguchi, Yoshikazu Katsumasa, Tomohisa Aruga
Reducing the amount of CO2 emissions to zero while driving is considered an important goal for the mobility sector in order to achieve a zero CO2 society. A key point in achieving this is the further evolution of electrified vehicles that are driven only by motors and are not equipped with a generator that uses fossil fuels, that is to say electric vehicles (EV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCV). Major issues facing EV include range, charging (hassle, time, construction of infrastructure), and reduced driving performance due to increased vehicle weight. Technology enabling to both supply power and perform charging while driving (dynamic charging) is being researched and developed as a means of addressing issues such as those above.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0863
Bader Almansour, Sami Alawadhi, Subith Vasu
One of the most promising platforms for cellulosic biofuel generation is to harness the metabolic processes of endophytic fungi that directly convert lignocellulosic material into a variety of volatile organic compounds. The biofuel co-development framework was initiated at Sandia National Labs. Here, the synthetic biologists develop and engineer a new platform for drop-in fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass, using several endophytic fungi including Hypoxylon CI-4A, CO27-A, and Daldinia EC-12. Hence this process has the potential advantage that expensive pretreatment and fuel refining stages can be optimized thereby allowing scalability and cost reduction-two major considerations for widespread biofuel utilization. Large concentrations of ketones along with other volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) were produced by Hypoxylon CO27-A grown over swtichgrass media.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0391
Daniel Meyer, Peter Maehling, Thomson Varghese, Jeffery Lewis
Precise and accurate internal-combustion engine pressure measurements are typically built upon extremely low level piezoelectric sensor signals acquired in the laboratory. In turn, these minute signals must be accurately conditioned using electronic charge amplifiers and then processed for meaningful analysis. Laboratory standard operating procedures often overlook the importance of timely and rigorous calibration of the equipment, or perform them without using sufficient environmental controls. In some facilities, years have been allowed to pass between metrology-quality calibrations, introducing the potential for significant out-of-tolerance conditions and non-compliance when compared to accredited measurement standards. Environmental, aging and operator factors influencing calibration metrology and in-use accuracy are presented in this paper, along with a method and example for estimating the calibration interval needed to specify calibration frequency for charge amplifiers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0384
Bo Zhang, Qingzhu Cai, Yong Lu, Jianfeng Wang, Lei Wang, Wenqian Chen, Lie Yao, Yuqing Gu, Tao Gu, Shawn S. You
Abstract ADAMS, SIMULINK, and ADAMS-SIMULINK co-simulation models of component test systems, Multi-Axis-Simulation-Table (MAST) systems, and spindle-coupled vehicle testing system (MTS 329) were created. In the ADAMS models, the mechanical parts, joints, and bushings were modeled. Hydraulic and control elements were absent. The SIMULINK models modeled control and hydraulic elements including actuator dynamics, servo valve dynamics, closed loop control, three-variable control, matrix control, and coordinate transformation. However, the specimen had to be simplified due to the limitation of SIMULINK software. The ADAMS-SIMULINK co-simulation models considered hydraulic and control components in the SIMULINK portion and mechanical components in ADAMS portion. The interaction between the ADAMS and SIMULINK portions was achieved using ADAMS/Control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0393
Keunsoo Kim
Abstract Fuel tank in vehicle must hold the fuel in a stable way under any driving condition. However, the fuel tank might not conserve the fuel firmly in case a crack emerged while the fuel tank is exposed to different driving condition. Basically, when the engine is in purging at a normal ambient temperature before fuel boiling, the pressure inside the fuel tank decreases. However, the pressure inside a fuel tank increases while a vehicle is driven at extreme hot ambient temperature as fuel is boiling. This repetitive pressure change in the fuel tank comes with fuel tank’s physical expansion and shrink, which would cause a damage to the fuel tank. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the root cause of why fuel tank cracks at a fatigue point. We also aim to set up the method of how to test durability of the fuel tank in association with the pressure inside the tank.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0402
Zhigang Zhang, Shi Xiaohui, Ye Bin
Abstract Based on the formation mechanism of engaging force of clutch, the engagement was divided into four stages: idle stage, cushion spring stage, diaphragm spring stage and locked stage. The mechanism of transmitted torque in each stage was analyzed and the transmitted torque model of clutch was deduced. Multi-load step analysis method based on finite element was used to analyze the coupling load-deformation characteristics of diaphragm spring and cushion spring in engagement, and the change laws of engaging force, diaphragm spring force and release bearing force were achieved and their coupling interaction were studied. And then change of friction coefficient of clutch with oscillating temperature was measured on friction test rig, and effect of temperature on transmitted torque was further discussed. Finally, simulation results of transmitted torque were validated by the experiment. Results indicate that the transmitted torque in clutch engagement has a nonlinear characteristic.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1154
Jimmy Kapadia, Daniel Kok, Mark Jennings, Ming Kuang, Brandon Masterson, Richard Isaacs, Alan Dona, Chuck Wagner, Thomas Gee
The automotive industry is rapidly expanding its Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicle product offerings in response to meet customer wants and regulatory requirements. One way for electrified vehicles to have an increasing impact on fleet-level CO2 emissions is for their sales volumes to go up. This means that electrified vehicles need to deliver a complete set of vehicle level attributes like performance, Fuel Economy and range that is attractive to a wide customer base at an affordable cost of ownership. As part of “democratizing” the Hybrid and plug-In Hybrid technology, automotive manufacturers aim to deliver these vehicle level attributes with a powertrain architecture at lowest cost and complexity, recognizing that customer wants may vary considerably between different classes of vehicles. For example, a medium duty truck application may have to support good trailer tow whereas a C-sized sedan customer may prefer superior city Fuel Economy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1170
Tong Zhang, Chen Wang, Wentai Zhou, Huijun Cheng, Haisheng Yu
With the compound power-split transmission directly connected to engine in hyrbid vehicle, dramatic fluctuation of engine output torque resulted in strong jerks during mode transition from electric driving mode to hybrid driving mode. In order to enhance ride comfort and reduce the toruque gap during mode transition process, a coordinated control strategy is developed by taking well use of the engine, two motors, and wet brake clutch. Firstly, the mode transition process with clutch participation is described and analyzed. Secondly, engine output torque without combustion is modeled by utilizing the measured cylinder pumping pressure. And the dynamic model hybrid powertrain is deduced. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy is designed to determine the desired motor torque, clutch torque, engine torque, and the moment of fuel injection. Active damping control with two degrees of freedom based on wheel speed observation is designed to mitigate the driveline speed oscillations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1356
Rainer Neumann
Abstract In the last years we recognize a big amount of innovative solutions in the field of automotive lighting and especially in front lighting systems. The major target to improve the light performance and to make driving at night safe is most important. The measure for the performance rating and the ability to compare different systems with a technology neutral process seems to be quite difficult. The legislation is looking for a simplification with clearly defined parameters for the future. Experimental test series recently published causing a lot of discussions as the sensitivity of the aiming of the headlamps can cause completely different performance test results. The paper will report on a study with various production vehicles, all in the same way initially aimed and prepared for all type of technologies.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1216
Edward C. Fontana, Rick Barnett, Robert Catalano, James Harvey, Jiacheng He, George Ottinger, John Steel
Electric cars can help cities, but those in apartments lack charging, absent the well-controlled private garages where most electric vehicles (EVs) are currently charged. Environmentally robust, hands-free, inductive chargers would be ideal, but energy efficiency suffers. We asked whether the precise parking alignment provided by self-driving cars could be used to improve inductive charging efficiencies. To answer this question, we split an inductor-inductor-capacitor (LLC) battery charger at the middle of the isolation transformer. The power factor correction, tank elements, and transformer primary windings are stationary, while the transformer secondary, rectifiers, and battery control logic are on the vehicle. The transformer is assembled each time the EV parks. A variety of transformers were tested for efficient energy transfer coincident with spacing to accommodate insulation on both the charger and vehicle side of the interface.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1249
Masahiro Seguchi
Compact, high efficiency and high reliability is required for an xEV motor generator. IPM rotors with neodymium magnet are widely applied for xEV motors to achieve these requirements. However, the neodymium magnet material has a big impact on motor cost and there is supply chain risk due to increased usage of these rare earth materials for future automotive xEV’s. On the other hand, a wound-field rotor does not need magnets and can achieve equivalent performance to an IPM rotor. However, brushes are required in order to supply current to the winding coil of the rotor. This may cause insulation issues on xEV motors which utilize high voltage and high currents. Therefore, it can be suggested to develop a system which supplies electric energy to the rotor field winding coil from stator without brushes by applying a transformer between stator coil and rotor field winding. Specifically, add auxiliary magnetic poles between each field winding poles and wind sub-coils to these poles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1147
Hyunjun Kim, Jingeon Kang, Dongsuk Kum
Abstract Input- and output-split hybrids using a single planetary gear (PG) can provide high fuel economy, but they tend to suffer from low acceleration performance. In order to improve their acceleration performance, speed reduction (multiplication) gears (SRG/SMG) have often been employed in various mass-produced split hybrids. In fact, adding one SRG (SMG) to input- or output-split hybrids can improve not only the acceleration performance, but also the fuel economy. Nevertheless, the full potentials of using SRGs (SMGs) have not yet been thoroughly investigated because the design space of input- and output-split configurations using one SRG (SMG) is huge; 432 configurations can be generated using two PGs where one PG is used as an SRG/SMG. Thus, in order to investigate the impacts of SRG (SMG) within a reasonable time, an efficient analysis procedure is required.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0389
Carlo Cantoni, Giampiero Mastinu, Massimiliano Gobbi, Federico Ballo, Giorgio Previati
Abstract The durability performance of brake hoses is a crucial issue for such components. Accelerated fatigue testing of brake hoses is necessary for understanding achievable lifetime, actually computation of durability is quite cumbersome due to the many different materials the hoses are made from. Despite SAE standards are available, accelerated testing of brake hoses subject to actual torsional and bending stresses seem important to provide relevant feedback to designers. In this paper, an innovative methodology for assessing the fatigue behavior of brake hoses of road vehicles is proposed. A dynamic testbed is specifically designed and realized, able to reproduce the actual assembly conditions of the hoses fitted into a vehicle suspension. The designed testbed allows to replicate actual loading conditions on the brake hoses by simulating the vertical dynamics and steering of the suspension system together with brake pressure.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0380
Liang Wang, Robert Burger, Alan Aloe
Abstract As an automobile is driven, its components and structures consistently experience the random excitations from road inputs and periodic vibration from engine firing. This could cause durability issues if the component structure isn’t fully validated. Vibration fatigue is a field of study regarding the assessment and improvement of a component’s or system’s robustness to vibration inputs. This paper introduces aspects of vibration fatigue to help designers, release engineers, and test engineers better understand the requirements, testing methodologies available, and strategies for improving vibration fatigue performance for the design and validation testing of their products. Vibration characteristics such as typical vibration levels and frequency content for varied areas in the automotive environment are introduced. Methodologies available for conducting actual vibration testing are introduced with listed advantages and disadvantages.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0647
Bradley Denton, Christopher Chadwell, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger
The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0743
Kukwon Cho, Eric Latimer, Matthew Lorey, David J. Cleary, Mark Sellnau
Fuel efficiency and emission performance sensitivity to fuel reactivity was examined in a fuels assessment of Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The study was designed to compare a US market gasoline (RON 91 E10) to a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80) at four operating conditions ranging from light load of 800 rpm, 2 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) to medium load of 2000 rpm, 10 bar IMEP. The experimental assessment indicated that both gasolines could achieve the performance and Tier 3 emission targets at each of the four operating conditions. Relative to the RON 91 E10 gasoline, the engine performance benefits associated with the RON 80 gasoline were consistent with our previously reported single-cylinder engine research [1].
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0777
Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Jian Huang, Sandeep Munshi
Late-cycle direct injection of natural gas allows a diesel-like combustion but with a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. High pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology uses a small diesel injection to ignite a non-premixed natural gas jet. This paper evaluates the impacts of changes in natural gas composition on the performance of a heavy-duty HPDI engine and on the implementation of a novel accelerometer-based sensor system to correct for the changes in fuel composition. The composition of natural gas varies significantly depending on source, suppliers, and seasons; this can significantly impact engine performance through changing both its auto-ignition properties (knocking propensity) and its energy content. For HPDI, unlike premixed charge engines, the main sensitivity is to energy density; the knocking potential of the fuel is not a significant barrier.
CURRENT
2017-02-14
Standard
J2907_201702
This document was developed to provide a method of obtaining repeatable measurements that accurately reflects the performance of a propulsion electric drive subsystem, whose output is used in an electrified vehicle regardless of complexity or number of energy sources. The purpose is to provide a familiar and easy-to-understand performance rating. Whenever there is an opportunity for interpretation of the document, a good faith effort shall be made to obtain the typical in-service performance and characteristics and avoid finding the best possible performance under the best possible conditions. Intentional biasing of operating parameters or assembly tolerances to optimize performance for this test shall not be considered valid results in the scope of this document.
CURRENT
2017-02-13
Standard
AIR1922B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report presents the following factors that affect hydraulic pump life and performance: a. The need to supply hydraulic fluid at the correct pressure and quality to the pump inlet port b. Considerations for the pump output c. Factors to be considered for the pump case drain lines d. The mounting of the hydraulic pump e. Hydraulic fluid properties, including cleanliness
CURRENT
2017-02-09
Standard
J1469_201702
This SAE Recommended Practice provides procedures and methods for testing service, spring applied parking, and combination brake actuators with respect to durability, function, and environmental performance. A minimum of six test units designated A, B, C, D, E, and F are to be used to perform all tests per 1.1 and 1.2.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0072
Moqtik Bawase, M R Saraf
Abstract Utilization of higher ethanol blends, 20% ethanol in gasoline (E20), as an alternate fuel can provide apparent benefits like higher octane number leading to improved anti-knocking properties, higher oxygen content resulting in complete combustion. Apart from technical benefits, use of ethanol blends offer certain widespread socioeconomic benefits including option of renewable source of energy, value addition to agriculture feedstock resulting in increase in farm income, creation of more jobs in rural sector and creating job at local levels. Use of higher blends of ethanol can reduce dependence on foreign crude leading to substantial savings in cost of petroleum import. The impact of higher Gasoline-Ethanol blend (E20), on the fuel system components of gasoline vehicles must be known for assessment of whether the fuel system will be able to perform as intended for the complete design life of the system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0340
Sarang Bire, Prashant R Pawar, M Saraf
Abstract Air suspension systems had been introduced in automobiles since 1950s. These systems are being explored to improve the ride comfort, handling stability and also serve as a medium for better cargo protection. These system are well developed for buses and high end passenger sedans, also have feasibility for adapting for wide range of configurations of suspension system and axle. Passenger cars and Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) pickup category of vehicle offers different challenges such as space availability, spring selection and characterization that need to be addressed for successful implementation of air suspension in these category vehicles. This work defines methodology to implement air suspension system in SUV Pickup category vehicle. Paper work includes concept study, mathematical co-relation, and prediction of air spring characteristics and integration of experimental and analytical tool for development of air suspension system.
CURRENT
2017-01-06
Standard
J167_201701
This SAE Standard applies to an overhead cover installed on a protective frame or enclosure conforming to SAE J2194 or alternately SAE J1194 and the following additional requirement of a drop test to verify the effectiveness of the overhead cover in protecting the operator from falling objects. The test procedures and performance requirements outlined in this document are based on currently available engineering data.
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