Abstract With funding from the California Energy Commission, the California Hybrid, Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center, contracted with the University of California, Riverside's College of Engineering to evaluate the performance of a Class 5 battery electric urban delivery vehicle over two standardized driving cycles and a steady state range test on a chassis dynamometer. The test vehicle, a Smith Electric Newton Step Van, was equipped with a proprietary data acquisition system which was set to record a wide variety of vehicle parameters at a 1 Hz sampling period. In addition, the chassis dynamometer was set to measure and record additional parameters. Lastly, a portable J1772 EVSE recorded both grid energy and power at 15-minute intervals. This project provides a controlled test evaluation of the Smith Electric Newton Step Van.
Applies to hydraulic cylinders which are components of Off-Road Work Machines defined in SAE J1116.
This SAE Standard covers minimum requirements for two types of metallic tubing and pipe as used in automotive air brake systems. It includes material and performance specifications, corrosion precautions, and installation recommendations. Copper tubing is designated Type 1, and galvanized steel pipe Type 2.
This part of SAE J968 specifies two types of calibrating nozzle and holder assemblies intended for the testing and setting of diesel injection pumps on test benches. It applies to: a. A calibrating nozzle and holder assembly with a single hole orifice plate; b. A calibrating nozzle and holder assembly with a delay pintle type nozzle. The approximate range of the calibrating nozzle and holder assembly is up to: a. 300 mm3/stroke with the single hole orifice plate; b. 150 mm3/stroke with the delay pintle type nozzle. Setting and maintenance requirements are specified in ISO 4008/3.
This part of SAE J968 specifies the flow measuring system, including the fixture, to be used for flow testing the single hole orifice plates used in an orifice plate type nozzle and holder assembly (described in SAE J968/1) which is intended for testing and setting diesel fuel injection pumps on test benches. The flow measuring system and fixture ensure accurate flow testing of the entire range of orifices from 0.4 to 0.8 mm diameter as specified in SAE J968/1. It is intended primarily for use by the manufacturers of single hole orifice plates.
Laboratory Testing of Vehicle and Industrial Heat Exchangers for Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Performance
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to all heat exchangers used in vehicle and industrial cooling systems. This document outlines the tests to determine the heat transfer and pressure drop performance under specified conditions. This document has been reviewed and revised by adding several clarifying statements to Section 4.
This report covers engine tests performed in Altitude Test Facilities (ATFs) with the primary purpose of determining steady state thrust at simulated altitude flight conditions as part of the in-flight thrust determination process. As such it is complementary to AIR1703 and AIR5450, published by the SAE E-33 Technical Committee. The gross thrust determined using such tests may be used to generate other thrust-related parameters that are frequently applied in the assessment of propulsion system performance. For example: net thrust, specific thrust, and exhaust nozzle coefficients. The report provides a general description of ATFs including all the major features. These are: Test cell air supply system. This controls the inlet pressure and includes flow straightening, humidity and temperature conditioning. Air inlet duct and slip joint. Note that the report only covers the case where the inlet duct is connected to the engine, not free jet testing.
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This document establishes performance requirements, material requirements, design requirements, and design guidelines for sealed beam headlamps.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides to the aerospace industry a procedure for the consistent and accurate calculation of fuel flow using turbine flowmeters during development, production, and post overhaul/repair gas turbine engine testing.
Test Methods and Equipment for Lighting Devices for Use on Vehicles Less than 2032 mm in Overall Width
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This document provides standardized laboratory tests, test methods and equipment, and requirements for lighting devices covered by SAE Recommended Practices and Standards. It is intended for devices used on vehicles less than 2032 mm in width. Tests for vehicles larger than 2032 mm in overall width are covered in SAE J2139. Device specific tests and requirements can be found in applicable SAE technical reports.
This SAE Standard specifies: a test method for assessing the lubricating property of diesel fuels including those which may contain a lubricity enhancing additive, and the performance criteria necessary to ensure reliable operation of diesel fuel injection equipment with respect to fuel lubrication of such equipment. It applies to fuel used in diesel engines.
This Recommended Practice had defined a test procedure and process which gave a reasonably complete description of the efficiency and performance of a 20th century automatic transmission. With the introduction of electronic controls, the number of parameters which control the transmission’s operation have expanded extensively and these need to be defined for each test. The interaction between the transmission, the environment, the engine, the cooling and other systems have also made test definition very difficult and complex. Finally, the diversity, the rapid changes, and the component complexity introduced by electric and hybrid drive system combine with the above difficulties to make it impractical to define a Recommended Practice which could provide a meaningful description of performance and efficiency of 21st century automotive transmissions. The existing Recommended Practice J651 is being stabilized to preserve the test procedures for future reference.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a method of testing the structural integrity of the brake system of all new trucks, buses, and combination vehicles designed for roadway use and falling in the following classifications: a. Trucks and Bus Over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR b. Combination of vehicleTowing vehicle over 4500 kg 10 000 lb) GVWR The test consists of two parts: a Structural EnduranceTest followed by a Structural Ultimate Strength Test.
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for tail lamps intended for use on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Tail lamps conforming to the requirements of this document may also be used on vehicles less than 2032 mm in overall width.
Stop Lamps and Front- and Rear-Turn Signal Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles 2032 mm or More in Overall Width
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for stop lamps and turn signal lamps intended for use on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Stop lamps and front- and rear-turn signal lamps conforming to the requirements of this document may be used on vehicles less than 2032 mm in overall width.
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, requirements, and guidelines for reflex reflectors.
Abstract The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the reliability and durability of turbocharger. Low cycle fatigue test is mainly the switching between high and low speed. As the result of the experiment, the fatigue life is shorter as the difference between high and low speed becomes greater. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. This device can be self-circulating, without the large air compressor, to realize high and low speed switching on the premise of not exceeding the limitation of turbine entry temperature. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data has been used to validate the model.
Fatigue Design Curve Construction for Test Data with Linear/Linearized and Universal Slope Characteristics
Fatigue testing and related fatigue life assessment are essential parts of the design and validation processes of vehicle components and systems. Fatigue bench test is one of the most important testing methods for durability and reliability assessment, and its primary function is to construct design curves based on a certain amount of repeated tests, with which recommendations on product design can be advised. How to increase the accuracy of predictions from test results, the associated life assessment, and to reduce the cost through reducing test sample size is an active and continuous effort. In this paper the current engineering practices on constructing design curves for fatigue test data are reviewed first.
Abstract Nowadays, as an irreplaceable means alongside CAD and testing, CAE is more and more widely applied with advanced material modeling and simulation methods continuously being explored, so as to get more accurate result as testing. In vehicle product development process, door slam durability evaluation is an important measurement for body closure structure. So far numerous effort has been taken to develop more mature methods to well define door slam simulation in stress and fatigue life analysis. Overall all methods ever being applied can be summarized as two categories, linear stress based method and nonlinear stress based method. The methodologies, such as inertia relief method, direct transient response solution, or local strain approach, can be included in linear stress based method with linear material properties as symbol in CAE model. In local strain approach, contact surface could be defined in the necessary area with consideration for more realistic load transfer.
Abstract Snowmobile acceleration, braking and cornering performance data are not well developed for use in accident reconstruction. Linear acceleration and braking data published by D'Addario gives results for testing on 4 snowmobiles of various make and model. This paper presents the results of on-snow tests performed in 2014 which include acceleration and cornering maneuvers that have not been published previously. Maximum and average cornering speeds and corresponding lateral accelerations are presented for turns of radius 20, 35 and 65 feet (6.1, 10.7 and 19.8 meters) on level, packed snow. Performance values for acceleration, braking, and cornering are determined in tests with and without a passenger. Results of linear acceleration and braking tests were found to be comparable to the previously published work. The data are useful in snowmobile accident reconstruction for certain types of snowmobile motion analyses.
Abstract Outdoor objective evaluations form an important part of both tire and vehicle design process since they validate the design parameters through actual tests and can provide insight into the functional performances associated with the vehicle. Even with the industry focused towards developing simulation models, their need cannot be completely eliminated as they form the basis for approving the performance predictions of any newly developed model. An objective test was conducted to measure the ABS performance as part of validation of a tire simulation design tool. A sample vehicle and a set of tires were used to perform the tests- on a road with known profile. These specific vehicle and tire sets were selected due to the availability of the vehicle parameters, tire parameters and the ABS control logic. A test matrix was generated based on the validation requirements.
Abstract Evaluation of one year of in-use operating data from first generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) retail customers determined trip initial Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) starts were reduced by 70% relative to conventional vehicles under the same driving conditions. These Volt drivers were able to travel 74% of their total miles in EV without requiring the ICE's support. Using this first generation Volt data, performance of the second generation Volt is projected. The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Regional Travel Survey (RTS) data set was also processed to make comparisons between realistic PHEV constraints and E-REV configurations. A Volt characteristic E-REV was found to provide up to 40 times more all-electric trips than a PHEV over the same data set.
Abstract This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as input data. Consequently cycles that contain typical accelerations per velocity and road types are generated, such that these cycles are representative to real driving behavior. The stochastic drive cycle generator is developed in Matlab and is based on Markov processes. Two separate stochastic generators are used: one for generating the road type and one for generating the vehicle acceleration. First, a random road type profile is generated from the four different road types that are considered in the WLTP database: urban, rural, motorway and high-motorway, each of them with sub-road types based on different velocity bins.
Abstract Two different shear sample geometries were employed to investigate the elastoplastic and failure behaviour of three automotive alloy rolled sheets; a highly anisotropic magnesium alloy (ZEK100) and two relatively isotropic dual phase steels (DP600 and DP780). The performance of the so-called butterfly type specimen (Mohr and Henn 2007, Dunand and Mohr 2011) was evaluated at quasi-static conditions along with the shear geometry of Peirs et al. (2012) using in situ 3-D digital image correlation (DIC) strain measurement techniques. It was shown that both test geometries resulted in similar trends of the load-displacement response; however, the fracture strains obtained using the butterfly specimen were lower for the ZEK100 and DP780. It was demonstrated that the ZEK100 exhibits strong anisotropy in terms of the shear work hardening rate and failure strain.
50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 10% Blend of High Quality Biodiesel (H-FAME) from Jatropha
Abstract The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
The following information covers accessory drive belt testing methods and includes test configurations, pulley diameters, power loads, and guidance for interpreting test data. Belt construction definitions are also documented. This information has been prepared from existing literature, including standards and data supplied by Producers and Users of V-ribbed belts.
Abstract This paper presents an industrial application of the Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) methodology to the optimal design of commercial vehicle steering and suspension system. This is a pilot study about the suspension and steering design of a semi medium bus, whose objective is to develop and introduce an ATC methodology to an automobile development process. In the conventional process, it is difficult not only to find design variables which meet the target of Ride and Handling (R&H) performance using a detailed full car model, but also to figure out the interrelation between the vehicle and its subsystems. In this study, ATC methodology is used in order to obtain the optimal values such as geometric characteristics satisfying both the vehicle's R&H target and the subsystem (suspension and steering system) 's target.
Abstract Depletion of fossil fuel reserves, the unsteadiness of their prices and the increasingly stricter exhaust emission legislation put forward attention of world towards use of alternate fuels. The ever increasing demand for ecologically friendly vehicles can be met by use of clean fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). Lower carbon to hydrogen ratio of CNG makes it a cleaner fuel, due to this CNG is gaining popularity as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel in transport sector. Hydrogen fuel for IC engines is also being considered as a future fuel due to its simple carbon less structure. However, several obstacles have to be overcome before widespread utilization of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel can occur in the transport sector. The 18 percent hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and could be considered a first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides classical propulsion system performance parameter names for aircraft propulsion systems and their derivatives, and describes the logical framework by which new names can be constructed. The contents of this document were, originally, a subset of AS755E. Due to the growing complexity of station numbering schemes described in AS755, and a desire to expand the original document's nomenclature section to include a fuller representation of "classical" (legacy use) names, a decision was made to separate its "station numbering" and "nomenclature" content into two separate documents. This document, then, was created using the "nomenclature" half of AS755E. Both documents will continue to be improved and revised as industry needs dictate. The parameter naming conventions presented herein are for use in all communications concerning propulsion system performance such as computer programs, data reduction, design activities, and published documents.
Abstract Appropriate test cycle is required for engine testing. To do so, a new methodology is developed for deriving Engine Test Cycle based on real world duty cycle. Transient speed and load is to be collected from the functional engine on the field. The duty cycle for cyclic operation will be developed from the actual transient speed and load conditions. An iterative process and the comparison of chi-square statistical data is used to categorize typical microtrips, segments of engine operation collected during performance of certain activities. Different microtrips of all activities were combined together to make up a cycle of operation and test cycle as well. These data's are compared to statistical data which is used to illustrate the raw data. On successful comparison, the transient test cycle is validated on the test bed. To facilitate further engine testing, the cycle is transformed into a schedule of torque and speed points at One second intervals.