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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1324
Guangtian Gavin Song, Chin-An Tan
Abstract Nowadays, as an irreplaceable means alongside CAD and testing, CAE is more and more widely applied with advanced material modeling and simulation methods continuously being explored, so as to get more accurate result as testing. In vehicle product development process, door slam durability evaluation is an important measurement for body closure structure. So far numerous effort has been taken to develop more mature methods to well define door slam simulation in stress and fatigue life analysis. Overall all methods ever being applied can be summarized as two categories, linear stress based method and nonlinear stress based method. The methodologies, such as inertia relief method, direct transient response solution, or local strain approach, can be included in linear stress based method with linear material properties as symbol in CAE model. In local strain approach, contact surface could be defined in the necessary area with consideration for more realistic load transfer.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0488
Andreea Elena Balau, Dennis Kooijman, Ignacio Vazquez Rodarte, Norbert Ligterink
Abstract This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as input data. Consequently cycles that contain typical accelerations per velocity and road types are generated, such that these cycles are representative to real driving behavior. The stochastic drive cycle generator is developed in Matlab and is based on Markov processes. Two separate stochastic generators are used: one for generating the road type and one for generating the vehicle acceleration. First, a random road type profile is generated from the four different road types that are considered in the WLTP database: urban, rural, motorway and high-motorway, each of them with sub-road types based on different velocity bins.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1431
Mark H. Warner, Jon E. Bready, Wyatt Y. Warner, Alan F. Asay
Abstract Snowmobile acceleration, braking and cornering performance data are not well developed for use in accident reconstruction. Linear acceleration and braking data published by D'Addario[1] gives results for testing on 4 snowmobiles of various make and model. This paper presents the results of on-snow tests performed in 2014 which include acceleration and cornering maneuvers that have not been published previously. Maximum and average cornering speeds and corresponding lateral accelerations are presented for turns of radius 20, 35 and 65 feet (6.1, 10.7 and 19.8 meters) on level, packed snow. Performance values for acceleration, braking, and cornering are determined in tests with and without a passenger. Results of linear acceleration and braking tests were found to be comparable to the previously published work. The data are useful in snowmobile accident reconstruction for certain types of snowmobile motion analyses.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0429
Na Xu, Chaochen Ma, Jianbing Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xunzhi Qu
Abstract The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the reliability and durability of turbocharger. Low cycle fatigue test is mainly the switching between high and low speed. As the result of the experiment, the fatigue life is shorter as the difference between high and low speed becomes greater. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. This device can be self-circulating, without the large air compressor, to realize high and low speed switching on the premise of not exceeding the limitation of turbine entry temperature. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data has been used to validate the model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0427
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
Fatigue testing and related fatigue life assessment are essential parts of the design and validation processes of vehicle components and systems. Fatigue bench test is one of the most important testing methods for durability and reliability assessment, and its primary function is to construct design curves based on a certain amount of repeated tests, with which recommendations on product design can be advised. How to increase the accuracy of predictions from test results, the associated life assessment, and to reduce the cost through reducing test sample size is an active and continuous effort. In this paper the current engineering practices on constructing design curves for fatigue test data are reviewed first.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0591
Karan R. Khanse, Eric Pierce, Michael Ng, Saied Taheri
Abstract Outdoor objective evaluations form an important part of both tire and vehicle design process since they validate the design parameters through actual tests and can provide insight into the functional performances associated with the vehicle. Even with the industry focused towards developing simulation models, their need cannot be completely eliminated as they form the basis for approving the performance predictions of any newly developed model. An objective test was conducted to measure the ABS performance as part of validation of a tire simulation design tool. A sample vehicle and a set of tires were used to perform the tests- on a road with known profile. These specific vehicle and tire sets were selected due to the availability of the vehicle parameters, tire parameters and the ABS control logic. A test matrix was generated based on the validation requirements.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1164
Aimee N. Duhon, Kris S. Sevel, Steven A. Tarnowsky, Peter J. Savagian
Abstract Evaluation of one year of in-use operating data from first generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) retail customers determined trip initial Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) starts were reduced by 70% relative to conventional vehicles under the same driving conditions. These Volt drivers were able to travel 74% of their total miles in EV without requiring the ICE's support. Using this first generation Volt data, performance of the second generation Volt is projected. The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Regional Travel Survey (RTS) data set was also processed to make comparisons between realistic PHEV constraints and E-REV configurations. A Volt characteristic E-REV was found to provide up to 40 times more all-electric trips than a PHEV over the same data set.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0528
Armin Abedini, Cliff Butcher, David Anderson, Michael Worswick, Timothy Skszek
Abstract Two different shear sample geometries were employed to investigate the elastoplastic and failure behaviour of three automotive alloy rolled sheets; a highly anisotropic magnesium alloy (ZEK100) and two relatively isotropic dual phase steels (DP600 and DP780). The performance of the so-called butterfly type specimen (Mohr and Henn 2007, Dunand and Mohr 2011) was evaluated at quasi-static conditions along with the shear geometry of Peirs et al. (2012) using in situ 3-D digital image correlation (DIC) strain measurement techniques. It was shown that both test geometries resulted in similar trends of the load-displacement response; however, the fracture strains obtained using the butterfly specimen were lower for the ZEK100 and DP780. It was demonstrated that the ZEK100 exhibits strong anisotropy in terms of the shear work hardening rate and failure strain.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0115
Nuwong Chollacoop, Manida Tongroon, Mongkon Kananont, Amornpoth Suebwong, Peerawat Saisirirat, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
Abstract The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2015-03-13
Standard
J2432_201503
The following information covers accessory drive belt testing methods and includes test configurations, pulley diameters, power loads, and guidance for interpreting test data. Belt construction definitions are also documented. This information has been prepared from existing literature, including standards and data supplied by Producers and Users of V-ribbed belts.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0028
Jihyun An, Seungwon Yoo, KwangChan Ko, Jongchan Park
Abstract This paper presents an industrial application of the Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) methodology to the optimal design of commercial vehicle steering and suspension system. This is a pilot study about the suspension and steering design of a semi medium bus, whose objective is to develop and introduce an ATC methodology to an automobile development process. In the conventional process, it is difficult not only to find design variables which meet the target of Ride and Handling (R&H) performance using a detailed full car model, but also to figure out the interrelation between the vehicle and its subsystems. In this study, ATC methodology is used in order to obtain the optimal values such as geometric characteristics satisfying both the vehicle's R&H target and the subsystem (suspension and steering system) 's target.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0005
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, A. K. Sehgal, R. Suresh, B. P. Das, Nishant Tyagi, Jaywant Mohite, N. B. Chougule
Abstract Depletion of fossil fuel reserves, the unsteadiness of their prices and the increasingly stricter exhaust emission legislation put forward attention of world towards use of alternate fuels. The ever increasing demand for ecologically friendly vehicles can be met by use of clean fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). Lower carbon to hydrogen ratio of CNG makes it a cleaner fuel, due to this CNG is gaining popularity as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel in transport sector. Hydrogen fuel for IC engines is also being considered as a future fuel due to its simple carbon less structure. However, several obstacles have to be overcome before widespread utilization of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel can occur in the transport sector. The 18 percent hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and could be considered a first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy.
2015-01-15
Standard
AS6502
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides classical propulsion system performance parameter names for aircraft propulsion systems and their derivatives, and describes the logical framework by which new names can be constructed. The contents of this document were, originally, a subset of AS755E. Due to the growing complexity of station numbering schemes described in AS755, and a desire to expand the original document's nomenclature section to include a fuller representation of "classical" (legacy use) names, a decision was made to separate its "station numbering" and "nomenclature" content into two separate documents. This document, then, was created using the "nomenclature" half of AS755E. Both documents will continue to be improved and revised as industry needs dictate. The parameter naming conventions presented herein are for use in all communications concerning propulsion system performance such as computer programs, data reduction, design activities, and published documents.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0024
Sivanesan Murugesan, Lakshmikanthan Chinnasamy, Abhijeet Patil
Abstract Appropriate test cycle is required for engine testing. To do so, a new methodology is developed for deriving Engine Test Cycle based on real world duty cycle. Transient speed and load is to be collected from the functional engine on the field. The duty cycle for cyclic operation will be developed from the actual transient speed and load conditions. An iterative process and the comparison of chi-square statistical data is used to categorize typical microtrips, segments of engine operation collected during performance of certain activities. Different microtrips of all activities were combined together to make up a cycle of operation and test cycle as well. These data's are compared to statistical data which is used to illustrate the raw data. On successful comparison, the transient test cycle is validated on the test bed. To facilitate further engine testing, the cycle is transformed into a schedule of torque and speed points at One second intervals.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0075
Ashwin Subramanian Kaundinya, Yogesh S Thipse, Vinayak Shivalink Sagare, Neelkanth V Marathe
Abstract In the quest towards meeting stringent emission norms as well as robust performance requirements, there is an ever growing need to continually research into and develop high caliber engines. This necessitates handling huge amounts of generated test data that monitors a multitude of variables like engine speed, combustion chamber pressure, engine load and the like. Further, in order to establish the scalar engine performance parameters like efficiency, Brake Mean Effective Pressure, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, P-V diagram, post processing is required to be done on the measured test data that involves complex calculations like numerical integration and other mathematical operations on a grand scale. In order to meet this objective, the authors hereby showcase a knowledge based algorithm that integrates and streamlines the entire procedure from handling of the huge test data to performing all the calculations in order to arrive at the scalar engine performance parameters.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0126
Prince Shital, Chiranjit Ghosh, Harveen Talwar, Avnish Gosain, Praneet Shanker Dayal
Abstract Three-cylinder Engine without balancer shaft is a recent trend towards development of lightweight and fuel-efficient powertrain for passenger car. In addition, customer's expectation of superior NVH inside vehicle cabin is increasing day by day. Engine mounts address majority of the NVH issues related to transfer of vibration from engine to passenger cabin. Idle vibration isolation for a three-cylinder engine is a challenging task due to possibility of overlapping of Powertrain's rigid body modes with engine's firing frequency. This Overlapping of rigid body can be avoided either by modifying mount characteristic or by changing the position of mounts based on multi-body-dynamics (MBD) simulation. This paper explains about two types of engine mounting system for a front-wheel drive transversely mounted three-cylinder engine. The base vehicle was having three-point mounting system i.e. all three engine mounts were pre-loaded.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Abstract Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic loadcases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0216
Ramesh Babu Pathuri, Prasanna Nagarhalli
Abstract Upfront in a vehicle program, sizing of front end cooling module i.e. Condenser Radiator Fan Module (CRFM) and front grille opening is vital hence simulation tools like 1D have gained tremendous importance. This paper focuses on the modeling and analyzing performance behavior of engine cooling system using 1D simulation tool and also discusses the correlation of simulated results with test results. 1D model of engine cooling system is developed by inputting all necessary geometrical and performance data of all components (radiator heat load, coolant pipe geometry, CRFM, pump, thermostat etc.) with necessary assumptions. Air flow rates used on heat exchangers are predicted in 3D Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. First isothermal coolant circuit is modeled and coolant flow correlation is achieved to build confidence in modeling.
2014-12-02
Standard
J2087_201412
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for a daytime running light (DRL) function.
2014-12-02
Standard
J2139_201412
This SAE Recommended Practice provides standardized laboratory tests, test methods, and performance requirements applicable to signal and marking devices used on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.
2014-11-25
Standard
J267_201411
This SAE Recommended Practice provides minimum performance requirements and uniform laboratory procedures for fatigue testing of wheels and demountable rims intended for normal highway use on trucks, buses, truck-trailers, and multipurpose vehicles. Users may establish design criteria exceeding the minimum performance requirement for added confidence in a design. The cycle requirements noted in Tables 1 and 2 are based on Weibull statistics using 2 parameter, median ranks, 50% confidence level and 90% reliability, and beta equal to 2, typically noted as B10C50. For other wheels intended for normal highway use and temporary use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J328. For wheels used on trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks, or multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J1204. For bolt together military wheels, see SAE J1992. This document does not cover other special application wheels and rims.
2014-10-30
Standard
AIR5026B
This document discusses, in broad general terms, typical present instrumentation practice for post-overhaul gas turbine engine testing. Production engine testing and engine development work are outside the scope of this document as they will typically use many more channels of instrumentation, and in most cases will have requirements for measurements that are never made in post-overhaul testing, such as fan airflow measurements, or strain measurements on compressor blades. The specifications for each parameter to be measured, in terms of measurement range and measurement accuracy, are established by the engine manufacturers. Each test cell instrument system should meet or exceed those requirements. Furthermore, each instrument system should be recalibrated regularly, to ensure that it is still performing correctly.
2014-10-30
Standard
ARP5794
This specification covers the general requirements for aircraft tank mounted, centrifugal type, fuel booster pumps, used for engine fuel feed and/or fuel transfer.
2014-10-24
Standard
J1579_201410
These requirements define minimum recommended levels of side stand retraction performance of a new side stand/motorcycle combination when tested according to the procedures of SAE J1578. These requirements apply to any new two-wheeled motorcycle without a sidecar, equipped with a side stand, and intended for highway use. (See SAE J213). This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering use of this document.
2014-10-24
Standard
J1578_201410
This test procedure provides a standard method for evaluating the side stand retraction performance of a side stand/motorcycle combination. This test procedure applies to any two-wheeled motorcycle without a sidecar, equipped with a side stand, and intended for highway use. (See SAE J213.) This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering the use of this document.
2014-10-24
Standard
J1846_201410
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for use only in characterizing test surfaces used in motorcycle side stand retraction testing (SAE J1578). The equipment and procedure described in this document yields repeatable results in characterizing test surfaces in a way found to be related to retraction performance. The test results obtained with this procedure do not necessarily correlate with measurements obtained with other friction measurement procedures which have been developed for other purposes.
2014-10-24
WIP Standard
J2032
This SAE Standard specifies the general requirements and test methods for nonshielded high-tension ignition cable assemblies.
2014-10-16
WIP Standard
J2302
This procedure measures the resistance to radiant heat flow of insulating materials in sleeve form. The sleeve's effectiveness (S{sub}E) is determined by measuring the difference in surface temperature of a flat black, single- diameter ceramic cylinder with and without the standard diameter sleeve at the specified temperature, position, and distance from the radiant heat source.
2014-10-08
Standard
ARP6200
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the recommended tests and their associated test means for commercial aircraft hydraulic systems at the system level that are required to demonstrate compliance with the 14 CFR Part 25 and EASA CS 25 airworthiness regulations, and to show that the required level of maturity at the aircraft entry into service (EIS) has been achieved.
2014-09-22
WIP Standard
J45
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform procedure for the level surface testing of hand-operated brake systems on recreational noncompetitive snowmobiles. Purpose This procedure offers a method of testing snowmobiles on turf. Turf is preferred over snow because test repeatability is more easily obtained. In addition, tests shall be conducted under winter conditions to ensure that the braking systems remain operative and that the vehicle has no undue tendency to lose stability, overturn, or swerve out of a test lane 1.2 m (4 ft) wider than the vehicle when the brakes are applied. The purpose of the document is to establish brake system capabilities with regard to deceleration or stopping distance versus applied brake lever force, as affected by vehicle speed, brake temperature, and usage.
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