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2016-05-26
WIP Standard
AIR1794B
This metric SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) details a ball-on-cylinder (BOC) test device and specifies a method of rating the relative lubricity of aviation turbine fuel samples. The BOC produces a wear scar on a stationary steel ball by forcing it with a fixed load against a fuel wetted steel test ring in a controlled atmosphere. The test ring is rotated at a fixed speed so its surface is wetted by a momentary exposure to the fluid under test. The size of the wear scar is a measure of the test fluid lubricity and provides a basis for predicting friction or wear problems.
2016-05-20
Standard
J343_201605
This SAE Standard gives methods for testing and evaluating performance of the SAE 100R series of hydraulic hose and hose assemblies (hose and attached end fittings) used in hydraulic fluid power systems. Specific tests and performance criteria for evaluating hose assemblies used in hydraulic service are in accordance with the requirements for hose in the respective specifications of SAE J517. This document further establishes a uniform means of testing and evaluating performance of hydraulic hose assemblies.
2016-05-18
WIP Standard
J1204
This SAE Recommended Practice provides uniform procedures and minimum performance requirements for fatigue testing ferrous and aluminum wheels intended for normal highway use on travel, camping, and boat and light utility trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles. (See Figures 1 and 2.) For procedures and minimum performance requirements for wheels used on trucks, see SAE J267, and for wheels used on passenger cars, see SAE J328. For the application of passenger car and light ruck wheels [inset less than 0.10 m (0.33 ft)] to this trailer service, use this procedure. For the application of heavier truck wheels [inset 0.10 m (0.33 ft) or mre] use SAE J267. Mobile home service is outside the scope of this document. There are two basic test procedures described, a cornering fatigue test and radial fatigue test. The cornering test is directed at the wheel disc; whereas the radial test also examines the rim and attachment portion of the wheel.
2016-05-17
Standard
AS5681B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS)/Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS) specifies the minimum performance requirements of Remote On-Ground Ice Detection Systems (ROGIDS). These systems are ground-based. They provide information that indicates whether frozen contamination is present on aircraft surfaces. Section 1 provides information required to understand the need for the ROGIDS, ROGIDS characteristics, and tests that are defined in subsequent sections. It describes typical ROGIDS applications and operational objectives and is the basis for the performance criteria stated in Section 3 through Section 5. Section 2 provides reference information, including related documents, abbreviations, and definitions. Section 3 contains general design requirements for the ROGIDS. Section 4 contains the Minimum Operational Performance Requirements for the ROGIDS, which define performance in icing conditions likely to be encountered during ground operations.
2016-05-13
Standard
AIR1794A
This metric SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) details a ball-on-cylinder (BOC) test device and specifies a method of rating the relative lubricity of aviation turbine fuel samples. The BOC produces a wear scar on a stationary steel ball by forcing it with a fixed load against a fuel wetted steel test ring in a controlled atmosphere. The test ring is rotated at a fixed speed so its surface is wetted by a momentary exposure to the fluid under test. The size of the wear scar is a measure of the test fluid lubricity and provides a basis for predicting friction or wear problems.
2016-04-27
Standard
J2530_201604
This SAE Recommended Practice provides performance, sampling, and certifying requirements, test procedures, and marking requirements for aftermarket wheels intended for normal highway use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose passenger vehicles. For aftermarket wheels on trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks or multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J1204. These performance requirements apply only to wheels made of materials included in Table 1 and Table 2. New nomenclature and terms are added to clarify wheel constructions typically not used in OEM applications. The testing procedures and requirements are based on SAE standards listed in the references.
2016-04-22
WIP Standard
J1967
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to retroreflective materials that are used on truck tractors and trailers 2032 mm or more in overall width and with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) over 4536 kg, and school buses. The retroreflective materials for the truck tractors and trailers are super-high-intensity materials containing microprisms. The retroreflective materials for school buses may contain flexible non-exposed glass bead lens or microprisms.
2016-04-21
WIP Standard
AS8049/1B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines Minimum Performance Standards (MPS), qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for side-facing seats in civil rotorcraft, transport aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. The goal is to achieve comfort, durability, and occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when a side-facing seat/occupant/restraint system is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic test conditions set forth in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 23, 25, 27, or 29. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat supplier and the installation applicant. The seat supplier’s responsibility consists of meeting all the seat system performance requirements and obtaining and supplying to the installation applicant all the data prescribed by this document.
2016-04-20
Standard
ARP6852A
This document describes methods that are known to have been used by aircraft manufacturers to evaluate aircraft aerodynamic performance and handling effects following application of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids (“fluids”), as well as methods under development. Guidance and insight based upon those experiences are provided, including: - Similarity Analyses - Icing Wind Tunnel Tests - Flight Tests - Computational Fluid Dynamics and other Numerical Analyses This document also describes: - The history of evaluation of the aerodynamic effects of fluids - The effects of fluids on aircraft aerodynamics - The testing for aerodynamic acceptability of fluids for SAE and regulatory qualification performed in accordance with AS5900 - Additionally, Appendices A to E present individual aircraft manufacturers’ histories and methodologies which substantially contributed to the improvement of knowledge and processes for the evaluation of fluid aerodynamic effects.
2016-04-14
WIP Standard
J1859
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures for determining input-output characteristics for those pilot-operated and mechanically actuated, modulating-type valves and through-type valves used in the service brake control system.
2016-04-10
Standard
AIR4023C
This document discusses the history and development of endurance requirements, provides an analysis of test contaminant material and includes a discussion of future requirements. This document provides the reader with a background of aircraft turbine engine fuel system component endurance test requirements needed by engineers working on component design evaluation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1062
Ramachandran Ragupathy, K. Pothiraj, C. Chendil, T. Kumar Prasad, Prasanna Vasudevan
Abstract Hybrid powertrains generally involve adding an electric propulsion system to an existing internal combustion engine powertrain. Due to their reduced emissions, no reliance on public infrastructure and acceptable cost of ownership, hybrids are seen as a feasible intermediate step to deliver clean and affordable transportation for the masses. Such systems are immensely complex due to the number of interplaying systems and advanced control strategies used to deliver optimum performance under widely varying loads. Resonant torsional impacts arise out of the interactions due to rotational speed variations providing impulses at specific frequencies to the spinning inertias connected by members of finite stiffness. The effects, depending on the magnitude and duration of the impacts range from unacceptably harsh vibrations to catastrophic component failure.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1084
Chendi Sun, Vinson Jia
Abstract With rigorous fuel consumption regulation and emission law implemented, accuracy requirement of design and measurement signal is increasing, it becomes more and more indispensable to consider the influence on pressure loss and flow behavior coming from the incrementally loaded dust on filter element of Air Intake System (AIS). Dust is composed of many different sizes of particles, and studies shows that these different sizes of particles have very distinct influence on pressure loss of filter elements, which makes dust a challenge to model in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. In order to precisely simulate pressure loss behavior of dust loaded filter element, a methodology for 3-D CFD dust loading simulation is developed, where the influence of particles sizes on pressure loss of filter element are taken into consideration by introducing a pressure loss weighting factors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0796
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract This article presents a study related to application of pre-chamber ignition system in heavy duty natural gas engine which, as previously shown by the authors, can extend the limit of fuel-lean combustion and hence improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. A previous study about the effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on a single cylinder 2 liter truck-size engine resulted in recommendations for optimal pre-chamber geometry settings. The current study is to determine the dependency of those settings on the engine size. For this study, experiments are performed on a single cylinder 9 liter large bore marine engine with similar pre-chamber geometry and a test matrix of similar and scaled pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter settings. The effect of these variations on main chamber ignition and the following combustion is studied to understand the scalability aspects of pre-chamber ignition. Indicated efficiency and engine-out emission data is also presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0646
Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, Diego Blanco, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Abstract Regulated emissions and fuel consumption are the main constraints affecting internal combustion engine (ICE) design. Over the years, many techniques have been used with the aim of meeting these limitations. In particular, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proved to be an invaluable solution to reduce NOx emissions in Diesel engines, becoming a widely used technique in production engines. However, its application has a direct effect on fuel consumption due to both the changes in the in-cylinder processes, affecting indicated efficiency, and also on the air management. An analysis, based on the engine Global Energy Balance, is presented to thoroughly assess the behavior of a HSDI Diesel engine under variable EGR conditions at different operating points. The tests have been carried out keeping constant the conditions at the IVC and the combustion centering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1313
Brian Pinkelman, Woo-Keun Song
Abstract Most methods of vibration analysis focus on measuring the level of vibration. Some methods like ISO-2631 weigh vibration level based on human sensitivity of location, direction, and frequency. Sound can be similarly measured by sound pressure level in dB. It may also be weighted to human frequency sensitivity such as dBA but sound and noise analysis has progressed to measure sound quality. The characteristic and the nature of the sound is studied; for example equal or near equal sound levels can provide different experiences to the listener. Such is the question for vibration; can vibration quality be assessed just as sound quality is assessed? Early on in our studies, vibration sensory experts found a difference in 4 seats yet no objective measurement of vibration level could reliably confirm the sensory experience. Still these particular experiences correlated to certain verbal descriptors including smoothness/roughness.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0049
Jinwei Zhou, Roman Schmied, Alexander Sandalek, Helmut Kokal, Luigi del Re
Abstract Virtual testing of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) using a simulation environment provides great potential in reducing real world testing and therefore currently much effort is spent on the development of such tools. This work proposes a simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) framework, which helps to create a virtual test environment for ADAS based on real world test drive. The idea is to reproduce environmental conditions obtained on a test drive within a simulation environment. For this purpose, a production standard BMW 320d is equipped with a radar sensor to capture surrounding traffic objects and used as vehicle for test drives. Post processing of recorded GPS raw data from the navigation system using an open source map service and the radar data allows an exact reproduction of the driven road including other traffic participants.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0102
Michael Ludwig, Martin Rieder, Marco Wolf
Abstract Due to regulations which limit the CO2 emission of passenger vehicles in the upcoming years, hybrid cars are becoming more and more important. In this paper different concepts of hybridization are discussed with a link to the properties of the electric machine behind these hybrid concepts. Upon the basis of a generalized principle of operation of an electric machine the influence of position and speed data, acquired by a rotary position sensor, is presented with a detailed analysis of various sensor concepts. Therefore the major products used nowadays are presented with a brief introduction to the underlying measurement principle. Additionally a new semiconductor-based sensor concept is introduced with high measurement accuracy and of small form factor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0575
Konstantinos Siokos, Rohit Koli, Robert Prucka, Jason Schwanke, Shyam Jade
Abstract Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust pipe is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0463
Juan Sierra, Camilo Cruz, Luis Munoz, Santiago Avila, Elkin Espitia, Jaime Rodriguez
Abstract Brake systems are strongly related with safety of vehicles. Therefore a reliable design of the brake system is critical as vehicles operate in a wide range of environmental conditions, fulfilling different security requirements. Particularly, countries with mountainous geography expose vehicles to aggressive variations in altitude and road grade. These variations affect the performance of the brake system. In order to study how these changes affect the brake system, two approaches were considered. The first approach was centered on the development of an analytical model for the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle during braking maneuvers. This model was developed at system-level, considering the whole vehicle. This allowed the understanding of the relation between the braking force and the altitude and road grade, for different fixed deceleration requirement scenarios. The second approach was focused on the characterization of the vacuum servo operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0451
Fu Wenkui, Liu Ligang, Shu Jin, Wang Dawei, Xu Long
Abstract Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition (vRLDA) is to replace traditional Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) thus becomes the important method to obtain the load for the fatigue analysis of the vehicle components. Pothole event, which is a typical loadcase among vehicle durability test in the development process, is simulated based on Adams/Car in this paper. Flex-body is adopted in the full vehicle model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. Flexible ring tire model, FTire, is used for the benefit of validity in higher frequency domain. The result shows that simulation result correlated well both in wheel center travel and load of tire and suspension parts. Consequently, it is available to predict the max effective jounce travel and body max load in the early phase of vehicle development thus decrease the potential risk in the later phase and the total research cost. vRLDA is also proven as a reliable and effective method to obtain the load.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0449
Xian Xu, Wei Chen, Yuan Cao, Yingxiong Zhang, Hu Guo
Abstract The stiffness of the frame has a great influence on the ride comfort of the heavy truck. Reducing frame thickness was proved to be unacceptable in terms of ride comfort, which is verified by the testing results. The truck frame was reinforced in order to improve the ride comfort. The modal analysis showed that the pitch frequency of the vehicle has increased 0.5 Hz and the frequency response has decreased by 20%. In order to research the influence of frame stiffness on the heavy truck ride comfort, a detailed model including a flex frame, chassis suspension, cab suspension, driveline, etc., was built by MSC.ADAMS. The Simulation results showed that the ride comfort can be improved by reinforce the frame, and the ride comfort can be improved by 5%∼10%. The results of this study need to be further examined through field testing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0441
Aref M. A. Soliman
Abstract An active suspension system has better performance than a passive suspension. However, it requires a significant amount of energy and is constructed from high cost components. To solve the problem of the power required, a switchable damper suspension system has been studied. In this paper, control strategies for the switchable damper suspension system and passive are compared in terms of their relative ride performance capabilities. Practical limitations involving switching time delay and threshold delay values are modeled and their effect on the ride performance are evaluated. The four setting switchable damper is compared with the two and three setting switchable dampers. The control strategies are used to maintain suspension working space level within design limit and to minimize body acceleration level. The results showed that the four setting switchable damper gives better ride improvements compared with the two and three setting switchable dampers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0474
Shukai Yang, Bingwu Lu, Zuokui Sun, Yingjie Liu, Hangsheng Hou
Abstract A low frequency vibration issue around 3.2 Hz occurs during a commercial heavy truck program development process, and it is linked to extremely uncomfortable driving and riding experiences. This work focuses on an analytical effort to resolve the issue by first building a full vehicle MBS (multi-body-system) model, and then carrying out vibration response analyses. The model validation is performed by using full vehicle testing in terms of structural modes and frequency response characteristics. In order to resolve the issue which is excited by tire non-uniformity, the influence of the cab suspension, frame modes, front leaf spring system and rear tandem suspension is analyzed. The root cause of the issue is found to be the poor isolation of the rear tandem suspension system. The analytical optimization effort establishes the resolution measure for the issue.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0464
Lingyang Li, Wei Wu, Ji Chen, Jianpeng Shi, Xicheng Wang, Liuhua Qian
Abstract In order to expand the product design and development capabilities of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, a passenger car’s simulation model integrated with EPS system model will be made. Some analytical investigation is conducted in this paper. Through simplifying the architecture model of EPS system, the mathematical equation expressions of steering wheel and column, worm gear reducer, rack and pinion, steer-wheels, brushed DC electrical motor, and ECU assistance and compensation laws will be described. A number of tests on the EPS full system and subsystems and components will be executed. The tests’ results will be used as the input parameters of the model, and then be used for model validations. After that, the EPS system model will be created. Since the most important part of control logic strategy is the top secret of steering assembly supplier and it could’t be provided to OEM in details or not even a black-box model directly.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0894
Kenji Matsumoto, Hironori Harada, Yuki Ono, Yuji Mihara
Abstract A simple method is frequently used to calculate a reciprocating engine’s bearing load from the measured cylinder pressure. However, it has become apparent that engine downsizing and weight reduction cannot be achieved easily if an engine is designed based on the simple method. Because of this, an actual load on a bearing was measured, and the measured load values were compared with a bearing load distribution calculated from cylinder pressure. As a result, it was found that some of actual loads were about half of the calculated ones at certain crank angles. The connecting rod’s elastic deformation was focused on as a factor behind such differences, and the rod’s deformation due to the engine’s explosion load was studied. As a result, it was found that the rod part of the engine’s connecting rod was bent by 0.2 mm and became doglegged. Additional investigation regarding these findings would allow further engine downsizing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0146
Yonghwan Jeong, Seonwook Kim, Kyongsu Yi, Sangyong Lee, ByeongRim Jo
Abstract This paper represents a parking lot occupancy detection and parking control algorithm for the autonomous valet parking system. The parking lot occupancy detection algorithm determine the occupancy of the parking space, using LiDAR sensors mounted at each side of front bumper. Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) method is used to cluster that information. After that, a global parking map, which includes all parking lots and access road, is constructed offline to figure out which cluster is located in a parking space. By doing this, searching for available parking lots has been finished. The proposed parking control algorithm consists of a reference path generation, a path tracking controller, and a parking process controller. At first, route points of the reference path are determined under the consideration of the minimum turning radius and minimum safety margin with near parking.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1277
Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Jatin Agarwal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0051
Hongyu Zheng, Mingxin Zhao
Abstract Electric power steering (EPS), active front wheel steering (AFS) and steer by wire systems (SBW) can enhance the handling stability and safety of the vehicle, even in dangerous working conditions. Now, the development of the electric control steering system (ECS) is mainly based on the way that combines the test of the electric steering hardware-in-loop (HIL) test bench with real vehicle tests. However, the real vehicle tests with higher cost, long cycle and vulnerable to space weather have the potential safety problems at early development. On contrast, electronic control steering HIL test bench can replace real vehicle tests under various working conditions and make previous preparations for real vehicle road tests, so as to reduce the number of real vehicle test, shorten the development cycle, lower development costs, which has gradually become the important link of research and development of electronic steering system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0905
Robert J. Middleton, Omnaath Guptha Harihara Gupta, Han-Yuan Chang, George Lavoie, Jason Martz
Abstract This study evaluates the fuel economy implication of powertrain technologies capable of reducing light duty vehicle fuel consumption for compliance with 2025 CAFE standards. In a companion paper, a fully integrated GT-Power engine model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of one plausible series of engine technologies, including valve train improvements such as dual cam phasing and discrete variable valve lift, and engine downsizing with turbocharging and cooled EGR. In this paper, those engine efficiency/performance results are used in a vehicle drive cycle simulation to estimate the impact of engine and transmission technology improvements on light duty vehicle fuel consumption/economy over the EPA’s FTP and HWY test schedules. The model test vehicle is a midsized sedan based on the MY2012 Ford Fusion.
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