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Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Tim C. O'Connell, Kevin McCarthy, Andrew Paquette, David McCormick, Paul Pigg, Peter T. Lamm
Validation of models is a critical component of Model Based Design (MBD). Without validation, the accuracy of the models is not certain, so the decisions made with those models may not be based on the best information. The Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) program is planning a series of hardware experiments that will be used to validate a large set of integrated models. While the task of validating such a large number of interacting models is daunting, it provides an excellent opportunity to test the limits of MBD. Model validation can take places in many ways, from direct model parameter measurement, to inferred measurements to dynamic signal comparisons. In addition, for complex systems like the ones being tested on INVENT, validation can happen at many levels, from individual unit construction all the way to integrated testing. A process for coordinating these varied validation efforts across multiple participants is needed. For INVENT, a plan to implement all the aspects of validation listed above has been created.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Tim C. O'Connell, Kevin McCarthy, Andrew Paquette, David McCormick, Paul Pigg, Peter T. Lamm
ABSTRACT
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Teresa Donateo, Maria Grazia De Giorgi, Antonio Ficarella, Elisabetta Argentieri, Elena Rizzo
The aim of the present investigation is the implementation of a Matlab/Simulink environment to assess the performance (thrust, specific fuel consumption, aircraft/engine mass, cost, etc.) and environmental impact (greenhouse and pollutant emissions) of conventional and more electric aircrafts. In particular, the benefits of adopting more electric solutions for either aircrafts at given missions specifications can be evaluated. Each component is modeled as a black box that receives input (in terms of mass flow and energy) from the previous component and send its output variables to the next one after a balance of mass and energy content. The software includes a design workflow for the input of the aircraft specification, the choice of the architecture (e.g. series or parallel) and the specification of each component including energy converter (piston engine, turboprop, turbojet, fuel cell, etc.), energy storage systems (batteries, supercapacitors), auxiliaries and secondary power systems.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jennifer C. Shaw, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
In order for the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) N+3 initiative goals to be realised, aircraft subsystems and airframes need to be optimised for both energy efficiency and operational effectiveness. Concepts and designs proposed to achieve these goals are expected to lead to a significant departure from the modern day state of the art in electrical system architectures, most notably with the inclusion of electrically driven propulsors. Such Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) systems place a much greater emphasis on the electrical system for safe and efficient flight. A key distinguishing factor between current more-electric and TeDP network architecture designs is the power level at which critical loads must be supplied, specifically the supply to high power propulsion motors in TeDP systems must provide a similar level of reliability to that of traditional low power critical loads (such as avionics) in present day aircraft. Necessary to achieving supply targets for current systems is the use of battery backup; however, the provision of sustained operability through additional supply for high power loads, either through dedicated generators or bulk energy storage, is inefficient in terms of weight.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Karen Davies, Patrick Norman, Catherine Jones, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
In an attempt to reduce NOx and noise emissions and improve overall fuel efficiency of future generation aircraft, Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) is being considered as a novel means of providing aircraft thrust. TeDP designs proposed to date have comprised a fully superconducting, and typically DC, network in which a number of generators provide power to multiple propulsors distributed across the aircraft via a complex arrangement of parallel redundant busbars and feeders. As such, the electrical network is critical to the safety of the aircraft and in order to attain the required levels of reliability, effective protection systems, tuned specifically to the superconducting parameters of the network, must be devised. Under normal operating conditions, superconducting materials have zero resistance, and superconducting cables have a lower mutual inductance than that of conventional cables. Compared with conventional networks, these parameters introduce less damping, leading to higher prospective fault currents and faster rates of fault development.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Christine Ross, Michael Armstrong, Mark Blackwelder, Catherine Jones, Patrick Norman, Steven Fletcher
The NASA N3-X blended-wing body with turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) concept is being studied to achieve N3-X goals such as reduced noise, NOx emissions, and improved energy efficiency. The gas turbine engines are used to provide rotational energy to generators which convert this energy to electrical. The electrical power output of the generators is rectified and distributed as a DC system to an array of propulsor motors each with their own inverter. The electrical distribution system is superconducting in order to maximize its efficiency and increase the power density of all associated components. An aspect of this concept currently under study is the protection of the electrical distribution system for propulsion. The protection of a superconducting DC network poses unique electrical and thermal challenges due to low impedance of the superconductor and operation in the superconducting or quenched states. For a fixed TeDP electrical system architecture with fixed power ratings, several protection strategies are investigated.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Hidefumi Saito, Shoji Uryu, Norio Takahashi, Noriko Morioka, Hitoshi Oyori
In this study, we seek solution to energy optimization issue of Environmental Control System (ECS) for electric aircraft. Aircraft ECS must have three functions as pressurization, ventilation, and temperature control. Non-bleed ECS based on more electric aircraft makes it possible to distribute the three functions to equipment. Motor Driven Fresh Air Compressor (MDFAC) mainly takes charge of pressurization function and ventilation function, therefore selection of equipment for temperature control function is important. We select not Air Cycle System (ACS) but Vapor Cycle System (VCS) as the equipment for temperature control function, for minimization of energy consumption by higher Coefficient of Performance (COP). We try to clarify specifications, configuration and weight of the VCS suitable for the temperature control function of single aisle aircraft, which is a non-bleed type aircraft equipped with MDFACs. To keep increase of flight fuel consumption by additional weight negligible, weight and rated performance of the VCS are set as the same as those of the ACS.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Javier A. Parrilla
Current industry trends demonstrate aircraft electrification will be part of future platforms in order to achieve higher levels of efficiency in various vehicle level sub-systems. However, electrification requires a substantial change in aircraft design that is not suitable for re-winged or re-engined applications as some aircraft manufacturers are opting for today. Thermal limits arise as engine cores progressively get smaller and hotter to improve overall engine efficiency, while legacy systems still demand a substantial amount of pneumatic, hydraulic and electric power extraction. The environmental control system (ECS) provides pressurization, ventilation and air conditioning in commercial aircraft, making it the main heat sink for all aircraft loads with exception of the engine. To mitigate the architecture thermal limits in an efficient manner, the form in which the ECS interacts with the engine will have to be enhanced as to reduce the overall energy consumed and achieve an energy optimized solution.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Riko Bornholdt, Frank Thielecke
The current delay of the successors for the present civil short- and long-range aircraft models leads to the focus on retrofit strategies on the one hand. On the other hand due to the additional time frame for the development of the projected successors new degrees of freedom can be exploited. In both cases new potential can be gained by challenging the existing requirements, which restrict aircraft system innovations. Reconsidering the functions and their allocation to specific systems could lead to beneficial architecture concepts. Furthermore analyzing the independencies between the systems and dissolving the system specific development paradigm could allow the exploitation of synergies and expose room of improvement. The described shift in the design approach leads to the need for new methodologies for integrated system architecture design, which consider the changed constraints and capitalize the gained potentials. The paper and the corresponding presentation will cover a methodology guiding the engineer through the successive process of aircraft system architecture design.
Standard
2014-07-09
This SAE Standard establishes performance criteria for towed, semi-mounted, or mounted and arm type rotary mowers with one or more blade assemblies of 77.5 cm blade tip circle diameter or over, mounted on a propelling tractor or machine of at least 15 kW, intended for marketing as industrial mowing equipment and designed for cutting grass and other growth in public use areas such as parks, cemeteries, and along roadways and highways. The use of the word “industrial” is not to be confused with “in-plant industrial equipment.” This document does not apply to: a. Turf care equipment primarily designed for personal use, consumption, or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence. b. Equipment designed primarily for agricultural purposes but which may be used for industrial use. c. Self-powered or self-propelled mowers or mowing machines.
WIP Standard
2014-06-24
This document discusses, in broad general terms, typical present instrumentation practice for post-overhaul gas turbine engine testing. Production engine testing and engine development work are outside the scope of this document as they will typically use many more channels of instrumentation, and in most cases will have requirements for measurements that are never made in post-overhaul testing, such as fan airflow measurements, or strain measurements on compressor blades. The specifications for each parameter to be measured, in terms of measurement range and measurement accuracy, are established by the engine manufacturers. Each test cell instrument system should meet or exceed those requirements. Furthermore, each instrument system should be recalibrated regularly, to ensure that it is still performing correctly.
Standard
2014-06-04
This SAE Recommended Practice identifies test procedures and parameters which may be used to evaluate, qualify and inspect non-SAE hydraulic hoses or other hose constructions which do not conform to any established ISO or national standards defining hydraulic hoses. (Non-SAE hydraulic hoses are defined as those which do not conform to the categories listed in SAE J517.) It is not intended for evaluating fluoropolymer lined hose constructions or hose constructions with working pressures above 86 MPa.
WIP Standard
2014-06-02
This SAE Recommended Practice outlines the qualification testing and performance related criteria of elastomeric boot seals used in constant velocity joint applications. These applications are referred to as front- wheel-drive halfshafts or axles, but can also be utilized in rear-wheel-drive halfshaft applications. For additional information regarding CV joint systems and their applications refer to SAE AE-7 "Universal Joint and Driveshaft Design Manual." The grease type and grease quantities, clamps and clamping mechanisms of an assembly are critical and considered to be the same as OEM, service, or aftermarket designation. Although joint lubricating grease and clamping mechanism are not addressed in this document, they are critical to a total system performance. The purpose of this document is to establish a uniform practice for those in the surface vehicle industry that specify and/or manufacture CV joint boot seals (boots) for OEM or aftermarket use with respect to qualification testing for physical and mechanical properties.
Technical Paper
2014-06-02
Jennifer Suggs, Benjamin Burns, Richard Martinez, Don Smith, Amelie Isin
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) has developed a test method for the analysis of washcoat material in small engine catalytic converters. Each small engine catalytic converter contains a metallic monolith. Each metallic monolith is removed from its outer casing, manually disassembled, and then separated into washcoat and substrate. The washcoat material is analyzed for platinum group metals (PGMs) using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Results from the XRF analysis are used to calculate PGM ratios in the washcoat. During monolith disassembly, care is taken to minimize loss of washcoat or substrate, but some material is inevitably lost. The recovered washcoat mass does not necessarily equal the quantity of washcoat that was present in the intact catalytic converter. A maximum washcoat mass can be estimated by combining the masses of the recovered washcoat and the material loss during monolith disassembly.
Standard
2014-05-29
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews performance testing parameters for non-cleanable, often referred to as disposable, filter elements utilized in aircraft power and propulsion lubrication systems, including gas turbine engines and auxiliary power units (APUs), propulsion and transmission gear boxes, and constant speed drives and integrated drive generators (IDGs). This document is confined to laboratory testing of filter element performance to qualify the filtration medium and filter element construction as opposed to qualification of the complete filter assembly. The testing discussed here is usually followed by laboratory and on-engine testing of the entire lube filter assembly (including filter element, housing, valving, etc.), which is outside the scope of this AIR.
Standard
2014-05-07
This SAE Standard establishes a method of disclosing the sweep-ability performance of self-propelled sweepers that use broom means for sweeping and collection, together with either a mechanical- or pneumatic-conveyance system for the transfer of “sweepings” into a collection hopper.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Fabio Augusto Schuh, Leandro Luís Corso, Leonardo Hoss
Abstract Applying knowledge available at technical literature for cycle counting, damage caused by each load cycle through S-N curve, and fatigue damage accumulation by Palmgren-Miner rule, durability prediction is performed for a leafspring of a commercial vehicle with 6×4 suspension system. Max principal tension is measured by means of strain gages in the most representative points for fatigue life of the leafspring, determined with FEA, while vehicle runs over off-road track in a proving ground. Load and tension are also measured in a laboratory bench test for this component. Correlation between off-road track and bench test is then performed. Finally, representative samples of the component are tested with dynamic loading until fatigue fracture in bench test, and using data from these tests, statistical analysis is performed with application of Weibull distribution, allowing life prediction in statistical terms.
WIP Standard
2014-05-01
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This document provides standardized laboratory tests, test methods and equipment, and requirements for lighting devices covered by SAE Recommended Practices and Standards. It is intended for devices used on vehicles less than 2032 mm in width. Tests for vehicles larger than 2032 mm in overall width are covered in SAE J2139. Device specific tests and requirements can be found in applicable SAE technical reports.
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the multi-pass method for evaluating the filtration performance of fine lube filter elements, commonly utilized in aerospace power and propulsion lubrication systems: gas turbine engines, auxiliary power units (APUs), helicopter transmissions, constant speed drives (CSDs), and integrated drive generators (IDGs).
Standard
2014-04-28
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for testing of manual slack adjusters as they are used in service, emergency, or parking brake systems for vehicles that can be licensed for on-road use. Purpose This document establishes an accelerated laboratory test procedure for manual slack adjusters to determine their integrity and durability in various functional modes and environmental conditions.
WIP Standard
2014-04-21
This SAE Recommended Practice was prepared by the Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids Subcommittee of the SAE Hydraulic Brake Systems Actuating Committee to provide engineers, designers, and manufacturers of motor vehicles with a set of minimum performance standards in order to assess the suitability of silicone and other low water tolerant type brake fluids (LWTF) for use in motor vehicle brake systems. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM). In the development of the recommended requirements and test procedures contained herein, it is concluded that the LWTFs must be functionally compatible with existing motor vehicle brake fluids conforming to SAE J1703 and with braking systems designed for such fluids. To utilize LWTFs to the fullest advantage, they should not be mixed with other brake fluids. Inadvertent mixtures of LWTFs with fluids meeting SAE J 1703 are not known to have any adverse effects on performance, but all combinations have not been tested.
WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a method for testing the speed performance of passenger car tires under controlled conditions in the laboratory on a test wheel. This procedure applies to "standard load," "extra load," and "T-type high-pressure temporary-use spare" passenger tires.
WIP Standard
2014-04-10
This SAE Recommended Practice provides performance and sampling requirements, test procedures, and marking requirements for aftermarket wheels intended for normal highway use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose passenger vehicles. For aftermarket wheels on trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks or multipurpose vehicles, see SAE J1204. These performance requirements apply only to wheels made of materials included in Table 1 and Table 2. New nomenclature and terms are added to clarify wheel constructions typically not used in OEM applications. The testing procedures and requirements are based on SAE standards listed in the references.
Standard
2014-04-09
This SAE Recommended Practice encompasses the significant factors which determine the effectiveness of a seat system in limiting spinal injury during vertical impacts between the rider and the snowmobile seat system. The document is intended to provide a tool for the development of safer snowmobile seats. It is recognized that the seat is only a portion of the entire vehicle protective suspension system. It is, however, usually required that the seat serve as added protection to the suspension system, since the latter may "bottom out" during a severe impact. The term "seat" refers to the occupant-supporting system not normally considered part of the vehicle suspension or frame system. In some cases, it may include more than the foam cushion. This document provides the minimum requirements for performance of a general seat system, and a description of specific means of evaluating the shock-absorbing characteristics of foam seat cushions using a specific testing procedure and a companion seat evaluation chart.
WIP Standard
2014-04-08
This SAE Information Report lists engine and laboratory tests for service fill engine oils which are associated with specifications and classifications established outside of North America. These specifications and classifications include those developed prior to June 1, 2006 June 1, 2001, by International Technical Societies as well as individual original equipment manufacturers. The information contained within this report applies to engine oils utilized in gasoline and diesel powered automotive vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shawn Salisbury, Thomas Bradley, Jake Bucher, Benjamin Geller
Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) offer the benefits of both home charging from grid electricity and extended range from fuels. Fuel cell PHEVs in a range-extending (FCEREV) configuration build upon the advantages of PHEV by producing zero emissions while driving. The Colorado State University Vehicle Innovation Team (CSU VIT) successfully designed, built, and demonstrated a FCEREV named ‘H2eV’ for Year Two of the 3-year EcoCAR 2 collegiate competition. The demonstrated FCEREV is based on the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and features a 15 kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cell system, an 18.9 kWh/177 kW Li-Ion battery, and a 145 kW motor for all-electric drive. Operational data was taken during driving on a closed course, following a cycle that approximates the Environmental Protection Agency's 5-cycle test procedure. This paper provides an overview of the CSU VIT's FCEREV and a detailed analysis of vehicle performance during its successful demonstration. Analysis of fuel cell system operation provides proof-of-concept for the CSU VIT's FCEREV and highlights the emissions and energy consumption advantages of the designed vehicle for future development.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ashish Vora, Haotian Wu, Chuang Wang, Yili Qian, Gregory Shaver, Vahid Motevalli, Peter Meckl, Oleg Wasynczuk, Haiyan Zhang
Abstract Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition. It describes the team's efforts towards developing a complete vehicle model of a Parallel-through-the road PHEV which can leverage SIL and HIL simulation platforms for control development.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Taewung Kim, Jason Kerrigan, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff Crandall, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero
Abstract Some rollover test methods, which impose a touchdown condition on a test vehicle, have been developed to study vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection in rollover crashes. In ground-tripped rollover crashes, speed, steering maneuver, braking, vehicle inertial and geometric properties, topographical and road design characteristics, and soil type can all affect vehicle touchdown conditions. It is presumed that while there may be numerous possible combinations of kinematic metrics (velocity components and orientation) at touchdown, there are also numerous combinations of metrics that are not likely to occur in rollover crashes. To determine a realistic set of touchdown conditions to be used in a vehicle rollover crash test, a lateral deceleration sled-based non-destructive rollover initiation test system (RITS) with a fully programmable deceleration pulse is in development. A full-size SUV vehicle dynamics model was developed and validated with static test data and curb-trip rollover test data.
WIP Standard
2014-03-18
This SAE Standard provides general, dimensional and performance specifications for the most common hoses used in hydraulic systems on mobile and stationary equipment. The general specifications contained in Sections 1 through 12 are applicable to all hydraulic hoses and supplement the detailed specifications for the 100R-series hoses contained in the later sections of this document. (See Tables 1A and 1B). This document shall be utilized as a procurement document only to the extent as agreed upon by the manufacturer and user. The maximum working pressure of a hose assembly comprising SAE J517 hose and hose connectors per SAE J516, SAE J518, SAE J1453, etc., shall not exceed the lower of the respective SAE maximum working pressure values. When using SAE J517 hose for marine applications, see SAE J1475, SAE J1942 and SAE J1942-1. The SAE J517 100R9, 100R10 and 100R11 hoses are discontinued due to lack of demand. For DOD orders see Appendix C. The SAE J517 100R1A, 100R2A, 100R2B and 100R 2BT are discontinued due to lack of demand.
WIP Standard
2014-03-14
This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycol ethers, and borates of glycolethers, and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. These fluids are not intended for use under arctic conditions. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM).
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